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  • Lantto, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This doctoral dissertation examines the role of code-switching between Basque and Spanish linguistic elements in the metropolitan area of Greater Bilbao in the Basque Country. The study consists of four articles and a compilation article. The articles examine bilingual speech from different points of view: variation in grammatical code-switching patterns, the role of swearing, slang and code-switching in constructing an informal register of Basque, language ideologies that discourage and encourage code-switching, and conventionalization of semantic-pragmatic code-switching patterns. The Basque context of language revitalization has created new divisions between speakers, as the formerly unidirectional bilingualism has turned into a situation where great numbers of Spanish speakers are learning Basque in adult acquisition programs or in Basque-medium education. Basque is still, however, a minority language in the Greater Bilbao area and the bilingual Basque speakers live scattered among the monolingual majority. The effect of these social structures on linguistic structures is examined in two sets of data that were collected for the purposes of this study. For the first set of data, 22 hours of naturally occurring peer-group conversations with 22 Basque-Spanish bilinguals were recorded, while the second set consists of 12 hours of metalinguistic conversations with 47 bilingual Basques. The speakers use their bilingual repertoire in numerous creative and dynamic ways. Yet some tendencies can be detected. Colloquial Basque in Bilbao is a bilingual speech style that always includes some code-switching to Spanish. There is considerable variation in the individuals code-switching patterns. Some of the informants, particularly L1-speakers of Basque, use very intensive and syntactically intrusive code-switching, whereas others, especially L2-speakers of Basque, only engage in syntactically peripheral code-switching, such as Spanish interjections, discourse markers and tags. The L2-speakers purist tendencies seem to have two sources: firstly, the normative setting of acquisition where language mixing is discouraged, and secondly, the general interpretation of new speakers code-switching as lack of proficiency in the minority language. Some Spanish elements have become conventionalized throughout the speech community as the default option. All informants use Spanish discourse markers, and swear words and colloquialisms are always introduced in Spanish in otherwise Basque speech. Spanish discourse markers seem to have been automatized as conversational routines, whereas Spanish swear words and colloquialisms have become conventionalized because of the domains they are associated with, and because of the lack of these stylistic categories in standard Basque.
  • Peltola, Rea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Modal cohesion and subordination. The Finnish conditional and jussive moods in comparison to the French subjunctive This study examines verb moods in subordinate clauses in French and Finnish. The first part of the analysis deals with the syntax and semantics of the French subjunctive, mood occurring mostly in subordinate positions. The second part investigates Finnish verb moods. Although subordinate positions in Finnish grammar have no special finite verb form, certain uses of Finnish verb moods have been compared to those of subjunctives and conjunctives in other languages. The present study focuses on the subordinate uses of the Finnish conditional and jussive (i.e. the third person singular and plural of the imperative mood). The third part of the analysis discusses the functions of subordinate moods in contexts beyond complex sentences. The data used for the analysis include 1834 complex sentences gathered from newspapers, online discussion groups and blog texts, as well as audio-recorded interviews and conversations. The data thus consist of both written and oral texts as well as standard and non-standard variants. The analysis shows that the French subjunctive codes theoretical modality. The subjunctive does not determine the temporal and modal meaning of the event, but displays the event as virtual. In a complex sentence, the main clause determines the temporal and modal space within which the event coded by the subjunctive clause is interpreted. The subjunctive explicitly indicates that the space constructed in the main clause extends its scope over the subordinate clause. The subjunctive can therefore serve as a means for creating modal cohesion in the discourse. The Finnish conditional shares the function of making explicit the modal link between the components of a complex construction with the French subjunctive, but the two moods differ in their semantics. The conditional codes future time and can therefore occur only in non-factual or counterfactual contexts, whereas the event expressed by French subjunctive clauses can also be interpreted as realized. Such is the case when, for instance, generic and habitual meaning is involved. The Finnish jussive mood is used in a relatively limited number of subordinate clause types, but in these contexts its modal meaning is strikingly close to that of the French subjunctive. The permissive meaning, typical of the jussive in main clause positions, is modified in complex sentences so that it entails inter-clausal relation, namely concession. Like the French subjunctive, the jussive codes theoretical modal meaning with no implication of the truth value of the proposition. Finally, the analysis shows that verb moods mark modal cohesion, not only on the syntagmatic level (namely in complexe sentences), but also on the paradigmatic axis of discourse in order to create semantic links over entire segments of talk. In this study, the subjunctive thus appears, not as an empty category without function, as it is sometimes described, but as an open form that conveys the temporal and modal meanings emerging from the context.
