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  • Menanteau, Alvaro (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This research is about jazz in Chile in relation to modernity and identity. Final chapters focus and detach latest jazz musician s generation in 1990 decade and composer guitarist Angel Parra. An historic and sociological approach is developed, which will be useful for modernity and identity analysis, and so on post modernity and globalization. Modernity has been studied in texts of Adorno, Baudrillard, Brünner, García Canclini, Habermas and Jameson. Identity has been studied in texts of Aharonián, Cordúa, Garretón, Gissi, Larraín and others. Chapter 3 is about Latin-American musicology and jazz investigations, in relation to approach developed in chapter 2. Chapters 4 and 5 are about history of jazz in Chile until beginning of XXI century. Chapter 6 focuses in Ángel Parra Orrego. Conclusions of this investigation detach the modernist mechanical that has conducted jazz development in Chile, which in Ángel Parra´s case has been overcame by a post modernist behaviour. This behaviour has solved in a creative way, subjects like modernity and identity in jazz practice in a Latin-American country.
  • Pekkarinen, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The multifaceted passive present participle in Finnish This study investigates the uses of the passive present participle in Finnish. The participle occurs in a variety of syntactic environments and exhibits a rich polysemy. Former descriptions have treated it as a mainly modal element, but it has several non-modal uses as well. The present study provides an overview of its uses and meanings, with the main focus on the factors which trigger the modal reading. In addition, the study contains two case studies on modal periphrastic constructions consisting of the verb 'to be' and the present passive participle, the Obligation construction, e.g., on men-tä-vä [is go-pass-ptc], and the Possiblity construction, e.g., on pelaste-tta-v-i-ssa [is save-pass-ptc-pl-ine]. The study is based on empirical data of 9000 sentences obtained from i) large collections of transcribed material from Finnish dialects, ii) a corpus of modern Finnish newspaper texts, iii) corpora of Old Finnish texts. Both in colloquial and standard Finnish the reading of the participle is highly dependent of the context and determined by such factors as the overall syntactic environment and other co-occurring elements. One of the main findings here is that the Finnish passive present participle is not modal per se. The contextual modal reading arises whenever the state of affairs is conceptualized from the viewpoint of the implied subject of the participle, and the meaning of possibility or obligation depends mostly on whether the situation is pleasant or undesirable. In sections examining the grammaticalization of the Possibility and Obligation constructions, the perspective is diachronic. Both constructions have derived from copula constructions with the passive present participle as a predicate (adjective or adverb). These sections show how a linguistic change can be investigated on the basis of the patterns of usage in the empirical data. The Possibility construction is currently going through a restructuration to a passive verbal complex. The source of this construction is reflected in its present-day use by the fact that it heavily biased towards a small set of verbs. The Obligation construction has grammaticalized to a construction comparable to a compound tense. Patterns of use of the construction show that grammaticalization originates in specific syntactic constructions with an implication of practical necessity. Furthermore, it is shown that the Obligation construction has grammaticalized in different directions in standard and colloquial Finnish. Differing from the study on most typical phenomena investigated in the literature on grammaticalization of modality, the present study opens new perspectives and methods for discussion on these questions.
