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  • Björk, Ulrika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    In the last thirty years, primarily feminist scholars have drawn attention to and re-evaluated the philosophy of Simone de Beauvoir (1908 1986). Her philosophical practice has been described as non-systematic, and her literary writing has been viewed as part of her non-systematic mode of philosophising. This dissertation radically deepens the question concerning Beauvoir s philosophical motivations for turning to literature as a mode to express subjectivity. It explicates the central concepts of Beauvoir s philosophy of existence, which are subjectivity, ambiguity, paradox and temporality, and their background in the modern traditions of existential philosophy and phenomenology. It also clarifies Beauvoir s main reason to turn to literature in order to express subjectivity as both singular and universal: as a specific mode of communication, literature is able to make the universality of existence manifest in the concrete, singular and temporal texture of life. In addition, the thesis gives examples of how Beauvoir s literary works contribute to an understanding of the complexity of subjectivity. I use the expression poetics of subjectivity to refer to the systematic relation between Beauvoir s existential and phenomenological notion of subjectivity and her literary works, and to her articulations of a creative mode of using language, especially in the novel. The thesis is divided into five chapters, of which the first three investigate Beauvoir s philosophy of existence at the intersection of the modern traditions of thought that began with René Descartes and Søren Kierkegaard s intuitions about subjectivity. Chapter 1 interprets Beauvoir s notion of ambiguity, as compared to paradox, and argues that both determine her notion of existence. Chapters 2 and 3 investigate the phenomenological side of Beauvoir s philosophy through a study of her response to early French interpretations of transcendental subjectivity, especially in the works of Jean-Paul Sartre and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. My analysis shows that Edmund Husserl s distinction between different levels of subjective experience is central to Beauvoir s understanding of subjectivity and to the different ego concepts she uses. Chapter 4 is a study of Beauvoir s reflections on the expression of subjective thought, and, more specifically, her philosophical conceptions of the metaphysical novel and the autobiography as two modes of indirect communication. Chapter 5, finally, compares two modes of investigating concrete subjectivity; Beauvoir s conceptual study of femininity in Le deuxième sexe and her literary expression of subjectivity in the novel L Invitée. My analysis reveals and explicates Beauvoir s original contribution to a comprehensive understanding of the becoming and paradox of human existence: the fundamental insight that these phenomena are sexed, historically as well as imaginatively.
  • Viitamäki, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study discusses poetic communication in the context of maḥfil-i samāʿ (an assembly of listening to sung poetry) among South Asian Sufis. Drawing from both textual and ethnographic materials, the study explores the relationship between Sufi practice, poetic expression, and musical performance. It presents a context-sensitive reading of a multilingual (Persian, Hindi, Urdu) poetic corpus that takes into account its literary characteristics, the framework of Sufi practice, as well as the various techniques the qawwali musicians utilize in delivering the meaning of a poetic text. The study comprises three parts that are distinguished by their sources and methodological approaches. The first part discusses the dynamics of samāʿ as a meditative and ecstatic Sufi practice, and it is based on close reading of textual sources in Arabic, Persian and Urdu, written between the fourteenth and twentieth centuries. Throughout these texts, the authors have characterized samāʿ as a spiritual practice whose transformative effect is sudden, even violent. The second part examines twentieth-century anthologies of qawwali poetry and shows the extreme fluidity of the poetic repertoires; the performers are fairly free to choose the texts they sing as long as they bring about the desired effect in the listeners. The study of poetry in samāʿ, however, is bound to remain suggestive, if it is solely based on textual sources. Each performance of a poetic text is uniquely shaped in the interaction between the listeners and singers. For this reason, the third part of the study covers an ethnographic analysis of four samāʿ assemblies that took place in Delhi and Hyderabad. While the focus is on the poetic text, the analysis takes into account the physical settings of the occasions, the hierarchies that regulate the interaction of the participants, as well as the economics involved. The analysis reveals how the qawwals intertwine musical and poetic conventions in order to continuously alternate between tension and release during maḥfil-i samāʿ. In this manner, they intensify the listenersʼ feelings and emotions which are then ideally integrated into their spiritual practice. The impassioned poetic expression that addresses god as the beloved also constitutes a significant religious discourse that complements the more systematic approach found in Islamic theological and legal prose writings.
