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  • Pasanen, Annika (Suomalais-ugrilainen seura ja Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The topic of this study is the revitalization of the Inari Saami language, the only Saami language spoken exclusively in Finland. The Inari Saami language became severely endangered in the 1900s, and toward the 1990s its extinction seemed inevitable. Thanks to conscious efforts originating from the community, this grim path of development was reversed. The most important factors for reversing language shift have been the language nest (an Inari Saami immersion program for children under school age), mother tongue medium school instruction and intensive language education for adults. The Inari Saami language association Anarâškielâ servi, founded in 1986, has played the most important role in the revitalization activities. The study investigates the revitalization of the Inari Saami language on the societal and individual levels between 1997 and 2014. The data consists of interviews with members of the language community, observations from Inari Saami-speaking environments, questionnaires sent to members of Anarâškielâ servi, reports from students of the intensive adult language education program and interviews with their language masters, as well as editorials from the Inari Saami-language Anarâš newspaper. The data is analysed primarily in the light of three main concepts: linguistic culture, language ideologies and ideological clarification. In the study, linguistic culture refers to the combination of historical, political, geographical, sociological, demographic and ideological circumstances under which the Inari Saami language has experienced endangerment and subsequent revitalization. The concept of language ideologies encompasses the language-related attitudes, beliefs, principles and choices prevalent in the language community that have facilitated the revitalization of the language. A third decisive phenomenon from the perspective of the outcome of revitalization is manifested in the process of ideological clarification, which refers to facing language ideologies consciously, recognizing the goals and means of revitalization, and personally committing to and taking responsibility for one,s own language. The study demonstrates that on a global scale, Inari Saami revitalization has been exceptionally successful. During the period analysed in the study, transmission of the language to children has resumed, adults have begun to learn and reclaim the Inari Saami language through intensive language education, older native speakers have taken on an active role in the revitalization process and the use of the language has increased significantly in several integral domains, such as the home and school. The language is now valued by the local community, and has gradually gained a more equal position with the other Saami languages. The community-based revitalization of the Inari Saami language exemplifies a linguistic culture and language ideology that foster a reversal of language shift, including factors related to linguistic tolerance. The process of ideological clarification in the language community can be seen in the motivation and commitment of those who have learned Inari Saami as adults, in the personal reversal of language shift in families and social networks, and in collective endeavours to use Inari Saami whenever possible. On the other hand, the revitalization of Inari Saami is connected to several critical factors and questions that have been investigated relatively little in the language community as of the end of this study. These include questions related to the language skills and linguistic identities of new speakers, language transmission at home vs. outside of the home, and the linguistic choices and identities of children and youth. These questions are significant with regard to the vitality of the language and should be examined both in daily life in the linguistic community and in future studies.
  • Suvikumpu, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Dozens of Finnish artists, practically all the professional sculptors and painters, travelled to and stayed in Rome during the 19th century. The study at hand concentrates for the first time on the Finnish artists in Rome in corpore, and analyses their way of life based on a broad variety of previously unknown and unexplored sources from a number of archives in both Scandinavia and Rome. The extensive corpus of source material is scrutinized with microhistorical precision from the point of view of cultural history. The new information thus achieved adds to the previous knowledge of Rome s often overlooked importance as a source of inspiration in Scandinavian culture in general and significantly clarifies our understanding of the development of Finnish artistic life and cultural identity in the 19th century. The study proves that in Finland, like in all of Europe, the stay in Rome was considered to be a necessary part of becoming a true artist. Already the journey was an integral part of the encounter with Rome, corresponding with the civilized ideal of the period. The stay in Rome provided a northern artist with overwhelming opportunities that were incomparable to the unestablished and modest forms of artistic life Finland could offer. Without domestic artistic institutions or traditions, the professional status of Finnish painters and sculptors took shape abroad, firstly through the encounter with Rome and the different networks the Finnish artists belonged to during and after their stay in the eternal city. The Finnish artists were an integral part of the international artistic community in the cultural capital of Europe, which gave a totally new impetus to their work and contributed to their cosmopolitan identification. For these early masters of Finnish art, the Scandinavian communality and universal artistic identity seemed to be more significant than their nationality. In all, the scrutiny of Finnish artists in their wide social, ideological and international framework gives an interesting aspect to the cultural ambiance of the 19th century, in both Rome and Finland. The study highlights many long-forgotten artists who were influential in shaping Finnish art, culture and identity in their time.
