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  • Torvinen, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Music as the Art of Anxiety: A Philosophical Approach to the Existential-Ontological Meaning of Music. The present research studies music as an art of anxiety from the points of view of both Martin Heidegger s thought and phenomenological philosophy in general. In the Heideggerian perspective, anxiety is understood as a fundamental mode of being (Grundbefindlichkeit) in human existence. Taken as an existential-ontological concept, anxiety is conceived philosophically and not psychologically. The central research questions are: what is the relationship between music and existential-ontological anxiety? In what way can music be considered as an art of anxiety? In thinking of music as a channel and manifestation of anxiety, what makes it a special case? What are the possible applications of phenomenology and Heideggerian thought in musicology? The main aim of the research is to develop a theory of music as an art of existential-ontological anxiety and to apply this theory to musicologically relevant phenomena. Furthermore, the research will contribute to contemporary musicological debates and research as it aims to outline the phenomenological study of music as a field of its own; the development of a specific methodology is implicit in these aims. The main subject of the study, a theory of music as an art of anxiety, integrates Heideggerian and phenomenological philosophies with critical and cultural theories concerning violence, social sacrifice, and mimetic desire (René Girard), music, noise and society (Jacques Attali), and the affect-based charme of music (Vladimir Jankélévitch). Thus, in addition to the subjective mood (Stimmung) of emptiness and meaninglessness, the philosophical concept of anxiety also refers to a state of disorder and chaos in general; for instance, to noise in the realm of sound and total (social) violence at the level of society. In this study, music is approached as conveying the existentially crucial human compulsion for signifying i.e., organizing chaos. In music, this happens primarily at the immediate level of experience, i.e. in affectivity, and also in relation to all of the aforementioned dimensions (sound, society, consciousness, and so on). Thus, music s existential-ontological meaning in human existence, Dasein, is in its ability to reveal different orders of existence as such. Indeed, this makes music the art of anxiety: more precisely, music can be existentially significant at the level of moods. The study proceeds from outlining the relevance of phenomenology and Heidegger s philosophy in musicology to the philosophical development of a theory of music as the art of anxiety. The theory is developed further through the study of three selected specific musical phenomena: the concept of a musical work, guitar smashing in the performance tradition of rock music, and Erik Bergman s orchestral work Colori ed improvvisazioni. The first example illustrates the level of individual human-subject in music as the art of anxiety, as a means of signifying chaos, while the second example focuses on the collective need to socio-culturally channel violence. The third example, being music-analytical, studies contemporary music s ability to mirror the structures of anxiety at the level of a specific musical text. The selected examples illustrate that, in addition to the philosophical orientation, the research also contributes to music analysis, popular music studies, and the cultural-critical study of music. Key words: music, anxiety, phenomenology, Martin Heidegger, ontology, guitar smashing, Erik Bergman, musical work, affectivity, Stimmung, René Girard
  • Niemi, Jarkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines conceding as a social practice in Finnish conversation as well as the linguistic structures that are used to implement it, such as "voihan se olla" it may (well) be . The four case studies that are analysed are connected by a concessive sequence of turns at talk. In this sequence, the concessor concedes the prior speaker s point of view as (potentially) correct and either implies reserve or subsequently asserts a contrastive point of view. The data consist of telephone calls and video-recorded conversations between acquaintances and family members, as well as conversations from internet forums and a chat room. This study applies the method of Conversation Analysis and adopts the orientation of Construction Grammar on linguistic structures as holistic combinations of form and function. The central research questions of this analysis are 1) what gets done with the linguistic structures that the study examines, 2) what are the social, interactional, and sequential factors involved in the choice of a specific format, and 3) what is the relationship between linguistic constructions and social interaction. The functions of the linguistic structures analysed in this study differ in several ways. The concessor may comment on the truthfulness of the prior speaker s statement or its implied consequences. He or she may modify the prior speaker s statement or assert agreement without modification. In addition, concession can imply either independent knowledge about the subject at hand, or a lack of that knowledge. In the data, the more minimal concessive structures (such as "voi olla" may be and "se voi olla" it may be ) are crystallized so that even a small difference in form results in a difference in function. By contrast, more elaborated clausal concessions allow for variation in their lexical form while retaining their function. This study reveals the two faces of conceding in interaction. While conceding may advance the speakers agreement and mutual understanding, it also may serve as a resource to express disagreement and to represent the other speaker s point of view as rather foolish. In addition, this study demonstrates that concessive structures carry a frame semantic meaning of a larger concessive sequence. The recipients of a concession can therefore anticipate disagreement on the basis of the concessive move. As a result, constructions are to be understood as established practices through which speakers perform and interpret social actions as well as projections of upcoming actions.
