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  • Moring, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Strange Families targets Finnish rainbow families (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender families) in 21st century legislation, media and guidebooks. The research combines theories of gender studies, critical family studies, legal studies, queer studies, and cultural studies. It employs methods of political reading in order to highlight the norms and ideals that are prevalent in public discussions of rainbow families. Through the methodological concept of queerfeminist political reading it focuses on the question of what defines a family when the family is formed in a way that resists the hegemonic norms, ideals, and assumptions of a heteronormative society. The research examines public discussions of rainbow families through three central themes: fatherhood, motherhood and the concept of family. Each theme is analyzed with the specific issues that arise in its relation to rainbow families, and how these issues are discussed. The results show that the recognition of rainbow families raise important issues in relation to norms and ideals of family in 21st century Finland. Legally, recognition of these families requires changes in legislation that ultimately show how law always already falls short in its definitions of family and its attempts to control kinship ties. The attempts to recognize rainbow families expose intrinsic flaws and problems to the law as a system, and by questioning the premises of family legislation, these new structures of recognition also open up possibilities to question the hegemonic status of for example heterosexual marriage as the primary guarantee of legal fatherhood also in the context of heterosexual families. In public discussions of rainbow families, legal recognition and legitimation is lacking. In its absence, parenthood is legitimized through performative acts of parenting. Parenthood is represented as doing, a move which also has some gendered, consequences: Within a system of shared rainbow family parenthood, fatherhood becomes precarious, being mainly conceived of in biogenetic terms - fatherhood as being. Simultaneously motherhood, especially the motherhood of the non-birth-mother, is strengthened and enforced, and perceived as a form of ideal equal parenthood a parenthood that already does what fathers in heterosexual contexts are urged to do. Public discourses related to rainbow families often address the question of male or female role models for children being raised in families with parents of only the other gender. The study finds that this rhetoric hides a form of internalized homophobia. The assumed necessity of a male or a female role model is based on an ideal of normal development, through which the child should be prevented from growing up gay. The research also critically analyses conceptions of the best interest of the child , and finds that it is employed mainly to hide conflicts, heteronormativities or homophobias - both in the families own representations and in other public discourses.
  • Miettunen, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This study concentrates on three concepts: memory, identity and change. I study the concept of memory in the formation of a communal identity. Individual experiences and emotions are given interpretation and meaning from the basis of the individual's own sphere of knowledge, taught and transmitted by his own culture and society. This memory then becomes the shared idea and ideal of the community, and when transmitted to the next generations it overcomes the boundaries of time. In this process, the memory, therefore, is essentially the factor which at the same time defines and is defined by the community itself. What people call change can be considered to be a constant process of remembering and forgetting. The state of Jordan has created a national identity where the Bedouin past and culture are seen as the promoted symbols of the state. At the same time, the government has worked on the modernization of the Bedouins: the nomads are being sedentarized, secular and religious education, as well as modern technology and health care, are available even in the areas that used to be the most dangerous peripheries in the past. These processes have also influenced the identity of the inhabitants of south Jordan in the last few decades, yet despite all the changes, the most prominent factors in their identity continue to be the tribal heritage and being a Bedouin. I am approaching these concepts from the case of the local saints (Awliyā). In the everyday religion, these holy men and women have gained an important role: people have addressed the saints in order to gain health, wealth, rain, fertility and protection among other things. I have conducted fieldwork in south Jordan and located several holy sites, many of them uncharted until now. Recording folklore and old memories of the sacred places, while also observing the religious practices and everyday life of the local people has been the goal of this work. When studying the local tradition of holy places in South Jordan, it is evident that the old traditions are being forgotten, but what is replacing the old traditions, and how does this change affect the identity of the local people? When such places lose their significance, what effect does it have or perhaps, is it a result of a change that has already taken place in the identity of the people? One topic of special interest is the role of women, as they played a very active part in many of the old traditions and rituals. Another central issue is the tribal integrity and identity, as many of the sacred places were strongly connected to the past of the tribes, with various saints being their ancestors and earlier leaders. Comparing the change in Southern Jordan to the processes that are taking place in other parts of the world has provided a framework for this research. This work is a case study of the change in action, showing on a local level how a community reacts to the new ideas in numerous ways, for example, by returning to its own roots on one hand and embracing the new global scene on the other even to the level of reinventing its own past.
