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  • Hiltunen, Turo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The present study provides a usage-based account of how three grammatical structures, declarative content clauses, interrogative content clause and as-predicative constructions, are used in academic research articles. These structures may be used in both knowledge claims and citations, and they often express evaluative meanings. Using the methodology of quantitative corpus linguistics, I investigate how the culture of the academic discipline influences the way in which these constructions are used in research articles. The study compares the rates of occurrence of these grammatical structures and investigates their co-occurrence patterns in articles representing four different disciplines (medicine, physics, law, and literary criticism). The analysis is based on a purpose-built 2-million-word corpus, which has been part-of-speech tagged. The analysis demonstrates that the use of these grammatical structures varies between disciplines, and further shows that the differences observed in the corpus data are linked with differences in the nature of knowledge and the patterns of enquiry. The constructions in focus tend to be more frequently used in the soft disciplines, law and literary criticism, where their co-occurrence patterns are also more varied. This reflects both the greater variety of topics discussed in these disciplines, and the higher frequency of references to statements made by other researchers. Knowledge-building in the soft fields normally requires a careful contextualisation of the arguments, giving rise to statements reporting earlier research employing the constructions in focus. In contrast, knowledgebuilding in the hard fields is typically a cumulative process, based on agreed-upon methods of analysis. This characteristic is reflected in the structure and contents of research reports, which offer fewer opportunities for using these constructions.
  • Hakli, Raul (2010)
    This thesis studies the nature and logic of collective doxastic attitudes, or what is referred to in ordinary language as "group beliefs". Beliefs and other intentional attitudes are attributed to groups and collections of people, and such attributions are used to explain and predict the actions of groups. The thesis develops an understanding of group beliefs as voluntarily adopted views or acceptances rather than as ordinary beliefs. Such an understanding can provide new answers to questions concerning collective knowledge and justification of group beliefs, and it allows developing modal logics with collective doxastic and epistemic notions. The thesis consists of six articles. The first three articles are philosophical studies concerned with the nature of group beliefs. The last three articles are logical studies that aim at developing proof-theoretical calculi for reasoning about collective doxastic attitudes.
  • Welander, Martin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Gray Reality, Golden Fantasy. The Problem of Creating in the Aphoristic Works of R.R. Eklund is the first major study of the Finland-Swedish writer R.R. Eklund s (1895 1946) aphoristic works. A point of departure for the study is the assumption that most of the major themes found in Eklund s works can be related to his struggle with the creative process. An aesthetic-idealistic philosophical context, including the philosophical thought of Kant, Schiller, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche and above all, Schopenhauer forms the backdrop to the study. Eklund s personal, reflective aphorism is seen as a part of a general evolution of the 20th century aphorism, as it has been outlined by Philippe Moret, where the aphorism and the literary diary approach each other and even morph into each other. This trend in Eklund s aphorisms is in stark contrast with the general evolution of his poetics, where he distances himself from modernistic ideals, and from the contemporary Finland-Swedish modernism. The presentation of nature in the works of Eklund is also studied, within the context of the regressive fantasy that nature triggers. The relation to nature is also studied in the context of two dichotomies tied to the aesthetic idealism: outside inside and nature culture. The concept of the sublime, as it is presented by Kant and Schopenhauer, is related to nature in general and to the Ostrobothnian plains, an important landscape in Eklund's aphorisms, in particular. Eklund s worship of geniuses and great historical figures is tied both to Schiller s aesthetics and to the sublime, and is studied as an aesthetic-idealistic strategy for easing the (self-inflicted) demand for literary production. The problem of anti-productivity is found to be an all-encompassing theme in Eklund s works, through which all other themes can be understood. The aesthetic idealism, which often takes the form of a struggle between a euphoric-nietzschean and a schopenhauerian world view, can best be understood as Eklund s strategy for overcoming the writer s block he is facing. The strategy is successful at least in the sense that his struggle with the writer s block becomes the most important subject in his works.