  • Ameel, Lieven (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This study analyses experiences of Helsinki in prose fiction published in Finnish in the period 1889-1941. It examines the relationships that are formed between Helsinki and fictional characters, focusing, especially, on the way in which urban public space is experienced. Particular attention is given to the description of movement through urban space. The primary material consists of more than sixty novels, collections of short stories and individual short stories. Theoretically, this study draws on two sets of frameworks: on the one hand, the expanding field of literary studies of the city, and on the other hand, theoretical concepts provided by humanistic and critical geography, as well as urban studies. Following an introduction, which includes a concise history of Helsinki, a theoretical chapter charts the relevant concepts and theoretical approaches to the city in literature. The analysis of the selected corpus is divided into five chapters, loosely following a chronological order and structured thematically. In each chapter, one key text is used as a window from which to approach particular thematics. The third chapter analyses experiences of arrival in the city, using Juhani Aho s Helsinkiin (1889) as a prototypical text. The fourth chapter studies experiences of urban public space around the turn of the century, with particular attention given to Eino Leino s Jaana Rönty (1907). In the fifth chapter, Arvid Järnefelt s kaleidoscopic Veneh ojalaiset (1909) functions as a key novel to approach experiences of a transforming and even disappearing Helsinki. The sixth chapter, focusing on Mika Waltari s Suuri illusioni (1928), analyses the aestheticization and internalization of the urban experience in 1920s and 1930s Helsinki novels. The seventh and final chapter examines the cumbersome movement of socially marginalized characters on the urban fringes, with Joel Lehtonen s Henkien taistelu (1933) as a key primary text. This study argues that around the turn of the twentieth century, literary Helsinki was approached from a surprisingly rich variety of generic and thematic perspectives which were in close dialogue with international contemporary traditions and age-old images of the city, and defined by events typical of Helsinki s own history. This created a fascinating and varied imagination of the city that set the tone for later literary descriptions. Helsinki literature of the 1920s and 1930s further developed the defining traits that took form around the turn of the century, adding a number of new thematic and stylistic nuances. The city experience was increasingly aestheticized and internalized, and as the description of the city moved inwards, the experience of Helsinki became dominated by a sense of centrifugal dynamics. The centre of the city became less prominent in literature, and in its place, the margins of the city and specific socially defined neighbourhoods gain in importance.
  • Hirvonen, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The present dissertation analyses the representation of space in filmic audio description. The main objective of this study is to shed light on two critical challenges for audio description: (1) how the filmic space becomes audible in audio-described film through spoken language, sound effects, and music, and (2) how the visual representation of space in film can be cued by the linguistic mode in an audio description. This dissertation consists of four articles and a thesis summary. The first article focusses on the multimodal representation of space through auditory cues. The other three articles explore intermodal similarity, which involves the question of how language reflects visual representation. To explain the complex phenomenon of translating images into words, this study applies the theoretical and analytical tools from translation studies, film studies and cognitive linguistics, and also adopts a cognitive orientation to explain both the filmic and linguistic representations as being cognitive representations that are constructed through visual, auditory, and linguistic cues. This research first establishes that the auditory multimodality of an audio-described film creates a variant of the multimodality of the audiovisual film that entails dynamic constellations, perspectives and foci. Secondly, the analysis presents evidence for the varied potential of the linguistic mode in terms of representing space. Thirdly, this study defines strategies for intermodal similarity in terms of the corresponding linguistic signs for the filmic cues of representation and narration. The results of this dissertation may be valuable in justifying the consistency and standards for audio description as well as in developing other, more far-reaching usages of audio description as a mode of transforming information from one system of representation into another.
  • Jyrkiäinen, Reijo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This analysis of form and structure focuses, in chronological order, on the six String Quartets of Béla Bartók (1881 - 1945). The printed scores were used as source material. The research problem is presented in four hypotheses: The Quartets contain many different types of form. They also comprise several kinds of monothematicism, variation techniques, and symmetries. Along with traditional music theory and tonal functions, other structural and hierarchical forms emerge as well. The form of the movements and the general form of the Quartets are defined with the help of a motif-, theme-, and harmony analysis. Compared to earlier works treating the same topic, this study presents a more meticulous approach to treating the subject and also applies the Schenkerian analysis and pitch-class set theory to all the Quartets. Following the introduction (1), the ensuing themes are examined: how the genre of the string quartet took shape in Europe leading into the 1940s (2), Bartók s sources of inspiration, starting from folk music and Beethoven to his contemporaries (3), analysis of the Quartets, movement by movement (4 9), the conclusions (10). Included in the study are Bartók s own analyses of the Fourth and Fifth Quartets. Many viewpoints and study results of earlier researchers are incorporated as well. Among the most renowned are the Hungarians János Kárpáti, Ernö Lendvai, and László Somfai; the German Roswitha Traimer; and the Americans Elliott Antokoletz, Allen Forte, and Paul Wilson. Music notation examples are placed within the text. The appendix contains literature and other source materials, a glossary of terms, a list of pitch-class sets, as well as a catalogue of Bartók s works. Keywords: Bartók, string quartets, Schenkerian analysis, pitch-class set system.
