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  • Schybergson, Anita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This dissertation is an onomastic study of Finland s stock of ship names (nautonomasticon) recorded over the period 1838 1938. The primary material investigated consists of 2 066 examples of ship names from the fleets of coastal towns, distributed over five sample years. The material is supplemented with two bodies of comparative data; one that consists of 2 535 examples of boat names from the archipelago area at the corresponding time, and another that comprises 482 examples of eighteenth century Finnish ship names. This study clarifies the categories of names that appear the frequency of the names, formation, morphology, linguistic origin, functions, and semantic qualities. By comparing the material with boat names from previous centuries, and from other countries, the characteristics of Finnish vessel names are further highlighted. Additional clarification is brought to the chronological, regional, and social variations, and to the emergence of various forms of systematic naming. This dissertation builds on older research from other countries, and uses traditional onomastic methods alongside a more modern methodology. The approach is interdisciplinary, meaning that the names are explored using facts not only from nautical history, but also from a range of other historical disciplines such as economics, culture, art, and literature. In addition, the approach is socio-onomastic, i.e. that the variations in names are studied in a societal context. Using a synchronised perspective, cognitive linguistic theories have provided the tools for this exploration into the metaphorical and the prototypical meaning of the names, and the semantic domains that the names create. The quantitative analysis has revealed the overall picture of Finnish boat names. Personal names, names from mythology, and place names, emerge as significant categories, alongside nonproprial names in Swedish and Finnish. The interdisciplinary perspective has made it possible to explain certain trends in the stock of boat names, for example, the predisposition towards names from classical mythology, the breakthrough of names taken from the national epos Kalevala, names in the Finnish language from around the middle of the nineteenth century, and the continuing rise of place names during the latter part of the period 1838 1938. The socio-onomastic perspective has also identified clear differences between those ship names used in towns, and those ship names used in the archipelago, and it has clarified how naming conventions tend to spread from town centres to peripheral areas. The cognitive linguistic methods have revealed that the greater part of the vessel names can be interpreted as metaphors, in particular personifications, and that many names are related in their content and also form semantic networks and cognitive systems. The results indicate that there is a mental nautonomasticon that consists of a standard set of traditional ship names, but they also reveal the existence of conscious or unconscious cognitive systems (rules and conventions) that guide the naming of boats.
  • Tyrväinen, Helena (Suomen musiikkitieteellinen seura ; Suomen musiikkikirjastoyhdistys, 2013)
    Uuno Klami (1900-61) was the most successful of all those Finnish composers who made their debuts between the two World Wars. The interest stimulated in Helsinki by his student works, together with his sensational debut concert in 1928, launched a meteoric career that culminated in his recognition as one of the most esteemed figures in the musical life of his country through his election to the Academy of Finland. Yet Klami was also a controversial figure. His music was felt to be fragmentary, derivative, and oddly detached in tone, and his contemporaries found it notably difficult to find adequate terms in which to conceptualize it. This study is historical-critical, evidence-based and contextualising in orientation. Its two inseparable aims are to describe and conceptualize the evolution and distinctive character of Klami s musical style, and to spotlight the two cities, Helsinki and Paris, that shaped him as a composer. It is taken as given that there are multiple subjective factors at work in leading a creative individual towards some choices rather than others. I ask what are the memorable features of Klami s music, whether we can distinguish in them specific choices that lend themselves to conceptual interpretation, and what sorts of subject position they might reflect. French and Russian music formed a part of Klami s Finnish education, but it was only during his Paris year (1924-25) that a notably eclectic attitude to pre-existing repertories began to emerge in his music. A cosmopolitan identity was manifest in his obvious affiliations to the music of la belle époque, with its distinctive Franco-Russian orchestral idioms, and to the anti-romanticism characteristic of the time (and place). An indifference to the values associated with a German Romantic aesthetic (notably its ethos of individualism and its ideal of musical progress) values that seemed outmoded to many European contemporaries was thereby revealed. Despite this cosmopolitanism, Klami s return to his home country was marked by his successful integration to the network of actors prominent within a Finnish national culture. His best-known work, the Kalevala Suite (Kalevala-sarja) on the topic of the Finnish national epic, emerged in this context over a fourteen-year period (1929-43). It is true that towards the end of this project his antiromantic attitude and his cosmopolitan subject position began to make room for a rather different aesthetic. But at the same time Klami held onto, and continued to refine, his colourful, Franco-Russian virtuoso orchestral style. His success in inter-war Finland does not primarily speak of the conservatism of Finnish culture, but rather of its receptiveness to novelty and in particular the novelty of a virtuoso orchestral style.