  • Ahola, Joonas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The present study scrutinizes the outlawry and outlaws that appear in the Icelandic Family Sagas. It provides a thorough description about outlawry on the basis of extant law and saga texts as well as an analysis of referential connotations attached to it. The concept of outlawry was fundamental for the medieval Icelanders conceptions of their past. Indeed, understanding outlawry is essential for understanding many of the Family Sagas. Outlaws appear in saga texts in significant roles. The Icelandic Family Sagas comprise a group of prose narratives that were written down in the 13th and 14th century Iceland. They are based on events and personae that belong to the 10th century Iceland. These narratives introduce many outlaws, out of which some 75 are named. The Family Sagas are studied here as one corpus and special emphasis is given to those narrative features that repetitively appear in connection with outlawry and the outlaw characters. Therefore, the eventual objects of this study are the medieval Icelanders general conceptions of the historical outlawry as well as the variations of these conceptions throughout the period of saga writing. The medieval Icelanders general conceptions about the 10th 11th century, which are reflected in the Family Sagas, are here referred to as the Saga World. The Saga World is the historically based taleworld to which all of the Family Sagas refer. The medieval law texts, which were derived from centuries old legislative traditions, reveal that outlawry meant banishing from the society and being denied all help, and that the outlawed person lost the protection of the law. In practice, outlawry was a death sentence. However, outlaws occupy many differing roles in the saga narratives even in connection with recurrent narrative motifs. These roles reflect the social and spatial structures of the Saga World. The inspection of outlawry within these structures reveals that the definition of outlawry as it appears in the law texts is insufficient for understanding outlawry in the saga texts. The social and spatial structures also provide a basis for the connotations of outlawry. In this study, these connotations are inspected primarily from the referential connections between outlawry in the Family Sagas and corresponding phenomena in other concurrent literature. This is done by studying the implementations of the basic elements of outlawry in the Family Sagas marginalization, banishing, rejection and solitariness within other literary genres and the taleworlds to which they refer. It is argued that these taleworlds reflect the same ideas that were associated with outlawry in the Family Sagas albeit in different forms and that these different forms reciprocally contributed to the conceptions of outlawry. The variety of denotations and connotations of outlawry that is visible in the medieval Icelandic texts reflects the ambiguity of outlawry in the Family Sagas. This ambiguity may shed light to questions such as why an outlaw could be perceived as a hero in a literary genre that predominantly promoted law and order and why the same outlaw could be perceived as a villain on another occasion.
  • Tapanainen, Pasi (Helsingin yliopisto, 1999)
  • Ruutu, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This study examines the position and meaning of Classical mythological plots, themes and characters in the oeuvre of the Russian Modernist poet Marina Tsvetaeva (1892-1941). The material consists of lyric poems from the collection Posle Rossii (1928) and two longer lyrical tragedies, Ariadna (1924) and Fedra (1927). These works are examined in the context of Russian Modernism and Tsvetaeva s own poetic development, also taking into account the author s biography, namely, her correspondence with Boris Pasternak. Tsvetaeva s appropriations of the myths enter into a dialogue with the Classical tradition and with the earlier Russian and Western literary manifestations of the source material. Her Classical texts are inextricably linked with her own authorial myth, they are used to project both her ideas about poetry as well as the authored self of her poems. An important context for Tsvetaeva s application of the Classical myths is the concept of the Platonic ladder of Eros. This plot evokes the process of transcendence of the mortal subject into the immaterial realm and is applied by the author as an extended metaphor of the poet s birth. Emphasizing the dialectical movement between the earthly and the divine, Tsvetaeva s Classical personae foreground various positions of the individual between these two realms. By means of kaleidoscopic reformulations of similar metaphors and concepts, Tsvetaeva s mythological poems illustrate the poet s position between the material and the immaterial and the various consequences of this dichotomy on the creative mission. At the heart of Tsvetaeva s appropriation of the Sibyl, Phaedra, Eurydice and Ariadne is the tension between the body and disembodiment. The two lyrical tragedies develop the dichotomous worldview further, nevertheless emphasizing the dual perspective of the divine and the earthly realms: immaterial existence is often evaluated from a material perspective and vice versa. The Platonic subtext is central for Ariadna, focussing on Theseus development from an earthly hero to a spiritual one. Fedra concentrates on Phaedra s divinely induced physical passion, which is nevertheless evoked in a creative light.