  • Ilmakunnas, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Consumption and the lifestyle of the high nobility in eighteenth-century Sweden This monograph is an analysis of the lifestyle, consumption and private finances of the Swedish high nobility during the eighteenth century (ca 1730 1795). It describes the lifestyle of one noble house, the House of Fersen. The Fersen family represents the leading political, economic and cultural elite in eighteenth-century Sweden. The analysis concentrates on Count Carl von Fersen (1716 1786) and his brother Count Axel von Fersen (1719 1794), their spouses and children. Carl von Fersen was a courtier whilst Axel von Fersen was an officer and one of the leaders of the Francophile Hat party. His son, Axel von Fersen the younger, was in his time an officer and a favourite of Gustavus III, King of Sweden, as well as a favourite and trusted confidant of Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France. The research is based upon the Fersen family s private archives, the Counts personal account books, probate inventories, letters and diaries. The study discusses the Fersens landed property and investments in ironworks and manufacturing, the indebtedness of the high nobility, high offices in civil administration, the militia and at court, as well as marriages as the foundations of noble wealth and power. It analyses the Count von Fersens revenue and expenditure, their career options and personal expenses, their involvement in the building and decorating of palaces, and the servants in service of the Fersen family as well as the ideal nobleman and his consumption. Central themes are inheritance, children s education, marriages and ladies preparing their trousseaux, the nobility ordering luxury goods from France, the consumption of Counts and Countesses before and after marrying and having children, the pleasures of a noble life as well as the criticism of luxury and sumptuousness. The study contributes to the large body of research on consumption and nobility in the eighteenth century by connecting the lifestyle, consumption and private finances of the Swedish high nobility to their European context. Key words: nobility, Fersen, lifestyle, consumption, private finances, Sweden, eighteenth century
  • Talvitie, Petri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The emergence of exclusive property rights in land Enclosure in the Western Nyland in the 18th century This is a study of the storskifte reform (the Swedish equivalent of the Europe-wide enclosure movement), one of the major events in the history of the Finnish countryside from the mid-18th century onwards. In this work I analyse the storskifte from the local-community point of view. How did the peasantry react to the storskifte and how did the rural community actually change? The study area comprises four parishes, Ingå, Karis, Sjundeå and Tenala, situated in the province of Western Nyland at the northern shore of the Gulf of Finland. At the time Western Nyland was one of the most industrialised regions in Finland with a flourishing sawmill and iron industry. In this study I demonstrate that enclosure was not implemented against the will of the peasant population, as has been previously assumed. Firstly, peasants actively applied for the privatisation of the commons: about 60% of all applicants were peasant farmers. The most active initiators were the so-called rusthållare (the holders of the farm , obliged to furnish a cavalryman). Every second rusthållare applied for enclosure. Secondly, there are no signs of peasant resistance, even though some farmers were afraid of the high costs. Even the landless population seems to have accepted the partition without opposition. Furthermore, the enclosure proceedings began immediately after the first enclosure statute of 1757. The very first enclosure was carried out at the village of Breds in the parish of Ingå in 1757, and the majority of the commons had been privatised by 1775. The heyday of privatisation came in the 1760s, when cereal prices were high. The storskifte reform started early in the Helsinki region and around the town of Lovisa too, whereas in the inland parishes of the province of Nyland storskifte proceedings were carried out much later. Thus, the proximity of large consumer centres, such as towns and other industrial centres, can be