  • Tandefelt, Henrika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The dissertation analyses the political culture of Sweden during the reign of King Gustav III (1771-1792). This period commonly referred to as the Gustavian era followed the so-called Age of Liberty ending half a century of strong parliamentary rule in Sweden. The question at the heart of this study engages with the practice of monarchical rule under Gustav III, its ideological origins and power-political objectives as well as its symbolic expression. The study thereby addresses the very nature of kingship. In concrete terms, why did Gustav III, his court, and his civil service vigorously pursue projects that contemporaneous political opponents and, in particular, subsequent historiography have variously pictured as irrelevant, superficial, or as products of pure vanity? The answer, the study argues, is to be found in patterns of political practice as developed and exercised by Gustav III and his administration, which formed a significant part of the political culture of Gustavian Sweden. The dissertation is divided into three parts. The first traces the use and development of royal graces chivalric orders, medals, titles, privileges, and other gifts issued by the king. The practice of royal reward is illustrated through two case studies: the 1772 coup d état that established Gustav III s rule, and the birth and baptism of the crown prince, Gustav Adolf, in 1778. The second part deals with the establishment of the Court of Appeal in Vasa in 1776. The formation of the Appeals Court was accompanied by a host of ceremonial, rhetorical, emblematic, and architectural features solidifying its importance as one of Gustav III s most symbolic administrative reform projects and hence portraying the king as an enlightened monarch par excellence. The third and final part of the thesis engages with war as a cultural phenomenon and focuses on the Russo-Swedish War of 1788-1790. In this study, the war against Russia is primarily seen as an arena for the king and other players to stage, create and re-create as well as articulate themselves through scenes and roles adhering to a particular cultural idiom. Its codes and symbolic forms, then, were communicated by means of theatre, literature, art, history, and classical mythology. The dissertation makes use of a host of sources: protocols, speeches, letters, diaries, newspapers, poetry, art, medals, architecture, inscriptions and registers. Traditional political source material and literary and art sources are studied as totalities, not as separate entities. Also it is argued that political and non-fictional sources cannot be understood properly without acknowledging the context of genre, literary conventions, and artistic modes. The study critically views the futile, but nonetheless almost habitual juxtaposition of the reality of images, ideas, and metaphors, and the reality of supposedly factual historical events. Significantly, the thesis presumes the symbolic dimension to be a constitutive element of reality, not its cooked up misrepresentation. This presumption is reflected in a discussion of the concept of role , which should not be anachronistically understood as roles in which the king cast himself at different times and in different situations. Neither Gustav III nor other European sovereigns of this period played the roles as rulers or majesties. Rather, they were monarchs both in their own eyes and in the eyes of their contemporaries as well as in all relations and contexts. Key words: Eighteenth-Century, Gustav III, Cultural History, Monarchs, Royal Graces, the Vasa Court of Appeal, the Russo-Swedish War 1788–1790.
  • Westerlund, Fredrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This PhD thesis is an extended critical investigation of Martin Heidegger s influential account of the problem of phenomenality, i.e., of how things show up as meaningful phenomena in our experience. As such, it is also a study of his effort to develop and probe the question of phenomenology, i.e., what it means to see, understand, and articulate such phenomena. The aim of the thesis is both historical and systematic. On the one hand, it offers a unified interpretation of how Heidegger s struggle with the problem of phenomenality unfolds during the main stages of his philosophical development, from the early Freiburg lecture courses 1919-1923, over the Marburg years and the publication of Being and Time in 1927, up to his later thinking stretching from the mid 1930s to the early 1970s. It is argued that the problem of phenomenality constitutes one of the core problems that Heidegger is concerned with from beginning to end, and that focusing on this problem allows us to shed new light on the philosophical logic and motives behind the main changes that his thinking undergoes along the way. On the other hand, the thesis examines both the philosophical power and the problems and ambiguities of Heidegger s consecutive attempts to account for the structure and dynamics of phenomenality. In particular, it critically interrogates Heidegger's basic idea that our experience of meaningful phenomena is determined by our prior understanding of the historical contexts of meaning in which we always already live. A central argument of the thesis is that Heidegger s conception of the historical structure of phenomenality raises the decisive question of how to distinguish between historical prejudice and primordial understanding, and that Heidegger s inability to answer this question in Being and Time generates a deep ambiguity between his program of historical-destructive thinking and his employment of a Husserlian intuition-based phenomenological method in his concrete investigation. Moreover, it is argued that Heidegger s later thinking of the clearing/event of being is centrally motivated by the effort to answer precisely this question by showing how a historical world can arise and give itself as a binding destiny. Ultimately, however, the thesis suggests elaborating on the criticisms previously presented by, e.g., Ernst Tugendhat and Emmanuel Levinas that Heidegger s radical historicization of phenomenality makes him unable to account either for the truth of our understanding or for the ethical-existential significance of other persons.
  • Xu, Elina-Qian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Ahl-Waris, Eva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This thesis examines the ruins of the medieval Bridgettine (Birgittan) monastery of Naantali (Vallis Gratiae, f. 1443) in Finland and the transformation of the site into a national heritage and a memory landscape. It was archaeologically surveyed in the 19th century by Professor Sven Gabriel Elmgren (1817 1897). His work was followed by Dr. Reinhold Hausen (1850 1942), who excavated the site in the 1870s. During this time the memories of Saint Bridget (Birgitta) in Sweden were also invented as heritage. Hausen published his results in 1922 thus forming the connection with the next generation of actors involved with the Naantali site: the magnate Amos Anderson (1878 1961), the teacher Julius Finnberg (1877 1955) and the archaeologist Juhani Rinne (1872 1950). They erected commemorative monuments etc. on the Naantali site, thus creating a memory landscape there. For them, the site represented the good homeland in connection with a western-oriented view of the history of Finland. The network of actors was connected to the Swedish researchers and so-called Birgitta Friends, such as state antiquarian Sigurd Curman (1879 1966), but also to the members of the Societas Sanctae Birgittae and the Society for the Embellishment of Pirita, among others. Historical jubilees as manifestations of the use of history were also arranged in Naantali in 1943, 1993 and 2003. It seems as if Naantali is needed in Finnish history from time to time after a period of crisis, i.e. after the Crimean War in the 1850s, the civil war of 1918, during World War II and also after the economic crisis of the early 1990s. In 2003, there was a stronger focus on the international Saint Bridget Jubilee in Sweden and all over Europe. Methodologically, the thesis belongs to the history of ideas, but also to research on the use of history, invented traditions and lieux de mémoire. The material for the work consists of public articles and scholarly texts in books or newspapers and letters produced by the actors and kept in archives in Finland, Sweden and Estonia, in addition to pictures and erected commemorative monuments in situ in the Western Finnish region. Keywords: Nådendal, Naantali monastery, Bridgettines, St. Bridget, use of history, lieux de mémoire, invented traditions, commemorative anatomy, memory landscape, Saint Bridget jubilees , S. G. Elmgren, R. Hausen, A. Anderson, J. Finnberg, J. Rinne, S. Curman, High Church Movement, Pirita, Vadstena.