  • Torvinen, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Music as the Art of Anxiety: A Philosophical Approach to the Existential-Ontological Meaning of Music. The present research studies music as an art of anxiety from the points of view of both Martin Heidegger s thought and phenomenological philosophy in general. In the Heideggerian perspective, anxiety is understood as a fundamental mode of being (Grundbefindlichkeit) in human existence. Taken as an existential-ontological concept, anxiety is conceived philosophically and not psychologically. The central research questions are: what is the relationship between music and existential-ontological anxiety? In what way can music be considered as an art of anxiety? In thinking of music as a channel and manifestation of anxiety, what makes it a special case? What are the possible applications of phenomenology and Heideggerian thought in musicology? The main aim of the research is to develop a theory of music as an art of existential-ontological anxiety and to apply this theory to musicologically relevant phenomena. Furthermore, the research will contribute to contemporary musicological debates and research as it aims to outline the phenomenological study of music as a field of its own; the development of a specific methodology is implicit in these aims. The main subject of the study, a theory of music as an art of anxiety, integrates Heideggerian and phenomenological philosophies with critical and cultural theories concerning violence, social sacrifice, and mimetic desire (René Girard), music, noise and society (Jacques Attali), and the affect-based charme of music (Vladimir Jankélévitch). Thus, in addition to the subjective mood (Stimmung) of emptiness and meaninglessness, the philosophical concept of anxiety also refers to a state of disorder and chaos in general; for instance, to noise in the realm of sound and total (social) violence at the level of society. In this study, music is approached as conveying the existentially crucial human compulsion for signifying i.e., organizing chaos. In music, this happens primarily at the immediate level of experience, i.e. in affectivity, and also in relation to all of the aforementioned dimensions (sound, society, consciousness, and so on). Thus, music s existential-ontological meaning in human existence, Dasein, is in its ability to reveal different orders of existence as such. Indeed, this makes music the art of anxiety: more precisely, music can be existentially significant at the level of moods. The study proceeds from outlining the relevance of phenomenology and Heidegger s philosophy in musicology to the philosophical development of a theory of music as the art of anxiety. The theory is developed further through the study of three selected specific musical phenomena: the concept of a musical work, guitar smashing in the performance tradition of rock music, and Erik Bergman s orchestral work Colori ed improvvisazioni. The first example illustrates the level of individual human-subject in music as the art of anxiety, as a means of signifying chaos, while the second example focuses on the collective need to socio-culturally channel violence. The third example, being music-analytical, studies contemporary music s ability to mirror the structures of anxiety at the level of a specific musical text. The selected examples illustrate that, in addition to the philosophical orientation, the research also contributes to music analysis, popular music studies, and the cultural-critical study of music. Key words: music, anxiety, phenomenology, Martin Heidegger, ontology, guitar smashing, Erik Bergman, musical work, affectivity, Stimmung, René Girard
  • Helkala-Koivisto, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The present study Music and autism - prosodic sign in existential semiotics belongs to the field of musicology and especially to the branch of musical and existential semiotics. The starting point of my theoretical research is music and autism. Both of them are signified as cultural and subjective phenomena in the semiotic sense, despite the fact that the object of study the prosodic sign - is first found between them. It has occurred in practice through musical dialogue with children on autism. The study has some empirical data that consists of documented narratives, in which the prosodic sign is seen as a moving subject within early musical interaction in the music therapy process. The object of study has shown its origin and realization in practice but semiotics is moreover interested to clarify the symbolic life and signification of the recognized signs. In the study it refers to the way by which