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  • Holm, Ruurik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Constructive (intuitionist, anti-realist) semantics has thus far been lacking an adequate concept of truth in infinity concerning factual (i.e., empirical, non-mathematical) sentences. One consequence of this problem is the difficulty of incorporating inductive reasoning in constructive semantics. It is not possible to formulate a notion for probable truth in infinity if there is no adequate notion of what truth in infinity is. One needs a notion of a constructive possible world based on sensory experience. Moreover, a constructive probability measure must be defined over these constructively possible empirical worlds. This study defines a particular kind of approach to the concept of truth in infinity for Rudolf Carnap's inductive logic. The new approach is based on truth in the consecutive finite domains of individuals. This concept will be given a constructive interpretation. What can be verifiably said about an empirical statement with respect to this concept of truth, will be explained, for which purpose a constructive notion of epistemic probability will be introduced. The aim of this study is also to improve Carnap's inductive logic. The study addresses the problem of justifying the use of an "inductivist" method in Carnap's lambda-continuum. A correction rule for adjusting the inductive method itself in the course of obtaining evidence will be introduced. Together with the constructive interpretation of probability, the correction rule yields positive prior probabilities for universal generalizations in infinite domains.
  • Yli-Jyrä, Anssi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
    This dissertation is a theoretical study of finite-state based grammars used in natural language processing. The study is concerned with certain varieties of finite-state intersection grammars (FSIG) whose parsers define regular relations between surface strings and annotated surface strings. The study focuses on the following three aspects of FSIGs: (i) Computational complexity of grammars under limiting parameters In the study, the computational complexity in practical natural language processing is approached through performance-motivated parameters on structural complexity. Each parameter splits some grammars in the Chomsky hierarchy into an infinite set of subset approximations. When the approximations are regular, they seem to fall into the logarithmic-time hierarchyand the dot-depth hierarchy of star-free regular languages. This theoretical result is important and possibly relevant to grammar induction. (ii) Linguistically applicable structural representations Related to the linguistically applicable representations of syntactic entities, the study contains new bracketing schemes that cope with dependency links, left- and right branching, crossing dependencies and spurious ambiguity. New grammar representations that resemble the Chomsky-Schützenberger representation of context-free languages are presented in the study, and they include, in particular, representations for mildly context-sensitive non-projective dependency grammars whose performance-motivated approximations are linear time parseable. (iii) Compilation and simplification of linguistic constraints Efficient compilation methods for certain regular operations such as generalized restriction are presented. These include an elegant algorithm that has already been adopted as the approach in a proprietary finite-state tool. In addition to the compilation methods, an approach to on-the-fly simplifications of finite-state representations for parse forests is sketched. These findings are tightly coupled with each other under the theme of locality. I argue that the findings help us to develop better, linguistically oriented formalisms for finite-state parsing and to develop more efficient parsers for natural language processing. Avainsanat: syntactic parsing, finite-state automata, dependency grammar, first-order logic, linguistic performance, star-free regular approximations, mildly context-sensitive grammars
  • Airola, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This dissertation discusses the relation between lexis, grammar and textual organisation. The major premise adopted here is that grammatical structures are motivated both by semantic potential of words and by text-pragmatic demands. In other words, it is argued that grammatical structures form the interface between lexis and textual organisation, and that linguistic analysis should not concentrate on analysing grammatical structures in isolation, independent of context. From this point of view, grammatical structures are said to be 'well-formed' only in relation to the context they occur in. This study is based on a corpus of three million words of recent Finnish fiction from which all the occurrences of the coordinated verb pairs ([V ja V] -pairs]) containing one of the intransitive motion verbs 'lähteä' (to go), 'mennä' (to go), 'päästä' (to get into), 'nousta' (to get up), and 'laskea' (to go down), were extracted. This set of verbs was established using methods described in earlier work by Lagus & Airola (2001, and 2005). The quantitative analysis of the [V ja V] -pairs was used to carry out a qualitative analysis of individual texts. In analysing the texts, an analogy was made between musical and textual structure. The results show among others that individual verbs specialise in different functions when occurring in coordinated verb pairs. One aspect was that those verb pairs including the verb 'nousta' tend to function as markers of textual boundaries and thus reflect the organisation of narrative substance. The verb 'mennä' has weakened literal meanings, but strengthened modal meanings when occurring in [V ja V] -pairs, and, in many cases, the verb 'lähteä' in [V ja V] -pairs function as an aspectual marker rather than a pure verb of motion. That there is a gradient from the concrete sense of motion into more differentiated senses of a verb in [V ja V] -pairs alongside the structure-creating potential of the [V ja V] -pairs themselves suggest an ongoing grammaticalisation process of the patterns discussed.