  • Nyström, Samu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The Wartime Biography of Helsinki 1914 - 1918 The dissertation studies the crises in urban life in Helsinki during the First World War. The study examines how and why the war challenged everyday life and the survival strategies of the city and its citizens. The theoretical bases of this study are Amartya Sen s theory on the standard of living and Juha Siltala s writings about the aspiration to equality during times of crises. The impacts of World War I are examined in a wider European urban context. In this study I demonstrate how the fate of the urban community of Helsinki was in many ways similar to most other European urban communities during World War I. The basic structures of urban life were threatened and people had to cope with food and energy shortages, housing problems, increasing costs of living and security problems. In Finland, Russia and Germany the governments and city administrations could not fulfill the demands created by the equal share of sacrifice in the big cities. Black markets and profiteers became necessary parts of everyday life. The February Revolution of 1917 threw the entire Russian Empire into a period of struggle for power. The streets of the cities of the Empire were full of angry city-dwellers who were tired of worsening standards of living and an unequal share of sacrifice. As a capital city, the streets of Helsinki were not only places of local unrest but also locations for the national struggle for power. The Finnish revolution started in Helsinki at the beginning of 1918, and Helsinki was the capital and heart of the revolution for two and a half months. Urban unrest, streetfights and terror were not limited to the Russian Empire. Similar processes were launched in Germany and other Eastern European countries in the following years. During the time of crises the city of Helsinki and its city-dwellers had to develop their own survival strategies. The city had to organize many kinds of support for the hungry, jobless and poor. At the same time the city had no power or even the will to be the only provider for citizens. Everyone had to learn how to fulfill the needs of everyday life during wartime. People started to establish many kinds of social networks and individual organizations to cope with the worsening problems. No one could survive alone in the big city during the times of crises.
  • Kukkonen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The dissertation examines how postmodernism is present in the works of three central Finnish contemporary choreographers, who show that a move was made towards postmodernism in Finnish dance during the 1980s. In international dance research, "post-modern" has been a contested term. Even though the debate over its use goes back decades in the arts, social sciences and philosophy, this is the first time it is discussed in relation to Finnish dance. This study proceeds from the field of dance research, and its primary methods are dance analysis, reception analysis and historiography. The solo performances of Reijo Kela brought original perspectives to Finnish dance, particularly in terms of how he wanted to dance in close proximity to the spectator and how the lines between art-forms were blurred. In his first large-scale site-specific works Ilmarin kynnös (1988) and Cityman (1989), he handled the relations between dance, site and changing Finnish society. These works feature several combining themes linked to American postmodern dance of the 1960s and 70s. They include different performing locations, as well as the everyday and pedestrianism, interrelation with the audience, and institutional critique. In the 1980s Jorma Uotinen presented a new kind of vision based on abstract and visual dance theatre. Ballet Pathetique (Helsinki City Theatre Dance Group 1989) was conceived for seven men and one woman. It dealt with the world of classical ballet moving between comic and tragic, feminine and masculine. The analysis shows how this relates to the trend of reworking ballets that were being produced at that time. It includes many central postmodernist themes such as parody, intertextuality and self-reflexivity. Sanna Kekäläinen is one the central choreographers of the so-called new dance movement. Santa Maria della Grazia (1990) had its premiere in the first New Dance Festival organised by Zodiak in 1989 1990. Finnish new dance can be seen as part of a larger international movement that began outside mainstream dance. Its main choreographic features are the centrality of the body, a stretched concept of time, a giving up of hierarchies, and the importance of process. In the overall analysis, postmodern and post-dramatic theory are intertwined.
