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  • Stenvall, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The thesis explores the discourse of two global news agencies, the Associated Press (AP) and Reuters, which together with the French AFP are generally regarded as the world s leading news distributors. A glance at the guidelines given by AP and Reuters to their journalists shows that these two news agencies make a lot of effort to strive for objectivity the well-known journalistic ideal, which, however, is an almost indefinable concept. In journalism textbooks definitions of objectivity often contain various components: detachment, nonpartisanship, facticity, balance, etc. AP and Reuters, too, in their guidelines, present several other ideals besides objectivity , viz., reliability, accuracy, balance, freedom from bias, precise sourcing, reporting the truth, and so on. Other central concepts connected to objectivity are neutrality and impartiality. However, objectivity is, undoubtedly, the term that is most often mentioned when the ethics of journalism is discussed, acting as a kind of umbrella term for several related journalistic ideals. It can even encompass the other concept that is relevant for this study, that of factuality. These two intertwined concepts are extremely complex; paradoxically, it is easier to show evidence of the lack of objectivity or factuality than of their existence. I argue that when journalists conform to the deep-rooted conventions of objective news reporting, facts may be blurred, and the language becomes vague and ambiguous. As global distributors of news, AP and Reuters have had an influential role in creating and reinforcing conventions of (at least English-language) news writing. These conventions can be seen to work at various levels of news reporting: the ideological (e.g., defining what is regarded as newsworthy, or who is responsible), structural (e.g., the well-known inverted pyramid model), and stylistic (e.g., presupposing that in hard news reports, the journalist s voice should be backgrounded). On the basis of my case studies, I have found four central conventions to be worthy of closer examination: the conventional structure of news reports, the importance of newsworthiness, the tactics of impersonalisation which tends to blur news actors responsibility, and the routines of presenting emotions. My linguistic analyses draw mainly on M.A.K. Halliday s Systemic Functional Grammar, on notions of transitivity, ergativity, nominalisation and grammatical metaphor. The Appraisal framework, too, has provided useful tools for my analyses. The thesis includes six case studies dealing with the following topics: metaphors in political reporting, terrorism discourse, terrorism fears, emotions more generally, unnamed sources as rhetorical constructs, and responsibility in the convention of attribution.
  • Salmi, Samuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This dissertation concentrates on a particular exemplification of the ideal of the unity of science in the history of twentieth-century philosophy. Taking Rudolf Carnap (1891--1970) as an exemplar of a scholar whose work in philosophy of science was at bottom motivated by the ideal of a unified conception of science, it attempts to distillate the essential characteristics and methodological significance of such a conception by a combination of historical and systematic analysis. Given the conspicuously holoscopic character of Carnap's philosophical orientation, there arises an interesting question about the relation of his work to that of other prominent ``seekers of the wider view'' in the history of philosophy (and history of science). On a more general level, we ask what kind of intellectual and moral characteristics are associated with a scholar who is motivated by the unification of science. Making it explicit: if a coherent conception of a unified conception of science is conceivable, what kind of normative criteria can then be applied to a scholar and his actions? In other words, what are the external and internal qualifications of scholar's vocation under the unified conception of science? In the first part of the dissertation we provide a general account of the problem's background in the intersection of intellectual history and systematics. In the first chapter main emphasis will be put to the dialectic between agent-based and structural explanations in historiography. The survey of a few exemplars of models of historical explanation is intended to provide a background framework for discussing the relation between descriptive analysis and analysis of values. In as much as our modern scientific world conception and the general, essentially human, consciousness of the domain of validity seem to be in a fundamental conflict, a philosophical clarification of the issues that depend on this fundamental distinction is contingent on having proper tools at its disposal. Indeed, it is necessary to acknowledge -- with respect to both scientific knowledge and moral positions -- that the issues of genesis and validity have little in common. Both the image of nature, built upon the masses of scientific and technological knowledge gathered, and the modern conceptions of the moral have developed in the course of history. The lesson that historicism can teach us is the possibility to adopt a symmetrical attitude with respect to the status of the questions of genesis and validity within these (very different) domains. This symmetric attitude enables us to see that the validity of a theory or position (in science or in moral philosophy) cannot depend on the diachronic aspects of its genesis. Rather, it is precisely the case that the late appearance of certain scientific theories and certain moral positions is an index that they are complex and presuppose a great deal genetically, and this is seen to be a common feature of all good theories. Thus, in order to approach the evolution of these ideas from a general perspective, we have to acknowledge their fundamental ontological difference and adopt a variety of tools to study these domains. I present four different approaches to the study of historical phenomena that appertain to the themes of this dissertation. In the second