  • Räsänen, Pajari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Titled "An Essay on Antimetaphoric Resistance", the dissertation investigates what is here being called "Counter-figures": a term which has in this context a certain variety of applications. Any other-than-image or other-than-figure, anything that cannot be exhausted by figuration (and that is, more or less, anything at all, except perhaps the reproducible images and figures themselves) can be considered "counter-figurative" with regard to the formation of images and figures, ideas and schemas, "any graven image, or any likeness of any thing". Singularity and radical alterity, as well as temporality and its peculiar mode of uniqueness are key issues here, and an ethical dimension is implied by, or intertwined with, the aesthetic. In terms borrowed from Paul Celan's "Meridian" speech, poetry may "allow the most idiosyncratic quality of the Other, its time, to participate in the dialogue". This connection between singularity, alterity and temporality is one of the reasons why Celan so strongly objects to the application of the traditional concept of metaphor to poetry. As Celan says, "carrying over [übertragen]" by metaphor may imply an unwillingness to "bear with [mittragen]" and to "endure [ertragen]" the poem. The thesis is divided into two main parts. The first consists of five distinct prolegomena which all address the mentioned variety of applications of the term "counter-figures", and especially the rejection or critique of either metaphor (by Aristotle, for instance) or the concept of metaphor (defined by Aristotle, and sometimes deemed "anti-poetic" by both theorists and poets). Even if we restrict ourselves to the traditional rhetorico-poetical terms, we may see how, for instance, metonymy can be a counter-figure for metaphor, allegory for symbol, and irony for any single trope or for any piece of discourse at all. The limits of figurality may indeed be located at these points of intersection between different types of tropes or figures, and even between figures or tropes and the "non-figurative trope" or "pseudo-figure" called catachresis. The second part, following on from the open-ended prolegomena, concentrates on Paul Celan's poetry and poetics. According to Celan, true poetry is "essentially anti-metaphoric". I argue that inasmuch as we are willing to pay attention to the "will" of the poetic images themselves (the tropes and metaphors in a poem) to be "carried ad absurdum", as Celan invites us to do, we may find alternative ways of reading poetry and approaching its "secret of the encounter", precisely when the traditional rhetorical instruments, and especially the notion of metaphor, become inapplicable or suspicious — and even where they still seem to impose themselves.
  • Järnefelt, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Do all adults – religious and nonreligious – have an automatic tendency to understand the origin of natural phenomena as purposefully created by some being? Previous research shows that creation beliefs do not only occur in the context of creation myths. Instead, somewhat independently from parental explanations, children rarely suggest physical-causal explanations but assume more often that nature is both purposefully functioning and created by some being. In empirical studies conducted in the theoretical framework of dual-process theory it has been noted that, despite their level of education or scientific expertise, adults continue to have a lifelong tendency to understand natural phenomena as purposefully functioning when they are forced to rely on their automatic level of cognitive processing. In the context of adults’ understanding of nature as created, previous research has thus far focused only on reflective reasoning. However, these studies imply that the conceptions of purposeful creation remain as a persistent feature of reasoning about the origin of natural phenomena. For example, adults have a common tendency to mix creation beliefs together with evolutionary ideas. Also, when explicitly creationist ideas are rejected, adults still often present misunderstandings of nature or the mechanism of natural selection as an agent that purposefully responds to individuals’ or populations’ needs. Does this imply that, as was the case with purposeful reasoning, intuitions of purposeful creation also remain active on the automatic level of cognitive processing? This hypothesis concerning the automatic roots of creation endorsement was tested in the methodological framework of experimental psychology. In the computer-based experiment participants assessed pictures of nature and answered whether they thought that some being had purposefully made the things in the pictures. One group of participants answered in a restricted time frame and was therefore forced to rely on their automatic reasoning whereas the other group of participants was given an opportunity to reflect on their own reasoning. Both Study 1 and Study 2 showed that even nonreligious participants had an increased tendency to understand natural phenomena as purposefully created when they were forced to rely on automatic reasoning. This suggested that even individuals who had practiced reasoning otherwise had an unavoidable automatic tendency to form intuitions about purposefully created natural phenomena. Their significantly more accurate performance with the control items showed that this result was not due to just general confusion under cognitive load. Also, the results from Study 3 specified that the participants in Study 1 and Study 2 did not just indiscriminately respond “yes” to everything, or did not similarly assess natural phenomena as human-made. In addition to this, three factors in reflective reasoning independently further strengthened the intuition of nature as purposefully created: a) an explicit belief in a constantly active creator God, b) an explicit belief in nature or the Earth as a being (Gaia), and c) a scientifically inaccurate view of natural selection as a need-based agentive force. Earlier research has suggested that understanding nature as purposefully created can be explained as an outcome of religious fundamentalism. Contrary to this, the current results suggest that this tendency seems to have its roots in automatic reasoning. Additionally, when assessing what further strengthens people’s tendency to assess nature as purposefully created, the current results show that this tendency does not become further emphasized only in consequence to explicitly believing in a creator God external to nature. Alternatively, it is also strengthened as a consequence of different kinds of agentive conceptions of nature and natural selection. These results do not only offer further empirical support for the previous suggestions concerning the link between automatic and religious reasoning but also suggest that reasoning in the religious context is just one example of the agent-based ideas people form effortlessly. For example these results also elucidate why scientific information about the origin of natural phenomena is often misunderstood in particular ways: to the mind that automatically assesses nature as purposefully functioning and purposefully created the idea of physical-causal processes is difficult to understand and learn.
