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Now showing items 423-424 of 424
  • Survo, Vera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The work is devoted to the traditional embroidery of peoples of Karelia (Olonets province),primarily of the Russians, in the context of the way of life in peasant culture. The subject of the research is the traditional embroidered textile of the peoples of Karelia as a cultural and historical phenomenon. This study is based on my fieldwork trips carried out from 1986 to 2011 in the regions of the Russian North, in addition to accessing museum collections preserved in Russia and Finland. The theoretical basis was developed by the researchers, considering the ornament as a special language of culture, a symbolic way of communication, and a thing, a rite as coded ways of expressing of myth. These codes (code of objects, code of actions), along with the verbal (verbal code) express a common meaning and are in a complex relationship. Therefore, to understand the symbolism and the features of traditional existence of embroidery and ornament, the semantics of which is capable for decoding, the author uses people's knowledge, ritual practices, folklore, etc. The use of the comparative-historical method in chronological and local-regional aspect makes it possible to compare the local Russian population groups, their relationship with the Finno-Ugric peoples, as well as to reveal the regional specificity of the embroidery of Russian population of Karelia against the all-Russian ethnic group. With consideration for local features, the author considers the material, coloration, embroidery techniques and gives the classification of ornament and semantics of traditional images. The research deals with symbolic and utilitarian functions of the technological process for the preparation of decorated canvas (from flax cultivation to finished embroidery), the use of textiles in traditional ritual practices, i.e. the historical background, at the time when the embroideries existed, is presented in detail. The manufacture of embroideries is a synthesis of practical and symbolic actions, wherein the following factors are visible: the ideas of fertility, the spinning of life's yarn, visions of the afterworld, and ability to influence the general world order. The function of the handicraft was to introduce the traditional norms and values; it contains archaic traces of transitional rituals, a form of preparation for marriage. Embroidery served as means of sacralizing space, it was a kind of incantation. The canvas personified the idea of the road and transition to other world. In the changed conditions of life the symbols of folk art are able to be actualized and to recode again. Now the traditional symbols of embroidery as part of the cultural heritage of the peoples of Karelia are subject to yet another actualization and recoding, acquiring new configurations, meanings and means for their execution. Although ritual gift exchange figures prominently in Karelian traditions, certain ancestral objects (icons, cloths, etc), which would be categorized as inalienable because of their distinct sacred significance, are kept out of the giving process. Nowadays, traditions as such have a corresponding significance in the transmission of cultural memory.
  • Nenonen, Olga (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Phonetic development in Russian-Finnish bilinguals of pre-primary age The doctoral dissertation addresses the phonetic development in Russian-Finnish bilingual children of pre-primary age. The study combines qualitative and quantitative methods in the framework of child language development studies, and contrastive and contact linguistics. It also takes into account language therapy approaches. The data were collected through an articulation test specially designed for Russian and Finnish. The research is based on the results of both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. The longitudinal study observes the evidence from 6 normally developing bilingual children in a 2.5-year time period. The sample of the cross-sectional study consists of 126 children divided into three groups: (1) 46 typically developing Russian-Finnish bilinguals; (2) 40 typically developing Russian monolinguals and 20 typically developing Finnish monolinguals; and (3) 20 Russian-Finnish bilinguals with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). The participant s production of target words in the articulation test was transcribed and phonetic errors were analysed. Despite considerable individual variation in phonetic production, the findings suggest that bilinguals acquire Russian and Finnish phonetic inventories later than their monolingual pairs. The difference is visible both in the speed of acquisition and in the number and nature of errors. With regard to the nature of mispronunciation, four types of bilingual mistakes were distinguished: (1) common developmental mistakes made by bilinguals and monolinguals; (2) language-specific mistakes made by monolinguals and bilinguals, however the latter group makes considerably more mistakes, especially at an older age; (3) cross-linguistic interference mistakes caused by the differences in Russian and Finnish phonetic systems, made only by bilinguals, resembling the mistakes of second language learners; and (4) unpredictable mistakes common in bilingual normally developing and bilingual SLI children. The analysis reveals that from a longitudinal perspective, phonetic development is faster and easier for bilinguals in Finnish than in Russian. However, relatively simple Russian vocalism is acquired faster than Finnish vocalism, whereas the complex system of Russian consonants takes longer to develop than the Finnish consonant system. Furthermore, language-specific features appear to be the most problematic for acquisition. The research shows the evidence of language interaction in bilingual phonetic development, e.g. in the form of cross-language phonetic interference. As a result, some bilingual children may have either a Russian or a Finnish accent. However, this accent tends to gradually disappear.