  • Hatakka, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The subject matter of this study is the cultural knowledge concerning romantic male-female relationships in autobiographies written by so called ordinary Finnish men and women born between 1901 and 1965. The research data (98 autobiographies) is selected from two collections by the Finnish Literature Society s folklore archives in the early 1990 s. Autobiographies are cultural representations where negotiation of shared cultural models and personal meanings given to hetero-relationship is evident in an interesting manner. In this research I analyze autobiographies as a written folklore genre. Information concerning male-female relationships is being analyzed using theoretically informed close readings thematic analysis, intertextual reading and reflexive reading. Theoretical implications stem from cognitive anthropology (the idea of cultural models) and an adaptation of discourse theory inspired by Michel Foucault. The structure of the analysis follows the structure of the shared knowledge concerning romantic male-female relationship: the first phase of analysis presents the script of a hetero-relationship and then moves into the actual structure, the cultural model of a relationship. The components of the model of relationship are, as mentioned in the title of the research, woman, man, love and sex. The research shows that all the writers share this basic knowledge concerning a heterosexual relationship despite their age, background or gender. Also the conflicts described and experienced in the relationships of the writers were similar throughout the timespan of the early 1900 s to 1990 s: lack of love, inability to reconcile sexual desires, housework, sharing the responsibility of childcare and financial problems. The research claims that the conflicts in relationships are a major cause for the binary view on gender. When relationships are harmonious, there seems to be no need to see men and women as opposites. The research names five important discourses present in the meaning giving processes of autobiographers. In doing so, the stabile cultural model of male-female relationship widens to show the complexity and variation in data. In this way it is possible to detect some age and gender specific shifts and emphasis. The discourses give meaning to the components of the cultural model and determine the contents of womanhood, manhood, sexuality and love. The way these discourses are spread and their authority are different: the romantic discourse evident in the autobiographies appeal to the authority of love supreme love is the purpose of male-female relationship and it justifies sexuality. In this discourse sex can be the place for confluence of genders. The ideas of romantic love are widely spread in popular culture. Popular scientific discourse defines a relationship as a site to become a man and a woman either from a psychological or a biological point of view. Genders are seen as opposites. These ideas are often presented in media and their authority in science which is seen as infallible. The Christian discourse defines men and women: both should work for the benefit of the nuclear family under the undisputed authority of God. Marital love is based on Christian virtues and within marriage sexuality is acceptable. The discourse I ve named folk tradition defines women and men as guardians of home and offspring. The authority of folk tradition comes from universal truth based in experience and truths known to the mediators of this discourse grandparents, parents and other elders or peers. Societal discourse defines the hetero relationship as the mainstay of society. The authority in societal discourse stems from the laws and regulations that control relationship practices.
  • Mäkelä, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    My doctoral dissertation, Narrated Selves and Others: A Study of Mimetic Desire in Five Contemporary British and American Novels , explores the relationships between fictional characters as demonstrated by the self s desire to imitate the being of another. The novels studied in the dissertation are The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1961) by Muriel Spark, Sula (1973) by Toni Morrison, The Secret History (1992) by Donna Tartt, Amsterdam (1998) by Ian McEwan, and What I Loved (2003) by Siri Hustvedt. In the thesis, I will deal with René Girard s mimetic theory and develop it further in the literary realm, both through a close-reading of individual novels and through a partial synthesizing of Girard s thought with some key concepts of current narrative theory, such as the implied author and narrative perspective structure. The key issue, however, is to determine the timeliness and continuing fecundity of Girard s thought as a tool in analysing contemporary English-language fiction, as opposed to the more established classic works read by Girard himself. According to Girard s thought, which combines literary studies with a broader base of cultural studies and philosophical anthropology, imitation, or mimesis , is characteristic of all humans, but because of its tendency to become rivalrous, it leads to conflict, both between individuals and in society at large. Girard furthermore thinks that archaic religion was founded on the surrogate victim mechanism the goal of which is to salvage the community from ever-spreading conflict and strife by channelling violence into a scapegoat. However, with the advent of Judaism and Christianity, history became aware of the essential innocence of the victim and destroyed the credibility of the scapegoat mechanism, rendering the current social and cultural context more vulnerable to reciprocal violence, with an apocalyptic choice between renouncing violence and succumbing to it looming at the historical crossroads. One purpose of this study is to make Girard s thought as a whole more appealing to the mainstream of literary studies and fortify the appeal of literature as a privileged medium of knowledge with regard to mimetic theory, without undermining its deliberately inter-disciplinarian focus. Although explicit conversions of characters signalling the end of idolatry of other characters are less common than in Girard s nineteenth-century and older examples, the implied author still recommends the possibility of this conversion in those cases where it fails to take place on the level of story or narration.