  • Strang, Johan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The Uppsala school of Axel Hägerström can be said to have been the last genuinely Swedish philosophical movement. On the other hand, the Swedish analytic tradition is often said to have its roots in Hägerström s thought. This work examines the transformation from Uppsala philosophy to analytic philosophy from an actor-based historical perspective. The aim is to describe how a group of younger scholars (Ingemar Hedenius, Konrad Marc-Wogau, Anders Wedberg, Alf Ross, Herbert Tingsten, Gunnar Myrdal) colonised the legacy of Hägerström and Uppsala philosophy, and faced the challenges they met in trying to reconcile this legacy with the changing philosophical and political currents of the 1930s and 40s. Following Quentin Skinner, the texts are analysed as moves or speech acts in a particular historical context. The thesis consists of five previously published case studies and an introduction. The first study describes how the image of Hägerström as the father of the Swedish analytic tradition was created by a particular faction of younger Uppsala philosophers who (re-) presented the Hägerströmian philosophy as a parallel movement to logical empiricism. The second study examines the confrontations between Uppsala philosophy and logical empiricism in both the editorial board and in the pages of Sweden s leading philosophical journal Theoria. The third study focuses on how the younger generation redescribed Hägerströmian legal philosophical ideas (Scandinavian Legal Realism), while the fourth study discusses how they responded to the accusations of a connection between Hägerström s value nihilistic theory and totalitarianism. Finally, the fifth study examines how the Swedish social scientist and Social Democratic intellectual Gunnar Myrdal tried to reconcile value nihilism with a strong political programme for social reform. The contribution of this thesis to the field consists mainly in a re-evaluation of the role of Uppsala philosophy in the history of Swedish philosophy. From this perspective the Uppsala School was less a collection of certain definite philosophical ideas than an intellectual legacy that was the subject of fierce struggles. Its theories and ideas were redescribed in various ways by individual actors with different philosophical and political intentions.
  • Seppälä, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Hollywood Comes to Finland: The Import and Reception of American Films in Finland in the 1920s Every year more American films are screened in Finland than all other films combined. This has not always been the case. Hollywood studios began the extensive export of their products to all corners of the world when the First World War nearly halted European film industries. The analytical focus of this thesis is on the public discussions related to American films imported to Finland in the 1920s, and the changes that took place in the nature of these discussions. This leads to an evaluation of the extent to which Finnish film culture was Americanised during this period. The annual import statistics of Hollywood films have been counted on the basis of film censorship records. The annual figures of Hollywood films inspected by film censors have been compared to the total annual numbers of all films inspected. This forms the basis for estimating the changes that took place in the market share of American films. In this thesis imported Hollywood films are analysed in the context of contemporary magazine and newspaper articles related to them. These discussions produced interpretations that encouraged contemporary audiences to view Hollywood films from certain perspectives and to associate certain meanings to them. The analysis of these discussions leads to an examination about the types of interpretations that were possible and likely amongst contemporaries and what kinds of meanings they related to Hollywood films. Finnish film culture became Americanised in the 1920s in many respects. Hollywood films were granted a prominent position in film programmes and film-related discussions. The increasing number of Hollywood films screened, a decrease in their import delay and the changes that took place in film discussions related to them resulted in American films becoming universal films in relation to which Finnish and European films seemed to be special cases. When it comes to the Finnish film industry in the early 1920s, Hollywood films provided the model in contrast to which Finnish national cinema was defined, but as the decade progressed, some filmmakers also began to imitate them. During the 1920s, the attitude of Finns to Hollywood films took more or less its current form as a love and hate relationship.