  • Svärd, Saana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    In this dissertation, I analyze theories of power in order to study the Neo-Assyrian (934-610 BC) women of the palaces. This study subscribes to that sociological understanding of power which stipulates that power exists in all relationships between people. This is why the main research question of this dissertation is not whether women had power or not, but instead, the question is: What kind of power did women have in Neo-Assyrian palaces? Neo-Assyrian women have not been much discussed in earlier research. In addition to presenting the textual evidence relating to them, this dissertation hopes to offer new theoretical perspectives for Assyriology and the study of ancient Near East. The aim of this study is not to present a mere catalogue of powerful women, listing occupations and texts. Instead, the aim is to go further than that and show that by using theories of power, one can get new viewpoints additional to those procured by the traditional philological methodology. The structure of the dissertation is dictated by the research questions. After the introduction in Chapter 1, the second Chapter evaluates sociological discussions regarding the concept of power from the viewpoint of women s studies and Assyriology. However, to discuss women s power in the Neo-Assyrian palaces, it is necessary to consider what power meant for the Assyrians themselves. Although not an easy question to tackle, Chapter 3 discusses this problem from a semantic and lexicographical perspective. I discuss those words which imply power in the texts relating to the women of the palace. At the end of Chapter 3, these lexicographical results are compared with the sociological concepts of power presented in Chapter 2. The theoretical framework built on these two chapters understands power as a hierarchical phenomenon. What positions did women have in the palace hierarchy? What did they do in the palaces, and what kind of authority did they possess? This is the topic of Chapter 4, where the textual evidence relating to the palace women is presented. Power in general and women s power especially has been understood mostly in a hierarchical way in earlier research concerning Mesopotamian women. Hierarchical power structures were important in Mesopotamia, but other theoretical approaches can help one gain new perspectives into the ancient material. One of these approaches consists of concentrating on heterarchical, negotiable and lateral power relations in which the women were engaged. In Chapter 5, the concept of heterarchical power is introduced and the text material is approached from a heterarchical perspective. Heterarchical power relations include hierarchical power relations, but also incorporate other kinds of power relations, such as reciprocal power, resistance and persuasion. Although earlier research has certainly been aware of women s influence in the palaces, this dissertation makes explicit the power concepts employed in previous research and expands them further using the concept of heterarchy. By utilizing the concept of power as a theoretical tool, my approach opened up new avenues for interpreting the texts.
  • Ruusila, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This work integrates the research of phraseology, lexicography, and translation. The study is primarily concerned with a specific type of phraseologisms called pragmatic phraseologisms that are first and foremost pragmatically fixed. Pragmatic phraseologisms can be divided into two groups: routine formulae and conversational formulae. Both of them have numerous functions in different communication situations and are frequently used in both written and spoken languages. Pragmatic phraseologisms and their use are in many cases language and cultural bound, which is only one of the reasons why their translation can be difficult. When translators bump into translation problems, they often resort to dictionaries in hopes of finding suitable translation equivalents and information about the use on the expression that has to be translated. This leads to the question this study aims to provide an answer for: How pragmatic phraseologisms should be described in a dictionary so that the translators could get the best possible help with regard to different kinds of translation problems? This study attempts to a) investigate how the pragmatic phraseologisms are described in various dictionaries, both printed and electronic, and b) sketch two concepts of dictionary entries, one for routine formulae, one for conversational formulae. The sketched dictionary entries are designed for an electronic dictionary, whose primary target group is translators. The corpus of the study consists of 15 German, Finnish and French dictionaries. Some of them are mono- and some bilingual; some are general and some phraseological. As a basis for the collection of the corpus data, a German dictionary for language learners (Wörterbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache 2000) was used since it is this only dictionary in which the pragmatic phraseologisms are explicitly marked as such. With the help of a list of all pragmatic phraseologisms in this dictionary the corresponding pragmatic phraseologisms were collected from the other German dictionaries. In case of the Finnish and French dictionaries all expressions that could be defined as pragmatic phraseologisms were collected. It is especially important to look into the description of pragmatic phraseologisms in the Finnish and French dictionaries as this has not been studied before. According to the results, the dictionary entries often consist of meaning, pragmatic information, lexicographic examples, and equivalents (in the bilingual dictionaries). The meaning of the pragmatic phraseologism is given as a free formulated sentence, as a pragmatic remark or as a combination of the two. The pragmatic description of these expressions in the existing dictionaries is, however, often scarce since their functions in the communication are rarely mentioned, and even if they are mentioned it often happens without a recognizable logic. This is a severe shortcoming in the description of pragmatic phraseologisms since their real meaning and use cannot be described properly without this information. Furthermore, the specifications and restrictions of their use were not always described. In addition, the pragmatic phraseologisms were in some cases situated illogically within the dictionary. In the electronic dictionaries, various types of search mechanisms were rarely used even if they could be easily built in them. In the sketched models for the dictionary entries, the main focus lies on their pragmatic description and on their equivalents. For every pragmatic phraseologism, one or more pragmatic or metacommunicative functions are given. Thanks to the electronic form of the dictionary, an onomasiological approach is also possible when searching for a suitable expression. (One can, for example, search for all routine formulae that are used to express surprise, or for all conversational formulae that are used to interrupt the partner.) Moreover, the description of the use of pragmatic phraseologisms follows a certain pattern so that a logical and reliable way of their description is secured. The order of the lexicographic information depends on the specific question the translator is trying to find a answer for (e. g. if the problem is that the translator does not know what the expression of the source language means or does not know how to translate it). Pragmatic phraseologisms of the source language are not always translated with a pragmatic phraseologism of the target language, but very variable translation solutions can be found ranging from other types of phraseologisms to completely freely formed paraphrases and one-word expressions. Therefore a wide array of possible equivalents is provided and the differences between the expressions of the source and target language are explicitly explained in order to facilitate the work of the translator.