  • Savtschenko, Ritva (omakustanne, 2015)
    Summary The study takes a look at the factors that influenced the operating culture of the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK) during the first decade of incomes policy from the point of view of corporatism. The effects of the corporatist system are studied from the perspective of co-operation, resistance and democracy. The theoretical part looks at the relationship between the theory of corporatism and the trade union movement. The empirical part looks at the effect of the corporatist system on the collective labor agreement negotiations over the decades. From business, the study looks at the actions of Elinkeinoelämän valtuuskunta (EVA) and the Central Organization of Finnish Employers (STK), and from the political parties, of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) and the Communist Party of Finland / Finnish People s Democratic League (SKP/SKDL), whose goals were tangential to those of SAK. Factors that have been highlighted as having internally affected the unified SAK are the problems with the operating cultures of two different political groups. Conflicts were caused particularly by the countless unauthorized strikes of the early 1970 s, whose causes may be studied as consequences of structural change, heavy inflation or resistance to incomes policy. In terms of SAK s basic program of 1971, the corporatist system caused problems in the implementation of member democracy. Politically, SAK was divided in two. Trade union Social Democrats were oriented towards social policy reforms like their Nordic counterparts. The People s Democrats were effectively shut out of the negotiation system, and their operation had syndicalist characteristics. The change in the internal relations developed during the latter half of the decade through the labor parties collaboration in the national government. SAK was considered to be a strong player in society, and labor market solutions were considered to have bypassed the authority of the parliament. The recession at the end of the 1970 s revealed that SAK s solutions were dictated by government policy. The view that the operation of labor parties was directed by the trade union movement proved to be wrong.
  • Bliumbaum, Arkadi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
    The subject of this work is the poetics of «The Wax Effigy», a short novel or novella by Jurii Tynianov, Russian writer, literary critic, historian of literature and prominent literary theoretician. The plot structure of the novel is based upon a real event, the creation by Bartolomeo Carlo Rastrelli in 1725 of a wax sculpture of the first Russian emperor, Peter the Great. «Construction of the Sham» consists of three chapters, an introduction and a conclusion. Due to the fact that Tynianov was at the same time a prose writer and theoretician of literature it seemed important to consider the reception of his prose and his works on literary theory in relationship to each other. The introduction is devoted to this task. The first chapter is about the history of the creation of the novel and its reception. Tynianov stopped writing one short story in order to write the novel; these two works have some common traits. It seems almost obvious that his work on the first text was a real step toward the creation of the second. In the first story there is an opposition of dead/alive which is semantic prefiguring of a central motif in «The Wax Effigy». An analysis of the reception of the novel demonstrated that almost every critic writing about the novel has described it as nonsense. Critics considered Tynianov's work in terms of «devices» and «content» and could not understand how devices are related to the content of the novel: the novel was thought as a signifier without any signified. Implicitly, critics thought the signified of the novel as a traditional one of the historical novel, as the historiosophical «idea», embodied in the system of literary devices. In this case literature becomes something instrumental, a kind of expression of extraliterary content. In contradistinction to that Tynianov considered literary semantics as an effect of the literary structure. From his point of view the literary sense is immanent to the process of signification accomplished inside the literary text. The second chapter is devoted to a rhetorical analysis of the opposition dead/alive. Tynianov systematically compares both terms of the opposition. As a result of this strategy the wax effigy of the dead emperor becomes «as if» alive and the world of living people «as if» dead. The qualifier «as if» refers to the fact that Tynianov creates an ambiguous semantic system. This rhetoric is related to European Romanticism and his «fantastic literature» (Merimé, Hoffmann, Maupassant etc.). But Tynianov demonstrates a linguistic origin of the strange fantoms created by romantics; he demystifies these idols by parodying the fantastic literature, that is, showing «how it was done». At the same time, the opposition mentioned above refers to his idea of «incongruity» which plays a prominent role in Tynianov s theory but has never been conceptualised. The incongruity is a inner collision of the literary text; from Tynianov's point of view the meaning of the work of literature is always a dynamic collision of semantically heterogeneous elements struggling with each other. In «The Wax Effigy» Tynianov creates a metalevel of the work demonstrating the process of creation of the literary sense. The third chapter is a reconstruction of Tynianov's conception of the historical prose, specifically of the mechanisms by which historical facts are transformed into literary events. Tynianov thought that the task of the historical novelist is to depict his hero as an actor, to demonstrate that as a wearer of many masks he is a creator of appearances, ambiguities. Here, in the «figure of fiction» (Andrei Belyi), the very idea of the historical prose and rhetoric employed in «The Wax Effigy», history and literature meet each other. In his last theoretical work, «On parody» Tynianov writes about the so-called sham structure of parody. In his opinion every parody is a text about other texts and «serious» work which could be read at the same time as a text about «reality». This twofold structure of parody is that of «The Wax Effigy»: that text speaks about ambiguities of the history and about ambiguities of the literary sense, about social reality of the past and - about the working of the literature itself. «The Wax Effigy» is written as a autoreflective text, as an experiment in literary semantics, as a system of literary ambiguities - of hero, rhetoric and the text itself. The meaning of the novel is created not by the embodiment extraliterary idea, but by the process of signification accomplished inside the work of literature. In this sense Tynianov's novel is parody, a break with the tradition of the historical novel preceding «The Wax Effigy».