seen as by far the most important explanation for the diffusion of enclosure. This positive attitude was largely due to the fact that landowners could decide the timing of the partition by themselves. The storskifte was not an enforced reform. The situation was different in the provinces of Ostrobotnia (then including Lapland), Savolax and Karelia, and later in the province of Viborg, where all common land was privatised at the same time as the implementation of fiscal reforms. According to the special enclosure statute for the southern provinces of Finland, enacted in 1766, county governors were entitled to initiate enclosure proceedings without consulting land-owners, and governors also exercised their powers in Western Nyland. Around 10 40% of all proceedings were carried out publicly. However, the enclosure process had begun long before these general regulations, therefore the vast majority of enclosures were eventually carried out privately. In addition, the peasants were ready to abandon the common field system because it was prone to conflict. Some neighbours widened their narrow strips of land illegally, or logged more wood than others. The policing of property rights was difficult, especially in those villages where the commons were used for heavy land clearances and commercial purposes. Thus, as a consequence, privatising the commons was an attractive opportunity for a land-owner, as it was then much easier to determine what was mine and what was thine. Furthermore, privatisation facilitated the clearance of unproductive wastelands such as marshes and fens. As far as new settlements are concerned, the partition of commons failed to achieve its intended influence, as Western Nyland was already densely populated before the storskifte reform.
  • Iitiä, Inkamaija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The dissertation "From Conceptual to Corporeal, from Quotation to Site: Painting and History of Contemporary Art" explores the state of painting in contemporary art and art theory since the 1960s. The purpose of the study is to re-consider the dominant "end of painting" -narrative in contemporary art history, which goes back to the modernist ideology of painting as a reductive, medium-specific form of art. Drawing on Michel Foucault´s concepts of discursive formation and archive, as well as Jean-Luc Nancy´s post-phenomenological philosophy on corporeality, I suggest that contemporary painting can be redefined as a discursive-sensuous practice. Instead of seeing painting as obsolete or over as an avantgarde art genre, I show that there have been alternative, neo-avantgardist ways of defining painting since the end of the 1960s, such as French artist Daniel Buren´s early writings on painting as "theoretical practice". Consequently, the tendency of the canonical Anglo-American contemporary art narratives to underestimate the historical and institutional codes of art can be questioned. This tendency can be seen, for example, in Rosalind Krauss´s influential theory on index. The study also reflects the relations between conceptual art and painting since the 1960s and maps recent theories of painting, which re-examine the genre´s possibilities after the modernist rhetoric. Concepts of "flatbed", "painting in the extended field", "as painting" and so on are compared critically with the idea of painting as discursive practice. It is also shown that the issues in painting arise from the contemporary critical art debate while the dematerialisation paradigm of conceptual art has dissolved. The study focuses on the corporeal-material-sensuous -cluster of meanings attached to painting and searches for its avantgardist possibilities as redefined by postfeminist and post-phenomenological discourse. The ideas of hierarchy of the senses and synesthesia are developed within the framework of Jean-Luc Nancy´s and Luce Irigaray´s thought. The parameters for the study have been Finnish painting from 1990 to 2002. On the Finnish art scene there has been no "end of painting" ideology, strictly speaking. The mythology and medium-specificity of modernism have been deconstructed since the mid-1980s, but "the archive" of painting, like themes of abstraction, formalism and synesthesia have been re-worked by the discursive practice of painting, for example, in the works of Nina Roos, Tarja Pitkänen-Walter and Jussi Niva.