chapter we provide a synopsis of the important thematic about the relationship between morals and science. After a brief examination of the concepts of the moral and the scientific, we proceed to give an account of the concept of scientific self which acts as a kind of normative meta-concept co-ordinating the interaction between the epistemic and the ethical requirements appertaining to the education and professional formation of a scientist. From a historical perspective it is easy to to see that the intension of the concept of scientific self varies according to the contingent factors such as the external conditions of education and the requirements set by new experimental techniques, but the essential, axiologically relevant, internal determinates of the concept are seen to accumulate over time in a conservative manner. Especially interesting here are the determinates that can be traced back to the complementary intellectual traditions of Enlightenment and Romanticism. One of the most important exemplifications of an articulated conception of scientific self can be found in J. G. Fichte's ``Vorlesungen über die Bestimmung des Gelehrten'' of 1794. In these lectures Fichte develops a beautiful -- and still highly relevant -- conception of the true goals of a scholar as well as the qualifications he must fulfill to attain those goals. From Fichte we turn to study the history of one particular intellectual virtue that has direct relevance for the questions tackled in the second part of the dissertation, viz. tolerance. In the third chapter we focus on the importance of a priori knowledge for both ethics and science. These themes are developed only in their barest outlines in order to provide some theoretical support to the fundamental philosophical thesis of the dissertation concerning the distinction between Is and Ought, and its relevance for the question of the unity of science. We will briefly touch upon the question about the relationship of a priori and empirical knowledge in ethics, and provide a brief synopsis of the relevance of the distinction analytic/synthetic in this domain. Finally we address cursorily the ontologically crucial problem about the moral element in man and present -- with a view to the Enlightenment virtues -- a synopsis of the process of the dissociation of the concept of the moral from the concept of the scientific. We describe the characteristics of ethical impulse in modern times and the quite idiosyncratic view on morals and especially on moral justification advocated by the members of Vienna Circle. We will see how the dissociation of the moral from the domain of the rational discourse inevitably results in the philosophically poverished stance of moral non-cognitivism which Carnap maintained throughout his career. In the second part of the dissertation we can finally address the adduced problem in its particular ramifications in the philosophy of Rudolf Carnap. Given this general problematic, we attempt to vindicate the underlying overall motivation of Carnap's philosophy and to reconstruct the architectonic of Carnap's systematic thought in the light of recent research. One of the main tasks is to evaluate the coherence of interpretations provided in the research literature which place Carnap in the continuum of thinkers that are, in some sense, committed to the ideals and values of Enlightenment. The most explicit rendering of this line of thought is the recent monograph, Carnap and Twentieth-Century Thought, by A.W. Carus which puts Carnap's method of explication on center stage. I critically examine this line of interpretation indicated by Carus and explore more deeply its historical dimensions. Over and above the interpretation of Carus, we assess to what extent Carnap's philosophical program fulfills the criteria that are imposed upon it by the requirement of an Enlightenment conception of unified science. The central significance of logic and mathematics in Carnap's philosophical program is seen to derive from the fundamental conception of Carnap that within the total system of knowledge logic and mathematics are performing the essential role of supplying the forms of concepts, statements, and inferences, forms which are then applicable everywhere, hence also to non-logical knowledge. Therefore, the demarcation between logical and non-logical expressions, along with the Principle of Tolerance and logical pluralism, constitutes one of the central strands of Carnap's thought. Indeed, the Principle of Tolerance and the logicality criterion are seen to be two inextricably entwined aspects of a solution to a fundamental problem that Carnap searches a solution to and which characterizes his aspirations throughout the period under consideration here, i.e. the problem of the rationality of scientific discourse under the variability of linguistic systems of knowledge representation. I depict the overall development of Carnap's philosophy with this central idea continually in focus. As a supplement to the interpretation of Carnap's program as a concerted attempt to look for the fundamental invariants of thought and experience, I provide the view that a necessary condition for implementing his ideal of explication is a coherent formulation of what might be called the task of providing genealogies of important scientific concepts and ideas. This complies with the attractive account represented by Howard Stein about the two basic functions of philosophy, i.e., a distinction between ``the enterprise of knowledge'' and the ``enterprise of understanding''. It is argued here that an essential ingredient of Carnap's method of explication is a variety of philosophical history of science which provides the necessary insight into the problem complex one is tackling with under the purview of explication. Therefore, a significant role is bestowed upon historical knowledge and historiography. I attempt to accommodate this aspect of the ``enterprise of understanding'' within the more explicitly confined ``enterprise of knowledge'' that Carnap was overtly concerned with. However, it is argued that the ``enterprise of understanding'' constituted an equally important aspect of Carnap's philosophical program, although it remained covert in his publications.