  • Närhi, Jani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The aim of the study is to explain how paradise beliefs are born from the viewpoint of mental functions of the human mind. The focus is on the observation that paradise beliefs across the world are mutually more similar than dissimilar. By using recent theories and results from the cognitive and evolutionary study of religion as well as from studies of environmental preferences, I suggest that this is because pan-human unconscious motivations, the architecture of mind, and the way the human mind processes information constrain the possible repertoire of paradise beliefs. The study is divided into two parts, theoretical and empirical. The arguments in the theoretical part are tested with data in the empirical part with two data sets. The first data set was collected using an Internet survey. The second data set was derived from literary sources. The first data test the assumption that intuitive conceptions of an environment of dreams generally follow the outlines set by evolved environmental preferences, but that they can be tweaked by modifying the presence of desirable elements. The second data test the assumption that familiarity is a dominant factor determining the content of paradise beliefs. The results of the study show that in addition to the widely studied belief in supernatural agents, belief in supernatural environments wells from the natural functioning of the human mind attesting the view that religious thinking and ideas are natural for human species and are produced by the same mental mechanisms as other cultural information. The results also help us to understand that the mental structures behind the belief in the supernatural have a wider scope than has been previously acknowledged.
  • Leskinen, Auli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This dissertation examines linguistic deconstructions in literary data constituted by selected tropes and metaphors in four novels of the Chilean writer, Diamela Eltit (1949–): Lumpérica (1983), Vaca sagrada (1991), El infarto del alma (1994), and Los trabajadores de la muerte (1998). The research focuses on a linguistic change carried out by Eltit in her narrative project from its experimental peak in 1983, when her first novel Lumpérica was published, through the 1980s and 90s. We regard Eltit’s narrative as historically important and try to clarify the process by which literature might transform linguistic structures and be connected to a theoretical change in cultural discourses. The time period we study includes Eltit’s progress as a writer during the rule of General Augusto Pinochet’s military regime, from the coup in 1973 through expansion and empowerment of civil society in 1973-1990 and the first years of democracy until 1998. The selected data of corporal tropes and metaphors is analyzed within a multidisciplinary framework of linguistics, literature, history, and gender studies. Therefore this dissertation is related to the disciplines of Spanish philology, Comparative Literature, Latin American Studies, and Gender Studies. Our three major research strategies are linguistic structuralism, deconstruction, and feminist literary theories. Subjects relevant to deconstruction include the philosophy of meaning and the ways in which meaning is constructed by writers, texts, and readers. The methodology is constituted by a semantic and deconstructionist analysis of literary data and a literary analysis of this data through the structuralist model created by the Danish linguist Louis Hjelmslev (1899-1965). We emphasize, that instead of using Hjelmslev’s structuralist model directly as such, the methodological model of this research is an application of that model to the literary texts. Concerning the epistemological framework this dissertation is placed in the rupture of structuralism and post-structuralism. It highlights the radicalization of representation and theatricality in Eltit’s narrative, the prominence of visuality in her language, and the density of erotic corporal metaphors, like the phallic gaze in Lumpérica. Old Greek myths, particularly those of Éros and Thánatos, arise from western arthistory in new images. They establish a constant topic in Eltit’s narrative, turning her writing gloomy and desolate and filled with dark and erotic tones. This study shows that Diamela Eltit deconstructs the Spanish language in her writing, but this linguistic deconstruction is not continuous or equivalent in all of her works. Her linguistic deconstructions are highly variable in her texts and the syntactical and morphological deconstructions are not carried out in every novel. Therefore, we challenge the various critics who use the term deconstruction in an undefined manner or argue that deconstruction appears as a rule in Eltit´s whole narrative project. As a matter of fact, linguistic deconstructions constitute a multiformal writing strategy, which is manifested in a different manner in every novel.
  • Kavén, Pertti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The evacuation of Finnish children to Sweden during WW II has often been called a small migration . Historical research on this subject is scarce, considering the great number of children involved. The present research has applied, apart from the traditional archive research, the framework of history-culture developed by Rüsen in order to have an all-inclusive approach to the impact of this historical event. The framework has three dimensions: political, aesthetic and cognitive. The collective memory of war children has also been discussed. The research looks for political factors involved in the evacuations during the Winter War and the Continuation War and the post-war period. The approach is wider than a purely humanitarian one. Political factors have had an impact in both Finland and Sweden, beginning from the decision-making process and ending with the discussion of the unexpected consequences of the evacuations in the Finnish Parliament in 1950. The Winter War (30.11.1939 13.3.1940) witnessed the first child transports. These were also the model for future decision making. The transports were begun on the initiative of Swedes Maja Sandler, the wife of the resigned minister of foreign affairs Rickard Sandler, and Hanna Rydh-Munck af Rosenschöld , but this activity was soon accepted by the Swedish government because the humanitarian help in the form of child transports lightened the political burden of Prime Minister Hansson, who was not willing to help Finland militarily. It was help that Finland never asked for and it was rejected at the beginning. The negative response of Minister Juho Koivisto was not taken very seriously. The political forces in Finland supporting child transports were stronger than those rejecting them. The major politicians in support belonged to Finland´s Swedish minority. In