  • Kotilainen, Lari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Dynamic constructions Dynamic constructions is a study of the dynamism of Finnish grammar. Dynamism as a linguistic phenomenon is studied on both the diachronic and synchronic level. The study therefore focuses not only on the temporal changes of grammar but also on the conventionality of grammatical structures and on the interplay between closely related constructions. Dynamism is also treated as a phenomenon occurring between different varieties of Finnish. All in all, dynamism is shown to be a key feature of the nature of grammar. The study is set within the framework of cognitive linguistics and construction grammar. Both theories emphasise the role of constructions pairings of form with semantic or discourse function in the composition and development of grammar. The grammar of a language is understood to be a structured inventory of such constructions. I argue that the constructions are best studied in their original contexts of use. Thus, the study is usage-based in a strict sense. The data is compiled from various corpora consisting of both written and spoken as well as standard and non-standard Finnish. The dissertation consists of an introduction and four empirical studies. The four papers examine various Finnish constructions and thereby shed light on different aspects of the dynamism of a grammar. The first paper focuses on the diachronic development of the Finnish temporal converb essa. The second paper discusses a specific construction which includes the essa converb, that is, the mikäs on ollessa construction. Some closely related constructions and their semantic interplay are also examined. The third paper extensively studies what is generally regarded as an ellipsis of the negation verb in Finnish. By using present day Finnish data, I show that the omission of the negation verb is not an instance of mere ellipsis but rather a construction. The final paper combines the themes of the second and the third paper by focusing on closely related constructions of the negative ellipsis construction.
  • Forsskåhl, Mona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This study concerns the most common word pair in spoken Swedish, de e (it is, third person pronoun + copula-verb in present tense). The aim of the study is twofold, with an empirical aim and a theoretical aim. The empirical aim is to investigate if and how the string de e can be understood and described as a construction in its own right with characteristics that distinguishes it from other structures and resources in spoken Swedish. The theoretical aim is to test how two different linguistic theories and methods, interactional linguistics and construction grammar, can be combined and used to describe and explain patterns in languaging that traditional grammar does take into account. The empirical analysis is done within the interactional linguistic framework with sequence analyses of excerpts from authentic conversation data. The data consists of approximately ten hours of recorded conversation from Finland and Sweden. The sequence analysis suggests that the string de e really is used as a resource in its own right. In most cases, the string is also used in ways consistent with abstract grammatical patterns described by traditional grammar. Nevertheless, there are instances where de e is used in ways not described before: with numerals and infinitive phrases as complements, without any complements at all and together with certain complements (bra, de) in idiomatic ways. Furthermore, in the instances where de e is used according to known grammatical patterns the function of the particular string de e is clearly contextually specific and in various ways linked to the micro-context in which it is used. A new model is suggested for understanding and concluding the results from the sequence analyses. It consists of two different types of constructions grammatical and interactional. The grammatical constructions show how the string is used in eleven structurally different ways. The interactional constructions show seven different sequential positions and functions in which the string occurs. The two types of constructions are also linked to each other as potentials. This is a new way to describe how interactants use and responds to a concrete string like de e in conversation.