  • von Bonsdorff, Anna-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This study proposes a point of departure for the study of images which in Finnish art history have tended be read as an expression of style, ideas or movements toward a study of a specific palette and the two-colour practices at the turn of the twentieth century. I am adapting the notion of painting as a deposit of a colour consciousness in a specific turn-of-the-twentieth century context. The focus of my investigation is on Finnish and European artists who used the new colour concepts, colour ascetism and synthetist colour in their paintings. As my examples I have chosen the Finnish artists Väinö Blomstedt, Magnus Enckell, Axel Gallén, Pekka Halonen, Eero Järnefelt, Helene Schjerfbeck and Ellen Thesleff. Thus, explaining these painters use of ascetic or synthetist palettes must take into consideration a much larger context and time span. In discussing these concepts of colour, and to illustrate the long tradition of colour ascetism, I will draw on such precursors as Eugène Carrière, Édouard Manet, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and James McNeill Whistler. These artists and their personal palettes were important, not only to Finnish, but also to many artists around the turn of the twentieth century. Although considered artists of the modern period, they looked to the past for their inspiration on a restricted palette: Spanish art, Rembrandt, Frans Hals and Early Renaissance were among the sources of art as they were the inspiration for Finnish artists too in the 1890s. They all developed their personified ascetic palette. It is my intention to show that acromatic art and anti-colourism is a much broader and more significant phenomenon in western art than has hitherto been believed. The muted, restrained, ascetic colours were the key element in depicting modern melancholy, silence, inwardness and harmony in painting. For synthetist colour I will present Paul Gauguin and his followers Paul Sérusier, Jan Verkade and Maurice Denis who have now be studied from the point of establishing a synthetist colour practice of tertiary close-tones which differs from the use of pure colours. Finnish artists who explored the synthetist colour range are Blomstedt, Gallén and Järnefelt. Synthetist colour was used to enhance the non-mimetic effect, the surnaturelle, which was to be the expressive force in painting. The key words for synthetist colour are vision, dynamism, primitive, emotion, sensation and dream image. During this period in Finnish art ascetic and synthetist colour can be seen as parallel colour practices away from the mimetic range. The adoption of these new palette practices also brought innovations in painting and in the use of different mediums such as tempera and gouache. The time of traditional oil painting was changing. This colour-conscious art was created to present new content. This study offers two new colour concepts and new readings of nineteenth-century art, assessing the wider resonances of artists debates on colour and medium as they tested the limits of painting as a new language of colour .
  • Lahti, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Empire is central to U.S. history. When we see the U.S. projecting its influence on a global scale in today s world it is important to understand that U.S. empire has a long history. This dissertation offers a case study of colonialism and U.S. empire by discussing the social worlds, labor regimes, and culture of the U.S. Army during the conquest of southern Arizona and New Mexico (1866-1886). It highlights some of the defining principles, mentalities, and characteristics of U.S. imperialism and shows how U.S. forces have in years past constructed their power and represented themselves, their missions, and the places and peoples that faced U.S. imperialism/colonialism. Using insights from postcolonial studies and whiteness studies, this work balances its attention between discursive representations (army stories) and social experience (army actions), pays attention to silences in the process of historical production, and focuses on collective group mentalities and identities. In the end the army experience reveals an empire in denial constructed on the rule of difference and marked by frustration. White officers, their wives, and the white enlisted men not only wanted the monopoly of violence for the U.S. regime but also colonial (mental/cultural) authority and power, and constructed their identity, authority, and power in discourse and in the social contexts of the everyday through difference. Engaged in warfare against the Apaches, they did not recognize their actions as harmful or acknowledge the U.S. invasion as the bloody colonial conquest it was. White army personnel painted themselves and the army as liberators, represented colonial peoples as racial inferiors, approached colonial terrain in terms of struggle, and claimed that the region was a terrible periphery with little value before the arrival of white civilization. Officers and wives also wanted to place themselves at the top of colonial hierarchies as the refined and respectable class who led the regeneration of the colony by example: they tried to turn army villages into islands of civilization and made journeys, leisure, and domestic life to showcase their class sensibilities and level of sophistication. Often, however, their efforts failed, resulting in frustration and bitterness. Many blamed the colony and its peoples for their failures. The army itself was divided by race and class. All soldiers were treated as laborers unfit for self-government. White enlisted men, frustrated by their failures in colonial warfare and by constant manual labor, constructed worlds of resistance, whereas indigenous soldiers sought to negotiate the effects of colonialism by working in the army. As colonized labor their position was defined by tension between integration and exclusion and between freedom and colonial control.