  • Marttila, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis presents a corpus-linguistically oriented digital documentary edition of six 15th-century culinary recipe collections, known as the Potage Dyvers family, with an introduction to its historical context and an analysis of its dialectal and structural features, and defines an editorial framework for producing such editions for the purposes of corpus linguistic research. Traditionally historical corpora have been compiled from printed editions not originally designed to serve as corpus linguistic data. Recently, both the digitalisation of textual editing and the turning of corpus compilers towards original sources have blurred the boundaries between these two crafts, placing corpus compilers into an editorial role. Despite the fact that traditional editorial approaches have been recognised as largely incompatible with the needs of linguistic research, and the established methods of corpus encoding do not satisfactorily represent the documentary context of manuscript texts, no explicitly linguistic editorial approach has so far been designed for editing manuscript sources for use in corpora. Even most digital editions, despite their advanced representational capabilities, are literary or historical in orientation and thus do not provide an adequate model. The editorial framework described here and the edition based on it have been explicitly designed to answer the needs of historical corpus linguistics. First, it aims at faithfully modelling the manuscript as a historical artefact, including both its textual content and its visual and material paratext, whose communicative importance has also been recognised by many historical linguists. Second, it presents this model in a form which allows not only the study of both text and paratext using corpus linguistic methods, but also allows resulting analytical metadata to be linked back to the edition, shared with other scholars, and used as the basis for further study. The edition itself is provided as a digital appendix to the thesis in the form of both a digital data archive encoded in TEI XML and three editorial presentations of this data, and serves not only as a demonstration of the editorial approach, but also provides a valuable new research resource. The choice of material is based on the insight that utilitarian texts like recipes provide valuable material especially for historical pragmatics and discourse studies. As one of the first vernacular text types, recipes also provide an excellent opportunity to study the diachronic development of a single textual genre. The Potage Dyvers family is the second largest known family of Middle English recipe collections, surviving in six physically diverse manuscripts. Of these, four were edited in 1888 by conflating them into two collections, but their complex interrelationships have so far escaped systematic study. The structural analysis of the six Potage Dyvers versions indicates that the family, containing a total of 371 unique recipes, in fact consists of three sibling pairs of MSS. Two of these contain largely the same material but in a different order, while the third shares only a core of 89 recipes with the others, deriving a large number of recipes from other sources. In terms of their language, all of the six versions exhibit mainly Midlands forms and combine dialectally unmarked forms with more local variants from different areas, reflecting the 15th-century loss of dialectal distinctions which has not yet reached orthographic or morphological uniformity, and indicating possible metropolitan associations.
  • Manninen, Mikael A (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation focuses on Late Mesolithic (ca. 8450 6850 cal BP) lithic technological changes in the northernmost parts of Finland, Norway, and Sweden and on the relationship between these changes and the 8.2 ka climate event that was caused by a disruption in the North Atlantic Thermohaline circulation. The study uses a framework derived from Darwinian evolutionary theory and acknowledges the effects of both environmental constraints and socially transmitted information, i.e., culture, in the way lithic technology was organised in the studied region. The study discusses whether climatic cooling and its effects on the biotic environment could explain the way lithic technology and settlement patterns were reorganised during the Late Mesolithic. The dissertation takes an organisational approach to the study of past cultural change and seeks to understand changes in prehistoric material culture by studying lithic technology and settlement configuration using lithic technological, statistical, and spatial analyses. The results suggest that Late Mesolithic coastal communities were affected by a marked decrease in marine productivity that resulted from the cooling caused by the 8.2 ka event and a subsequent cold episode at ca. 7700 cal BP. It is concluded that the technological changes that occurred during the marine cooling were a result of developments that led to increased use of terrestrial resources and an accompanying long-distance coast/inland residential mobility pattern. The study contributes to a wider field of research into past climate change as a factor in prehistoric ecological, cultural, and behavioural change and provides reference material for studies on the impacts of future climate change on human communities. The results suggest that in northernmost Fennoscandia, the marine ecosystem is particularly sensitive to disturbances in the North Atlantic oceanographic system. In addition, the study provides new knowledge concerning the relationships between raw material availability, lithic technology, and culture. This new knowledge is widely applicable in research on the way lithic technology was organised in relation to other behavioural and organisational dimensions in past human adaptations.