  • Virtanen, Tea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Berg, Patricia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Throughout history, people have moved between places. One approach of studying the relationship between people and the environment they live within is called a phenomenology of landscape. According to this approach, all landscapes are embedded in the social and individual times of memory and there is a right way to move around in the familiar landscape. In this dissertation I present textual references to mobility and travelling in ancient Egyptian non-literary texts from Deir el-Medina. In other words, I examine in what ways the inhabitants of Deir el-Medina wrote about functionally-bound forms of individual movement. The purpose of this study is primarily to examine mobility as expressed in the written media, rather than the practical aspects of travelling. Deir el-Medina is situated on the West Bank of Thebes (modern Luxor). It was built to house the workmen that were employed by the state to build the royal tombs during the New Kingdom (ca. 1550 1069 BCE), and their families and servants. Due to the nature of the work at least some of the villagers were literate. They thus communicated to some extent in writing, and by doing this, produced a vast textual material of which a part has been preserved until today. Of the large number of non-literary texts originating from Deir el-Medina and its surroundings ca. 4,500 non-literary texts have been made available to scholars through publications. Among these, ca 320 texts include references to mobility and travelling and were incorporated in the corpus of this study. This dissertation is the first comprehensive study of mobility among the inhabitants of Deir el-Medina. Within the corpus, references to mobility and travelling are found in a large variety of text types dating from throughout the New Kingdom. A considerable number of various expressions were used when referring to mobility. However, especially in administrative texts, standardized expressions were also used. One might thus argue that the villagers not only moved in the right way within the familiar landscape, but also wrote about moving within their close environment in a standardized manner. Additionally, in administrative texts references to mobility were in general recorded at the beginning of the text. This would indicate that events related to mobility had a high importance ranking in the documentation system of the necropolis administration.
  • Mattila, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The aim of the dissertation is to explore the idea of philosophy as a path to happiness in classical Arabic philosophy. The starting point is in comparison of two distinct currents between the 10th and early 11th centuries, Peripatetic philosophy, represented by al-Fārābī and Ibn Sīnā, and Ismaili philosophy represented by al-Kirmānī and the Brethren of Purity. They initially offer two contrasting views about philosophy in that the attitude of the Peripatetics is rationalistic and secular in spirit, whereas for the Ismailis philosophy represents the esoteric truth behind revelation. Still, they converge in their view that the ultimate purpose of philosophy lies in its ability to lead man towards happiness. Moreover, they share a common concept of happiness as a contemplative ideal of human perfection, which refers primarily to an otherworldly state of the soul s ascent to the spiritual world. For both the way to happiness consists of two parts: theory and practice. The practical part manifests itself in the idea of the purification of the rational soul from its bodily attachments in order for it to direct its attention fully to the contemplative life. Hence, there appears an ideal of philosophical life with the goal of relative detachment from the worldly life. The regulations of the religious law in this context appear as the primary means for the soul s purification, but for all but al-Kirmānī they are complemented by auxiliary philosophical practices. The ascent to happiness, however, takes place primarily through the acquisition of theoretical knowledge. The saving knowledge consists primarily of the conception of the hierarchy of physical and metaphysical reality, but all of philosophy forms a curriculum through which the soul gradually ascends towards a spiritual state of being along an order that is inverse to the Neoplatonic emanationist hierarchy of creation. For Ismaili philosophy the ascent takes place from the exoteric religious sciences towards the esoteric philosophical knowledge. For Peripatetic philosophers logic performs the function of an instrument enabling the ascent, mathematics is treated either as propaedeutic to philosophy or as a mediator between physical and metaphysical knowledge, whereas physics and metaphysics provide the core of knowledge necessary for the attainment of happiness.
  • Navickaitė-Martinelli, Lina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    In an attempt to expand and enrich the existing trends of musical performance studies, as well as exploit the potentials of semiotic analysis, this dissertation offers the theoretical perspective that enables the unfolding of the multiple meanings generated by and communicated through the performer s art. Without denying that musical performance is inevitably associated with the opus, the semiotic approach, it is proposed here, should study performance as encompassing all the exogenic meanings that do not necessarily depend on a musical work. Thus, the focus of the present dissertation is the figure of a classical music performer as a significant part of society, as well as cultural, institutional and personal discourses that both generate the art of music performance and originate from it. The main targets here are mapping the predominant tendencies of the art of musical performance during the twentieth century and proposing a form of semiotic analysis of different representations and self-representations that musical performers, pianists in particular, put into action in their interactions with social and cultural contexts (including different types of performer-listener communication processes, scholarly analyses, the various media through which the art of music performance is disseminated, and aspects related to the marketing and ideologizing of today s performance practices). The dissertation is structured into four parts. Part 1 introduces a semiotic framework for studying musical performance. Part 2 discusses a variety of meanings communicated through the performers art as well as the media in which the art of classical piano music performance is operating. Part 3 positions the performers art within the Western musical canon by examining Beethoven interpretations as played by pianists of various cultural and historical backgrounds. The concluding Part 4 presents novel discourses on the art of musical performance by analyzing 11 personal websites of Lithuanian classical pianists as an important vehicle of contemporary performers for communicating their artistic identities. It is claimed in this dissertation that the combination of semiotic and musicological approaches is relevant and revealing in the study of musical performance art in that it strongly make a case for current musicology to elaborate increasingly interdisciplinary paradigms and modes of investigation.