a prosodic feature will constitute a symbolic character and become the prosodic sign that signifies something external outside itself. The prosodic features try to manifest themselves first by being a signal for something, doing repeated accents inside musical and linguistic expression. To become a sign the accent has to get a meaning. It has to receive a signification like a new born baby after becoming a part of communicative human consciousness. Signification and consciousness are internal system of human existence. They represent an intentional subject s whole body and mind. The sense of body-mind s action and symbolic thinking with and without prosodic signification is a developing part of my research in existential semiotics. The study is based on Eero Tarasti s theory of existential semiotics and Julia Kristeva s psychoanalytic approach to subject s early interaction in semiotic chora. Existential semiotics is a new key to study and read prosodic features as significant and interactive signs. The anthropological character of semiotics has also provided a new interpretation to autism: it is approached for the first time from the viewpoint of humanistic and cultural phenomena. It is defined in the symbolic sense as equivalent to music as a cultural sign. The two semiotic theories mentioned above and their analysis combined with the early stages in the development of the prosodic signification will reveal the prosodic sign as a new possible subject among the existing prosodic theories. As a result of the study both the cultural and the subjective proto-musical meaning will have a new broader signification. The prosodic sign may have a closely spaced sensory-affective basis between autism and non-autism in early infancy. It is a question of the sensorimotor timing and rhythmic adherence, wherein the prosodic sign is the smallest but probably the most important signifying variable in sensing the outside world and the other. Keywords: musical dialogue, autism, otherness, symbol, prosodic signification, existential semiotics, psychoanalysis, global languages
  • Niemi, Jarkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines conceding as a social practice in Finnish conversation as well as the linguistic structures that are used to implement it, such as "voihan se olla" it may (well) be . The four case studies that are analysed are connected by a concessive sequence of turns at talk. In this sequence, the concessor concedes the prior speaker s point of view as (potentially) correct and either implies reserve or subsequently asserts a contrastive point of view. The data consist of telephone calls and video-recorded conversations between acquaintances and family members, as well as conversations from internet forums and a chat room. This study applies the method of Conversation Analysis and adopts the orientation of Construction Grammar on linguistic structures as holistic combinations of form and function. The central research questions of this analysis are 1) what gets done with the linguistic structures that the study examines, 2) what are the social, interactional, and sequential factors involved in the choice of a specific format, and 3) what is the relationship between linguistic constructions and social interaction. The functions of the linguistic structures analysed in this study differ in several ways. The concessor may comment on the truthfulness of the prior speaker s statement or its implied consequences. He or she may modify the prior speaker s statement or assert agreement without modification. In addition, concession can imply either independent knowledge about the subject at hand, or a lack of that knowledge. In the data, the more minimal concessive structures (such as "voi olla" may be and "se voi olla" it may be ) are crystallized so that even a small difference in form results in a difference in function. By contrast, more elaborated clausal concessions allow for variation in their lexical form while retaining their function. This study reveals the two faces of conceding in interaction. While conceding may advance the speakers agreement and mutual understanding, it also may serve as a resource to express disagreement and to represent the other speaker s point of view as rather foolish. In addition, this study demonstrates that concessive structures carry a frame semantic meaning of a larger concessive sequence. The recipients of a concession can therefore anticipate disagreement on the basis of the concessive move. As a result, constructions are to be understood as established practices through which speakers perform and interpret social actions as well as projections of upcoming actions.