  • Saunaluoma, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Amazonian earthworks have a variety of forms and sizes, and are found in different geographical and ecological locations, indicating separate time periods, distinct cultural affiliations, and diverse functions. Because research on pre-Columbian earthworks has only recently begun, a number of basic questions concerning the function and chronology of these structures, and the ethno-cultural and socio-political relationships of the societies who created them still remain unanswered. The main aim of this dissertation, consisting of four peer-reviewed articles and a synthesis paper, is to build new knowledge and expand on the existing, but still noticeably sparse data on the region's pre-Columbian earthworking cultures. It proposes a hypothesis of the existence of relatively early sedentary interfluvial populations with rather organized and peculiar societal and ideological systems in the southwestern Amazon. This suggestion challenges the conventional view of ancient Amazonian peoples being non-sedentary, with an egalitarian social organization and an inability to alter and manage the environment in which they lived. This dissertation presents and discusses the results of archaeological fieldwork undertaken at earthwork sites in two neighboring frontier regions in the southwestern Amazon: the region of Riberalta in Bolivia and the eastern state of Acre in Brasil. The Bolivian sites are interpreted as permanent settlements, while the Acrean earthworks were constructed principally for ceremonial purposes. The earthworks documented in the Riberalta region are structurally simpler than the ones studied in Acre and are found in slightly different locations, e.g., on high river bluffs or inland only a few kilometers from the main rivers. In Acre, the sites are located on high interfluvial plateaus near minor watercourses. The earthwork building practice prevailed in the Riberalta region from around 200 B.C. until the period of European contact, whereas the geometric earthwork tradition began earlier in Acre, around 1200 B.C., if not before. By the tenth century A.D., the regional confederation that created the geometric enclosures was already disintegrating. Even so, some sites apparently remained in use until the fourteenth century A.D. Chronologically and culturally, these earthworking peoples were formative-stage societies demonstrating emerging sedentism and evolving socio-organizational structures, and in Acre in particular, a society united by a highly developed ideological system materialized in the geometric enclosure architecture.
  • Larjavaara, Meri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Ahti, Nikunlassi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Relative Constructions with Pronominal Heads in Contemporary Russian Chapter 1 introduces the distinctive syntactic and semantic properties of Russian relative constructions (RCs), which are then divided into two main classes according to the type of the head phrase. The study concentrates on RCs with pronominal heads, which are systematically compared with noun-headed RCs. Chapter 2 clarifies the categorization of pronouns in Russian. The conclusion is that Russian pronouns include only personal, reflexive and wh-pronouns. The remaining words that are traditionally seen as pronouns are actually functional equivalents of determiners. This idea leads to the suggestion that RCs with these determiner-like words as the only constituent of the head phrase are actually headed by zero pronouns. In the other type of RCs with pronominal heads, the head position is occupied by wh-pronouns with clitics expressing different types of indefiniteness and quantification. Comparison of the two types of pronoun-headed RCs shows that the wh-heads and zero-heads share a number of common properties with respect to the grammatical gender, number and person as well as to the semantic distinction between animates and inanimates. The rest of Chapter 2 gives an overview of various uses of wh-pronouns in Russian and an experimental analysis of RCs headed by pronominal adverbs. Chapter 3 discusses fundamental differences between RCs with noun and pronominal heads. One of the main findings is that the choice of the relative pronoun (kto 'who' and chto 'what' versus kotoryj 'which') is motivated by a tendency to reproduce maximally the essential grammatical and semantic properties of the antecedent. Chapter 4 gives a detailed description of the determiner-like words and wh-based heads used in the two types of RCs with pronominal heads. In addition, several issues related to the syntax and semantics of free relatives are discussed. The conclusion is that there is no need to establish a separate category of free relatives in Russian. Chapter 5 discusses the syntax and semantics of correlative and free concessive constructions. They share a number of properties with pronoun-headed RCs and the two are often confused in Russian linguistics. However, a detailed analysis shows that these constructions must be distinguished from RCs. The study combines the methods of functionally-oriented Russian structuralism with some insights from generative syntax.