  • Martola, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The topic for the study is the Swedish preposition “åt”. The corresponding prepositions in English are “to”, “for” and “at”. One of the main purposes of the study is to compare the use of the preposition in two varieties of Swedish, the Swedish spoken in Sweden (Sweden Swedish, ‘sverigesvenska’) and the Swedish spoken in Finland (Finland Swedish, ‘finlandssvenska’), and to point out differences and similarities. The study is corpus-based and the corpora, one for each variety, consist mainly of newspapers and novels from 1980 to around 2000. The total number of words is around 40 million, 19 million in the Sweden Swedish and 23 million in the Finland Swedish corpus. The other purpose of the study is to analyze in what kind of patterns the preposition åt occurs. General semantic patterns, valency patterns and idiomatic patterns are all brought to the fore. The theoretical basis for the study is Construction Grammar as developed by Ch. Fillmore, Fried & Östman, A. Goldberg, and W. Croft. Also Frame Semantics and its further development FrameNet play an important role in the study. According to Construction Grammar, constructions are constellations of form and meaning/function. The constructions are abstract units, but in an empirical study it is possible to arrive at abstract constructions through generalizations over concrete occurrences. The results indicate that the use of the preposition “åt” differs in Finland Swedish from the use in Sweden Swedish – but not as much as expected (on the basis of previous studies), at least not in written language. In Finland Swedish the preposition is used more to indicate the role Recipient, whereas the role Beneficiary is more predominant in Sweden Swedish. In both varieties, however, the use of “åt” is most often highly idiomatic and it is only the Beneficiary-role that can be said to be entirely productive. As to valency binding, the preposition phrase with “åt” occurs either as an argument or as a middle. Middles are complements that are neither arguments nor real adjuncts but stand somewhere in between these two. The preposition “åt” occurs as part both of general patterns and of specific idiomatic patterns. The constructions in which the preposition “åt” is an element are connected in an intricate network.
  • Strandberg, Hindrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Cupping in Finland until the middle of the 20th century Since antiquity various forms of blood-letting based on humoral pathology the doctrine of four body fluids have been used as curing methods. Here they are studied using an ethnographic-medico-historical approach. In Finland four different methods of therapeutic blood-letting have been practised since the beginning of the 16th century A.D., namely, leeches, scarification of the calves, bleeding and cupping. The most frequent form of blood-letting in Finland has however been cupping, performed in a sauna, which was found in nearly every farmyard. The principal source for this thesis is a comprehensive body of archive material on cupping in Finland. The archive material has been combined with information about different kinds of cupping instruments used since antiquity, cupping instructions in medical books from classical antiquity, through medieval manuscripts, and medical books from the beginning of the 16th century until the beginning of the 20th century. Cupping was mainly performed in the spring and autumn in a well-heated so-called smoke-sauna and was used mostly by the middle-aged women. The main aim here is to investigate where upon the patient s body the cupping woman applied the cupping horns, using suction, how many horns were applied, and also the relationship between these application spots and the diseases, or complaints which were being treated. When the cupping horn had been applied, a small swelling appeared just beneath it. After a while the horn was removed and the cupping woman started picking small wounds or holes in the skin with her cupping axe. Then the horn was applied again and blood started to flow from the wounds. Afterwards the wounds were carefully cleaned with water. There were two kinds of cupping women. One was a woman who lived in a village and performed cupping on request. The other was a cupping woman who travelled around the district offering her services. The second aim is to investigate all the different diseases or complaints that were treated. Among the diseases which were cured, headaches and toothaches were the most common Another question is whether these diseases were really cured and if so, how is this to be explained. I have compared the diseases and complaints listed in a medieval manuscript and in later medical books with the diseases and complaints cured by our cupping women, which leads to the question of where these cupping women acquired their skills and their knowledge of where to apply the cupping horns to treat different diseases. Probably the answer is that such instructions and knowledge was handed over orally from one generation of cupping women to another. Finally there is a brief examination of modern cupping which was revived in the 1970s and is still used as a form of complementary medicine today in Finland.