  • Hatakka, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The subject matter of this study is the cultural knowledge concerning romantic male-female relationships in autobiographies written by so called ordinary Finnish men and women born between 1901 and 1965. The research data (98 autobiographies) is selected from two collections by the Finnish Literature Society s folklore archives in the early 1990 s. Autobiographies are cultural representations where negotiation of shared cultural models and personal meanings given to hetero-relationship is evident in an interesting manner. In this research I analyze autobiographies as a written folklore genre. Information concerning male-female relationships is being analyzed using theoretically informed close readings thematic analysis, intertextual reading and reflexive reading. Theoretical implications stem from cognitive anthropology (the idea of cultural models) and an adaptation of discourse theory inspired by Michel Foucault. The structure of the analysis follows the structure of the shared knowledge concerning romantic male-female relationship: the first phase of analysis presents the script of a hetero-relationship and then moves into the actual structure, the cultural model of a relationship. The components of the model of relationship are, as mentioned in the title of the research, woman, man, love and sex. The research shows that all the writers share this basic knowledge concerning a heterosexual relationship despite their age, background or gender. Also the conflicts described and experienced in the relationships of the writers were similar throughout the timespan of the early 1900 s to 1990 s: lack of love, inability to reconcile sexual desires, housework, sharing the responsibility of childcare and financial problems. The research claims that the conflicts in relationships are a major cause for the binary view on gender. When relationships are harmonious, there seems to be no need to see men and women as opposites. The research names five important discourses present in the meaning giving processes of autobiographers. In doing so, the stabile cultural model of male-female relationship widens to show the complexity and variation in data. In this way it is possible to detect some age and gender specific shifts and emphasis. The discourses give meaning to the components of the cultural model and determine the contents of womanhood, manhood, sexuality and love. The way these discourses are spread and their authority are different: the romantic discourse evident in the autobiographies appeal to the authority of love supreme love is the purpose of male-female relationship and it justifies sexuality. In this discourse sex can be the place for confluence of genders. The ideas of romantic love are widely spread in popular culture. Popular scientific discourse defines a relationship as a site to become a man and a woman either from a psychological or a biological point of view. Genders are seen as opposites. These ideas are often presented in media and their authority in science which is seen as infallible. The Christian discourse defines men and women: both should work for the benefit of the nuclear family under the undisputed authority of God. Marital love is based on Christian virtues and within marriage sexuality is acceptable. The discourse I ve named folk tradition defines women and men as guardians of home and offspring. The authority of folk tradition comes from universal truth based in experience and truths known to the mediators of this discourse grandparents, parents and other elders or peers. Societal discourse defines the hetero relationship as the mainstay of society. The authority in societal discourse stems from the laws and regulations that control relationship practices.
  • Mäkelä, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    My doctoral dissertation, Narrated Selves and Others: A Study of Mimetic Desire in Five Contemporary British and American Novels , explores the relationships between fictional characters as demonstrated by the self s desire to imitate the being of another. The novels studied in the dissertation are The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1961) by Muriel Spark, Sula (1973) by Toni Morrison, The Secret History (1992) by Donna Tartt, Amsterdam (1998) by Ian McEwan, and What I Loved (2003) by Siri Hustvedt. In the thesis, I will deal with René Girard s mimetic theory and develop it further in the literary realm, both through a close-reading of individual novels and through a partial synthesizing of Girard s thought with some key concepts of current narrative theory, such as the implied author and narrative perspective structure. The key issue, however, is to determine the timeliness and continuing fecundity of Girard s thought as a tool in analysing contemporary English-language fiction, as opposed to the more established classic works read by Girard himself. According to Girard s thought, which combines literary studies with a broader base of cultural studies and philosophical anthropology, imitation, or mimesis , is characteristic of all humans, but because of its tendency to become rivalrous, it leads to conflict, both between individuals and in society at large. Girard furthermore thinks that archaic religion was founded on the surrogate victim mechanism the goal of which is to salvage the community from ever-spreading conflict and strife by channelling violence into a scapegoat. However, with the advent of Judaism and Christianity, history became aware of the essential innocence of the victim and destroyed the credibility of the scapegoat mechanism, rendering the current social and cultural context more vulnerable to reciprocal violence, with an apocalyptic choice between renouncing violence and succumbing to it looming at the historical crossroads. One purpose of this study is to make Girard s thought as a whole more appealing to the mainstream of literary studies and fortify the appeal of literature as a privileged medium of knowledge with regard to mimetic theory, without undermining its deliberately inter-disciplinarian focus. Although explicit conversions of characters signalling the end of idolatry of other characters are less common than in Girard s nineteenth-century and older examples, the implied author still recommends the possibility of this conversion in those cases where it fails to take place on the level of story or narration.