addition, close to 1 000 Finnish children remained in Sweden after the Winter War. No analysis was made of the reasons why these children did not return home. A committee set up to help Finland and Norway was established in Sweden in 1941. Its chairman was Torsten Nothin, an influential Swedish politician. In December 1941 he appealed to the Swedish government to provide help to Finnish children under the authority of The International Red Cross. This plea had no results. The delivery of great amounts of food to Finland, which was now at war with Great Britain, had automatically caused reactions among the allies against the Swedish imports through Gothenburg. This included the import of oil, which was essential for the Swedish navy and air force. Oil was later used successfully to force a reduction in commerce between Sweden and Finland. The contradiction between Sweden´s essential political interests and humanitarian help was solved in a way that did not harm the country´s vital political interests. Instead of delivering help to Finland, Finnish children were transported to Sweden through the organisations that had already been created. At the beginning of the Continuation War (25.6.1941 27.4.1945) negative opinion regarding child transports re-emerged in Finland. Karl-August Fagerholm implemented the transports in September 1941. In 1942, members of the conservative parties in the Finnish Parliament expressed their fear of losing the children to the Swedes. They suggested that Finland should withdraw from the inter-Nordic agreement, according to which the adoptions were approved by the court of the country where the child resided. This initiative failed. Paavo Virkkunen, an influential member of the conservative party Kokoomus in Finland, favoured the so-called good-father system, where help was delivered to Finland in the form of money and goods. Virkkunen was concerned about the consequences of a long stay in a Swedish family. The risk of losing the children was clear. The extreme conservative party (IKL, the Patriotic Movement of the Finnish People) wanted to alienate Finland from Sweden and bring Finland closer to Germany. Von Blücher, the German ambassador to Finland, had in his report to Berlin, mentioned the political consequences of the child transports. Among other things, they would bring Finland and Sweden closer to each other. He had also paid attention to the Nordic political orientation in Finland. He did not question or criticize the child transports. His main interest was to increase German political influence in Finland, and the Nordic political orientation was an obstacle. Fagerholm was politically ill-favoured by the Germans, because he had a strong Nordic political disposition and had criticised Germany´s activities in Norway. The criticism of child transports was at the same time criticism of Fagerholm. The official censorship organ of the Finnish government (VTL) denied the criticism of child transports in January 1942. The reasons were political. Statements made by members of the Finnish Parliament were also censored, because it was thought that they would offend the Swedes. In addition, the censorship organ used child transports as a means of active propaganda aimed at improving the relations between the two countries. The Finnish Parliament was informed in 1948 that about 15 000 Finnish children still remained in Sweden. These children would stay there permanently. In 1950 the members of the Agrarian Party in Finland stated that Finland should actively strive to get the children back. The party on the left (SKDL, the Democratic Movement of Finnish People) also focused on the unexpected consequences of the child transports. The Social Democrats, and largely Fagerholm, had been the main force in Finland behind the child transports. Members of the SKDL, controlled by Finland´s Communist Party, stated that the war time authorities were responsible for this war loss. Many of the Finnish parents could not get their children back despite repeated requests. The discussion of the problem became political, for example von Born, a member of the Swedish minority party RKP, related this problem to foreign policy by stating that the request to repatriate the Finnish children would have negative political consequences for the relations between Finland and Sweden. He emphasized expressing feelings of gratitude to the Swedes. After the war a new foreign policy was established by Prime Minister (1944 1946) and later President (1946 1956) Juho Kusti Paasikivi. The main cornerstone of this policy was to establish good relations with the Soviet Union. The other, often forgotten, cornerstone was to simultaneously establish good relations with other Nordic countries, especially Sweden, as a counterbalance. The unexpected results of the child evacuation, a Swedish initiative, had violated the good relations with Sweden. The motives of the Democratic Movement of Finnish People were much the same as those of the Patriotic Movement of Finnish People. Only the ideology was different. The Nordic political orientation was an obstacle to both parties. The position of the Democratic Movement of Finnish People was much better than that of the Patriotic Movement of Finnish People, because now one could clearly see the unexpected results, which included human tragedy for the many families who could not be re-united with their children despite their repeated requests. The Swedes questioned the figure given to the Finnish Parliament regarding the number of children permanently remaining in Sweden. This research agrees with the Swedes. In a calculation based on Swedish population registers, the number of these children is about 7 100. The reliability of this figure is increased by the fact that the child allowance programme began in Sweden in 1948. The prerequisite to have this allowance was that the child be in the Swedish population register. It was not necessary for the child to have Swedish nationality. The Finnish Parliament had false information about the number of Finnish children who remained in Sweden in 1942 and in 1950. There was no parliamentary control in Finland regarding child transports, because the decision was made by one cabinet member and speeches by MPs in the Finnish Parliament were censored, like all criticism regarding child transports to Sweden. In Great Britain parliamentary control worked better throughout the whole war, because the speeches regarding evacuation were not censored. At the beginning of the war certain members of the British Labour Party and the Welsh Nationalists were particularly outspoken about the scheme. Fagerholm does not discuss to any great extent the child transports in his memoirs. He does not evaluate the process and results as a whole. This research provides some possibilities for an evaluation of this sort. The Swedish medical reports give a clear