  • Pasanen, Annika (Suomalais-ugrilainen seura ja Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The topic of this study is the revitalization of the Inari Saami language, the only Saami language spoken exclusively in Finland. The Inari Saami language became severely endangered in the 1900s, and toward the 1990s its extinction seemed inevitable. Thanks to conscious efforts originating from the community, this grim path of development was reversed. The most important factors for reversing language shift have been the language nest (an Inari Saami immersion program for children under school age), mother tongue medium school instruction and intensive language education for adults. The Inari Saami language association Anarâškielâ servi, founded in 1986, has played the most important role in the revitalization activities. The study investigates the revitalization of the Inari Saami language on the societal and individual levels between 1997 and 2014. The data consists of interviews with members of the language community, observations from Inari Saami-speaking environments, questionnaires sent to members of Anarâškielâ servi, reports from students of the intensive adult language education program and interviews with their language masters, as well as editorials from the Inari Saami-language Anarâš newspaper. The data is analysed primarily in the light of three main concepts: linguistic culture, language ideologies and ideological clarification. In the study, linguistic culture refers to the combination of historical, political, geographical, sociological, demographic and ideological circumstances under which the Inari Saami language has experienced endangerment and subsequent revitalization. The concept of language ideologies encompasses the language-related attitudes, beliefs, principles and choices prevalent in the language community that have facilitated the revitalization of the language. A third decisive phenomenon from the perspective of the outcome of revitalization is manifested in the process of ideological clarification, which refers to facing language ideologies consciously, recognizing the goals and means of revitalization, and personally committing to and taking responsibility for one,s own language. The study demonstrates that on a global scale, Inari Saami revitalization has been exceptionally successful. During the period analysed in the study, transmission of the language to children has resumed, adults have begun to learn and reclaim the Inari Saami language through intensive language education, older native speakers have taken on an active role in the revitalization process and the use of the language has increased significantly in several integral domains, such as the home and school. The language is now valued by the local community, and has gradually gained a more equal position with the other Saami languages. The community-based revitalization of the Inari Saami language exemplifies a linguistic culture and language ideology that foster a reversal of language shift, including factors related to linguistic tolerance. The process of ideological clarification in the language community can be seen in the motivation and commitment of those who have learned Inari Saami as adults, in the personal reversal of language shift in families and social networks, and in collective endeavours to use Inari Saami whenever possible. On the other hand, the revitalization of Inari Saami is connected to several critical factors and questions that have been investigated relatively little in the language community as of the end of this study. These include questions related to the language skills and linguistic identities of new speakers, language transmission at home vs. outside of the home, and the linguistic choices and identities of children and youth. These questions are significant with regard to the vitality of the language and should be examined both in daily life in the linguistic community and in future studies.
  • Suvikumpu, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Dozens of Finnish artists, practically all the professional sculptors and painters, travelled to and stayed in Rome during the 19th century. The study at hand concentrates for the first time on the Finnish artists in Rome in corpore, and analyses their way of life based on a broad variety of previously unknown and unexplored sources from a number of archives in both Scandinavia and Rome. The extensive corpus of source material is scrutinized with microhistorical precision from the point of view of cultural history. The new information thus achieved adds to the previous knowledge of Rome s often overlooked importance as a source of inspiration in Scandinavian culture in general and significantly clarifies our understanding of the development of Finnish artistic life and cultural identity in the 19th century. The study proves that in Finland, like in all of Europe, the stay in Rome was considered to be a necessary part of becoming a true artist. Already the journey was an integral part of the encounter with Rome, corresponding with the civilized ideal of the period. The stay in Rome provided a northern artist with overwhelming opportunities that were incomparable to the unestablished and modest forms of artistic life Finland could offer. Without domestic artistic institutions or traditions, the professional status of Finnish painters and sculptors took shape abroad, firstly through the encounter with Rome and the different networks the Finnish artists belonged to during and after their stay in the eternal city. The Finnish artists were an integral part of the international artistic community in the cultural capital of Europe, which gave a totally new impetus to their work and contributed to their cosmopolitan identification. For these early masters of Finnish art, the Scandinavian communality and universal artistic identity seemed to be more significant than their nationality. In all, the scrutiny of Finnish artists in their wide social, ideological and international framework gives an interesting aspect to the cultural ambiance of the 19th century, in both Rome and Finland. The study highlights many long-forgotten artists who were influential in shaping Finnish art, culture and identity in their time.