  • Kettunen, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Wiljanen, Anna-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation deals with the Önningeby artists colony in Åland. The colony's heyday occurred during 1886-1892, but operations continued sporadically until 1914. Victor Westerholm (1860-1919) became the colony's promoter. He invited several artists to Åland. The artists' network contributed to the colony that was attended by several Finnish and Swedish artists. After it ceased to be, knowledge of the colony has been forgotten. The artists colony hasn t been the subject of academic research. The purpose is to explain the history of the Önningeby artists colony, why and how it started and why it ended, and to identify what kind of impact the artists' social networks had on the colony. The thesis is an empirical context study, based on correspondence between the artists (mainly that of the inner circle) and the approach is historical descriptive, from the sociological point of view. First, the history of the colony and its activities is reconstructed. Through various sociograms, the complexity of the artists colony s leadership is determined. In addition, the paintings' subjects, painting manner and subject choices are examined. Jacob L. Moreno s Who shall survive? (1953) and Ylva Hasselberg s, Leon Müller s and Niklas Stenlås Åter till historiens nätverk (2002) have offered a theoretical framework and tools for constructing the sociograms. Rubert Brown s Group Processes. Dynamics within and between Groups (1988) has been useful when trying to understand different relationships within the group and the group membership. Griselda Pollock and Janet Wolff have offered critical approaches when discussing the position of women in the colony. Artists Colonies formed an important phenomenon, especially during the latter half of the 1800s, but they have been overlooked in European Art history. The colonies had no common agenda concerning the paintings, but the main principle was the same: the artists gathered at the small, picturesque villages in the countryside, where they could paint and live without society's conventional rules. The colonies were expanded, as a result of the artists networks. This was true, even in the Önningeby artists colony. The thesis shows that the artists colony phenomenon of Önningeby was born and ceased due to the individual artists' social networks. Its existence would not have been possible without a strong promoter and individual artists, whose actions and networks made the colony known in artistic circles. Sociometric analysis shows that the colony s structure was hierarchical and that the leadership was not as clear as previously thought. The leadership was a fragmented structure and could be divided between several people. A majority of colony artists were women, something that differed from the European artists colonies. The women had different roles, both in the colony and in their relationships. This dissertation shows that they had an important role not only in the development of Önningeby art but also in the matter of the colony's leadership. The impact of the Önningeby artists colony cannot be overlooked. The colony introduced a new way of living life as an artist, far away from the strict rules of academies and society. There was an Önningeby identity, but also Önningeby art, whose characteristics are described.The colony functioned as a kind of laboratory for new trends in art, artist life, artistry and leadership.
  • Kuusela, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    In this study I consider what kind of perspective on the mind body problem is taken and can be taken by a philosophical position called non-reductive physicalism. Many positions fall under this label. The form of non-reductive physicalism which I discuss is in essential respects the position taken by Donald Davidson (1917-2003) and Georg Henrik von Wright (1916-2003). I defend their positions and discuss the unrecognized similarities between their views. Non-reductive physicalism combines two theses: (a) Everything that exists is physical; (b) Mental phenomena cannot be reduced to the states of the brain. This means that according to non-reductive physicalism the mental aspect of humans (be it a soul, mind, or spirit) is an irreducible part of the human condition. Also Davidson and von Wright claim that, in some important sense, the mental aspect of a human being does not reduce to the physical aspect, that there is a gap between these aspects that cannot be closed. I claim that their arguments for this conclusion are convincing. I also argue that whereas von Wright and Davidson give interesting arguments for the irreducibility of the mental, their physicalism is unwarranted. These philosophers do not give good reasons for believing that reality is thoroughly physical. Notwithstanding the materialistic consensus in the contemporary philosophy of mind the ontology of mind is still an uncharted territory where real breakthroughs are not to be expected until a radically new ontological position is developed. The third main claim of this work is that the problem of mental causation cannot be solved from the Davidsonian - von Wrightian perspective. The problem of mental causation is the problem of how mental phenomena like beliefs can cause physical movements of the body. As I see it, the essential point of non-reductive physicalism - the irreducibility of the mental - and the problem of mental causation are closely related. If mental phenomena do not reduce to causally effective states of the brain, then what justifies the belief that mental phenomena have causal powers? If mental causes do not reduce to physical causes, then how to tell when - or whether - the mental causes in terms of which human actions are explained are actually effective? I argue that this - how to decide when mental causes really are effective - is the real problem of mental causation. The motivation to explore and defend a non-reductive position stems from the belief that reductive physicalism leads to serious ethical problems. My claim is that Davidson's and von Wright's ultimate reason to defend a non-reductive view comes back to their belief that a reductive understanding of human nature would be a narrow and possibly harmful perspective. The final conclusion of my thesis is that von Wright's and Davidson's positions provide a starting point from which the current scientistic philosophy of mind can be critically further explored in the future.