  • Vuolasto, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The image of Pietism a window to personal spirituality. The teachings of Johann Arndt as the basis of Pietist emblems The Pietist effect on spiritual images has to be scrutinised as a continuum initiating from the teachings of Johann Arndt who created a protestant iconography that defended the status of pictures and images as the foundation of divine revelation. Pietist artworks reveal Arndtian part of secret, eternal world, and God. Even though modern scholars do not regarded him as a founding father of Pietism anymore, his works have been essential for the development of iconography, and the themes of the Pietist images are linked with his works. For Arndt, the starting point is in the affecting love for Christ who suffered for the humankind. The reading experience is personal and the words point directly at the reader and thus appear as evidence of the guilt of the reader as well as of the love of God. Arndt uses bounteous and descriptive language which has partially affected promoting and picturing of many themes. Like Arndt, Philipp Jakob Spener also emphasised the heart that believes. The Pietist movement was born to oppose detached faith and the lack of the Holy Ghost. Christians touched by the teachings of Arndt and Spener began to create images out of metaphors presented by Arndt. As those people were part of the intelligentsia, it was natural that the fashionable emblematics of the 17th century was moulded for the personal needs. For Arndt, the human heart is manifested as a symbol of soul, personal faith or unbelief as well as an allegory of the burning love for Jesus. Due to this fact, heart emblems were gradually widely used and linked with the love of Christ. In the Nordic countries, the introduction of emblems emanated from the gentry s connections to the Central Europe where emblems were exploited in order to decorate books, artefacts, interiors, and buildings as well as visual/literal trademarks of the intelligentsia. Emblematic paintings in the churches of the castles of Venngarn (1665) and Läckö (1668), owned by Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie, are one of the most central interior paintings preserved in the Nordic countries, and they emphasise personal righteous life. Nonetheless, it was the books by Arndt and the Poet s Society in Nurnberg that bound the Swedish gentry and the scholars of the Pietist movement together. The Finnish gentry had no castles or castle churches so they supported county churches, both in building and in maintenance. As the churches were not private, their iconography could not be private either. Instead, people used Pietist symbols such as Agnus Dei, Cor ardens, an open book, beams, king David, frankincense, wood themes and Virtues. In the Pietist images made for public spaces, the attention is focused on pedagogical, metaphorical, and meaningful presentation as well as concealed statements.
  • Huuskonen, Kari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    From The Dark Side: Experiences On Modernisation In The Narrative Community Of Visually Impaired People My study describes the experiences on modernisation among the first generations of the organised visually impaired people in the narrative context of the end of the 19:th century and the first decades of the 20:th century. My research material includes oral and written descriptions, photographs, and various objects that describe the thoughts and experiences of people in the past. The oldest data I found has been developed simultaneously with the formation of the publicity institution in Finland. This data includes both my main source the magazines of blind people and the minutes of blind people s associations. They have been supplemented by biographical interviews. The eldest interviewees have been among the founders of blind people s own magazines and associations in the beginning of the 20:th century. It has been an essential goal of my study to bring these thoughts and experiences of the past into the current discussion going on in the academic disability research: which/what kind of social changes connected with modernisation have increased the exclusion of disabled citizens from society, and which have promoted their integration. In the 19:th century, an institutional philosophy was adopted from other European countries to the Finnish education of disabled children. According to my study, this did not exclude the visually impaired from society. Most of the narrators included in the study lost the daily contact into their close communities when they started at the schools for the blind. Yet because of the huge effort that the society forced them to make, most of them developed into independent and self-supporting citizens. The study also shows that the schools of the blind were not closed institutional communities. Institutions for the blind were meeting points of several generations as well as of different thoughts and philosophies. For a long time, they functioned as the main arenas for the organisational life and social action of the visually impaired, where the community-based culture of activity gradually developed from the satisfaction of basic needs into social forms and a common strategy of survival.