  • Backman, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The attempt to refer meaningful reality as a whole to a unifying ultimate principle - the quest for the unity of Being - was one of the basic tendencies of Western philosophy from its beginnings in ancient Greece up to Hegel's absolute idealism. However, the different trends of contemporary philosophy tend to regard such a speculative metaphysical quest for unity as obsolete. This study addresses this contemporary situation on the basis of the work of Martin Heidegger (1889-1976). Its methodological framework is Heidegger's phenomenological and hermeneutical approach to the history of philosophy. It seeks to understand, in terms of the metaphysical quest for unity, Heidegger's contrast between the first (Greek) beginning or "onset" (Anfang) of philosophy and another onset of thinking. This other onset is a possibility inherent in the contemporary situation in which, according to Heidegger, the metaphysical tradition has developed to its utmost limits and thereby come to an end. Part I is a detailed interpretation of the surviving fragments of the Poem of Parmenides of Elea (fl. c. 500 BC), an outstanding representative of the first philosophical beginning in Heidegger's sense. It is argued that the Poem is not a simple denial of apparent plurality and difference ("mortal acceptances," doxai) in favor of an extreme monism. Parmenides' point is rather to show in what sense the different instances of Being can be reduced to an absolute level of truth or evidence (aletheia), which is the unity of Being as such (to eon). What in prephilosophical human experience is accepted as being is referred to the source of its acceptability: intelligibility as such, the simple and undifferentiated presence to thinking that ultimately excludes unpresence and otherness. Part II interprets selected key texts from different stages in Heidegger's thinking in terms of the unity of Being. It argues that one aspect of Heidegger's sustained and gradually deepening philosophical quest was to think the unity of Being as singularity, as the instantaneous, context-specific, and differential unity of a temporally meaningful situation. In Being and Time (1927) Heidegger articulates the temporal situatedness of the human awareness of meaningful presence. His later work moves on to study the situational correlation between presence and the human awareness. Heidegger's "postmetaphysical" articulation seeks to show how presence becomes meaningful precisely as situated, in an event of differentiation from a multidimensional context of unpresence. In resigning itself to this irreducibly complicated and singular character of meaningful presence, philosophy also faces its own historically situated finitude. This resignation is an essential feature of Heidegger's "other onset" of thinking.
  • Konttinen, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Anu Konttinen: Conducting Gestures Institutional and Educational Construction of Conductorship in Finland, 1973-1993. This doctoral thesis concentrates on those Finnish conductors who have participated in Professor Jorma Panula s conducting class at the Sibelius Academy during the years 1973 1993. The starting point was conducting as a myth, and the goal has been to find its practical opposite the practical core of the profession. What has been studied is whether one can theorise and analyse this core, and how. The theoretical goal has been to find out what kind of social construction conductorship is as a historical, sociological and practical phenomenon. In practical terms, this means taking the historical and social concept of a great conductor apart to look for the practical core gestural communication. The most important theoretical tool is the concept of gesture. The idea has been to sketch a theoretical model based on gestural communication between a conductor and an orchestra, and to give one example of the many possible ways of studying the gestures of a conductor.
  • Jok, Kuel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This study addresses the contemporary conflict of national identity in Sudan between the adherents of Islamic nationalism and customary secularism . The former urge the adoption of a national constitution that derives its civil and criminal laws from Sharia (Islamic law) and Arabic be the language of instruction in national institutions of Sudan. The group argues that the intertwined model of the Islamic-Arab cultural identity accelerates assimilation of the heterogeneous African ethnic and religious diversities in Sudan into a homogeneous national identity defining Sudan as an Islamic-Arab state. The latter demand the adoption of secular laws, which must be derived from the diverse set of customary laws and equal opportunities for all African languages beside Arabic and English. The group claims that the adoption of the Islamic laws and Arabic legalises the treatment of the citizens in the country in terms of religion and race and that implies racism and discrimination. In this way, the adherents of the Islamic nationalism imposed the Islamic-Arab model. In reaction, the Muslims and the non-Muslim secularists resort to violence as an alternative model of resistance. In pursuance of war, the Islamists declared Jihad against the secularists in Nuba Mountains, South Blue Nile (Ingessana) and adopt the racial war in Darfur. In this region, the janjaweed (armed Arab militias) in Darfur fight inclusively the insurgents and the indigenous African Muslims in Darfur in equal terms. This form of war has caused a humanitarian disaster in this region. The method of the research is qualitative and its main primary source material was based on a survey conducted among students of five universities in Sudan. Prepared and organised questionnaires in English and Arabic were given to five hundred students. Participant observation, interviews and relevant secondary sources were also used. The findings of the study indicate that every religion and culture in Sudan provides a set of regulations which promote political ethics of cultural and religious diversities as well as equal distribution of power and national wealth. The new emerging phenomenon that attempts to project religion as the source of human insecurity and injustice embodies some psychological and ideological orientations emanating from human nature and not the historical religions of God. It recommends the durable resolutions taking into consideration the diverse theoretical models for the formation of a nation-state, where the diversity is not discouraged; instead states apply laws which promote religious and ethnic diversities within one territorial state. The insistence of the Islamists on the application of the Islamic law and marginalisation of the non-Arab groups in Darfur, Eastern Sudan of Beja, Ingessana of South Blue Nile and Nuba Mountains threaten the territorial integrity of the state. The secession of South Sudan from the current Sudan in the internationally surpvised referendum in January 2011 was a paradigm resulting from economic and political imbalance in the former Sudan.