  • Stark, Eija (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2011)
    The Legacy of Poverty. A Study of the substance and continuity of cultural knowledge in Finnish biographical and proverbial texts The study focuses on the idea of the cultural knowledge and shared understanding that ordinary people, folk , have of the concepts and ideas about rural based poverty in Finland. Throughout 19th century and well into 20th century, the majority of the population remained agrarian and poor. By the 1950s, most people still lived in rural areas and a majority of them earned their living primarily from agriculture and forestry. Urbanization proceeded rapidly from the 1960s onwards. Even though the Nordic welfare state was firmly established in Finland by the 1970s, old forms of agrarian poverty still remained in the culture. The source material for the study consists of 99 biographies and 502 proverbs. Biographical texts include written autobiographies and interviewed biographies. A primary analyzing concept is called a poverty speech. The poverty speech has been analyzed by providing answers to the following three questions: What connotations do people attach to poverty when they speak about it? What sort of social relations arise when people speak about poverty? How is the past experience of poverty constructed in the present and in the welfare state context? Cultural knowledge is a theoretical and analytical tool that enables people to categorize information. The three questions stated above are crucial in revealing the schematic structure that people use to communicate about agrarian poverty. Categories are analyzed and processed in terms of cultural themes that contain the ideals and stereotypes of spoken motif and sub-themes. The application of theoretical and analytical premises to the poverty speech has shown that there are four cultural themes. The first theme is Power. The social connotations in the poverty speech are mostly in relation to the better-off people. Poverty does not exist without an awareness of welfare, i.e. the understanding of a certain standard of welfare above that of one's own. The second theme is about family ties as a resource and welfare network. In poverty speech, marriage is represented as a means to upgrade one's livelihood. Family members are described as supporting one another, but at the same time as being antagonists. The third theme, Work represents the work ethic that is being connected to the poverty. Hard working as a representation is attached to eligibility for `a good life´ that in Finland was to become an owner-occupier of a cottage or a flat. The fourth theme is Security. The resentment of unfair treatment is expressed by using moral superiority and rational explanations. The ruling classes in the agrarian society are portrayed as being evil and selfish with no social conscience because they did not provide enough assistance to those who needed it. During the period when the welfare benefit system was undeveloped, the poor expected the wealthier people to make a contribution to the distribution of material wealth. In the premises of cultural knowledge, both oral and written traditions are about human thinking: they deal with topics, ideas and evaluations that are relevant to their bearers. Many elements expressed in poverty speech, such as classifications and customs derived from the rural world, have been carried over into the next generation in newer contexts and a different cultural environment. Keywords: cultural knowledge, cognitive categorization, poverty, life stories, proverbs
  • Santala, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In this historiographical study I evaluate the placement of Eero Saarinen s airport terminals in the history of modern architecture. His Trans World Airlines Terminal (1956-62) and Dulles International Airport (1958-63) were the first airport terminals to enter the annals of modern architecture. I hypothesize that the airport terminal was previously excluded as a building type from historiography since it was seen as infrastructure, not architecture. Furthermore, its modernity did not coincide with the aims of historians, who could not utilize an emergent building type to demonstrate how modernism revolutionized architectural vocabularies. Discussing the related histories of aviation and technologies, the typological instability of the airport terminal, and Saarinen s architectural practice, I utilize genealogy, microhistory, and Science and Technology Studies to intervene in the historiography of modern architecture. Specifically, I question the assumption that architecture follows technological developments, the narrow interpretation of modernity dominating the writing of architectural history, and the resulting myopia in the classification of emerging building types. I view Saarinen s architectural practice as one of the many laboratories for a new architecture. Mapping such laboratories reveals a multifaceted view of postwar architecture, where modernism is explained by individual actors laboring at their localized sites to mediate a particular kind of modernity. I argue that Saarinen s engagement with technology and his laboratory-like working methods reconciled the contradictions between modern architecture and its blind spot, the airport terminal. This synthesis allowed the terminal building to transcend its utilitarian-technological nature as transportation infrastructure and led to its inclusion in the history of modern architecture as a building type that has its own history and parameters for design. This study makes three contributions. It outlines the history of the airport terminal emphasizing buildings that could have easily found their place in the canon of modern architecture. It explains the reasons for their exclusion and suggests ways to reduce the canon s myopia towards variants of modernism. More broadly, this study contributes to our understanding of the historiography of modern architecture and its logic of including emergent buildings by acknowledging the airport terminal as an emblematic building type of the twentieth century.