  • Honti, Rita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The topic of my doctoral thesis is to demonstrate the usefulness of incorporating tonal and modal elements into a pitch-web square analysis of Béla Bartók's (1881-1945) opera, 'A kékszakállú herceg vára' ('Duke Bluebeard's Castle'). My specific goal is to demonstrate that different musical materials, which exist as foreground melodies or long-term key progressions, are unified by the unordered pitch set {0,1,4}, which becomes prominent in different sections of Bartók's opera. In Bluebeard's Castle, the set {0,1,4} is also found as a subset of several tetrachords: {0,1,4,7}, {0,1,4,8}, and {0,3,4,7}. My claim is that {0,1,4} serves to link music materials between themes, between sections, and also between scenes. This study develops an analytical method, drawn from various theoretical perspectives, for conceiving superposed diatonic spaces within a hybrid pitch-space comprised of diatonic and chromatic features. The integrity of diatonic melodic lines is retained, which allows for a non-reductive understanding of diatonic superposition, without appealing to pitch centers or specifying complete diatonic collections. Through combining various theoretical insights of the Hungarian scholar Ernő Lendvai, and the American theorists Elliott Antokoletz, Paul Wilson and Allen Forte, as well as the composer himself, this study gives a detailed analysis of the opera's pitch material in a way that combines, complements, and expands upon the studies of those scholars. The analyzed pitch sets are represented on Aarre Joutsenvirta's note-web square, which adds a new aspect to the field of Bartók analysis. Keywords: Bartók, Duke Bluebeard's Castle (Op. 11), Ernő Lendvai, axis system, Elliott Antokoletz, intervallic cycles, intervallic cells, Allen Forte, set theory, interval classes, interval vectors, Aarre Joutsenvirta, pitch-web square, pitch-web analysis.
  • Kopotev, Mikhail (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The PhD thesis consists of an Introduction and four articles published both in Finland and abroad, written in English or Russian. They present the case studies of eight Finnish and Russian idiomatic constructions, alternatively called formal idioms (Ch. Fillmore, P. Kay, etc.) or syntactic phrasemes (I. Melčuk). Items under consideration in the book appear in the following examples: Ikkuna rikki — Окно сломано, lit.: ‘the window broken’, Äiti täällä — Мама здесь, lit.: ‘mother here’, Kaikki myymälöihin! — Все в магазин, lit.: ‘all to the shops’, Пить так пить! ≈ ‘When I drink, I drink (a lot)!’, etc. The aim of the studies is to reconstruct the origins and to trace the development of the above-mentioned constructions up to their modern usages. To this end, the constructions are investigated both from diachronic and from typological perspectives. Finally, the case studies provide a possibility to develop more general bases of syntactic idiomatization. By attempting to answer the question why the idiomatic constructions develop even though they destroy the harmonious structure of а language, some principles of idiomatization are postulated in the Conclusion.