  • Möttönen, Tapani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral dissertation is a metatheoretical survey into the central semantic concepts of Cognitive Grammar (CG), a semantics-driven theoretical grammar developed by Ronald W. Langacker. CG approaches language as a semiotic system inherently structured by certain cognition-general capacities, and it defends a usage-based conception of language, therefore denying the strict dichotomy between language and other realms of conceptualization and human experience. For CG, linguistic meaning is thus defined relative to our general cognitive and bodily disposition, as well as to the contents of experience the former structure. The cognitive and experiential aspects of meaning are described relative to so-called dimensions of construal. In this study, I will provide a systematic critical account of the theoretical explanation Cognitive Grammar provides for the dimensions of construal. The point of departure will be in social ontology of linguistic meaning developed and defended by Esa Itkonen, who has accordingly criticized Cognitive Grammar for inconsistent psychologism. According to Itkonen, linguistic meaning is an object of common knowledge and cannot be reduced into an individual s conceptualization; the dimensions of construal capture experiential meaning that is part of language as a social semiotic resource. This entails that linguistic semantics assume as its object of description non-objective, perspectival meanings that are commonly known. It will be argued that the usage-based nature of CG provides a way to release this tension between objective and non-objective aspects of meaning by explaining how perspectivity of semantics results from the acquisition and adjustment of meanings in actual discourse. This, however, necessitates an ontological revision of Cognitive Grammar and rehabilitation of the sociality of a linguistic meaning, which is the topic of this study. In addition to the work by Itkonen, prominent socially oriented cognitive linguists, such as Jordan Zlatev, have emphasized the necessary intersubjective basis of experiential meaning. Within the Fennistic studies, on the other hand, the intersubjective approach to CG and Cognitive Linguistics in general has taken the form of combining cognitive linguistic methodologies with Conversation Analysis. This study combines elements from both of these approaches in order to provide a comprehensive assessment of the notion of construal in CG. In so being, the main task of this study is to critically evaluate the cognition-based explanation for the dimensions of construal, provide a socially grounded alternative, and apply the alternative into analysis of construal in (written discourse). The thesis demonstrates that the dimensions of construal are not dependent on the aspects of cognitive theory on the basis of which they are argued for. Instead, the notion of construal is shown to be inherently intersubjective and context-sensitive. Construal captures aspects of semantic organization that are correlates of intersubjective alignment between conceptualizing subjects in a given discursive context.
  • Jauhiainen, Ilmari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The object of this work is Hegel's Logic, which comprises the first third of his philosophical System that also includes the Philosophy of Nature and the Philosophy of Spirit. The work is divided into two parts, where the first part investigates Hegel s Logic in itself or without an explicit reference to rest of Hegel's System. It is argued in the first part that Hegel's Logic contains a methodology for constructing examples of basic ontological categories. The starting point on which this construction is based is a structure Hegel calls Nothing, which I argue to be identical with an empty situation, that is, a situation with no objects in it. Examples of further categories are constructed, firstly, by making previous structures objects of new situations. This rule makes it possible for Hegel to introduce examples of ontological structures that contain objects as constituents. Secondly, Hegel takes also the very constructions he uses as constituents of further structures: thus, he is able to exemplify ontological categories involving causal relations. The final result of Hegel's Logic should then be a model of Hegel s Logic itself, or at least of its basic methods. The second part of the work focuses on the relation of Hegel's Logic to the other parts of Hegel's System. My interpretation tries to avoid, firstly, the extreme of taking Hegel's System as a grand metaphysical attempt to deduce what exists through abstract thinking, and secondly, the extreme of seeing Hegel's System as mere diluted Kantianism or a second-order investigation of theories concerning objects instead of actual objects. I suggest a third manner of reading Hegel's System, based on extending the constructivism of Hegel's Logic to the whole of his philosophical System. According to this interpretation, transitions between parts of Hegel's System should not be understood as proofs of any sort, but as constructions of one structure or its model from another structure. Hence, these transitions involve at least, and especially within the Philosophy of Nature, modelling of one type of object or phenomenon through characteristics of an object or phenomenon of another type, and in the best case, and especially within the Philosophy of Spirit, transformations of an object or phenomenon of one type into an object or phenomenon of another type. Thus, the transitions and descriptions within Hegel's System concern actual objects and not mere theories, but they still involve no fallacious deductions.
  • Holm, Ruurik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Constructive (intuitionist, anti-realist) semantics has thus far been lacking an adequate concept of truth in infinity concerning factual (i.e., empirical, non-mathematical) sentences. One consequence of this problem is the difficulty of incorporating inductive reasoning in constructive semantics. It is not possible to formulate a notion for probable truth in infinity if there is no adequate notion of what truth in infinity is. One needs a notion of a constructive possible world based on sensory experience. Moreover, a constructive probability measure must be defined over these constructively possible empirical worlds. This study defines a particular kind of approach to the concept of truth in infinity for Rudolf Carnap's inductive logic. The new approach is based on truth in the consecutive finite domains of individuals. This concept will be given a constructive interpretation. What can be verifiably said about an empirical statement with respect to this concept of truth, will be explained, for which purpose a constructive notion of epistemic probability will be introduced. The aim of this study is also to improve Carnap's inductive logic. The study addresses the problem of justifying the use of an "inductivist" method in Carnap's lambda-continuum. A correction rule for adjusting the inductive method itself in the course of obtaining evidence will be introduced. Together with the constructive interpretation of probability, the correction rule yields positive prior probabilities for universal generalizations in infinite domains.