  • Richter-Vapaatalo, Ulrike (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Da hatte das Pferd die Nüstern voll. Gebrauch und Funktion von Phraseologie im Kinderbuch. Untersuchungen zu Erich Kästner und anderen Autoren. [Da hatte das Pferd die Nüstern voll. Use and Function of Phraseology in Children’s Literature. Studies in the Works of Erich Kästner and Other Authors.] Idioms are widely believed to be difficult for children to understand. Nevertheless, children’s literature shows abundant use of phraseological units in a wide variety of different functions. This study investigates the use and functions of idiomatic phraseology in German children’s literature starting with Erich Kästner (1899-1976) up until the present. On the basis of three different corpora (905 instances of idiom use from six Kästner children’s books, 333 examples of the use of idioms from two of Kästner’s novels for adults, and 580 idioms extracted from six German children’s books by different authors), and using the methodology and concepts of text linguistics, this study attempts to answer the following questions: How many and what kind of phraseological units are used in the texts? By what means are they embedded into the context, what kind of contextual relations do they form? What are the differences in the use of idioms between the different children’s books by one author (Kästner), between the children’s books and the adult novels by Kästner and between the different authors of children’s books? The analysis indicates that the use of phraseology in children’s literature is primarily a feature of the individual authors – different ‘phraseological profiles’ can be constructed. For example, Kästner not only uses idioms frequently, but also conspicuously, in plays on words, modifications, and contextual relations of all kinds. It can be stated that the extensive use of paraphrases to the idioms is common to more or less all of the children’s books that were analyzed for this study. For Kästner a noticeable difference between the use of paraphrases in the children’s books and in the novels can be discerned. Thus a consideration of the children’s (phraseological) competence seems to be an inherent constituent of children’s literature.
  • Wessman, Anna (Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys ry, 2010)
    The thesis is connected with death, memory and ancestor commemoration during the Merovingian Period, the Viking Age and the beginning of the Crusade Period (AD 550-1150) in Finland. During this time, cremation was the dominant burial rite. It was not until the end of the Viking Age that inhumation became more common but both cremations and inhumations are performed even at the same sites throughout the time. Three different burial types 1) cremation cemeteries below level ground, 2) inhumation burials and 3) water burials are discussed in five articles. I consider these burial forms from three different viewpoints; collectivity-individuality, visibility-invisibility and cremation-inhumation. The thesis also discusses the topics of memory, memorialisation and monument re-use, which have been neglected subjects in Finnish archaeology until now. Both cremation cemeteries below level ground and inhumation burials have been re-used during their time of usage, and on most occasions are situated in a landscape that is overlaid by other monuments as well. The main questions of the thesis are: What kinds of ritual behaviour can we detect in the burials during the period (AD 550-1150)? How did people perceive the moraine hills that functioned as burial places? What kind of re-use can be detected in the Iron Age cemeteries? Why have ancient sites and artefacts been re-used? This thesis shows that it is possible to claim that both artefact and site re-use is a much more widespread phenomenon than has previously been thought in Finnish archaeology. It is also a conscious and deliberate behaviour that can be related to an ancestor cult and commemoration of the dead. The funerary rituals during this time period show great variation and complex, both regionally and nationally. Not only have the dead been buried using elaborate rituals, they have also been mourned and commemorated in intricate ways that proves that death was not an end product, but the start of something new.
  • Granvik, Anton (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    El presente estudio supone un intento de describir y analizar el uso de la preposición "de" sobre la base de un corpus diacrónico, con énfasis en las diferentes relaciones semánticas que establece. Partiendo de un total de más de 16.000 casos de "de" hemos establecido 48 categorías de uso, que corresponden a cuatro tipos de construcción sintáctica, a saber, el uso de "de" como complemento de nombres (CN), verbos (CV), adjetivos (CA) y, finalmente, su uso como núcleo de expresiones adverbiales independientes (CI). El estudio consta de tres partes fundamentales. En la parte I, se introduce la Lingüística Cognitiva, que constituye la base teórica esencial del trabajo. Más exactamente, se introducen conceptos como la teoría del prototipo, la teoría de las metáforas conceptuales y la gramática cognitiva, especialmente las ideas de "punto de referencia" y "relación intrínseca" (Langacker 1995, 1999). La parte II incluye el análisis de las 48 categorías. En esta parte se presentan y comentan casi 2.000 ejemplos del uso contextual de "de" extraídos del corpus diacrónico. Los resultados más importantes del análisis pueden resumirse en los siguientes puntos: El uso de "de" sigue siendo esencialmente el mismo en la actualidad que hace 800 años, en el sentido de que todas las 48 categorías se identifican en todas las épocas del corpus. El uso de "de" como complemento nominal va aumentando, al contrario de lo que ocurre con su uso como complemento verbal. En el contexto nominal son especialmente las relaciones posesivas más abstractas las que se hacen más frecuentes, mientras que en el contexto verbal las relaciones que se hacen menos frecuentes son las de separación/alejamiento, causa, agente y partitivo indefinido. Destaca la importancia del siglo XVIII como época de transición entre un primer estado de las cosas y otro posterior, en especial en relación con el carácter cada vez más abstracto de las relaciones posesivas así como con la disminución de las categorías adverbales de causa, agente y partitivo. Pese a la variación en el contexto inmediato de uso, el núcleo semántico de "de" se mantiene inalterado. La parte III toma como punto de partida los resultados del análisis de la parte II, tratando de deslindar el aporte semántico de la preposición "de" a su contexto de uso del valor de la relación en conjunto. Así, recurriendo a la metodología para determinar el significado básico y la metodología para determinar lo que constituyen significados distintos de una