  • Rahikainen, Agneta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The Poet And Her Apostles A biomythographical analysis of the image of Edith Södergran This dissertation is about the constructions and biographical interpretations of the life of the poet Edith Södergran that have emerged since her death in 1923. I investigate what lies behind the agendas and approaches of biographers and scholars, the sources and authorities on which they base their findings and the sources and authorities they have chosen to ignore, and if so, why. I also explore the ways in which they have interpreted her work and placed it in a literary canon. To support my analysis I have made use of Michael Benton's study Literary Biography. An Introduction (2009). Benton employs the concept of biomythography to signify a biography that reflects the dependence of facts on the manner in which they are produced, as well as on cultural context and change. My biomythographical analysis examines these aspects with reference to the ways in which the various interpretations of Södergran are constructed. As a method I have also used parts of a model from Petra Broomans dissertation Jag vill vara mig själv . Stina Aronson (1892 1956), ett litteraturhistoriskt öde (1999), which she based on Hayden White's theory of narrative linguistic expressions in historical research, as expressed in his book Meta History: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe (1973). I focus on those aspects of Södergran's life that are relevant to the way in which the myths surrounding her emerged, her linguistic and cultural background, her social contacts, medical history, financial situation, ideological interests, position and attitude in literary politics, and the environments in which she lived. I also describe the contemporary reception of her work and the images that it created. Hagar Olsson and Elmer Diktonius are important actors in the early constructions of Södergran s image. The work of her biographer Gunnar Tideström and the scholar Olof Enckell were to a large extent influenced by Hagar Olsson s interpretation of Södergran as it was later manifested in her edition of the poet s letters (Ediths brev, 1955). In the last chapter before the conclusion I describe how the various images of Södergran appear in reference works of literary history, which of the myths about her have survived and which of them have to this day been downplayed.
  • Björk, Ulrika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    In the last thirty years, primarily feminist scholars have drawn attention to and re-evaluated the philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir (1908 1986). Her philosophical practice has been described as non-systematic, and her literary writing has been viewed as part of her non-systematic mode of philosophising. This dissertation radically deepens the question concerning Beauvoir s philosophical motivations for turning to literature as a mode to express subjectivity. It explicates the central concepts of Beauvoir s philosophy of existence, which are subjectivity, ambiguity, paradox and temporality, and their background in the modern traditions of existential philosophy and phenomenology. It also clarifies Beauvoir s main reason to turn to literature in order to express subjectivity as both singular and universal: as a specific mode of communication, literature is able to make the universality of existence manifest in the concrete, singular and temporal texture of life. In addition, the thesis gives examples of how Beauvoir s literary works contribute to an understanding of the complexity of subjectivity. I use the expression poetics of subjectivity to refer to the systematic relation between Beauvoir s existential and phenomenological notion of subjectivity and her literary works, and to her articulations of a creative mode of using language, especially in the novel. The thesis is divided into five chapters, of which the first three investigate Beauvoir s philosophy of existence at the intersection of the modern traditions of thought that began with René Descartes and Søren Kierkegaard s intuitions about subjectivity. Chapter 1 interprets Beauvoir s notion of ambiguity, as compared to paradox, and argues that both determine her notion of existence. Chapters 2 and 3 investigate the phenomenological side of Beauvoir s philosophy through a study of her response to early French interpretations of transcendental subjectivity, especially in the works of Jean-Paul Sartre and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. My analysis shows that Edmund Husserl s distinction between different levels of subjective experience is central to Beauvoir s understanding of subjectivity and to the different ego concepts she uses. Chapter 4 is a study of Beauvoir s reflections on the expression of subjective thought, and, more specifically, her philosophical conceptions of the metaphysical novel and the autobiography as two modes of indirect communication. Chapter 5, finally, compares two modes of investigating concrete subjectivity; Beauvoir s conceptual study of femininity in Le deuxième sexe and her literary expression of subjectivity in the novel L Invitée. My analysis reveals and explicates Beauvoir s original contribution to a comprehensive understanding of the becoming and paradox of human existence: the fundamental insight that these phenomena are sexed, historically as well as imaginatively.