  • Kettunen, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Wiljanen, Anna-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation deals with the Önningeby artists colony in Åland. The colony's heyday occurred during 1886-1892, but operations continued sporadically until 1914. Victor Westerholm (1860-1919) became the colony's promoter. He invited several artists to Åland. The artists' network contributed to the colony that was attended by several Finnish and Swedish artists. After it ceased to be, knowledge of the colony has been forgotten. The artists colony hasn t been the subject of academic research. The purpose is to explain the history of the Önningeby artists colony, why and how it started and why it ended, and to identify what kind of impact the artists' social networks had on the colony. The thesis is an empirical context study, based on correspondence between the artists (mainly that of the inner circle) and the approach is historical descriptive, from the sociological point of view. First, the history of the colony and its activities is reconstructed. Through various sociograms, the complexity of the artists colony s leadership is determined. In addition, the paintings' subjects, painting manner and subject choices are examined. Jacob L. Moreno s Who shall survive? (1953) and Ylva Hasselberg s, Leon Müller s and Niklas Stenlås Åter till historiens nätverk (2002) have offered a theoretical framework and tools for constructing the sociograms. Rubert Brown s Group Processes. Dynamics within and between Groups (1988) has been useful when trying to understand different relationships within the group and the group membership. Griselda Pollock and Janet Wolff have offered critical approaches when discussing the position of women in the colony. Artists Colonies formed an important phenomenon, especially during the latter half of the 1800s, but they have been overlooked in European Art history. The colonies had no common agenda concerning the paintings, but the main principle was the same: the artists gathered at the small, picturesque villages in the countryside, where they could paint and live without society's conventional rules. The colonies were expanded, as a result of the artists networks. This was true, even in the Önningeby artists colony. The thesis shows that the artists colony phenomenon of Önningeby was born and ceased due to the individual artists' social networks. Its existence would not have been possible without a strong promoter and individual artists, whose actions and networks made the colony known in artistic circles. Sociometric analysis shows that the colony s structure was hierarchical and that the leadership was not as clear as previously thought. The leadership was a fragmented structure and could be divided between several people. A majority of colony artists were women, something that differed from the European artists colonies. The women had different roles, both in the colony and in their relationships. This dissertation shows that they had an important role not only in the development of Önningeby art but also in the matter of the colony's leadership. The impact of the Önningeby artists colony cannot be overlooked. The colony introduced a new way of living life as an artist, far away from the strict rules of academies and society. There was an Önningeby identity, but also Önningeby art, whose characteristics are described.The colony functioned as a kind of laboratory for new trends in art, artist life, artistry and leadership.
  • Kuusela, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    In this study I consider what kind of perspective on the mind body problem is taken and can be taken by a philosophical position called non-reductive physicalism. Many positions fall under this label. The form of non-reductive physicalism which I discuss is in essential respects the position taken by Donald Davidson (1917-2003) and Georg Henrik von Wright (1916-2003). I defend their positions and discuss the unrecognized similarities between their views. Non-reductive physicalism combines two theses: (a) Everything that exists is physical; (b) Mental phenomena cannot be reduced to the states of the brain. This means that according to non-reductive physicalism the mental aspect of humans (be it a soul, mind, or spirit) is an irreducible part of the human condition. Also Davidson and von Wright claim that, in some important sense, the mental aspect of a human being does not reduce to the physical aspect, that there is a gap between these aspects that cannot be closed. I claim that their arguments for this conclusion are convincing. I also argue that whereas von Wright and Davidson give interesting arguments for the irreducibility of the mental, their physicalism is unwarranted. These philosophers do not give good reasons for believing that reality is thoroughly physical. Notwithstanding the materialistic consensus in the contemporary philosophy of mind the ontology of mind is still an uncharted territory where real breakthroughs are not to be expected until a radically new ontological position is developed. The third main claim of this work is that the problem of mental causation cannot be solved from the Davidsonian - von Wrightian perspective. The problem of mental causation is the problem of how mental phenomena like beliefs can cause physical movements of the body. As I see it, the essential point of non-reductive physicalism - the irreducibility of the mental - and the problem of mental causation are closely related. If mental phenomena do not reduce to causally effective states of the brain, then what justifies the belief that mental phenomena have causal powers? If mental causes do not reduce to physical causes, then how to tell when - or whether - the mental causes in terms of which human actions are explained are actually effective? I argue that this - how to decide when mental causes really are effective - is the real problem of mental causation. The motivation to explore and defend a non-reductive position stems from the belief that reductive physicalism leads to serious ethical problems. My claim is that Davidson's and von Wright's ultimate reason to defend a non-reductive view comes back to their belief that a reductive understanding of human nature would be a narrow and possibly harmful perspective. The final conclusion of my thesis is that von Wright's and Davidson's positions provide a starting point from which the current scientistic philosophy of mind can be critically further explored in the future.