  • Halla-aho, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    In this study I offer a diachronic solution for a number of difficult inflectional endings in Old Church Slavic nominal declensions. In this context I address the perhaps most disputed and the most important question of the Slavic nominal inflectional morphology: whether there was in Proto-Slavic an Auslautgesetz (ALG), a law of final syllables, that narrowed the Proto-Indo-European vowel */o/ to */u/ in closed word-final syllables. In addition, the work contains an exhaustive morphological classification of the nouns and adjectives that occur in canonical Old Church Slavic. I argue that Proto-Indo-European */o/ became Proto-Slavic */u/ before word-final */s/ and */N/. This conclusion is based on the impossibility of finding credible analogical (as opposed to phonological) explanations for the forms supporting the ALG hypothesis, and on the survival of the neuter gender in Slavic. It is not likely that the */o/-stem nominative singular ending */-u/ was borrowed from the accusative singular, because the latter would have been the only paradigmatic form with the stem vowel */-u-/. It is equally unlikely that the ending */-u/ was borrowed from the */u/-stems, because the latter constituted a moribund class. The usually stated motivation for such an analogical borrowing, i.e. a need to prevent the merger of */o/-stem masculines with neuters of the same class, is not tenable. Extra-Slavic, as well as intra-Slavic evidence suggests that phonologically-triggered mergers between two semantically opaque genders do not tend to be prevented, but rather that such mergers lead to the loss of the gender opposition in question. On the other hand, if */-os/ had not become */-us/, most nouns and, most importantly, all adjectives and pronouns would have lost the formal distinction between masculines and neuters. This would have necessarily resulted in the loss of the neuter gender. A new explanation is given for the most apparent piece of evidence against the ALG hypothesis, the nominative-accusative singular of the */es/-stem neuters, e.g. nebo 'sky'. I argue that it arose in late Proto-Slavic dialects, replacing regular nebe, under the influence of the */o/- and */yo/-stems where a correlation had emerged between a hard root-final consonant and the termination -o, on the one hand, and a soft root-final consonant and the termination -e, on the other.
  • Kudashev, Igor (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The methodology of designing normative terminological products has been described in several guides and international standards. However, this methodology is not always applicable to designing translation-oriented terminological products which differ greatly from normative ones in terms of volume, function, and primary target group. This dissertation has three main goals. The first is to revise and enrich the stock of concepts and terms required in the process of designing an LSP dictionary for translators. The second is to detect, classify, and describe the factors which determine the characteristics of an LSP dictionary for translators and affect the process of its compilation. The third goal is to provide recommendations on different aspects of dictionary design. The study is based on an analysis of dictionaries, dictionary reviews, literature on translation-oriented lexicography, material from several dictionary projects, and the results of questionnaires. Thorough analysis of the concept of a dictionary helped us to compile a list of designable characteristics of a dictionary. These characteristics include target group, function, links to other resources, data carrier, list of lemmata, information about the lemmata, composition of other parts of the dictionary, compression of the data, structure of the data, and access structure. The factors which determine the characteristics of a dictionary have been divided into those derived from the needs of the intended users and those reflecting the restrictions of the real world (e.g. characteristics of the data carrier and organizational factors) and attitudes (e.g. traditions and scientific paradigms). The designer of a dictionary is recommended to take the intended users' needs as the starting point and aim at finding the best compromise between the conflicting factors. When designing an LSP dictionary, much depends on the level of knowledge of the intended users about the domain in question as well as their general linguistic competence, LSP competence, and lexicographic competence. This dissertation discusses the needs of LSP translators and the role of the dictionary in the process of translation of an LSP text. It also emphasizes the importance of planning lexicographic products and activities, and addresses many practical aspects of dictionary design.
  • Posio, Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The expression of pronominal subjects by independent subject pronouns is considered optional in both Peninsular Spanish (PS) and European Portuguese (EP). The present dissertation examines and compares the factors affecting the expression vs. omission of subject pronouns in these two languages. The goals are to provide and compare empirical data from PS and EP, to present a theoretical account of the findings and to deepen the understanding of factors affecting subject pronoun use in languages with variable subject expression. The theoretical framework is cognitive-functional, usage-based linguistics. The four articles of the dissertation examine data from different speech corpora. The methodology combines qualitative examination with quantitative frequency analyses. EP is shown to have a significantly higher general rate of expressed subjects than PS. In the first person singular, verb semantics affect subject expression in both languages: agentive verbs have a lower rate of expressed subjects while stative verbs have a higher rate. This tendency is connected with the focusing of attention on either the subject referent or on other participants in the event. In addition to this general tendency, subject expression in connection to the most frequently occurring verb tokens (i.e. I think , I say , I know ) deviates from the general pattern, causing differences between PS and EP. With frequently occurring verb tokens, subject expression has become formulaic, i.e. fixed as a part of the construction where it occurs. While semantics and frequency effects affect subject expression in the first person singular, the first person plural differs between PS and EP in that in PS subject expression is rare and typically restricted to hearer-exclusive reference. In EP, subject expression is found with hearer-inclusive, hearer-exclusive and impersonal reading. In all grammatical persons, the postverbal placement of subject pronouns is shown to serve both contrasting and backgrounding functions. In EP the postverbal placement is mostly restricted to certain non-productive, formulaic sequences. The study contributes to the discussion of variable subject expression in a wider typological and theoretical context. Previously null subject languages have been assumed to form a relatively homogeneous group where subject omission is the norm and expression is reserved for e.g. contrast and emphasis. It is shown that while the factors affecting subject expression may be similar, even closely related languages differ with regard to subject expression rates and subject expression in formulaic constructions.