  • Yli-Jyrä, Anssi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
    This dissertation is a theoretical study of finite-state based grammars used in natural language processing. The study is concerned with certain varieties of finite-state intersection grammars (FSIG) whose parsers define regular relations between surface strings and annotated surface strings. The study focuses on the following three aspects of FSIGs: (i) Computational complexity of grammars under limiting parameters In the study, the computational complexity in practical natural language processing is approached through performance-motivated parameters on structural complexity. Each parameter splits some grammars in the Chomsky hierarchy into an infinite set of subset approximations. When the approximations are regular, they seem to fall into the logarithmic-time hierarchyand the dot-depth hierarchy of star-free regular languages. This theoretical result is important and possibly relevant to grammar induction. (ii) Linguistically applicable structural representations Related to the linguistically applicable representations of syntactic entities, the study contains new bracketing schemes that cope with dependency links, left- and right branching, crossing dependencies and spurious ambiguity. New grammar representations that resemble the Chomsky-Schützenberger representation of context-free languages are presented in the study, and they include, in particular, representations for mildly context-sensitive non-projective dependency grammars whose performance-motivated approximations are linear time parseable. (iii) Compilation and simplification of linguistic constraints Efficient compilation methods for certain regular operations such as generalized restriction are presented. These include an elegant algorithm that has already been adopted as the approach in a proprietary finite-state tool. In addition to the compilation methods, an approach to on-the-fly simplifications of finite-state representations for parse forests is sketched. These findings are tightly coupled with each other under the theme of locality. I argue that the findings help us to develop better, linguistically oriented formalisms for finite-state parsing and to develop more efficient parsers for natural language processing. Avainsanat: syntactic parsing, finite-state automata, dependency grammar, first-order logic, linguistic performance, star-free regular approximations, mildly context-sensitive grammars
  • Airola, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This dissertation discusses the relation between lexis, grammar and textual organisation. The major premise adopted here is that grammatical structures are motivated both by semantic potential of words and by text-pragmatic demands. In other words, it is argued that grammatical structures form the interface between lexis and textual organisation, and that linguistic analysis should not concentrate on analysing grammatical structures in isolation, independent of context. From this point of view, grammatical structures are said to be 'well-formed' only in relation to the context they occur in. This study is based on a corpus of three million words of recent Finnish fiction from which all the occurrences of the coordinated verb pairs ([V ja V] -pairs]) containing one of the intransitive motion verbs 'lähteä' (to go), 'mennä' (to go), 'päästä' (to get into), 'nousta' (to get up), and 'laskea' (to go down), were extracted. This set of verbs was established using methods described in earlier work by Lagus & Airola (2001, and 2005). The quantitative analysis of the [V ja V] -pairs was used to carry out a qualitative analysis of individual texts. In analysing the texts, an analogy was made between musical and textual structure. The results show among others that individual verbs specialise in different functions when occurring in coordinated verb pairs. One aspect was that those verb pairs including the verb 'nousta' tend to function as markers of textual boundaries and thus reflect the organisation of narrative substance. The verb 'mennä' has weakened literal meanings, but strengthened modal meanings when occurring in [V ja V] -pairs, and, in many cases, the verb 'lähteä' in [V ja V] -pairs function as an aspectual marker rather than a pure verb of motion. That there is a gradient from the concrete sense of motion into more differentiated senses of a verb in [V ja V] -pairs alongside the structure-creating potential of the [V ja V] -pairs themselves suggest an ongoing grammaticalisation process of the patterns discussed.
  • Räsänen, Pajari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Titled "An Essay on Antimetaphoric Resistance", the dissertation investigates what is here being called "Counter-figures": a term which has in this context a certain variety of applications. Any other-than-image or other-than-figure, anything that cannot be exhausted by figuration (and that is, more or less, anything at all, except perhaps the reproducible images and figures themselves) can be considered "counter-figurative" with regard to the formation of images and figures, ideas and schemas, "any graven image, or any likeness of any thing". Singularity and radical alterity, as well as temporality and its peculiar mode of uniqueness are key issues here, and an ethical dimension is implied by, or intertwined with, the aesthetic. In terms borrowed from Paul Celan's "Meridian" speech, poetry may "allow the most idiosyncratic quality of the Other, its time, to participate in the dialogue". This connection between singularity, alterity and temporality is one of the reasons why Celan so strongly objects to the application of the traditional concept of metaphor to poetry. As Celan says, "carrying over [übertragen]" by metaphor may imply an unwillingness to "bear with [mittragen]" and to "endure [ertragen]" the poem. The thesis is divided into two main parts. The first consists of five distinct prolegomena which all address the mentioned variety of applications of the term "counter-figures", and especially the rejection or critique of either metaphor (by Aristotle, for instance) or the concept of metaphor (defined by Aristotle, and sometimes deemed "anti-poetic" by both theorists and poets). Even if we restrict ourselves to the traditional rhetorico-poetical terms, we may see how, for instance, metonymy can be a counter-figure for metaphor, allegory for symbol, and irony for any single trope or for any piece of discourse at all. The limits of figurality may indeed be located at these points of intersection between different types of tropes or figures, and even between figures or tropes and the "non-figurative trope" or "pseudo-figure" called catachresis. The second part, following on from the open-ended prolegomena, concentrates on Paul Celan's poetry and poetics. According to Celan, true poetry is "essentially anti-metaphoric". I argue that inasmuch as we are willing to pay attention to the "will" of the poetic images themselves (the tropes and metaphors in a poem) to be "carried ad absurdum", as Celan invites us to do, we may find alternative ways of reading poetry and approaching its "secret of the encounter", precisely when the traditional rhetorical instruments, and especially the notion of metaphor, become inapplicable or suspicious — and even where they still seem to impose themselves.