  • Turunen, Rigina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This dissertation consists of four articles and an introduction. The five parts address the same topic, nonverbal predication in Erzya, from different perspectives. The work is at the same time linguistic typology and Uralic studies. The findings based on a large corpus of empirical Erzya data, which was collected using several different methods and included recordings of the spoken language, made it possible for the present study to apply, then test and finally discuss the previous theories based on cross-linguistic data. Erzya makes use of multiple predication patterns which vary from totally analytic to the morphologically very complex. Nonverbal predicate clause types are classified on the basis of propositional acts in clauses denoting class-membership, identity, property and location. The predicates of these clauses are nouns, adjectives and locational expressions, respectively. The following three predication strategies in Erzya nonverbal predication can be identified: i. the zero-copula construction, ii. the predicative suffix construction and iii. the copula construction. It has been suggested that verbs and nouns cannot be clearly distinguished on morphological grounds when functioning as predicates in Erzya. This study shows that even though predicativity must not be considered a sufficient tool for defining parts of speech in any language, the Erzya lexical classes of adjective, noun and verb can be distinguished from each other also in predicate position. The relative frequency and degree of obligation for using the predicative suffix construction decreases when moving left to right on the scale verb adjective/locative noun ( identificational statement). The predicative suffix is the main pattern in the present tense over the whole domain of nonverbal predication in Standard Erzya, but if it is replaced it is most likely to be with a zero-copula construction in a nominal predication. This study exploits the theory of (a)symmetry for the first time in order to describe verbal vs. nonverbal predication. It is shown that the asymmetry of paradigms and constructions differentiates the lexical classes. Asymmetrical structures are motivated by functional level asymmetry. Variation in predication as such adds to the complexity of the grammar. When symmetric structures are employed, the functional complexity of grammar decreases, even though morphological complexity increases. The genre affects the employment of predication strategies in Erzya. There are differences in the relative frequency of the patterns, and some patterns are totally lacking from some of the data. The clearest difference is that the past tense predicative suffix construction occurs relatively frequently in Standard Erzya, while it occurs infrequently in the other data. Also, the predicative suffixes of the present tense are used more regularly in written Standard Erzya than in any other genre. The genre also affects the incidence of the translative in uľ(ń)ems copula constructions. In translations from Russian to Erzya the translative case is employed relatively frequently in comparison to other data. This study reveals differences between the two Mordvinic languages Erzya and Moksha. The predicative suffixes (bound person markers) of the present tense are used more regularly in Moksha in all kinds of nonverbal predicate clauses compared to Erzya. It should further be observed that identificational statements are encoded with a predicative suffix in Moksha, but seldom in Erzya. Erzya clauses are more frequently encoded using zero-constructions, displaying agreement in number only.