preposición (Tyler , Evans 2003a, 2003b), se llega a la hipótesis de que "de" posee cuatro significados básicos, a saber, 'punto de partida', 'tema/asunto', 'parte/todo' y 'posesión'. Esta hipótesis, basada en las metodologías de Tyler y Evans y en los resultados del análisis de corpus, se intenta verificar empíricamente mediante el uso de dos cuestionarios destinados a averiguar hasta qué punto las distinciones semánticas a las que se llega por vía teórica son reconocidas por los hablantes nativos de la lengua (cf. Raukko 2003). El resultado conjunto de los dos acercamientos tanto refuerza como especifica la hipótesis. Los datos que arroja el análisis de los cuestionarios parecen reforzar la idea de que el núcleo semántico de "de" es complejo, constando de los cuatro valores mencionados. Sin embargo, cada uno de estos valores básicos constituye un prototipo local, en torno al cual se construye un complejo de matices semánticos derivados del prototipo. La idea final es que los hablantes son conscientes de los cuatro postulados valores básicos, pero que también distinguen matices más detallados, como son las ideas de 'causa', 'agente', 'instrumento', 'finalidad', 'cualidad', etc. Es decir, "de" constituye un elemento polisémico complejo cuya estructura semántica puede describirse como una semejanza de familia centrada en cuatro valores básicos en torno a los cuales se encuentra una serie de matices más específicos, que también constituyen valores propios de la preposición. Creemos, además, que esta caracterización semántica es válida para todas las épocas de la historia del español, con unas pequeñas modificaciones en el peso relativo de los distintos matices, lo cual está relacionado con la observada variación diacrónica en el uso de "de".
  • Kepsu, Kasper Eskil Olavi (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, 2014)
    The Swedish province of Ingria was a turbulent region in the 17th century. This thesis examines the position of the province in the Swedish Empire, mainly by investigating the relations between peasants and authorities. In addition, this thesis discusses other themes, such as the reduction of the estates, the initiation of tax farming, the manorial economy, the character of Ingria as a border region, and the objective of the Swedish authorities to unify its provinces to the realm. Sweden was a typical conglomerate state that comprised different territories. This thesis demonstrates that military competition between states was the main driving force in the early modern European state building process. Ingria had a pivotal military importance for Sweden as a buffer zone against Russia. The income that the state gained out of the reduction and the initiation of tax farming was almost entirely invested in Ingrian fortresses. The Crown also attempted to integrate Ingria closer to the realm. Tax farming demonstrates nevertheless that the Crown was not strong enough to carry out a coherent integration process. Thus Ingria was still treated as a province. During the 1680s, there were numerous quarrels between peasants and leaseholders who administrated the manors. This thesis argues that bargaining was an essential part of the political culture in the Swedish provinces. The Crown officials negotiated with the peasants and took their opinions into account. Peasants were irritated by the heavy tax burden, the obligation to statute labour, the arbitrariness of the manorial officials, and the tax farming system itself. Peasants used both legal and illegal methods in trying to get a fixed rent and to get rid of the tax farming system. A typical legal method was to write complaints. However, there were many forms of illegal resistance from collective strikes to violent assaults. The mobility of the Ingrian population made it very difficult for the authorities to control the region. This study shows that the Ingrian peasants used borders in a very tactical manner in order to avoid various obligations both from the Crown and the manors. This thesis sheds new light on the early modern Swedish state. Previous studies perceive Sweden as a representative example of a power state. This thesis however shows that in the periphery the Swedish Empire was more like a powerless state.
  • Albjerg, Asger (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Professor Knud Lyne Rahbek was a novelist, playwright, poet, magazine editor, journalist, socialite person, host of the Bakkehus , historian, theatre manager, translator, publisher etc., but his versatility either side of 1800 is better known than read and more despised than understood. In terms of methodology, the thesis is based on biographical, historical and philological research, while at the same time making use of formalistic and close reading methods. This study begins and ends with 7th of February 1800, when Kamma and Knud Lyne Rahbek join the exiled P.A. Heiberg at the inn near Frederiksberg Castle. What falls between is an interpretation of Rahbek s works in the service of democracy, human rights and freedom of the press as a pragmatic navigation between activities - both subversive and legitimate. Posterity mistook this range as mere spinelessness, and Rahbek was relegated to the literary and historical margins as an anachronism and as a jack of all trades, who did not know what he really wanted and therefore flitted about in so many fields just to be present. But Rahbek s problem was not one of standpoint, but rather how to find a balance between totalizing attitudes and confrontations between rebellious idealism and deep-rooted absolutism, without foregoing his belief in enlightenment, humanism and tolerance. In this way, and also through his personal conduct, which at that time was seen as jovial bonhommie, he made his contribution to the development of modern democratic Denmark in the full awareness of a popular, peaceful and down-to-earth community. Rahbek s principal work about the event of the French Revolution, which provides the focus for the above, is Camill og Constance. Et Revolutions Skilderie (1799). For today s reader, the novel about the revolution is an obvious example of a historical novel, as it does not only provide fictionalized information about past events placing them in a generally accepted perspective of historical development, but also gives the characters qualities, which, in Rahbek s words, allows the real events to influence the fictional characters. From this point of view, the novel of the revolution has shifted the benchmark for the first real historical novel on the European literary scene back by fifteen years. Lacking the aura so easily foisted on fearless iconoclasts or tragic losers, Rahbek s contribution may seem modest in spite of its enormous volume; but only when it is not evaluated in its full context, which is the development of Denmark towards an international democratic society.