  • Ilmakunnas, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Consumption and the lifestyle of the high nobility in eighteenth-century Sweden This monograph is an analysis of the lifestyle, consumption and private finances of the Swedish high nobility during the eighteenth century (ca 1730 1795). It describes the lifestyle of one noble house, the House of Fersen. The Fersen family represents the leading political, economic and cultural elite in eighteenth-century Sweden. The analysis concentrates on Count Carl von Fersen (1716 1786) and his brother Count Axel von Fersen (1719 1794), their spouses and children. Carl von Fersen was a courtier whilst Axel von Fersen was an officer and one of the leaders of the Francophile Hat party. His son, Axel von Fersen the younger, was in his time an officer and a favourite of Gustavus III, King of Sweden, as well as a favourite and trusted confidant of Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France. The research is based upon the Fersen family s private archives, the Counts personal account books, probate inventories, letters and diaries. The study discusses the Fersens landed property and investments in ironworks and manufacturing, the indebtedness of the high nobility, high offices in civil administration, the militia and at court, as well as marriages as the foundations of noble wealth and power. It analyses the Count von Fersens revenue and expenditure, their career options and personal expenses, their involvement in the building and decorating of palaces, and the servants in service of the Fersen family as well as the ideal nobleman and his consumption. Central themes are inheritance, children s education, marriages and ladies preparing their trousseaux, the nobility ordering luxury goods from France, the consumption of Counts and Countesses before and after marrying and having children, the pleasures of a noble life as well as the criticism of luxury and sumptuousness. The study contributes to the large body of research on consumption and nobility in the eighteenth century by connecting the lifestyle, consumption and private finances of the Swedish high nobility to their European context. Key words: nobility, Fersen, lifestyle, consumption, private finances, Sweden, eighteenth century
  • Talvitie, Petri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The emergence of exclusive property rights in land Enclosure in the Western Nyland in the 18th century This is a study of the storskifte reform (the Swedish equivalent of the Europe-wide enclosure movement), one of the major events in the history of the Finnish countryside from the mid-18th century onwards. In this work I analyse the storskifte from the local-community point of view. How did the peasantry react to the storskifte and how did the rural community actually change? The study area comprises four parishes, Ingå, Karis, Sjundeå and Tenala, situated in the province of Western Nyland at the northern shore of the Gulf of Finland. At the time Western Nyland was one of the most industrialised regions in Finland with a flourishing sawmill and iron industry. In this study I demonstrate that enclosure was not implemented against the will of the peasant population, as has been previously assumed. Firstly, peasants actively applied for the privatisation of the commons: about 60% of all applicants were peasant farmers. The most active initiators were the so-called rusthållare (the holders of the farm , obliged to furnish a cavalryman). Every second rusthållare applied for enclosure. Secondly, there are no signs of peasant resistance, even though some farmers were afraid of the high costs. Even the landless population seems to have accepted the partition without opposition. Furthermore, the enclosure proceedings began immediately after the first enclosure statute of 1757. The very first enclosure was carried out at the village of Breds in the parish of Ingå in 1757, and the majority of the commons had been privatised by 1775. The heyday of privatisation came in the 1760s, when cereal prices were high. The storskifte reform started early in the Helsinki region and around the town of Lovisa too, whereas in the inland parishes of the province of Nyland storskifte proceedings were carried out much later. Thus, the proximity of large consumer centres, such as towns and other industrial centres, can be seen as by far the most important explanation for the diffusion of enclosure. This positive attitude was largely due to the fact that landowners could decide the timing of the partition by themselves. The storskifte was not an enforced reform. The situation was different in the provinces of Ostrobotnia (then including Lapland), Savolax and Karelia, and later in the province of Viborg, where all common land was privatised at the same time as the implementation of fiscal reforms. According to the special enclosure statute for the southern provinces of Finland, enacted in 1766, county governors were entitled to initiate enclosure proceedings without consulting land-owners, and governors also exercised their powers in Western Nyland. Around 10 40% of all proceedings were carried out publicly. However, the enclosure process had begun long before these general regulations, therefore the vast majority of enclosures were eventually carried out privately. In addition, the peasants were ready to abandon the common field system because it was prone to conflict. Some neighbours widened their narrow strips of land illegally, or logged more wood than others. The policing of property rights was difficult, especially in those villages where the commons were used for heavy land clearances and commercial purposes. Thus, as a consequence, privatising the commons was an attractive opportunity for a land-owner, as it was then much easier to determine what was mine and what was thine. Furthermore, privatisation facilitated the clearance of unproductive wastelands such as marshes and fens. As far as new settlements are concerned, the partition of commons failed to achieve its intended influence, as Western Nyland was already densely populated before the storskifte reform.