  • Korhonen, Kalle (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Zavaleta Ochoa, Eugenia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    During the decade of 1970, in Costa Rica started more often to appear state and private exhibition spaces; and commercialization of the artistic creations began to develop on a regular basis. This scenario was set by the interference of the welfare state; without this intervention the cultural development of Costa Rica would have been slower and weaker. Since 1950, began a series of economic, political and social changes that allowed the definition of cultural policies, which permitted state actions that resulted in museums, contests, awards and public collections, among others. Thus, cultural policies became the driving force that impulsed the culture and, specifically, the art market in the country. In other words, the welfare state created a primary substrate from which cemented the country's cultural life and, therefore, the commodification of art. So, this research focuses on the primary substrate that led to the flowering of an art market. In the process of building the art market, we consulted the Collection of Laws, Decrees and Resolutions, and The Gazette. Furthermore, we used databases such as the Costa Rican Legal Information System. The Costa Rican Art Museum (MAC) has albums, files, documents and databases that were fundamental in determining the country's cultural life, in other words, -for example- the identification of national and foreign artists, public collections, exhibitions, awards, contests, art reviews, comments and auctions. From these documents, databases were developed to process the extracted information. Other databases that were consulted were the catalogs of the National Insurance Institute, the Central Bank of Costa Rica, the Social Security Fund and the Museum of Contemporary Art and Design.
  • Lehtinen, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    "The contextualization of radio discourse by prosodic means. The example of five great French philosophers of the 20th century" This PhD thesis treats the contextualization of radio discourse by prosodic means. More precisely, the work is focussed on seven “marked figures”, which consist of the salient changes of one or more prosodic parameters. The phenomena are studied here both from the angle of their acoustic forms and from the angle of their typical contexts of occurrences and discursive functions. The data comes from six radio broadcasts transmitted by different French radio stations between 1948 and 1973. The speakers of the broadcasts are famous French 20th–century philosophers: Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, Michel Foucault, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Gaston Bachelard. The total duration of the data is 162’32. In addition to a general presentation of the phenomena, the thesis includes contrastive studies in which the two main phenomena of the work (the so-called “figure HB” and the so-called “undulating figure”) are compared with a melodic figure occurring in classical piano music and with a prosodic phenomenon of Finnish (the so-called “figure of familiarity”). One part of the thesis is also devoted to a contrastive study discussing the prosodic interpretation of punctuation (the full stop and the comma) in The Stranger (L’Étranger) by Albert Camus, as read by the author. Methodologically, the work falls within the scope of conversation analysis (CA), and it is inspired by the interaction-based approach to prosody, the “theory of contextualization” of Gumperz and by numerous linguistic and phonetic works directed towards French. The results of this work, based on seven original publications, suggest that the “marked figures” constitute multidimensional phenomena of speech having an important and a complex role in the contextualization of radio discourse. The acoustic forms of these phenomena are very different, and their functions reach several discursive levels. In addition to presenting the phenomena under consideration, the work includes some methodological and theoretical discussion concerning the study and the nature of the process of the contextualization of speech.