  • Turunen, Rigina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This dissertation consists of four articles and an introduction. The five parts address the same topic, nonverbal predication in Erzya, from different perspectives. The work is at the same time linguistic typology and Uralic studies. The findings based on a large corpus of empirical Erzya data, which was collected using several different methods and included recordings of the spoken language, made it possible for the present study to apply, then test and finally discuss the previous theories based on cross-linguistic data. Erzya makes use of multiple predication patterns which vary from totally analytic to the morphologically very complex. Nonverbal predicate clause types are classified on the basis of propositional acts in clauses denoting class-membership, identity, property and location. The predicates of these clauses are nouns, adjectives and locational expressions, respectively. The following three predication strategies in Erzya nonverbal predication can be identified: i. the zero-copula construction, ii. the predicative suffix construction and iii. the copula construction. It has been suggested that verbs and nouns cannot be clearly distinguished on morphological grounds when functioning as predicates in Erzya. This study shows that even though predicativity must not be considered a sufficient tool for defining parts of speech in any language, the Erzya lexical classes of adjective, noun and verb can be distinguished from each other also in predicate position. The relative frequency and degree of obligation for using the predicative suffix construction decreases when moving left to right on the scale verb adjective/locative noun ( identificational statement). The predicative suffix is the main pattern in the present tense over the whole domain of nonverbal predication in Standard Erzya, but if it is replaced it is most likely to be with a zero-copula construction in a nominal predication. This study exploits the theory of (a)symmetry for the first time in order to describe verbal vs. nonverbal predication. It is shown that the asymmetry of paradigms and constructions differentiates the lexical classes. Asymmetrical structures are motivated by functional level asymmetry. Variation in predication as such adds to the complexity of the grammar. When symmetric structures are employed, the functional complexity of grammar decreases, even though morphological complexity increases. The genre affects the employment of predication strategies in Erzya. There are differences in the relative frequency of the patterns, and some patterns are totally lacking from some of the data. The clearest difference is that the past tense predicative suffix construction occurs relatively frequently in Standard Erzya, while it occurs infrequently in the other data. Also, the predicative suffixes of the present tense are used more regularly in written Standard Erzya than in any other genre. The genre also affects the incidence of the translative in uľ(ń)ems copula constructions. In translations from Russian to Erzya the translative case is employed relatively frequently in comparison to other data. This study reveals differences between the two Mordvinic languages Erzya and Moksha. The predicative suffixes (bound person markers) of the present tense are used more regularly in Moksha in all kinds of nonverbal predicate clauses compared to Erzya. It should further be observed that identificational statements are encoded with a predicative suffix in Moksha, but seldom in Erzya. Erzya clauses are more frequently encoded using zero-constructions, displaying agreement in number only.