  • Järnefelt, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Do all adults – religious and nonreligious – have an automatic tendency to understand the origin of natural phenomena as purposefully created by some being? Previous research shows that creation beliefs do not only occur in the context of creation myths. Instead, somewhat independently from parental explanations, children rarely suggest physical-causal explanations but assume more often that nature is both purposefully functioning and created by some being. In empirical studies conducted in the theoretical framework of dual-process theory it has been noted that, despite their level of education or scientific expertise, adults continue to have a lifelong tendency to understand natural phenomena as purposefully functioning when they are forced to rely on their automatic level of cognitive processing. In the context of adults’ understanding of nature as created, previous research has thus far focused only on reflective reasoning. However, these studies imply that the conceptions of purposeful creation remain as a persistent feature of reasoning about the origin of natural phenomena. For example, adults have a common tendency to mix creation beliefs together with evolutionary ideas. Also, when explicitly creationist ideas are rejected, adults still often present misunderstandings of nature or the mechanism of natural selection as an agent that purposefully responds to individuals’ or populations’ needs. Does this imply that, as was the case with purposeful reasoning, intuitions of purposeful creation also remain active on the automatic level of cognitive processing? This hypothesis concerning the automatic roots of creation endorsement was tested in the methodological framework of experimental psychology. In the computer-based experiment participants assessed pictures of nature and answered whether they thought that some being had purposefully made the things in the pictures. One group of participants answered in a restricted time frame and was therefore forced to rely on their automatic reasoning whereas the other group of participants was given an opportunity to reflect on their own reasoning. Both Study 1 and Study 2 showed that even nonreligious participants had an increased tendency to understand natural phenomena as purposefully created when they were forced to rely on automatic reasoning. This suggested that even individuals who had practiced reasoning otherwise had an unavoidable automatic tendency to form intuitions about purposefully created natural phenomena. Their significantly more accurate performance with the control items showed that this result was not due to just general confusion under cognitive load. Also, the results from Study 3 specified that the participants in Study 1 and Study 2 did not just indiscriminately respond “yes” to everything, or did not similarly assess natural phenomena as human-made. In addition to this, three factors in reflective reasoning independently further strengthened the intuition of nature as purposefully created: a) an explicit belief in a constantly active creator God, b) an explicit belief in nature or the Earth as a being (Gaia), and c) a scientifically inaccurate view of natural selection as a need-based agentive force. Earlier research has suggested that understanding nature as purposefully created can be explained as an outcome of religious fundamentalism. Contrary to this, the current results suggest that this tendency seems to have its roots in automatic reasoning. Additionally, when assessing what further strengthens people’s tendency to assess nature as purposefully created, the current results show that this tendency does not become further emphasized only in consequence to explicitly believing in a creator God external to nature. Alternatively, it is also strengthened as a consequence of different kinds of agentive conceptions of nature and natural selection. These results do not only offer further empirical support for the previous suggestions concerning the link between automatic and religious reasoning but also suggest that reasoning in the religious context is just one example of the agent-based ideas people form effortlessly. For example these results also elucidate why scientific information about the origin of natural phenomena is often misunderstood in particular ways: to the mind that automatically assesses nature as purposefully functioning and purposefully created the idea of physical-causal processes is difficult to understand and learn.
  • Marttila, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis presents a corpus-linguistically oriented digital documentary edition of six 15th-century culinary recipe collections, known as the Potage Dyvers family, with an introduction to its historical context and an analysis of its dialectal and structural features, and defines an editorial framework for producing such editions for the purposes of corpus linguistic research. Traditionally historical corpora have been compiled from printed editions not originally designed to serve as corpus linguistic data. Recently, both the digitalisation of textual editing and the turning of corpus compilers towards original sources have blurred the boundaries between these two crafts, placing corpus compilers into an editorial role. Despite the fact that traditional editorial approaches have been recognised as largely incompatible with the needs of linguistic research, and the established methods of corpus encoding do not satisfactorily represent the documentary context of manuscript texts, no explicitly linguistic editorial approach has so far been designed for editing manuscript sources for use in corpora. Even most digital editions, despite their advanced representational capabilities, are literary or historical in orientation and thus do not provide an adequate model. The editorial framework described here and the edition based on it have been explicitly designed to answer the needs of historical corpus linguistics. First, it aims at faithfully modelling the manuscript as a historical artefact, including both its textual content and its visual and material paratext, whose communicative importance has also been recognised by many historical linguists. Second, it presents this model in a form which allows not only the study of both text and paratext using corpus linguistic methods, but also allows resulting analytical metadata to be linked back to the edition, shared with other scholars, and used as the basis for further study. The edition itself is provided as a digital appendix to the thesis in the form of both a digital data archive encoded in TEI XML and three editorial presentations of this data, and serves not only as a demonstration of the editorial approach, but also provides a valuable new research resource. The choice of material is based on the insight that utilitarian texts like recipes provide valuable material especially for historical pragmatics and discourse studies. As one of the first vernacular text types, recipes also provide an excellent opportunity to study the diachronic development of a single textual genre. The Potage Dyvers family is the second largest known family of Middle English recipe collections, surviving in six physically diverse manuscripts. Of these, four were edited in 1888 by conflating them into two collections, but their complex interrelationships have so far escaped systematic study. The structural analysis of the six Potage Dyvers versions indicates that the family, containing a total of 371 unique recipes, in fact consists of three sibling pairs of MSS. Two of these contain largely the same material but in a different order, while the third shares only a core of 89 recipes with the others, deriving a large number of recipes from other sources. In terms of their language, all of the six versions exhibit mainly Midlands forms and combine dialectally unmarked forms with more local variants from different areas, reflecting the 15th-century loss of dialectal distinctions which has not yet reached orthographic or morphological uniformity, and indicating possible metropolitan associations.