  • Nummivuori, Petri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Tuure Junnila, PhD (1910-1999) was one of Finland's most renowned conservative politicians of the post-war period. Junnila is remembered primarily as a persistent opponent of Urho Kekkonen, a long-term Member of Parliament, a conspicuous opposition member and a prolific political writer. Junnila's ideologies and political views were conservative, and he is one of the most outstanding figures in the history of the National Coalition Party. Junnila also made an extensive career outside of politics, first as an economist and then as an executive of Finland's leading commercial bank Kansallis-Osake-Pankki. The Young Conservative is a partial biography written using traditional historical research methods, which examines Junnila's personal history and his activity in public life up to 1956. The study begins by investigating Junnila's background through his childhood, school years, university studies and early professional career. It also looks at Junnila's work as an economist and practical banker. Particular attention is paid to Junnila's political work, constantly focusing on the following five often overlapping areas: (1) economic policy, (2) domestic policy, (3) foreign and security policy, (4) Junnila and Urho Kekkonen, (5) Junnila, the Coalition Party and Finnish conservatism. In his economic policy, Junnila emphasised the importance of economic stability, opposed socialisation and the growth of public expenditure, defended the free market system and private entrepreneurship, and demanded tax cuts. This policy was very popular within the Coalition Party during the early 1950s, making Junnila the leading conservative economic politician of the time. In terms of domestic policy, Junnila demanded as early as the 1940s that a "third force" should be established in Finland to counterbalance the agrarian and labour parties by uniting conservative and liberal ideologies under the same roof. Foreign and security policy is the area of Junnila's political activity which is most clearly situated after the mid-1950s. However, Junnila's early speeches and writings already show a striving towards the unconditional neutrality modelled by Switzerland and Sweden and a strong emphasis on Finland's right to internal self-determination. Junnila, as did the Coalition Party as a whole, adopted a consistently critical approach towards Urho Kekkonen between 1951 and 1956, but this attitude was not as bluntly negative and all-round antagonistic as many previous studies have implied. Junnila was one of the leading Finnish conservatives of the early 1950s and in all essence his views were analogous to the general alignment of the Coalition Party at the time: conservative in ideology and general policy, and liberal in economic policy.
  • Rusanen, Anna-Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    One task of cognitive science is to explain the information processing capacities of cognitive systems, and to provide a scientific account of how cognitive systems produce the adaptive and systematic intelligent behavior that they do. However, there are several disputes and controversies among cognitive scientists about almost every aspect of the question of how to fulfill this task. Some of these disputes originate from the fundamental issue of how to explain cognitive phenomena. In recent years, a growing number of philosophers have proposed that explanations of cognitive phenomena could be seen as instances of mechanistic explanation. In this dissertation, my aim is to examine to what extent the mechanistic account of explanation can be applied to explanations of complex cognitive phenomena, such as conceptual change. The dissertation is composed of five related research articles, which explore different aspects of mechanistic explanations. The first two articles explore the question, whether explanations of cognitive phenomena are mechanistic in the standard sense. The third and fourth articles focus on two widely shared assumptions concerning the mechanistic account of explanatory models: that (i) explanatory models represent, describe, correspond to or are similar to mechanisms in the world and that (ii) in order to be explanatory a model must represent the relevant causal or constitutive organization of a mechanism in the world. Finally, in the fifth article a sketch of a mechanistic explanation of conceptual change is outlined. The main conclusions of this dissertation can be summarized as four distinct, but related claims: (i) I argue that the standard mechanistic account of explanation can be applied to such cognitive explanations which track dependencies at the performance level. Those explanations refer to mechanisms which sustain or perform cognitive activity. However, (ii) if mechanistic explanations are extended to cover so-called computational or competence level explanations as well, a more liberal interpretation of the term mechanism may be needed (Rusanen and Lappi 2007; Lappi abd Rusanen 2011). Moreover (iii) it is also argued that computational or competence level explanations are genuinely explanatory, and that they are more than mere descriptions of computational tasks. Rather than describing the causal basis of certain performances of the target system, or how that system can have certain capacities or competences, they explain why and how certain principles govern the possible behavior or processes of the target system. Finally, (iv) I propose that the information semantic account of representational character of scientific models can offer a naturalist account of how models depict can depict their targets, and offer also an objective account of how explanatory models can depict the relevant properties of their target systems (Rusanen and Lappi 2012; Rusanen under review).
  • Pareyon, Gabriel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Self-similarity, a concept taken from mathematics, is gradually becoming a keyword in musicology. Although a polysemic term, self-similarity often refers to the multi-scalar feature repetition in a set of relationships, and it is commonly valued as an indication for musical coherence and consistency . This investigation provides a theory of musical meaning formation in the context of intersemiosis, that is, the translation of meaning from one cognitive domain to another cognitive domain (e.g. from mathematics to music, or to speech or graphic forms). From this perspective, the degree of coherence of a musical system relies on a synecdochic intersemiosis: a system of related signs within other comparable and correlated systems. This research analyzes the modalities of such correlations, exploring their general and particular traits, and their operational bounds. Looking forward in this direction, the notion of analogy is used as a rich concept through its two definitions quoted by the Classical literature: proportion and paradigm, enormously valuable in establishing measurement, likeness and affinity criteria. Using quantitative qualitative methods, evidence is presented to justify a parallel study of different modalities of musical self-similarity. For this purpose, original arguments by Benoît B. Mandelbrot are revised, alongside a systematic critique of the literature on the subject. Furthermore, connecting Charles S. Peirce s synechism with Mandelbrot s fractality is one of the main developments of the present study. This study provides elements for explaining Bolognesi s (1983) conjecture, that states that the most primitive, intuitive and basic musical device is self-reference, extending its functions and operations to self-similar surfaces. In this sense, this research suggests that, with various modalities of self-similarity, synecdochic intersemiosis acts as system of systems in coordination with greater or lesser development of structural consistency, and with a greater or lesser contextual dependence.