  • Nummivuori, Petri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Tuure Junnila, PhD (1910-1999) was one of Finland's most renowned conservative politicians of the post-war period. Junnila is remembered primarily as a persistent opponent of Urho Kekkonen, a long-term Member of Parliament, a conspicuous opposition member and a prolific political writer. Junnila's ideologies and political views were conservative, and he is one of the most outstanding figures in the history of the National Coalition Party. Junnila also made an extensive career outside of politics, first as an economist and then as an executive of Finland's leading commercial bank Kansallis-Osake-Pankki. The Young Conservative is a partial biography written using traditional historical research methods, which examines Junnila's personal history and his activity in public life up to 1956. The study begins by investigating Junnila's background through his childhood, school years, university studies and early professional career. It also looks at Junnila's work as an economist and practical banker. Particular attention is paid to Junnila's political work, constantly focusing on the following five often overlapping areas: (1) economic policy, (2) domestic policy, (3) foreign and security policy, (4) Junnila and Urho Kekkonen, (5) Junnila, the Coalition Party and Finnish conservatism. In his economic policy, Junnila emphasised the importance of economic stability, opposed socialisation and the growth of public expenditure, defended the free market system and private entrepreneurship, and demanded tax cuts. This policy was very popular within the Coalition Party during the early 1950s, making Junnila the leading conservative economic politician of the time. In terms of domestic policy, Junnila demanded as early as the 1940s that a "third force" should be established in Finland to counterbalance the agrarian and labour parties by uniting conservative and liberal ideologies under the same roof. Foreign and security policy is the area of Junnila's political activity which is most clearly situated after the mid-1950s. However, Junnila's early speeches and writings already show a striving towards the unconditional neutrality modelled by Switzerland and Sweden and a strong emphasis on Finland's right to internal self-determination. Junnila, as did the Coalition Party as a whole, adopted a consistently critical approach towards Urho Kekkonen between 1951 and 1956, but this attitude was not as bluntly negative and all-round antagonistic as many previous studies have implied. Junnila was one of the leading Finnish conservatives of the early 1950s and in all essence his views were analogous to the general alignment of the Coalition Party at the time: conservative in ideology and general policy, and liberal in economic policy.
  • Rusanen, Anna-Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    One task of cognitive science is to explain the information processing capacities of cognitive systems, and to provide a scientific account of how cognitive systems produce the adaptive and systematic intelligent behavior that they do. However, there are several disputes and controversies among cognitive scientists about almost every aspect of the question of how to fulfill this task. Some of these disputes originate from the fundamental issue of how to explain cognitive phenomena. In recent years, a growing number of philosophers have proposed that explanations of cognitive phenomena could be seen as instances of mechanistic explanation. In this dissertation, my aim is to examine to what extent the mechanistic account of explanation can be applied to explanations of complex cognitive phenomena, such as conceptual change. The dissertation is composed of five related research articles, which explore different aspects of mechanistic explanations. The first two articles explore the question, whether explanations of cognitive phenomena are mechanistic in the standard sense. The third and fourth articles focus on two widely shared assumptions concerning the mechanistic account of explanatory models: that (i) explanatory models represent, describe, correspond to or are similar to mechanisms in the world and that (ii) in order to be explanatory a model must represent the relevant causal or constitutive organization of a mechanism in the world. Finally, in the fifth article a sketch of a mechanistic explanation of conceptual change is outlined. The main conclusions of this dissertation can be summarized as four distinct, but related claims: (i) I argue that the standard mechanistic account of explanation can be applied to such cognitive explanations which track dependencies at the performance level. Those explanations refer to mechanisms which sustain or perform cognitive activity. However, (ii) if mechanistic explanations are extended to cover so-called computational or competence level explanations as well, a more liberal interpretation of the term mechanism may be needed (Rusanen and Lappi 2007; Lappi abd Rusanen 2011). Moreover (iii) it is also argued that computational or competence level explanations are genuinely explanatory, and that they are more than mere descriptions of computational tasks. Rather than describing the causal basis of certain performances of the target system, or how that system can have certain capacities or competences, they explain why and how certain principles govern the possible behavior or processes of the target system. Finally, (iv) I propose that the information semantic account of representational character of scientific models can offer a naturalist account of how models depict can depict their targets, and offer also an objective account of how explanatory models can depict the relevant properties of their target systems (Rusanen and Lappi 2012; Rusanen under review).