  • Viitamäki, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study discusses poetic communication in the context of maḥfil-i samāʿ (an assembly of listening to sung poetry) among South Asian Sufis. Drawing from both textual and ethnographic materials, the study explores the relationship between Sufi practice, poetic expression, and musical performance. It presents a context-sensitive reading of a multilingual (Persian, Hindi, Urdu) poetic corpus that takes into account its literary characteristics, the framework of Sufi practice, as well as the various techniques the qawwali musicians utilize in delivering the meaning of a poetic text. The study comprises three parts that are distinguished by their sources and methodological approaches. The first part discusses the dynamics of samāʿ as a meditative and ecstatic Sufi practice, and it is based on close reading of textual sources in Arabic, Persian and Urdu, written between the fourteenth and twentieth centuries. Throughout these texts, the authors have characterized samāʿ as a spiritual practice whose transformative effect is sudden, even violent. The second part examines twentieth-century anthologies of qawwali poetry and shows the extreme fluidity of the poetic repertoires; the performers are fairly free to choose the texts they sing as long as they bring about the desired effect in the listeners. The study of poetry in samāʿ, however, is bound to remain suggestive, if it is solely based on textual sources. Each performance of a poetic text is uniquely shaped in the interaction between the listeners and singers. For this reason, the third part of the study covers an ethnographic analysis of four samāʿ assemblies that took place in Delhi and Hyderabad. While the focus is on the poetic text, the analysis takes into account the physical settings of the occasions, the hierarchies that regulate the interaction of the participants, as well as the economics involved. The analysis reveals how the qawwals intertwine musical and poetic conventions in order to continuously alternate between tension and release during maḥfil-i samāʿ. In this manner, they intensify the listenersʼ feelings and emotions which are then ideally integrated into their spiritual practice. The impassioned poetic expression that addresses god as the beloved also constitutes a significant religious discourse that complements the more systematic approach found in Islamic theological and legal prose writings.
  • Nyström, Samu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The Wartime Biography of Helsinki 1914 - 1918 The dissertation studies the crises in urban life in Helsinki during the First World War. The study examines how and why the war challenged everyday life and the survival strategies of the city and its citizens. The theoretical bases of this study are Amartya Sen s theory on the standard of living and Juha Siltala s writings about the aspiration to equality during times of crises. The impacts of World War I are examined in a wider European urban context. In this study I demonstrate how the fate of the urban community of Helsinki was in many ways similar to most other European urban communities during World War I. The basic structures of urban life were threatened and people had to cope with food and energy shortages, housing problems, increasing costs of living and security problems. In Finland, Russia and Germany the governments and city administrations could not fulfill the demands created by the equal share of sacrifice in the big cities. Black markets and profiteers became necessary parts of everyday life. The February Revolution of 1917 threw the entire Russian Empire into a period of struggle for power. The streets of the cities of the Empire were full of angry city-dwellers who were tired of worsening standards of living and an unequal share of sacrifice. As a capital city, the streets of Helsinki were not only places of local unrest but also locations for the national struggle for power. The Finnish revolution started in Helsinki at the beginning of 1918, and Helsinki was the capital and heart of the revolution for two and a half months. Urban unrest, streetfights and terror were not limited to the Russian Empire. Similar processes were launched in Germany and other Eastern European countries in the following years. During the time of crises the city of Helsinki and its city-dwellers had to develop their own survival strategies. The city had to organize many kinds of support for the hungry, jobless and poor. At the same time the city had no power or even the will to be the only provider for citizens. Everyone had to learn how to fulfill the needs of everyday life during wartime. People started to establish many kinds of social networks and individual organizations to cope with the worsening problems. No one could survive alone in the big city during the times of crises.