  • Manninen, Mikael A (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation focuses on Late Mesolithic (ca. 8450 6850 cal BP) lithic technological changes in the northernmost parts of Finland, Norway, and Sweden and on the relationship between these changes and the 8.2 ka climate event that was caused by a disruption in the North Atlantic Thermohaline circulation. The study uses a framework derived from Darwinian evolutionary theory and acknowledges the effects of both environmental constraints and socially transmitted information, i.e., culture, in the way lithic technology was organised in the studied region. The study discusses whether climatic cooling and its effects on the biotic environment could explain the way lithic technology and settlement patterns were reorganised during the Late Mesolithic. The dissertation takes an organisational approach to the study of past cultural change and seeks to understand changes in prehistoric material culture by studying lithic technology and settlement configuration using lithic technological, statistical, and spatial analyses. The results suggest that Late Mesolithic coastal communities were affected by a marked decrease in marine productivity that resulted from the cooling caused by the 8.2 ka event and a subsequent cold episode at ca. 7700 cal BP. It is concluded that the technological changes that occurred during the marine cooling were a result of developments that led to increased use of terrestrial resources and an accompanying long-distance coast/inland residential mobility pattern. The study contributes to a wider field of research into past climate change as a factor in prehistoric ecological, cultural, and behavioural change and provides reference material for studies on the impacts of future climate change on human communities. The results suggest that in northernmost Fennoscandia, the marine ecosystem is particularly sensitive to disturbances in the North Atlantic oceanographic system. In addition, the study provides new knowledge concerning the relationships between raw material availability, lithic technology, and culture. This new knowledge is widely applicable in research on the way lithic technology was organised in relation to other behavioural and organisational dimensions in past human adaptations.
  • Richter-Vapaatalo, Ulrike (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Da hatte das Pferd die Nüstern voll. Gebrauch und Funktion von Phraseologie im Kinderbuch. Untersuchungen zu Erich Kästner und anderen Autoren. [Da hatte das Pferd die Nüstern voll. Use and Function of Phraseology in Children’s Literature. Studies in the Works of Erich Kästner and Other Authors.] Idioms are widely believed to be difficult for children to understand. Nevertheless, children’s literature shows abundant use of phraseological units in a wide variety of different functions. This study investigates the use and functions of idiomatic phraseology in German children’s literature starting with Erich Kästner (1899-1976) up until the present. On the basis of three different corpora (905 instances of idiom use from six Kästner children’s books, 333 examples of the use of idioms from two of Kästner’s novels for adults, and 580 idioms extracted from six German children’s books by different authors), and using the methodology and concepts of text linguistics, this study attempts to answer the following questions: How many and what kind of phraseological units are used in the texts? By what means are they embedded into the context, what kind of contextual relations do they form? What are the differences in the use of idioms between the different children’s books by one author (Kästner), between the children’s books and the adult novels by Kästner and between the different authors of children’s books? The analysis indicates that the use of phraseology in children’s literature is primarily a feature of the individual authors – different ‘phraseological profiles’ can be constructed. For example, Kästner not only uses idioms frequently, but also conspicuously, in plays on words, modifications, and contextual relations of all kinds. It can be stated that the extensive use of paraphrases to the idioms is common to more or less all of the children’s books that were analyzed for this study. For Kästner a noticeable difference between the use of paraphrases in the children’s books and in the novels can be discerned. Thus a consideration of the children’s (phraseological) competence seems to be an inherent constituent of children’s literature.