  • Nordman, Lieselott (Institutionen för nordiska språk och nordisk litteratur, Nordica, Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    The thesis studies the translation process for the laws of Finland as they are translated from Finnish into Swedish. The focus is on revision practices, norms and workplace procedures. The translation process studied covers three institutions and four revisions. In three separate studies the translation process is analyzed from the perspective of the translations, the institutions and the actors. The general theoretical framework is Descriptive Translation Studies. For the analysis of revisions made in versions of the Swedish translation of Finnish laws, a model is developed covering five grammatical categories (textual revisions, syntactic revisions, lexical revisions, morphological revisions and content revisions) and four norms (legal adequacy, correct translation, correct language and readability). A separate questionnaire-based study was carried out with translators and revisers at the three institutions. The results show that the number of revisions does not decrease during the translation process, and no division of labour can be seen at the different stages. This is somewhat surprising if the revision process is regarded as one of quality control. Instead, all revisers make revisions on every level of the text. Further, the revisions do not necessarily imply errors in the translations but are often the result of revisers following different norms for legal translation. The informal structure of the institutions and its impact on communication, visibility and workplace practices was studied from the perspective of organization theory. The results show weaknesses in the communicative situation, which affect the co-operation both between institutions and individuals. Individual attitudes towards norms and their relative authority also vary, in the sense that revisers largely prioritize legal adequacy whereas translators give linguistic norms a higher value. Further, multi-professional teamwork in the institutions studied shows a kind of teamwork based on individuals and institutions doing specific tasks with only little contact with others. This shows that the established definitions of teamwork, with people co-working in close contact with each other, cannot directly be applied to the workplace procedures in the translation process studied. Three new concepts are introduced: flerstegsrevidering (multi-stage revision), revideringskedja (revision chain) and normsyn (norm attitude). The study seeks to make a contribution to our knowledge of legal translation, translation processes, institutional translation, revision practices and translation norms for legal translation. Keywords: legal translation, translation of laws, institutional translation, revision, revision practices, norms, teamwork, organizational informal structure, translation process, translation sociology, multilingual.
  • Quesada Avendano, Florencia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This work examines the urban modernization of San José, Costa Rica, between 1880 and 1930, using a cultural approach to trace the emergence of the bourgeois city in a small Central American capital, within the context of order and progress. As proposed by Henri Lefebvre, Manuel Castells and Edward Soja, space is given its rightful place as protagonist. The city, subject of this study, is explored as a seat of social power and as the embodiment of a cultural transformation that took shape in that space, a transformation spearheaded by the dominant social group, the Liberal elite. An analysis of the product built environment allows us to understand why the city grew in a determined manner: how the urban space became organized and how its infrastructure and services distributed. Although the emphasis is on the Liberal heyday from 1880-1930, this study also examines the history of the city since its origins in the late colonial period through its consolidation as a capital during the independent era, in order to characterize the nineteenth century colonial city that prevailed up to 1890 s. A diverse array of primary sources including official acts, memoirs, newspaper sources, maps and plans, photographs, and travelogues are used to study the initial phase of San Jose s urban growth. The investigation places the first period of modern urban growth at the turn of the nineteenth century within the prevailing ideological and political context of Positivism and Liberalism. The ideas of the city s elite regarding progress were translated into and reflected in the physical transformation of the city and in the social construction of space. Not only the transformations but also the limits and contradictions of the process of urban change are examined. At the same time, the reorganization of the city s physical space and the beginnings of the ensanche are studied. Hygiene as an engine of urban renovation is explored by studying the period s new public infrastructure (including pipelines, sewer systems, and the use of asphalt pavement) as part of the Saneamiento of San José. The modernization of public space is analyzed through a study of the first parks, boulevards and monuments and the emergence of a new urban culture prominently displayed in these green spaces. Parks and boulevards were new public and secular places of power within the modern city, used by the elite to display and educate the urban population into the new civic and secular traditions. The study goes on to explore the idealized image of the modern city through an analysis of European and North American travelogues and photography. The new esthetic of theatrical-spectacular representation of the modern city constructed a visual guide of how to understand and come to know the city. A partial and selective image of generalized urban change presented only the bourgeois facade and excluded everything that challenged the idea of progress. The enduring patterns of spatial and symbolic exclusion built into Costa Rica s capital city at the dawn of the twentieth century shed important light on the long-term political social and cultural processes that have created the troubled urban landscapes of contemporary Latin America.