  • Melgin, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation focuses on the role of art and culture in Finland s national communication, and its impact on foreign relations during the period from 1937 to 1952. Cultural relations are examined through politically important countries: Sweden, the Soviet Union, the United States, Germany, Italy and France. At the beginning of the period covered, the Finnish state began heavily investing in communication. Culture was used in brochures, articles and documentary films, but also in international public relations. Art exhibitions, concerts and presentations were modes of cultural exchange. In addition to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and embassies, official communication also took place through the information organizations set up by the Finnish state to support the war effort. It was possible to gain sympathy abroad through the national message veiled in the cultural context. Public diplomacy also included semi-official and private actors. The content of Finnish art and culture supported the general messages dictated by the official foreign policy. During the war, culture acted as a weapon against bolshevism. In order to highlight the originality of Finns and the Western orientation of Finnish civilisation, the message consisted of both traditional Kalevala-related art and Western European classical art. The music of Jean Sibelius, the art of Akseli Gallen-Kallela and Wäinö Aaltonen, the poetry of V.A. Koskenniemi and the designs of Alvar Aalto fit the needs of public diplomacy well. This dissertation uses the methodology of conceptual history to analyse whether Finnish national communication should be considered propaganda or public diplomacy. The propagandist role was most evident in the relationship with Germany 1941-43. When the state-run information organizations were discontinued together with censorship after the war, official national communication in Finland reverted back to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the context of diplomacy. Art and culture continued to function as an important instrument of foreign relations, even during the post-war years when free expression of political opinions was more restricted. The Soviet Union built friendly relations with Finland through cultural exchange, as did the United States. In reality, it is difficult of course to separate propaganda from public diplomacy. In the context of culture, this diplomatic role was more pronounced because cultural content seldom became an object of censorship and because decision making on art and cultural content lay with the requisite cultural institutions. It should also be noted that surprisingly many of the officers in the State propaganda machinery had key roles in the domain of art. This dissertation also provides new insights into the history of communication as a profession. One of the central claims is that due to the propagandists deep cultural knowledge, art and culture were instrumental during the exceptional war period. The investment in culture during and immediately after the war strengthened national identity, and the message conveyed through cultural propaganda was canonised as an integral part of Finnish national cultural identity.
  • Kolehmainen, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Lehtimaja, Inkeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This study describes how students influence their possibilities of participating in whole-class conversation. The main objective is to investigate the verbal and non-verbal resources used by students to modify the participant roles of the ongoing conversation. The resources studied are attention-getting devices such as hand-raising and address terms, recycling and other forms of collaborative talk, means of reference to persons, such as pronouns, as well as gaze and other embodied resources. The theoretical and methodological framework adopted in this study is that of conversation analysis. The data consist of ten videotaped lessons of Finnish as a second language in three secondary schools (grades 7 9) in southern Finland; the number of students per group varies from five to ten. Finnish has a triple role in the data as the medium of teaching, the target language, and the lingua franca used by the participants. The findings show that the multi-party context of the classroom conversation is both a disadvantage and an affordance for student participation. The students possess multiple tools to overcome and deal with the encumbrances posed by the large number of participants. They combine various techniques in order to actively compete for public turns, and they monitor the ongoing conversation carefully to adjust their participation to the activities of other participants. Sometimes the whole-class conversation splits into two separate conversations, but participants usually orient to the overlapping nature of the talk and tend to bring the conversations together rapidly. On the other hand, students skilfully make use of other participants and their talk to increase and diversify their own possibilities to participate. For example, they recycle elements of each other s turns or refer to the currently speaking student in order to gain access to the conversation. Students interact with each other even during the public whole-class conversation. Students orient to one another often even when talking to the teacher, but they also address talk directly to one another, as part of the public conversation. In this way students increase each other s possibilities of participation. The interaction is constantly multi-layered: in addition to the pedagogic agenda, the students orient to social goals, for example, by teasing each other and putting on humorous performances for their peer audience. The student student participation arises spontaneously from a genuine need to communicate and thus represents authentic language use: by talking to each other, often playfully, the students appropriate Finnish vocabulary, grammar, and expressions. In this way the structure of the interaction reflects the particular nature of Finnish as a second language lessons: all talk serves the pedagogic goal of enabling students to communicate in the target language.