  • Iitiä, Inkamaija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The dissertation "From Conceptual to Corporeal, from Quotation to Site: Painting and History of Contemporary Art" explores the state of painting in contemporary art and art theory since the 1960s. The purpose of the study is to re-consider the dominant "end of painting" -narrative in contemporary art history, which goes back to the modernist ideology of painting as a reductive, medium-specific form of art. Drawing on Michel Foucault´s concepts of discursive formation and archive, as well as Jean-Luc Nancy´s post-phenomenological philosophy on corporeality, I suggest that contemporary painting can be redefined as a discursive-sensuous practice. Instead of seeing painting as obsolete or over as an avantgarde art genre, I show that there have been alternative, neo-avantgardist ways of defining painting since the end of the 1960s, such as French artist Daniel Buren´s early writings on painting as "theoretical practice". Consequently, the tendency of the canonical Anglo-American contemporary art narratives to underestimate the historical and institutional codes of art can be questioned. This tendency can be seen, for example, in Rosalind Krauss´s influential theory on index. The study also reflects the relations between conceptual art and painting since the 1960s and maps recent theories of painting, which re-examine the genre´s possibilities after the modernist rhetoric. Concepts of "flatbed", "painting in the extended field", "as painting" and so on are compared critically with the idea of painting as discursive practice. It is also shown that the issues in painting arise from the contemporary critical art debate while the dematerialisation paradigm of conceptual art has dissolved. The study focuses on the corporeal-material-sensuous -cluster of meanings attached to painting and searches for its avantgardist possibilities as redefined by postfeminist and post-phenomenological discourse. The ideas of hierarchy of the senses and synesthesia are developed within the framework of Jean-Luc Nancy´s and Luce Irigaray´s thought. The parameters for the study have been Finnish painting from 1990 to 2002. On the Finnish art scene there has been no "end of painting" ideology, strictly speaking. The mythology and medium-specificity of modernism have been deconstructed since the mid-1980s, but "the archive" of painting, like themes of abstraction, formalism and synesthesia have been re-worked by the discursive practice of painting, for example, in the works of Nina Roos, Tarja Pitkänen-Walter and Jussi Niva.
  • Stark, Eija (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2011)
    The Legacy of Poverty. A Study of the substance and continuity of cultural knowledge in Finnish biographical and proverbial texts The study focuses on the idea of the cultural knowledge and shared understanding that ordinary people, folk , have of the concepts and ideas about rural based poverty in Finland. Throughout 19th century and well into 20th century, the majority of the population remained agrarian and poor. By the 1950s, most people still lived in rural areas and a majority of them earned their living primarily from agriculture and forestry. Urbanization proceeded rapidly from the 1960s onwards. Even though the Nordic welfare state was firmly established in Finland by the 1970s, old forms of agrarian poverty still remained in the culture. The source material for the study consists of 99 biographies and 502 proverbs. Biographical texts include written autobiographies and interviewed biographies. A primary analyzing concept is called a poverty speech. The poverty speech has been analyzed by providing answers to the following three questions: What connotations do people attach to poverty when they speak about it? What sort of social relations arise when people speak about poverty? How is the past experience of poverty constructed in the present and in the welfare state context? Cultural knowledge is a theoretical and analytical tool that enables people to categorize information. The three questions stated above are crucial in revealing the schematic structure that people use to communicate about agrarian poverty. Categories are analyzed and processed in terms of cultural themes that contain the ideals and stereotypes of spoken motif and sub-themes. The application of theoretical and analytical premises to the poverty speech has shown that there are four cultural themes. The first theme is Power. The social connotations in the poverty speech are mostly in relation to the better-off people. Poverty does not exist without an awareness of welfare, i.e. the understanding of a certain standard of welfare above that of one's own. The second theme is about family ties as a resource and welfare network. In poverty speech, marriage is represented as a means to upgrade one's livelihood. Family members are described as supporting one another, but at the same time as being antagonists. The third theme, Work represents the work ethic that is being connected to the poverty. Hard working as a representation is attached to eligibility for `a good life´ that in Finland was to become an owner-occupier of a cottage or a flat. The fourth theme is Security. The resentment of unfair treatment is expressed by using moral superiority and rational explanations. The ruling classes in the agrarian society are portrayed as being evil and selfish with no social conscience because they did not provide enough assistance to those who needed it. During the period when the welfare benefit system was undeveloped, the poor expected the wealthier people to make a contribution to the distribution of material wealth. In the premises of cultural knowledge, both oral and written traditions are about human thinking: they deal with topics, ideas and evaluations that are relevant to their bearers. Many elements expressed in poverty speech, such as classifications and customs derived from the rural world, have been carried over into the next generation in newer contexts and a different cultural environment. Keywords: cultural knowledge, cognitive categorization, poverty, life stories, proverbs