  • Petrozzi-Stubin, Clara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Peruvian orchestral music 1945–2005. Identities in diversity Peruvian music for orchestra has not been studied as a whole before, and is hardly known by Peruvian musicians and public. The aim of the thesis is to give a panoramic view of Peruvian orchestral music after 1945, study the particular historical context in which these works were created and how they reflect the search for a musical identity of its own, be it individual, local, national or Latin American. Identity is a construction that changes permanently, and individuals can share many identities at the same time. This is a central issue in multicultural societies as the Peruvian, and music is an important mean for constructing cultural identity. The hypothesis of this research is that orchestral work is a medium for Peruvian composers to express their relationship with traditional and popular musics of the country in different ways, from quotation of melodies to a more abstract appropiation of concepts or suggestive title references. Representative works by selected composers, of different techniques, styles or special reception are chosen and analyzed. Research methodology includes analysis of works with various methods according to their stylistic and technical features, in order to find the particular ways in which composers have approached or expressed diverse identities. The investigation shows that Peruvian orchestral music includes works in the main stylistic trends and using the main compositional techniques of the modernist and postmodern periods. It also shows that the construction and expression of particular identities through the study and use of other Peruvian musical traditions is a constant interest shared by composers of different age and esthetic. In a multicultural society as the Peruvian, characterized by its diversity, different forms of transcultural composition are an important mean of dealing with identity issues in music. This thesis also includes for the first time a list of all orchestral works composed in the country or by Peruvian composers in the period, their composers and genres. KEYWORDS: Peruvian music, contemporary music for orchestra, identity
  • Hynninen, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This study investigates language regulation, or the negotiation of acceptability and correctness in language. It takes a bottom-up perspective on regulation, with focus on the ways that speakers manage and monitor language in lingua franca interaction, and the ways that they talk about language. I approach language regulation as a process through which speakers both reproduce codified language norms and construct alternative ones. Language regulation, then, sheds light on the construction of norms relevant for the speakers, that is, on living norms, as opposed to prescriptive, codified norms that arise as a consequence of linguistic description and codification. I explore two complementary dimensions of language regulation: interactional and ideological dimensions. The dimensions I bring together in a comparative analysis, where I consider the findings in relation to the macro-level ideologies of language maintenance and native speaker ownership of English. To explore the two dimensions, I draw on two main types of data, collected from English-medium university courses where English was used as the lingua franca: interrelated recordings of study event interactions from three different groups and research interviews with students, teachers (i.e. subject experts) and English instructors who attended the interactions. The findings show that the scope of acceptability was wider than the scope of correctness when regulating language in interaction. Second language users of English took on and were assigned the role of language experts, and while speakers mainly drew on (their notions of) English native language norms for correctness, for instance, scientific contexts emerged as an alternative source for norm construction. Further, differences emerged between student, teacher and English instructor views, and generally, the informants talk about language was found out to be more purist than their use of the regulatory mechanisms. In all, the study shows that the construction of living norms is a complex process. On the one hand, speakers reproduce prescriptive, codified norms and thus turn them into living ones. On the other hand, the regulatory practices in the study event interaction and interview findings illustrate that speakers also construct irrelevance of prescriptive norms, and importantly draw on alternative sources, such as their academic field, for norm construction.
  • Sinnemäki, Kaius (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    In this dissertation I study language complexity from a typological perspective. Since the structuralist era, it has been assumed that local complexity differences in languages are balanced out in cross-linguistic comparisons and that complexity is not affected by the geopolitical or sociocultural aspects of the speech community. However, these assumptions have seldom been studied systematically from a typological point of view. My objective is to define complexity so that it is possible to compare it across languages and to approach its variation with the methods of quantitative typology. My main empirical research questions are: i) does language complexity vary in any systematic way in local domains, and ii) can language complexity be affected by the geographical or social environment? These questions are studied in three articles, whose findings are summarized in the introduction to the dissertation. In order to enable cross-language comparison, I measure complexity as the description length of the regularities in an entity; I separate it from difficulty, focus on local instead of global complexity, and break it up into different types. This approach helps avoid the problems that plagued earlier metrics of language complexity. My approach to grammar is functional-typological in nature, and the theoretical framework is basic linguistic theory. I delimit the empirical research functionally to the marking of core arguments (the basic participants in the sentence). I assess the distributions of complexity in this domain with multifactorial statistical methods and use different sampling strategies, implementing, for instance, the Greenbergian view of universals as diachronic laws of type preference. My data come from large and balanced samples (up to approximately 850 languages), drawn mainly from reference grammars. The results suggest that various significant trends occur in the marking of core arguments in regard to complexity and that complexity in this domain correlates with population size. These results provide evidence that linguistic patterns interact among themselves in terms of complexity, that language structure adapts to the social environment, and that there may be cognitive mechanisms that limit complexity locally. My approach to complexity and language universals can therefore be successfully applied to empirical data and may serve as a model for further research in these areas.