  • Siltala, Sakari (2013)
    This monograph demonstrates how the Finnish cooperative movement tried to assimilate capitalism, but got itself assimilated instead. The study examines the role of cooperatives during the period of fundamental structural changes in the Finnish business system 1982 - 2004. This period saw the breakthrough of competitive capitalism and the dissolution of cooperative capitalism, i.e. an economic system permeated by cartels and multilevel cooperation in business life. The monograph is an empirical case study focusing on Metsäliitto (Metsä Group), one of the biggest European forest industry corporations and producer cooperatives (annual turnover 8,8 billion in 2002, owned by 125 000 private Finnish forest owners). The main sources of the study are the documents of the archives of Metsäliitto, MTK (The Central Union of Agricultural Producers and Forest Owners) and Metsäteollisuus ry (Finnish Forest Industries Federation) and the interviews of 65 representatives of the aforementioned organizations and other business leaders. The study uses an actor-structure-approach, where Metsäliitto is the actor defining the viewpoint, and the established cooperative capitalism the surrounding structure. The essential findings and results are connected with international discussions on national business systems and varieties of capitalism. Throughout the 20th century Finland lived of forests, cartels and cooperatives. The three elements supporting the business system combine in the case of Metsäliitto. This makes it a revealing example when studying the dissolution of cooperative capitalism. The monograph provides new information on the role of Finland s most important industry and export sector and the cooperative movement during the transformation of the national business system. The thesis shows how Finnish cooperative capitalism broke under both internal and external pressures alike. Internally, it was challenged by another form of economic cooperation with long traditions, the cooperative movement. Metsäliitto aspired to dominate the roundwood markets of the country and to force other forest industry enterprises under the cooperative´s raw material hegemony and Metsäliitto-led cooperation. Externally, cooperative capitalism was broken down by expanding regime of economic neoliberalism, European integration and the resultant stricter competition laws and -policies. The monograph examines the difficult adjustment of the cooperatives to the competitive capitalism, the breakthrough of which Metsäliitto itself assisted. This adjustment is connected to a worldwide trend, the hybridization of cooperatives, i.e. the expansion of ownership rights to non-members, the mutation towards investor-oriented firms, and the dissolution of the cooperative ideology.
  • Andersen, Claus Elholm (University of Helsinki, 2015)
    You have to be on your guard - On Literariness in Karl Ove Knausgård's My Struggle This dissertation is a discussion of literariness in Karl Ove Knausgård,s novel My Struggle (2009-2011). I argue that My Struggle first and foremost is a novel and should be read accordingly. Though Knausgård might challenge the genre of the novel as we know it, I show how he does so within the framework of one of the strongest traditions in the 20th century. This tradition includes writers such as Proust, Joyce, and Thomas Mann, all of whom, like Knausgård, have sought to challenge the novel as such. Thus, Knausgård is stretching the limits of what a novel can be by taking his point of departure in the challenge that already exists in the genre. Read this way, Knausgård expands the limits of what a novel is and can do, so it becomes impossible to ignore him as a novelist. The dissertation is based on five articles published, or accepted for publication, in peer-reviewed academic journals. Combined, these articles show how Knausgård as a writer belongs to a literary tradition that can be seen as an extension of literary modernism. In each article, I identify what I have named the central paradox of the novel that Knausgård wants to write honestly about his life, but can only do so in the form of a novel and by using the literary devices from the world of fiction. It is through the analysis of this central paradox that I portray the literariness of the novel. Aside from the five articles, the dissertation also consists of a cap or a summarizing report where I place the articles in relation to the existing scholarship on Knausgård and explain my theoretical framework and why I consider it important to read My Struggle as novel. Here, I argue that the dissertation is in clear opposition to the majority of what has previously been written on Knausgård, where the focus has been on how Knausgård plays with reality and fiction instead of striving to understand what the novel is trying to say.