  • Bauters, Merja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The purpose of this study is to find a framework for a holistic approach to, and form a conceptual toolbox for, investigating changes in signs and in their interpretation. Charles S. Peirce s theory of signs in a communicative perspective is taken as a basis for the framework. The concern directing the study is the problem of a missing framework in analysing signs of visual artefacts from a holistic perspective as well as that of the missing conceptual tools. To discover the possibility of such a holistic approach to semiosic processes and to form a conceptual toolbox the following issues are discussed: i) how the many Objects with two aspects involved in Peirce s definition of sign-action, promote multiple semiosis arising from the same sign by the same Interpretant depending on the domination of the Objects; ii) in which way can the relation of the individual and society or group be made more apparent in the construction of the self since this construction is intertwined with the process of meaning-creation and interpretation; iii) how to account for the fundamental role of emotions in semiosis, and the relation of emotions with the often neglected topic of embodiment; iv) how to take into account the dynamic, mediating and processual nature of sign-action in analysing and understanding the changes in signs and in the interpretation of signs. An interdisciplinary approach is chosen for this dissertation. Concepts that developed within social psychology, developmental psychology, neurosciences and semiotics, are discussed. The common aspect of the approaches is that they in one way or another concentrate on mediation provided by signs in explaining human activity and cognition. The holistic approach and conceptual toolbox found are employed in a case study. This consists of an analysis of beer brands including a comparison of brands from two different cultures. It becomes clear that different theories and approaches have mutual affinities and do complement each other. In addition, the affinities in different disciplines somewhat provide credence to the various views. From the combined approach described, it becomes apparent that by the semiosic process, the emerging semiotic self intertwined with the Umwelt, including emotions, can be described. Seeing the interpretation and meaning-making through semiosis allows for the analysis of groups, taking into account the embodied and emotional component. It is concluded that emotions have a crucial role in all human activity, including so-called reflective thinking, and that emotions and embodiment should be consciously taken into account in analysing signs, the interpretation, and in changes of signs and interpretations from both the social and individual level. The analysis of the beer labels expresses well the intertwined nature of the relationship between signs, individual consumers and society. Many direct influences from society on the label design are found, and also some indirect attitude changes that become apparent from magazines, company reports, etc. In addition, the analysis brings up the issues of the unifying tendency of the visual artefacts of different cultures, but also demonstrates that the visual artefacts are able to hold the local signs and meanings, and sometimes are able to represent the local meanings although the signs have changed in the unifying process.