  • Santala, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In this historiographical study I evaluate the placement of Eero Saarinen s airport terminals in the history of modern architecture. His Trans World Airlines Terminal (1956-62) and Dulles International Airport (1958-63) were the first airport terminals to enter the annals of modern architecture. I hypothesize that the airport terminal was previously excluded as a building type from historiography since it was seen as infrastructure, not architecture. Furthermore, its modernity did not coincide with the aims of historians, who could not utilize an emergent building type to demonstrate how modernism revolutionized architectural vocabularies. Discussing the related histories of aviation and technologies, the typological instability of the airport terminal, and Saarinen s architectural practice, I utilize genealogy, microhistory, and Science and Technology Studies to intervene in the historiography of modern architecture. Specifically, I question the assumption that architecture follows technological developments, the narrow interpretation of modernity dominating the writing of architectural history, and the resulting myopia in the classification of emerging building types. I view Saarinen s architectural practice as one of the many laboratories for a new architecture. Mapping such laboratories reveals a multifaceted view of postwar architecture, where modernism is explained by individual actors laboring at their localized sites to mediate a particular kind of modernity. I argue that Saarinen s engagement with technology and his laboratory-like working methods reconciled the contradictions between modern architecture and its blind spot, the airport terminal. This synthesis allowed the terminal building to transcend its utilitarian-technological nature as transportation infrastructure and led to its inclusion in the history of modern architecture as a building type that has its own history and parameters for design. This study makes three contributions. It outlines the history of the airport terminal emphasizing buildings that could have easily found their place in the canon of modern architecture. It explains the reasons for their exclusion and suggests ways to reduce the canon s myopia towards variants of modernism. More broadly, this study contributes to our understanding of the historiography of modern architecture and its logic of including emergent buildings by acknowledging the airport terminal as an emblematic building type of the twentieth century.
  • Korhonen, Kalle (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Zavaleta Ochoa, Eugenia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    During the decade of 1970, in Costa Rica started more often to appear state and private exhibition spaces; and commercialization of the artistic creations began to develop on a regular basis. This scenario was set by the interference of the welfare state; without this intervention the cultural development of Costa Rica would have been slower and weaker. Since 1950, began a series of economic, political and social changes that allowed the definition of cultural policies, which permitted state actions that resulted in museums, contests, awards and public collections, among others. Thus, cultural policies became the driving force that impulsed the culture and, specifically, the art market in the country. In other words, the welfare state created a primary substrate from which cemented the country's cultural life and, therefore, the commodification of art. So, this research focuses on the primary substrate that led to the flowering of an art market. In the process of building the art market, we consulted the Collection of Laws, Decrees and Resolutions, and The Gazette. Furthermore, we used databases such as the Costa Rican Legal Information System. The Costa Rican Art Museum (MAC) has albums, files, documents and databases that were fundamental in determining the country's cultural life, in other words, -for example- the identification of national and foreign artists, public collections, exhibitions, awards, contests, art reviews, comments and auctions. From these documents, databases were developed to process the extracted information. Other databases that were consulted were the catalogs of the National Insurance Institute, the Central Bank of Costa Rica, the Social Security Fund and the Museum of Contemporary Art and Design.
  • Lehtinen, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    "The contextualization of radio discourse by prosodic means. The example of five great French philosophers of the 20th century" This PhD thesis treats the contextualization of radio discourse by prosodic means. More precisely, the work is focussed on seven “marked figures”, which consist of the salient changes of one or more prosodic parameters. The phenomena are studied here both from the angle of their acoustic forms and from the angle of their typical contexts of occurrences and discursive functions. The data comes from six radio broadcasts transmitted by different French radio stations between 1948 and 1973. The speakers of the broadcasts are famous French 20th–century philosophers: Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, Michel Foucault, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Gaston Bachelard. The total duration of the data is 162’32. In addition to a general presentation of the phenomena, the thesis includes contrastive studies in which the two main phenomena of the work (the so-called “figure HB” and the so-called “undulating figure”) are compared with a melodic figure occurring in classical piano music and with a prosodic phenomenon of Finnish (the so-called “figure of familiarity”). One part of the thesis is also devoted to a contrastive study discussing the prosodic interpretation of punctuation (the full stop and the comma) in The Stranger (L’Étranger) by Albert Camus, as read by the author. Methodologically, the work falls within the scope of conversation analysis (CA), and it is inspired by the interaction-based approach to prosody, the “theory of contextualization” of Gumperz and by numerous linguistic and phonetic works directed towards French. The results of this work, based on seven original publications, suggest that the “marked figures” constitute multidimensional phenomena of speech having an important and a complex role in the contextualization of radio discourse. The acoustic forms of these phenomena are very different, and their functions reach several discursive levels. In addition to presenting the phenomena under consideration, the work includes some methodological and theoretical discussion concerning the study and the nature of the process of the contextualization of speech.