  • Kivelä, Jyrki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    In this study the author discusses the historical and philosophical connections between David Hume (1711-1776) and Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855). Kierkegaard mainly encountered Humean ideas through the writings of Johann Georg Hamann (1730-1788) and Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (1743-1819). Hamann's and Jacobi's interpretations of Hume were at least among the influences when Kierkegaard developed his idea of paradoxical Christianity and his criticism of "Speculation". Because Hume's discussion of miracles is a classic in the philosophy of religion and Kierkegaard is known for his idea of the absolute paradox as the object of faith and because of Kierkegaard's knowledge of the conclusion of Hume's "Of Miracles", I have found it worthwhile to compare these two terms. The idea of a miracle expressed explicitly in terms of violation of the laws or order of nature is not important to Kierkegaard. I claim that the unavoidable doubtfulness of all historical knowledge and the non-immediate meaning of personal experience are the most important philosophical reasons for Kierkegaard's tangential interest in the concept of a miracle as a philosophical problem. The author argues that Kierkegaard's notion of ordinary belief as the opposite of doubt is at least partly analogous to Hume's notion of belief as a lively conception. Kierkegaard's belief is a terminator of doubt. Hume's custom-based belief acts in the same role when it disregards the uncertainty inherent in the conclusions drawn from our immediate experience. The author further argues that just like the ancient fiction of substance for Hume, the notions of pure being and an absolute beginning in a logical system for Climacus refer to fictional conceptual structures. Kierkegaard argues that there can be no system of life and Hume argues that the philosophical system solving the important problem of perception yields a fictitious solution. Humean notions of true and false philosophy are discussed in this connection. The thesis concludes with the suggestion that there is an affinity between the revocation of the Postscript and the conclusion of the first book of the Treatise. Finally, the author concludes that Kierkegaard was perhaps even profoundly inspired by the ideas present in Hume s thought. He, unlike Hume, embraced the idea of nearly miraculous personal transformation and believing in the most improbable thing. However, they shared the idea that at some basic level we are all nevertheless natural believers. They also understood the lure of abstract thought and saw the dangers of thinking in a sense too highly of philosophical enterprise itself, and agreed on the idea that it is not in fact that tautological or redundant to say that philosophers, too, are human beings.
  • Paavola, Sami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The purpose of this study is to analyze and develop various forms of abduction as a means of conceptualizing processes of discovery. Abduction was originally presented by Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914) as a "weak", third main mode of inference -- besides deduction and induction -- one which, he proposed, is closely related to many kinds of cognitive processes, such as instincts, perception, practices and mediated activity in general. Both abduction and discovery are controversial issues in philosophy of science. It is often claimed that discovery cannot be a proper subject area for conceptual analysis and, accordingly, abduction cannot serve as a "logic of discovery". I argue, however, that abduction gives essential means for understanding processes of discovery although it cannot give rise to a manual or algorithm for making discoveries. In the first part of the study, I briefly present how the main trend in philosophy of science has, for a long time, been critical towards a systematic account of discovery. Various models have, however, been suggested. I outline a short history of abduction; first Peirce's evolving forms of his theory, and then later developments. Although abduction has not been a major area of research until quite recently, I review some critiques of it and look at the ways it has been analyzed, developed and used in various fields of research. Peirce's own writings and later developments, I argue, leave room for various subsequent interpretations of abduction. The second part of the study consists of six research articles. First I treat "classical" arguments against abduction as a logic of discovery. I show that by developing strategic aspects of abductive inference these arguments can be countered. Nowadays the term 'abduction' is often used as a synonym for the Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) model. I argue, however, that it is useful to distinguish between IBE ("Harmanian abduction") and "Hansonian abduction"; the latter concentrating on analyzing processes of discovery. The distinctions between loveliness and likeliness, and between potential and actual explanations are more fruitful within Hansonian abduction. I clarify the nature of abduction by using Peirce's distinction between three areas of "semeiotic": grammar, critic, and methodeutic. Grammar (emphasizing "Firstnesses" and iconicity) and methodeutic (i.e., a processual approach) especially, give new means for understanding abduction. Peirce himself held a controversial view that new abductive ideas are products of an instinct and an inference at the same time. I maintain that it is beneficial to make a clear distinction between abductive inference and abductive instinct, on the