  • Marjanen, Jani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Eighteenth-century Europe saw the emergence and spread of organizations known as economic societies which aimed to improve the economic basis of their respective countries. The study traces the rise and decline of the discourse of economic patriotism within these societies. Special emphasis is placed on the Finnish Economic Society (founded 1797) and its use of patriotic vocabulary first within the Swedish realm, and, after 1809, within the newly founded Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire. The primary methodological inspiration is Begriffsgeschichte (conceptual history) as formulated by Reinhart Koselleck. The study also draws from Cambridge-style contextual analysis of historical texts á la Quentin Skinner. Conceptual change and rhetorical innovation are seen both as mirroring changes in society as well as vehicles for historical change. Thus, the emphasis is on understanding the political and economic rhetoric employed within and outside the economic societies. Further, the study draws from the emerging field of transnational history. The main sources of the study are the economic societies published documents, particularly from the Finnish Economic Society. To contextualize the rhetoric in the documents, newspaper texts and other relevant publications from the period have been looked at. The study commences by charting the emergence and spread of economic societies in Europe and the overseas colonies of European powers. The first societies of this kind were founded in Britain and Ireland in the 1720s and 1730s. A second wave was established in the wake of the Seven Years War in most of continental Europe, whereas the era of the French Revolution can be seen as a third wave. Although the societies differed regionally, they generally combined the following three elements: 1) economic reform initiatives, 2) republican patriotic rhetoric and 3) the organizational form of a voluntary association. The study proceeds by addressing the radicalization and decline of the language of economic patriotism in Finland. This language was to be outrivaled from the 1830s onwards by the new dominant discourse of nation, culture and language as the basis of national improvement. The study traces this shift in the Finnish context and relates it to the development of the patriotic discourse as well as economic societies in neighboring areas.
  • Hirvi-Ijäs, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The Gesture of Exposure On the presentation of the work of art in the modern art exhibition The topic of this dissertation is the presentation of art works in the modern art exhibition as being the established and conventionalized form of art encounter. It investigates the possibility of a theorization of the art exhibition as a separate object for research, and attempts to examine the relationship between the art work and its presentation in a modern art exhibition. The study takes its point of departure in the area vaguely defined as exhibition studies, and in the lack of a general problematization of the analytical tools used for closer examination of the modern art exhibition. Another lacking aspect is a closer consideration of what happens to the work of art when it is exposed in an art exhibition. The aim of the dissertation is to find a set of concepts that can be used for further theorization The art exhibition is here treated, on the one hand, as an act of exposure, as a showing gesture. On the other hand, the art exhibition is seen as a spatiality, as a space that is produced in the act of showing. Both aspects are seen to be intimately involved in knowledge production. The dissertation is divided into four parts, in which different aspects of the art exhibition are analyzed using different theoretical approaches. The first part uses the archaeological model of Michel Foucault, and discusses the exhibition as a discursive formation based on communicative activity. The second part analyses the derived concepts of gesture and space. This leads to the proposition of three metaphorical spatialities the frame, the agora and the threshold which are seen as providing a possibility for a further extension of the theory of exhibitions. The third part extends the problematization of the relationship between the individual work of art and its exposure through the ideas of Walter Benjamin and Maurice Blanchot. The fourth part carries out a close reading of three presentations from the modern era in order to further examine the relationship between the work of art and its presentation, using the tools that have been developed during the study. In the concluding section, it is possible to see clearer borderlines and conditions for the development of an exhibition theory. The concepts that have been analysed and developed into tools are shown to be useful, and the examples take the discussion into a consideration of the altered premises for the encounter with the postmodern work of art.