  • Virtanen, Pirjo Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This thesis discusses the contemporary construction of the lived worlds of indigenous Amazonian youths. Today’s native peoples are considerably affected by the processes of globalization and urbanization, which have led to new ways of relating to their cultural traditions. This work presents a case study of Manchineri youngsters aged between 14 and 24 years old living in Acre state in Brazilian Amazonia. The Arawak-speaking Manchineri number some 1,000 people; their legally demarcated reserve is situated next to the River Yaco. The research is based on ethnographic material collected in the Mamoadate reserve and in the state capital, Rio Branco. By comparing the youth in different physical and social environments (the reserve and the city), my attempt has been to search for the most typical elements maintained, altered and created in the current lived worlds of Manchineri youths. Fieldwork methods included interviews, participant observation, photographs, video recordings, and drawings. The material was analyzed within the multidisciplinary framework of the social and cultural construction of knowledge. The study applies the concepts of social field, symbolic capital, and habitus as they have been used by Pierre Bourdieu; perspective as developed recently in Amazonian ethnology; the sacred as a cultural category as understood in the study of religion; and individual and person as concepts central to anthropology and sociology. Additionally, the study can be contextualized within youth studies, Latin American studies, and urban studies. The results of the study show that the everyday lives of young Amazonian native people are formed by a complex mixture of ‘modernity’ and ‘tradition’, fragmentation, and transitions between different conceptual frameworks. Part II discusses the ethnographic material in depth and shows that indigenous adolescents act from a variety of social perspectives: the native youth’s own ethnic group, divided into sub-groups, especially into urban residents and those living in the reserve; ancestors, super-human agents and spirits; other indigenous groups and non-natives. Consequently, besides the traditional initiation ritual, we find various contemporary rites of passage to adulthood: state-education, learning traditional practices, shamanism, matrimony, and transitions between the reserve and urban areas. According to these results, new social roles, political organization, responsibilities, and in general the desire to be respected, require both ‘modern’ and ‘traditional’ abilities. In Part III, the study shows that the current power relations constituted by new social contacts, ethnic recognition, and cooperation with different institutions have resulted in the formation of new social fields: youth cultures, the ethnic group, shamanic practices, the ethnopolitical movement, and indigenous students. The capacity of young Amazonian Indians to act in contemporary social fields produces them as full persons. The study also argues that the elements of the lived worlds can be divided into these social fields. When focusing on these fields, it became evident that these comprise the strategies adopted by young Indians to break through social and cultural barriers.
  • Koskinen, Inkeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This dissertation examines the effects of a change in the roles that extra-academic agents have in academic research: they are participating in the production of academic knowledge more actively than used to be the case. The focus is mainly on disciplines that fall under the umbrella of cultural research. Former informants are nowadays often becoming collaborators, co-researchers or co-authors in collaborative or participatory projects, or conducting activist research on their own cultures. Cultural research is in a unique position when facing the contemporary urge towards more "democratic" knowledge production. In disciplines such as anthropology, folkloristics and ethnology, researchers have always interacted with their informants' knowledge systems and developed research practices for approaching these systems. These practices are presently colliding with new demands that arise from the now common call for collaborative and participatory research. I focus on normative epistemic questions related to relativistic research practices and to objectivity. When the roles of the extra-academic agents change, the composition of research communities is also changed. An interactive notion of objectivity has recently been defended in social epistemology. It takes a research community as the unit whose objectivity is to be assessed. In the articles I identify shortcomings in the interactive objectivity of the emerging research communities, and develop analytical tools that can hopefully be of use in improving the situation. As the composition of research communities is changed, the established ways of approaching extra-academic knowledge systems also have to change. The moderately relativistic practice of avoiding the appraisal of alien knowledge systems is no longer as practicable as it used to be. When former informants join research teams in participatory projects, or indigenous activists become activist researchers, they become part of communities whose interactive objectivity can and should be assessed. This is the case even if some or all of the members of the communities are taken to represent, or see themselves as representing, extra-academic knowledge systems. The contributions of everyone belonging to a research community must be met with the same critical attitude, or the objectivity of the community will suffer.