picture of the physical condition of the Finnish children when arriving in Sweden. The transports actually revealed how bad the situation of the poorest children was. According to Titmuss, similar observations were made in Great Britain during the British evacuations. The child transports saved the lives of approximately 2 900 children. Most of these children were removed to Sweden to receive treatment for illnesses, but many among the healthy children were undernourished and some suffered from the effects of tuberculosis. The medical inspection in Finland was not thorough. If you compare the figure of 2 900 children saved and returned with the figure of about 7 100 children who remained permanently in Sweden, you may draw the conclusion that Finland as a country failed to benefit from the child transports, and that the whole operation was a political mistake with far-reaching consequenses. The basic goal of the operation was to save lives and have all the children return to Finland after the war. The difficulties with the repatriation of the children were mainly psychological. The level of child psychology in Finland at that time was low. One may question the report by Professor Martti Kaila regarding the adaptation of children to their families back in Finland. Anna Freud´s warnings concerning the difficulties that arise when child evacuees return are also valid in Finland. Freud viewed the emotional life of children in a way different from Kaila: the physical survival of a small child forces her to create strong emotional ties to the person who is looking after her. This, a characteristic of all small children, occurred with the Finnish children too, and it was something the political decision makers in Finland could not see during and after the war. It is a characteristic of all little children. Yet, such experiences were already evident during the Winter War. The best possible solution had been to limit the child transports only to children in need of medical treatment. Children from large and poor families had been helped by organising meals and by buying food from Denmark with Swedish money. Assisting Finland by all possible means should have been the basic goal of Fagerholm in September 1941, when the offer of child transports came from Sweden. Fagerholm felt gratitude towards the Swedes. The risks became clear to him only in 1943. The war children are today a rather scattered and diffuse group of people. Emotionally, part of these children remained in Sweden after the war. There is no clear collective memory, only individual memories; the collective memory of the war children has partly been shaped later through the activities of the war child associations. The main difference between the children evacuated in Finland (for example from Karelia to safer areas with their families) and the war children, who were sent abroad, is that the war children lack a shared story and experience with their families. They were outsiders . The whole matter is sensitive to many of such mothers and discussing the subject has often been avoided in families. The war-time censorship has continued in families through silence and avoidance and Finnish politicians and Finnish families had to face each other on this issue after the war. The lack of all-inclusive historical research has also prevented the formation of a collective awareness among war children returned to Finland or those remaining permanently abroad.. Knowledge of historical facts will help war-children by providing an opportunity to create an all-inclusive approach to the past. Personal experiences should be regarded as part of a large historical entity shadowed by war and where many political factors were at work in both Finland and Sweden. This means strengthening of the cognitive dimension discussed in Rüsen´s all-inclusive historical approach.
  • Lahelma, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This study examines the dynamics of the self and art in the context of the Symbolist art and aesthetics of the fin-de-siècle. The purpose is to open new perspectives into how the self and its relationship with the world were understood and experienced, and to explore how these conceptions of selfhood suggest parallels with questions of art and creativity in ways that continue to affect our perceptions of these issues even today. The decades around the turn of the twentieth century were a period of intensifying preoccupation with questions of subjectivity as the coherence and autonomy of the self were constantly being threatened in the rapidly modernizing world. This issue is examined through an analysis and discussions of artworks by the Finnish artists Pekka Halonen and Ellen Thesleff, the Norwegian artist Edvard Munch, the Swedish author and artist August Strindberg, and the Danish artist Jens Ferdinand Willumsen. The artworks are considered as active participants in the discourses of the period and as sites of intellectual and artistic reflection. Self-portraits are the most obvious products of artistic self-examination, but the highly subjective attitude towards art indicates that in a way every work of art can be perceived as a self-portrait. Symbolism, therefore, constitutes a point in art history where old definitions of self-portraiture were no longer sufficient. Art came to be understood as a form of knowledge and a source of truth. Hence, the creative process turned into a method of self-exploration motivated by an attempt to transcend beyond everyday consciousness in order to achieve a heightened perception of the self and the world. At the same time, the focus of the artwork shifted towards an immaterial space of imagination. Hence, the work of art was no longer understood as a finite material object but rather as a revelation of an idea. The constant need for self-exploration was also related to an ever increasing questioning of traditional religiosity and a subsequent interest in religious syncretism, as well as in various mystical, spiritual, and occultist ideologies, which affected both the form and content of art. Subjectivity is often perceived as one of the defining features of Symbolist art. However, due to the content-oriented approach, which until recent years has dominated art historical research on Symbolism, the meaning of this subjective tendency has not been properly analysed. Although the emphasis on subjectivity obviously had a great impact on the content of the new art, which became increasingly concerned with mythological and fantastic material, it also worked on a more abstract level affecting the ways that the meaning and status of art were understood. The approach taken in this study is based on an idea of the interconnectedness of form and content. Through this critical perspective, this study takes part in an international current of research which seeks to redefine Symbolism and its relation to modernism.