basis of which both can be developed further. Besides these, I analyze abduction as a part of distributed cognition which emphasizes a long-term interaction with the material, social and cultural environment as a source for abductive ideas. This approach suggests a "trialogical" model in which inquirers are fundamentally connected both to other inquirers and to the objects of inquiry. As for the classical Meno paradox about discovery, I show that abduction provides more than one answer. As my main example of abductive methodology, I analyze the process of Ignaz Semmelweis' research on childbed fever. A central basis for abduction is the claim that discovery is not a sequence of events governed only by processes of chance. Abduction treats those processes which both constrain and instigate the search for new ideas; starting from the use of clues as a starting point for discovery, but continuing in considerations like elegance and 'loveliness'. The study then continues a Peircean-Hansonian research programme by developing abduction as a way of analyzing processes of discovery.
  • Svinhufvud, Kimmo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This study examines two types of interaction closely connected to the writing of master s thesis: the seminar and the supervisory encounters between the author and the supervisor. The study consists of a summary and four original articles that analyze the thesis interaction from various points of view. The focus is on peer feedback in the seminar, participation in the seminar, and the role of documents in the supervisory encounter. The study uses the method of conversation analysis to analyze encounters videotaped in the seminars and videotaped supervisory encounters. The main research questions are: 1) What do the forms of interaction connected to writing a thesis consist of? 2) How can the seminar and supervision encounters be pedagogically developed? The study analyzes the discussant s text feedback as consisting of three activities, questioning, praise, and the so-called problem-solution feedback. The feedback turn is structurally complicated, because the discussant s feedback has several, partly conflicting goals, and the feedback needs to counter several interactional challenges. Since text feedback is the dominant form of activity in the seminar, discussion and participation face particular challenges. In the supervisory encounters, the study concentrates on the role of written documents in the openings of the encounters. A key observation is that the role of the documents is dominant. Documents are used to topicalize the thesis work, and various kinds of encounter openings are tied to the documents. The results of the study are compared to the literature on university pedagogy and the pedagogy of writing. Some practical suggestions are also given in order to develop supervisory interaction further.
  • Korhonen, Seija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Both in Finland and abroad, Finnish basic language skills are usually taught up to level B of the Common European Framework of Reference. The main objective of this study is to bring out the learners view, the perceptions and the competences of educated adults who have studied as far as this level, that is, completed the basic courses in Finnish. The number of informants totals 345. They represent 38 native languages and have studied Finnish as a second or foreign language. To obtain as comprehensive an understanding as possible of the target group s Finnish language learning, the study applies two different research methods: introspection and error analysis. Introspective data was collected with a form from all 345 informants, asking them, i.a., what do they find to be difficult and what easy in the Finnish language. The error analysis material consists of essays written by 20 informants. The basic hypothesis of this study is that socio-cultural factors such as linguistic and cultural background may affect the learners perceptions of the Finnish language and the development of their Finnish language skills. The introspective answers highlight dozens of difficult and easy aspects of the Finnish language. The informants mentioned 50 difficult and 47 easy aspects, more or less an equal amount, that is, with over one-third of the aspects found to be the same. While difficulties are mentioned more frequently, the most commonly brought up aspects come from relatively few informants. Essays conform 85% to the standards of written Finnish, and the medians of the most common types of errors are quite low. The research data points to the Finnish language not being all that difficult at least not after the completion of basic courses. Nevertheless, this study reveals a number of issues related to the learning and teaching of communicative language competences, which deserve to be contemplated to further develop Finnish-language basic courses and integrate courses of different reference levels into a constructive system that provides increasingly better support to goal-oriented learning. The results also show that it is worthwhile listening to learners voices and using introspection to support the planning of instruction: despite individual differences, the perceptions and competences show good statistical correlation. It would seem that the socio-cultural factors I have studied do not have a statistical impact on learners of this advanced level, or one could also say that the socio-cultural factors common to educated informants have a statistically homogenising influence. Keywords: Finnish as a second language, Finnish as a foreign language, perceptions, competences, introspection, error analysis