  • Kauppinen, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study discusses the language, especially the communicative structures, of Greek dialogue epigrams. The central research questions include: Who are the speakers? How are they identified? How does the recipient know when the speaker changes? How is the turn-division implied? What are the functions of the speakers? In the study, all the dialogue verse inscriptions are collected and divided according to typology that was created for this study and which is based on the pair structure. The most common adjacency pair of dialogue epigrams is a question answer pair, and many of the elements studied here are features of question structures, but other pairs, such as greeting pairs, are also taken into account. The dialogues contain either one adjacency pair (type 1), several of them (type 2) or longer, often narrative units that form pair-like structures (type 3). The types, their variants and features of the language characteristic of each are discussed using examples. Elements such as addresses, imperatives and particles are central to my argument, and speaker roles and pair structure variants are also discussed. Non-inscriptional epigrams are given as parallels for each type, and the mutual influence between them and the verse inscriptions is discussed using examples. The reception situation and possible performance of the epigrams is also discussed, and on the basis of various examples, it is stated that the representation of the speakers often implies the complex reception situation, part of which was most probably reading the epigram aloud. Epigraphic methods are used and combined, and the linguistic aspect brings a new perspective to epigraphic studies. The comparison of the verse inscriptions and the literary ones contributes to ongoing discussions on the epigram genre and its inscriptional counterparts. The material discussed is mainly from the Roman period, a phase less well discussed in recent epigram studies, and the study thus adds to our knowledge of the genre and the mutual influence between the post-Hellenistic verse inscriptions and non-inscriptional epigrams.
  • Alho, Marjut (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This dissertation deals with the terminology of the Euro currency. Its aims are to determine the characteristics of the designations in a certain LSP and to discover whether the recommendations and rules that have been given to the formation of designations and 'ideal' designations have any influence on the usage of the designations. The characteristics analysed include length of the designation, part of speech, form, formation method, constancy, monosemy, suitability to a concept system and degree of specialty. The study analyses the actual usage of the designations in texts and the implementation of the designations. The study is an adaptation of a terminometric survey and uses concept analysis and quantitative analysis as its basic methods. The frequency of each characteristic is measured in terms of statistics. It is assumed that the 'ideality' of a designation influences its usage, for example that if a designation is short, it is used more than its longer rivals (synonyms). The results are analysed in a corpus consisting of a compilation of different texts concerning the Euro. The corpus is divided according to three features: year (1998-2003), genre (judicial texts, annual reports and brochures) and language (Finnish and German). Each analysis is performed according to each of these features and compared with the others. The results indicate that some of the characteristics of the designations indeed seem to have an influence on the usage of the designations. For example, monosemy and suitability to the concept system often lead to the implementation of the designation having the ideal or certain value in these characteristics in the analysed Finnish material. In German material, an 'ideal' value in the characteristics leads to the implementation of the designations more often than in Finnish. The contrastive study indicates that, for example, suitability to a concept system leads to implementation of a designation in judicial texts more often than in other genres. The recommendations given to an 'ideal' designation are thus often acceptable, but they cannot be generalized for all languages in the same extent.
  • Rybatzki, Volker (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The present research is an investigation into the corpus of personal names and titles that are found in sources from the Middle Mongolian period, that is the time from the 13th to the beginning of the 15th century. The entry for every name or title has been divided into three parts: occurence(s) of a given name in Middle Mongolian sources (primary sources), etymology, and occurence(s) in sources other than Middle Mongolian (secondary sources). Culturally and lingistically the corpus can be divided into six sub-groups: Mongolian, Turkic (Old, Middle and Modern), Arabo-Persian (Islamic), Indo-Iranian and Tibetan (Buddhist), as well as Chinese. Among these, the largest group is formed by Mongolian and Turkic, followed by Chinese (mostly titles), Indo-Iranian, Arabo-Persian and Tibetan. With regard to the primary and secondary occurences the research is based mainly on primary sources including text-publications and dictionaries. Every name or title is documented as completely as possible within a Central Asian framework. However, due to the divergency of the sources available as well as diachronical importance, each sub-group has been dealt with slightly differently, but consistently. The corpus of investigated names and titles gives a fairly correct picture of the multi-ethnical composition of the Mongolian world-empire. It also shows the foreign influences on Mongolian names and titles, being in this respect a mirror of the influences that are visible in other parts of the Middle Mongolian culture too. Furthermore, the investigated corpus reflects the transitory stage of the 13th to 15th century in Central Asian history, and includes thus material from the past (Indo-Iranian, Old and Middle Turkic), and material that points to the future (Arabo-Persian, Tibetan, Modern Turkic).