  • Calleja, Marianela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This thesis proposes temporal conceptions that stem from philosophical inquiry, such as linear time, cyclical time and branching time, to then find a connection with the way music is structured and with musical meaning. I consider ontological and phenomenological approaches to the problem of time and music in order to demonstrate this. The central aim of this investigation is to build bridges and dissolve the opposition between time taken (clock time) vs. time evoked (conceptual time) in studies on time and music. Lewis Rowell, Jonathan Kramer, Jos Kunst and Alan Marsden s contributions are going to be taken as the main references. I consider the ontological approach as extremely literal since linearity, circularity and branching time are not explored there as concepts defining the meaning of music, but as abstract orders in time for music being processed, viewed from an exclusively technical point of view. In turn, the phenomenological approach does not generally link music to philosophical developments, it just describes general cultural conceptions of time. This thesis interprets the temporal modes of the phenomenological approach as highly coincident with the temporal ontologies in the ontological approach, as seen through developments in temporal logic. Temporal logic, a branch of the classical logic, is used as a methodological trigger. Here the work of Arthur Prior is going to be taken as reference. Temporal logic first formalises, then clarifies, and finally validates assertions expressing temporal beliefs. The hypothesis of this thesis, that temporal conceptions are expressed through music, having in this case the power to explain at least its primary meaning, uses temporal logic as a bridging symbolism. In this sense, a comparison between music and language within a broader analysis is undertaken, before developing ideas of logic and temporal logic within musical practice. In particular, in my study of some works by the Argentinian composer Alberto Ginastera (1916 1983), I illustrate the idea of a multi-temporality, i.e. the same composer works with several time structures already available by a cumulative process in the history of ideas. The thesis finds there is a special type of time in music─neither an exclusive musical time as a totally separate time species; nor Time in music, in an abstract de-subjectified view. Thus, a cooperative, synthetic position is defended. Secondly, music represents by means of its distinct elements something inherent to itself, which links with concepts of time (ideas), and by using these elements in certain conventional ways, displays culturally conditioned temporal meanings. Thirdly, music displays a kind of temporal logic, although an extended view comparing it with the exclusively linear logic of music as conceived by the formalist tradition in musicology. It is also an aesthetically oriented approach different from the temporal logic as applied in literal representations of music in computing areas. Finally, I argue for a new musical temporal mode, the actual branched time in music (in the sense of parallel times), through the addition of a theoretical background for this mode in musicological studies.
  • Palmén, Helena Maria Beatrice (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Identity in interaction. Code-switching from dialect to the standard as risk and resource in eastern Nyland The purpose of the study is to show how native dialect speakers with an advanced understanding of the standard variety utilize their double linguistic competence in conversations. The study also more generally sets out to deepen our understanding of dialect usage and of the dialects in eastern Nyland (Östra Nyland) in Finland. Language is closely related to identity. With the help of a variety of data investigated from a sociolinguistic and dialectal point of view and with primarily sociolinguistic methods, the study approaches the intersection of language and identity. ---- The material on which the analysis is based consists of colloquial conversations between members of informal groups during their in situ gatherings. The analysis was done inductively without pre-planned schedules, but with a focus on how code-switching from a non-standard dialect to the standard variety takes place. The particular method used is specified as discourse analysis inspired by conversation analytic insights. To the already abundant list of existing theoretical tools needed to analyze and understand the material gathered, I introduced an additional take on linguistic identity, a notion of silent identity. This additional dimension proved fundamental for a deeper understanding and analysis of the group conversations that made up the primary material. The analysis shows that switching codes between the non-standard and the standard varieties poses risks of ostracism in the social group at hand and a severe blow to ones self-esteem. By contrast, the capacity to code-switch also provides an important resource for the communication participants in a group, who through frequent code-switching can make use of their full linguistic knowledge and competence. The reference to a silent identity has the force to either strengthen the bonds between individuals and highlight their mutual connection, or to completely separate an individual from a group which inevitably results in a deeply felt (linguistic) shame on the part of the outsider. Keywords: identity, dialect, standard, code-switching, sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, linguistic competence, silent identity, shame.
  • Heinonen, Tarja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This study is about lexical variation within idiomatic expressions in Finnish. A representative body of verb phrase idioms is selected and studied empirically against large quantities of data from newspaper corpora and the Internet. It is argued, contrary to the general belief, that lexical variability and structural flexibility are an inherent and essential property of phrasal lexemes. The methodological and theoretical framework of the present study is a combination of corpus-based lexicography and usage-based grammar. Moreover, psycholinguistic evidence on mental representations is considered together with observations from actual data. There are a few general principles that guide variation. First, semantic and conceptual relations between lexical units form the basis for paradigmatic substitution. Second, there are possibly universal constructional patterns according to which expressions of states, processes, causation and possession are interconnected. For instance, an idiom which in its canonical form expresses a state can be modified so that it expresses a process towards that state. The study proposes a grid of event types and links between them to represent and predict such variation. Third, there are partly unspecified schematic idiomatic expressions that require lexical realization. A particularly productive type of a schematic construction is a simile. Similes actually form a network of their own on many levels of specificity. Finally, I will consider cases where two conceptually related co-varying elements occur in a single expression. Throughout this thesis, I describe how variation is handled in dictionaries. Altogether, I recognize four different strategies to represent variation. The thesis ends with a discussion on the roles of synonymy, compositionality and productivity in variation. Ample evidence shows that neither lexical synonymy nor compositionality are preconditions for substitutability as is often assumed. My results also agree with the principle that variation in not fully productive patterns is expected to be semantically constrained.