  • Kukkonen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The dissertation examines how postmodernism is present in the works of three central Finnish contemporary choreographers, who show that a move was made towards postmodernism in Finnish dance during the 1980s. In international dance research, "post-modern" has been a contested term. Even though the debate over its use goes back decades in the arts, social sciences and philosophy, this is the first time it is discussed in relation to Finnish dance. This study proceeds from the field of dance research, and its primary methods are dance analysis, reception analysis and historiography. The solo performances of Reijo Kela brought original perspectives to Finnish dance, particularly in terms of how he wanted to dance in close proximity to the spectator and how the lines between art-forms were blurred. In his first large-scale site-specific works Ilmarin kynnös (1988) and Cityman (1989), he handled the relations between dance, site and changing Finnish society. These works feature several combining themes linked to American postmodern dance of the 1960s and 70s. They include different performing locations, as well as the everyday and pedestrianism, interrelation with the audience, and institutional critique. In the 1980s Jorma Uotinen presented a new kind of vision based on abstract and visual dance theatre. Ballet Pathetique (Helsinki City Theatre Dance Group 1989) was conceived for seven men and one woman. It dealt with the world of classical ballet moving between comic and tragic, feminine and masculine. The analysis shows how this relates to the trend of reworking ballets that were being produced at that time. It includes many central postmodernist themes such as parody, intertextuality and self-reflexivity. Sanna Kekäläinen is one the central choreographers of the so-called new dance movement. Santa Maria della Grazia (1990) had its premiere in the first New Dance Festival organised by Zodiak in 1989 1990. Finnish new dance can be seen as part of a larger international movement that began outside mainstream dance. Its main choreographic features are the centrality of the body, a stretched concept of time, a giving up of hierarchies, and the importance of process. In the overall analysis, postmodern and post-dramatic theory are intertwined.
  • Svärd, Saana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    In this dissertation, I analyze theories of power in order to study the Neo-Assyrian (934-610 BC) women of the palaces. This study subscribes to that sociological understanding of power which stipulates that power exists in all relationships between people. This is why the main research question of this dissertation is not whether women had power or not, but instead, the question is: What kind of power did women have in Neo-Assyrian palaces? Neo-Assyrian women have not been much discussed in earlier research. In addition to presenting the textual evidence relating to them, this dissertation hopes to offer new theoretical perspectives for Assyriology and the study of ancient Near East. The aim of this study is not to present a mere catalogue of powerful women, listing occupations and texts. Instead, the aim is to go further than that and show that by using theories of power, one can get new viewpoints additional to those procured by the traditional philological methodology. The structure of the dissertation is dictated by the research questions. After the introduction in Chapter 1, the second Chapter evaluates sociological discussions regarding the concept of power from the viewpoint of women s studies and Assyriology. However, to discuss women s power in the Neo-Assyrian palaces, it is necessary to consider what power meant for the Assyrians themselves. Although not an easy question to tackle, Chapter 3 discusses this problem from a semantic and lexicographical perspective. I discuss those words which imply power in the texts relating to the women of the palace. At the end of Chapter 3, these lexicographical results are compared with the sociological concepts of power presented in Chapter 2. The theoretical framework built on these two chapters understands power as a hierarchical phenomenon. What positions did women have in the palace hierarchy? What did they do in the palaces, and what kind of authority did they possess? This is the topic of Chapter 4, where the textual evidence relating to the palace women is presented. Power in general and women s power especially has been understood mostly in a hierarchical way in earlier research concerning Mesopotamian women. Hierarchical power structures were important in Mesopotamia, but other theoretical approaches can help one gain new perspectives into the ancient material. One of these approaches consists of concentrating on heterarchical, negotiable and lateral power relations in which the women were engaged. In Chapter 5, the concept of heterarchical power is introduced and the text material is approached from a heterarchical perspective. Heterarchical power relations include hierarchical power relations, but also incorporate other kinds of power relations, such as reciprocal power, resistance and persuasion. Although earlier research has certainly been aware of women s influence in the palaces, this dissertation makes explicit the power concepts employed in previous research and expands them further using the concept of heterarchy. By utilizing the concept of power as a theoretical tool, my approach opened up new avenues for interpreting the texts.