  • Lauranto, Yrjö (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines directivity and imperative clauses (henceforth i-clauses) in Finnish. It consists of 3 publications (P1, P2 and P3). While the theoretical basis of the study is systemic-functional linguistics, use is also made of other approaches. P1 concentrates on the description of the imperative, and, thus, the data consist mainly of intuited examples. Firstly, the Finnish imperative can be regarded as a paradigm consisting of the personal forms of the present. This is reflected in traditional descriptions of the Finnish verb, which treat the imperative as one of the moods. This is referred to as the synchronic-morphological perspective. Secondly, the imperative can be examined from the perspective of interaction and interactional constructions. This is called the diachronic-interactive perspective. P2 investigates the canonical i-clause in everyday conversations between friends and family members. The data consist of approx. 140 conversations or excerpts of conversation. 70 % of the data are telephone conversations. One of the characteristics of the i-clause is that it is employed as a response to what has been said before or as a response to the non-linguistic action that is going on during the conversation. Approx. 63 % of the i-clauses in the data (n = 243) can be considered strongly responsive. Another significant finding is that only 10 % of the i-clauses of the data are interpreted by the participants in the conversations as commands. P2 suggests two ways of defining the notion of a directive. From a wider perspective, directives include not only exhortations to action but also offers and permissions. From a narrow perspective, offers and permissions are excluded because they are used to provide addressees with commodities or to enable them to act in the way they themselves wish. P3 discusses two clause constructions that begin with a finite verb conjugated in the 2nd person of the conditional mood but which do not allow a pronoun functioning as the subject. The data consist of everyday interaction and electronically mediated conversations from the Internet. One of the constructions is clearly an optative structure, whereas the other tends to be used as a persuasive expression. It can thus be seen as a grammaticalization of directivity. The study sheds light on the Finnish i-clause and its use, but also on directivity in general. The results are also of relevance to the teaching of Finnish as a second language. Key words: interactional syntax, interpersonal, imperative clause, morphological imperative, everyday conversations, directives, directivity, grammatical metaphor, optative, persuasion, grammaticalization, systemic-functional linguistics
  • Blackie, Daniel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This thesis addresses the following broad research question: what did it mean to be a disabled Revolutionary War veteran in the early United States during the period from 1776 to roughly 1840? The study approaches the question from two angles: a state-centred one and an experiential one. In both cases, the theoretical framework employed comes from disability studies. Consequently, disability is regarded as a sociocultural phenomenon rather than a medical condition. The state-centred dimension of the study explores the meaning of disability and disabled veterans to the early American state through an examination of the major military pension laws of the period. An analysis of this legislation, particularly the invalid pension acts of 1793 and 1806, indicates that the early United States represents a key period in the development of the modern disability category. The experiential approach, in contrast, shifts the focus of attention away from the state towards the lived experiences of disabled veterans. It seeks to address the issue of whether or not the disabilities of disabled veterans had any significant material impact on their everyday lives. It does this through a comparison of the situation of 153 disabled veterans with that of an equivalent number of nondisabled veterans. The former group received invalid pensions while the latter did not. In comparing the material conditions of disabled and nondisabled veterans, a wide range of primary sources from military records to memoirs and letters are used. The most important sources in this regard are the pension application papers submitted by veterans in the early nineteenth century. These provide us with a unique insight into the everyday lives of veterans. Looking at the issue of experience through the window of the pension files reveals that there was not much difference in the broad contours of disabled and nondisabled veteran life. This finding has implications for the theorisation of disability that are highlighted and discussed in the thesis. The main themes covered in this study are: the wartime experiences of injured American soldiers, the military pension establishment of the early United States and the legal construction of disability, and the post-war working and family lives of disabled veterans. Keywords: disability, early America, veterans, military pensions, disabled people, Revolutionary War, United States, disability theory.
  • Hacklin, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961) has been known as the philosopher of painting. His interest in the theory of perception intertwined with the questions concerning the artist s perception, the experience of an artwork and the possible interpretations of the artwork. For him, aesthetics was not a sub-field of philosophy, and art was not simply a subject matter for the aesthetic experience, but a form of thinking. This study proposes an opening for a dialogue between Merleau-Pontian phenomenology and contemporary art. The thesis examines his phenomenology through certain works of contemporary art and presents readings of these artworks through his phenomenology. The thesis both shows the potentiality of a method, but also engages in the critical task of finding the possible limitations of his approach. The first part lays out the methodological and conceptual points of departure of Merleau-Ponty s phenomenological approach to perception as well as the features that determined his discussion on encountering art. Merleau-Ponty referred to the experience of perceiving art using the notion of seeing with (voir selon). He stressed a correlative reciprocity described in Eye and Mind (1961) as the switching of the roles of the visible and the painter. The choice of artworks is motivated by certain restrictions in the phenomenological readings of visual arts. The examined works include paintings by Tiina Mielonen, a photographic work by Christian Mayer, a film by Douglas Gordon and Philippe Parreno, and an installation by Monika Sosnowska. These works resonate with, and challenge, his phenomenological approach. The chapters with case studies take up different themes that are central to Merleau-Ponty s phenomenology: space, movement, time, and touch. All of the themes are interlinked with the examined artworks. There are also topics that reappear in the thesis, such as the notion of écart and the question of encountering the other. As Merleau-Ponty argued, the sphere of art has a particular capability to address our being in the world. The thesis presents an interpretation that emphasises the notion of écart, which refers to an experience of divergence or dispossession. The sudden dissociation, surprise or rupture that is needed in order for a meeting between the spectator and the artwork, or between two persons, to be possible. Further, the thesis suggests that through artworks it is possible to take into consideration the écart, the divergence, that defines our subjectivity.