  • Haussalo, Teija (Nykykielten laitos, 2014)
    The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the dynamics in the use of articles towards the end of the 16th century, shortly before the creation of normative grammars, by studying the use of the zero article in 16th-century texts and by comparing it to the use of definite and indefinite articles and other determiners. The 16th century can be regarded as an important transitional stage in the development of the French language, as French became the official language of jurisdiction, and literature in French became more prominent. The basic selection criterion for the corpus was that the texts should be prose originally written in French, so poetic freedom or a source text in another language could not strongly influence the structures used. The main corpus is a selection from Heptameron, a collection of short stories written by Queen Margaret of Navarre, and the variants found in 10 different manuscripts of Heptameron. In addition, two other authors were chosen for comparison: Henri Estienne and Michel de Montaigne. The time span of all these texts is from 1545 to 1592. The study contains the following main parts: 1) a general overview of the use of articles in different syntactical positions in 16th-century texts; 2) an analysis of variation in the use of the zero article in the different manuscripts of Heptameron and a comparison with corresponding examples in the texts of Estienne and Montaigne; 3) an analysis of the use of different articles by each author in different contexts; and 4) comparison of the results of the study with the views of 16th-century grammarians as well as with current views of the use of articles in French. The analysis shows that most instances of variation in the use of articles are found in contexts where different interpretations are possible or when there is a problematic construction or even an error in a manuscript. The clearest visible development is the gradual extension of the use of de(s) as an article, which is linked with the loss of the final s in pronunciation. The combination à + de(s) is not found at all in the manuscripts of Heptameron, but in the later texts of Montaigne it occurs many times. It appears that at the end of the 16th century the article system was complete.
  • Kallio, Kati (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Ways of singing. Performance arena, register and local genre in West-Ingrian oral poetry The focus of this doctoral research is on the registers, performance arenas and local genres of kalevalametric singing in Western Ingria (1853 1938). It combines the approaches of folkloristics, ethnomusicology and linguistic anthropology to obtain an understanding of the cultural patterns of singing in one historical performance tradition. The song poetics, musical structures and the performative features are, together with the poems themselves, essential in order to analyse the logic of the local (indigenous, emic) genres. Following the character of the archival material, the research concentrates on Izhorian and Ingrian-Finn festive singing cultures. The local, ethnic and historical backgrounds have a significant position in the analysis. In the analysis, the concepts of register and performance arena are central tools for understanding the local genres. The register denotes a recurrent speech or singing style, while the performance arena means a recurrent type of situation or situational frame of reference. A register, as noted by the researcher, must be named by the singers themselves in order to be interpreted as a local genre. The registers and local genres are taken as frames of interpretation, which gain their meanings via different kinds of recurrent uses and associations within a speech community. In Western Ingria, the most notable differences between different local genres were on their quality and the amount of variation. While some genres were textually, musically and performatively rather fixed and restricted, others were characterised by the exact opposite, as they were able to merge various texts, melodies, refrains and movements. Ingrian oral poetry fits well into theoretical discussions about registers as flexible, layered and complex means of communication. The notion of the situational character of the use of musical features has not previously been discussed in relation to Ingrian cultures, although the situational local genres have been analysed by Senni Timonen. A new aspect is also the interpretation of the recording situation as a multilayered performance arena, situated in various ways between public and private, formal and informal.