  • Huttunen, Tomi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The study is dedicated to the Russian poet and prose writer Anatolii Borisovich Mariengof (1897–1962). Mariengof – “the last dandy of the Republic” – was one of the leaders and main theoreticians in the poetic group of the Russian Imaginists. For his contemporaries, he was an Imaginist par excellence. His Imaginist principles – in theory and practice – are applied to the study of his first fictional novel, Cynics (1928), which served as an epilogue for his Imaginist period (1918–1928). The novel was not published in the Soviet Union until 1988. The method used in the study is a conceptual and literary historical reading, making use of the contemporary semiotic understanding of cultural mechanisms and of intertextual analysis. There are three main concepts used throughout the study: dandy, montage and catachresis. In the first chapter, the history, practice and theory of the Russian Imaginism are analyzed from the point of view of dandyism. The Imaginist theatricalisation of life is juxtaposed with the thematic analysis of their poetry, and Imaginist dandyism appears as a catachrestic category in culture. The second chapter examines the Imaginist poetic theory. It is discussed in the context of the montage principle, defining the post-revolutionary culture in Soviet Russia. The Imaginist montage can be divided into three main theoretical paradigms: S. Yesenin’s “technical montage” (reminiscent of Dadaist collage), V. Shershenevich’s “nominative montage” (catalogues of images) and Anatolii Mariengof’s “catachrestic montage”. The final chapter deals with Mariengof’s first fictional novel, Cynics. The study begins with the complex history of publication of the novel, as well as its relation to the Imaginist poetic principles and to the history of the poetic movement. Cynics is, essentially, an Imaginist montage novel. The fragmentary play of the fictional and the documentary material follows the Imaginist montage principle. The chapter concludes in a thematic analysis of the novel, concentrating on the description of the October Revolution in Cynics.
  • Mononen, Kaarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Use of Finnish among Ingrian-Finns in St Petersburg and its surroundings This thesis examines the Finnish language use of the Ingrian-Finns in St. Petersburg and its surroundings. The rapidly altered linguistic situation in the area forms the background for the study. The St Petersburg area has had a Finnish-speaking population for many centuries as well as varying and longstanding contacts to Finland, except in the Soviet period. From the 19th century, however, a major shift from Finnish to Russian has taken place as the Finnish speaking communities have dramatically diminished. The data for the study have been collected through ethnographic fieldwork in St Petersburg and its surroundings in Russia, and the core data come from elderly people in a retirement home. The study combines methods of language sociology, study of linguistic per-ceptions and interactional sociolinguistics. The data consist of conversations and interviews and it is analysed qualitatively. In addition to actual language use, the participants personal history has been investigated. The analysis shows how sociohistorical background and political conditions and ideologies affect the participants linguistic choices. Bilingualism is a multifaceted concept. The linguistic resources of a speaker often change during one s life time. Among Ingrian-Finns this change has often been a dramatic one. Language shift from Finnish to Russian, due to strict minority politics, has caused many Ingrian-Finns to lose their first language although the data show cases where the heritage language is learned again. Exceptional individual choices are also discussed. The Ingrian Church is taken as an example of a change in the Finnish-language domain reflecting the discrepancy between past and contemporary realities. The speakers linguistic perceptions are investigated, reflecting past experiences. Concepts such as pure Finnish language and pure Finnish as well as Ingrian Finnish have specific meanings for individuals, and they are also context bound. The study also discusses the resources and interaction of the Ingrian-Finns in everyday situations with Finland-Finns. The Ingrian-Finns have different resources available to them including variants of an old Ingrian dialect, Finnish and Russian. Questions of multi-lingualism are approached analysing code switching; results show that Russian elements are used as part of the conversation, often in an unmarked way because of the heavy influence of Russian during the decades. Closer examination also shows different interactional functions of the Russian in Finnish speaking conversation: code switching is used, for example, to show distance and changed position. Attention is paid to the construction of understanding: the notion of a participant framework is used to analyse the speakers positions and contribution in a multiparty and multilingual conversation. Solving interactional problems which arise, e.g. because of using a Russian word, is discussed as well. Mutual understanding is constructed together in conversation reflecting the interactional goals of the situation. It is also studied how identity is constructed in interaction by means of a recurring narrative. Combining different approaches allows a deeper insight into the language use of Ingrian-Finns today. The Finnish language is still used in different ways and situations are multifaceted, reflecting different positions. Attitudes and values also reflect the sociohistori-cal conditions and are intertwined with the actual language use.