  • Käkelä-Puumala, Tiina (2007)
    This dissertation analyzes the interrelationship between death, the conditions of (wo)man s social being, and the notion of value as it emerges in the fiction of the American novelist Thomas Pynchon (1937 ). Pynchon s present work includes six novels V. (1963), The Crying of Lot 49 (1966), Gravity s Rainbow (1973), Vineland (1990), Mason & Dixon (1997), Against the Day (2006) and several short stories. Death constitues a central thematic in Pynchon s work, and it emerges through recurrent questions of mortality, suicide, mass destruction, sacrifice, afterlife, entropy, the relationship between the animate and the inanimate, and the limits of representation. In Pynchon, death is never a mere biological given (or event); it is always determined within a certain historical, cultural, and ideological context. Throughout his work, Pynchon questions the strict ontological separation of life and death by showing the relationship between this separation and social power. Conceptual divisions also reflect the relationship between society and its others, and death becomes that through which lines of social demarcation are articulated. Determined as a conceptual and social "other side", death in Pynchon forms a challenge to modern culture, and makes an unexpected return: the dead return to haunt the living, the inanimate and the animate fuse, and technoscientific attempts at overcoming and controlling death result in its re-emergence in mass destruction and ecological damage. The questioning of the ontological line also affects the structuration of Pynchon's prose, where the recurrent narrated and narrative desire to reach the limits of representation is openly associated with death. Textualized, death appears in Pynchon's writing as a sudden rupture within the textual functioning, when the "other side", that is, the bare materiality of the signifier is foregrounded. In this study, Pynchon s cultural criticism and his poetics come together, and I analyze the subversive role of death in his fiction through Jean Baudrillard s genealogy of the modern notion of death from L échange symbolique et la mort (1976). Baudrillard sees an intrinsic bond between the social repression of death in modernity and the emergence of modern political economy, and in his analysis economy and language appear as parallel systems for generating value (exchange value/ sign-value). For Baudrillard, the modern notion of death as negativity in relation to the positivity of life, and the fact that death cannot be given a proper meaning, betray an antagonistic relation between death and the notion of value. As a mode of negativity (that is, non-value), death becomes a moment of rupture in relation to value-based thinking in short, rationalism. Through this rupture emerges a form of thinking Baudrillard labels the symbolic, characterized by ambivalence and the subversion of conceptual opposites.
  • Mikkonen, Pirjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This study provides a general picture of surnames adopted in Western Finland between 1850 and 1921, the types of names adopted and their backgrounds. They cannot be examined without also including military names, i.e. names given to soldiers in the army in the 18th and especially 19th century. The grounds for the adoption of surnames have not been previously examined, nor have parallels been drawn systematically between civil and military names. In Western Finland, the peasant population was identified by their Christian name and patronymic. House names were used as peasants additional names. In the official documents, such as church registers, the non-landowning peasantry did not have this possibility. Surnames for the Western Finnish peasantry were created starting in the mid-19th century, a process which continued until 1921, when the first Finnish act on names came into force. Western European nationalism reached Finland, too, and Finnish surnames were one way of demonstrating Finnishness. Names were often given by people in positions of authority, clergymen, teachers and foremen. The new phenomenon spread evenly throughout all Western and Southern Finnish parishes. The data for this study is oral data collected in 1986 through a national survey investigating what the Finnish people knew about the motivations and grounds for their own names. Settlement names were the most common grounds for adopting names of which respondents were aware: these accounted for nearly 40 per cent of the data. Even fashionable names were adopted based on place of residence in a notable number of cases: one-fourth of names formed with the suffix -nen and one-fifth of two-syllable names. Western Finnish names consist mainly of words pertaining to nature. Nature-related vocabulary dominates because surnames were often taken from settlement names or modeled after them, and traditional names of places of residence generally described the surrounding nature. The comparative method demonstrates a connection between military names and names adopted without particular grounds or based on models. Finnish military names became more common towards the end of the 19th century. They remained with the families of soldiers as their surnames, and finally many other civilians also adopted them. Both the oral data from 1986 and the archive data on military names provide an opportunity for the first time to delve into the socio-onomastic phenomena of Finnish surnames. The name adoption process of the common population involved a change to a new naming system. By contrast, the new Finnish names of the educated population belonged to the hereditary surname system both before and after they were Finnicized.