  • Ruusila, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This work integrates the research of phraseology, lexicography, and translation. The study is primarily concerned with a specific type of phraseologisms called pragmatic phraseologisms that are first and foremost pragmatically fixed. Pragmatic phraseologisms can be divided into two groups: routine formulae and conversational formulae. Both of them have numerous functions in different communication situations and are frequently used in both written and spoken languages. Pragmatic phraseologisms and their use are in many cases language and cultural bound, which is only one of the reasons why their translation can be difficult. When translators bump into translation problems, they often resort to dictionaries in hopes of finding suitable translation equivalents and information about the use on the expression that has to be translated. This leads to the question this study aims to provide an answer for: How pragmatic phraseologisms should be described in a dictionary so that the translators could get the best possible help with regard to different kinds of translation problems? This study attempts to a) investigate how the pragmatic phraseologisms are described in various dictionaries, both printed and electronic, and b) sketch two concepts of dictionary entries, one for routine formulae, one for conversational formulae. The sketched dictionary entries are designed for an electronic dictionary, whose primary target group is translators. The corpus of the study consists of 15 German, Finnish and French dictionaries. Some of them are mono- and some bilingual; some are general and some phraseological. As a basis for the collection of the corpus data, a German dictionary for language learners (Wörterbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache 2000) was used since it is this only dictionary in which the pragmatic phraseologisms are explicitly marked as such. With the help of a list of all pragmatic phraseologisms in this dictionary the corresponding pragmatic phraseologisms were collected from the other German dictionaries. In case of the Finnish and French dictionaries all expressions that could be defined as pragmatic phraseologisms were collected. It is especially important to look into the description of pragmatic phraseologisms in the Finnish and French dictionaries as this has not been studied before. According to the results, the dictionary entries often consist of meaning, pragmatic information, lexicographic examples, and equivalents (in the bilingual dictionaries). The meaning of the pragmatic phraseologism is given as a free formulated sentence, as a pragmatic remark or as a combination of the two. The pragmatic description of these expressions in the existing dictionaries is, however, often scarce since their functions in the communication are rarely mentioned, and even if they are mentioned it often happens without a recognizable logic. This is a severe shortcoming in the description of pragmatic phraseologisms since their real meaning and use cannot be described properly without this information. Furthermore, the specifications and restrictions of their use were not always described. In addition, the pragmatic phraseologisms were in some cases situated illogically within the dictionary. In the electronic dictionaries, various types of search mechanisms were rarely used even if they could be easily built in them. In the sketched models for the dictionary entries, the main focus lies on their pragmatic description and on their equivalents. For every pragmatic phraseologism, one or more pragmatic or metacommunicative functions are given. Thanks to the electronic form of the dictionary, an onomasiological approach is also possible when searching for a suitable expression. (One can, for example, search for all routine formulae that are used to express surprise, or for all conversational formulae that are used to interrupt the partner.) Moreover, the description of the use of pragmatic phraseologisms follows a certain pattern so that a logical and reliable way of their description is secured. The order of the lexicographic information depends on the specific question the translator is trying to find a answer for (e. g. if the problem is that the translator does not know what the expression of the source language means or does not know how to translate it). Pragmatic phraseologisms of the source language are not always translated with a pragmatic phraseologism of the target language, but very variable translation solutions can be found ranging from other types of phraseologisms to completely freely formed paraphrases and one-word expressions. Therefore a wide array of possible equivalents is provided and the differences between the expressions of the source and target language are explicitly explained in order to facilitate the work of the translator.
  • Saunaluoma, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Amazonian earthworks have a variety of forms and sizes, and are found in different geographical and ecological locations, indicating separate time periods, distinct cultural affiliations, and diverse functions. Because research on pre-Columbian earthworks has only recently begun, a number of basic questions concerning the function and chronology of these structures, and the ethno-cultural and socio-political relationships of the societies who created them still remain unanswered. The main aim of this dissertation, consisting of four peer-reviewed articles and a synthesis paper, is to build new knowledge and expand on the existing, but still noticeably sparse data on the region's pre-Columbian earthworking cultures. It proposes a hypothesis of the existence of relatively early sedentary interfluvial populations with rather organized and peculiar societal and ideological systems in the southwestern Amazon. This suggestion challenges the conventional view of ancient Amazonian peoples being non-sedentary, with an egalitarian social organization and an inability to alter and manage the environment in which they lived. This dissertation presents and discusses the results of archaeological fieldwork undertaken at earthwork sites in two neighboring frontier regions in the southwestern Amazon: the region of Riberalta in Bolivia and the eastern state of Acre in Brasil. The Bolivian sites are interpreted as permanent settlements, while the Acrean earthworks were constructed principally for ceremonial purposes. The earthworks documented in the Riberalta region are structurally simpler than the ones studied in Acre and are found in slightly different locations, e.g., on high river bluffs or inland only a few kilometers from the main rivers. In Acre, the sites are located on high interfluvial plateaus near minor watercourses. The earthwork building practice prevailed in the Riberalta region from around 200 B.C. until the period of European contact, whereas the geometric earthwork tradition began earlier in Acre, around 1200 B.C., if not before. By the tenth century A.D., the regional confederation that created the geometric enclosures was already disintegrating. Even so, some sites apparently remained in use until the fourteenth century A.D. Chronologically and culturally, these earthworking peoples were formative-stage societies demonstrating emerging sedentism and evolving socio-organizational structures, and in Acre in particular, a society united by a highly developed ideological system materialized in the geometric enclosure architecture.
  • Larjavaara, Meri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)