  • Wessman, Anna (Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys ry, 2010)
    The thesis is connected with death, memory and ancestor commemoration during the Merovingian Period, the Viking Age and the beginning of the Crusade Period (AD 550-1150) in Finland. During this time, cremation was the dominant burial rite. It was not until the end of the Viking Age that inhumation became more common but both cremations and inhumations are performed even at the same sites throughout the time. Three different burial types 1) cremation cemeteries below level ground, 2) inhumation burials and 3) water burials are discussed in five articles. I consider these burial forms from three different viewpoints; collectivity-individuality, visibility-invisibility and cremation-inhumation. The thesis also discusses the topics of memory, memorialisation and monument re-use, which have been neglected subjects in Finnish archaeology until now. Both cremation cemeteries below level ground and inhumation burials have been re-used during their time of usage, and on most occasions are situated in a landscape that is overlaid by other monuments as well. The main questions of the thesis are: What kinds of ritual behaviour can we detect in the burials during the period (AD 550-1150)? How did people perceive the moraine hills that functioned as burial places? What kind of re-use can be detected in the Iron Age cemeteries? Why have ancient sites and artefacts been re-used? This thesis shows that it is possible to claim that both artefact and site re-use is a much more widespread phenomenon than has previously been thought in Finnish archaeology. It is also a conscious and deliberate behaviour that can be related to an ancestor cult and commemoration of the dead. The funerary rituals during this time period show great variation and complex, both regionally and nationally. Not only have the dead been buried using elaborate rituals, they have also been mourned and commemorated in intricate ways that proves that death was not an end product, but the start of something new.
  • Granvik, Anton (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    El presente estudio supone un intento de describir y analizar el uso de la preposición "de" sobre la base de un corpus diacrónico, con énfasis en las diferentes relaciones semánticas que establece. Partiendo de un total de más de 16.000 casos de "de" hemos establecido 48 categorías de uso, que corresponden a cuatro tipos de construcción sintáctica, a saber, el uso de "de" como complemento de nombres (CN), verbos (CV), adjetivos (CA) y, finalmente, su uso como núcleo de expresiones adverbiales independientes (CI). El estudio consta de tres partes fundamentales. En la parte I, se introduce la Lingüística Cognitiva, que constituye la base teórica esencial del trabajo. Más exactamente, se introducen conceptos como la teoría del prototipo, la teoría de las metáforas conceptuales y la gramática cognitiva, especialmente las ideas de "punto de referencia" y "relación intrínseca" (Langacker 1995, 1999). La parte II incluye el análisis de las 48 categorías. En esta parte se presentan y comentan casi 2.000 ejemplos del uso contextual de "de" extraídos del corpus diacrónico. Los resultados más importantes del análisis pueden resumirse en los siguientes puntos: El uso de "de" sigue siendo esencialmente el mismo en la actualidad que hace 800 años, en el sentido de que todas las 48 categorías se identifican en todas las épocas del corpus. El uso de "de" como complemento nominal va aumentando, al contrario de lo que ocurre con su uso como complemento verbal. En el contexto nominal son especialmente las relaciones posesivas más abstractas las que se hacen más frecuentes, mientras que en el contexto verbal las relaciones que se hacen menos frecuentes son las de separación/alejamiento, causa, agente y partitivo indefinido. Destaca la importancia del siglo XVIII como época de transición entre un primer estado de las cosas y otro posterior, en especial en relación con el carácter cada vez más abstracto de las relaciones posesivas así como con la disminución de las categorías adverbales de causa, agente y partitivo. Pese a la variación en el contexto inmediato de uso, el núcleo semántico de "de" se mantiene inalterado. La parte III toma como punto de partida los resultados del análisis de la parte II, tratando de deslindar el aporte semántico de la preposición "de" a su contexto de uso del valor de la relación en conjunto. Así, recurriendo a la metodología para determinar el significado básico y la metodología para determinar lo que constituyen significados distintos de una preposición (Tyler , Evans 2003a, 2003b), se llega a la hipótesis de que "de" posee cuatro significados básicos, a saber, 'punto de partida', 'tema/asunto', 'parte/todo' y 'posesión'. Esta hipótesis, basada en las metodologías de Tyler y Evans y en los resultados del análisis de corpus, se intenta verificar empíricamente mediante el uso de dos cuestionarios destinados a averiguar hasta qué punto las distinciones semánticas a las que se llega por vía teórica son reconocidas por los hablantes nativos de la lengua (cf. Raukko 2003). El resultado conjunto de los dos acercamientos tanto refuerza como especifica la hipótesis. Los datos que arroja el análisis de los cuestionarios parecen reforzar la idea de que el núcleo semántico de "de" es complejo, constando de los cuatro valores mencionados. Sin embargo, cada uno de estos valores básicos constituye un prototipo local, en torno al cual se construye un complejo de matices semánticos derivados del prototipo. La idea final es que los hablantes son conscientes de los cuatro postulados valores básicos, pero que también distinguen matices más detallados, como son las ideas de 'causa', 'agente', 'instrumento', 'finalidad', 'cualidad', etc. Es decir, "de" constituye un elemento polisémico complejo cuya estructura semántica puede describirse como una semejanza de familia centrada en cuatro valores básicos en torno a los cuales se encuentra una serie de matices más específicos, que también constituyen valores propios de la preposición. Creemos, además, que esta caracterización semántica es válida para todas las épocas de la historia del español, con unas pequeñas modificaciones en el peso relativo de los distintos matices, lo cual está relacionado con la observada variación diacrónica en el uso de "de".