  • Jakovleva, Natalia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This study is a historical and semantic description of the notion of the human document (document humain), borrowed by Russian critics from the literary theory of French Naturalism. To this day the term remains current in the Russian language in fictional and scholarly texts, mostly in the humanities. Becoming something of a cliché, however, it has lost its strict, narrow sense. This book details the evolution of the notion over the relatively long period of its existence. The term itself was invented by two French writers the Goncourt brothers, whose works were less known to Russian readers than, for instance, the ideas of Hyppolite Taine, where one could find semantically similar formulas. Meanwhile the texts of Emile Zola achieved particular popularity in Russia, and the human document played a key role in Zola s aesthetics, especially in his theory of the experimental novel . For Zola the human document rejected the ideology of Romanticism with its orientation on inventive and captivating fictions. It is a noteworthy fact that Zola s works devoted to the experimental novel were first published in Russian, since the French writer was collaborating with Russian periodicals. At the same time, similar expressions were wide spread in Russian critical discourse: for example, the prominent and influential critic Nikolay Mikhaylovsky oft en used synonyms like documents about the human, and one can find other derivatives like female document or Parisian document . On the other hand, Russian reception of Zola s declared interest in psychic physiology and human degradation was also negative, and in the end of the nineteenth century the human document acquired a range of pejorative connotations. As Naturalist theories were gradually becoming obsolete and disappearing, the term s semantic associations were markedly transformed. The 1910s were a crucial period in its history. Although one can find the term in the texts of Russian Naturalists like the prolific writer Aleksandr Amfiteatrov, it was no longer strictly connected with this aesthetical and intellectual tradition. Displaced and half-forgotten, human document appears in the contexts of women s literature , memoirs, and even autobiographies about the 1905 revolution. Now it was associated with different documentary genres, such as diaries and confessions, as with the literary strategy of frank or true expression. This suggests that the term was becoming a part of the rhetoric of anti-literature . As a result, the positive ideal of frank testimony was combined with psychic physiology s negative associations, and this ambiguity allowed the application of the term to a certain set of specific subjects. For example, it was connected with the marginal hero of the age , i.e. the time of decadence and social decline (the revolutionary, the scoundrel, the cynic, and so on). The 1920s and 1930s were the heyday of the human document . The term was rarely used in early Soviet literature but flourished among Russian emigre writers. Thanks to the older generation, who actively took part in pre-revolutionary literary discussions, this cliche gradually returned to the pages of émigré periodicals. In the 1930s, as in Zola s time, it assumed the form of a literary manifesto and united different circles of young Russian writers, mostly in France. Human document became a keyword in the famous discussion between two prominent figures of the Paris emigration, Vladislav Khodasevich and Georgy Adamovich, who considered the goal of a new literature to be the return to raw, frank self-expression. This new development in the history of the term was partly supported by the interest of contemporary French writers like Louis-Ferdinand Celine in naturalistic literary devices. In this period human document became a kind of synonym for a certain sort of poetry which was called the Parisian note . It is not unusual that this cliché sometimes appeared in Soviet criticism as a means of describing and then belittling émigré literature. It arose in the mid-1960s, probably after the polemics about frankness in literature and then was borrowed by literary scholar Lydia Ginzburg, who worked on the history of documentary genres in Russian literature.
  • Lantto, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This doctoral dissertation examines the role of code-switching between Basque and Spanish linguistic elements in the metropolitan area of Greater Bilbao in the Basque Country. The study consists of four articles and a compilation article. The articles examine bilingual speech from different points of view: variation in grammatical code-switching patterns, the role of swearing, slang and code-switching in constructing an informal register of Basque, language ideologies that discourage and encourage code-switching, and conventionalization of semantic-pragmatic code-switching patterns. The Basque context of language revitalization has created new divisions between speakers, as the formerly unidirectional bilingualism has turned into a situation where great numbers of Spanish speakers are learning Basque in adult acquisition programs or in Basque-medium education. Basque is still, however, a minority language in the Greater Bilbao area and the bilingual Basque speakers live scattered among the monolingual majority. The effect of these social structures on linguistic structures is examined in two sets of data that were collected for the purposes of this study. For the first set of data, 22 hours of naturally occurring peer-group conversations with 22 Basque-Spanish bilinguals were recorded, while the second set consists of 12 hours of metalinguistic conversations with 47 bilingual Basques. The speakers use their bilingual repertoire in numerous creative and dynamic ways. Yet some tendencies can be detected. Colloquial Basque in Bilbao is a bilingual speech style that always includes some code-switching to Spanish. There is considerable variation in the individuals code-switching patterns. Some of the informants, particularly L1-speakers of Basque, use very intensive and syntactically intrusive code-switching, whereas others, especially L2-speakers of Basque, only engage in syntactically peripheral code-switching, such as Spanish interjections, discourse markers and tags. The L2-speakers purist tendencies seem to have two sources: firstly, the normative setting of acquisition where language mixing is discouraged, and secondly, the general interpretation of new speakers code-switching as lack of proficiency in the minority language. Some Spanish elements have become conventionalized throughout the speech community as the default option. All informants use Spanish discourse markers, and swear words and colloquialisms are always introduced in Spanish in otherwise Basque speech. Spanish discourse markers seem to have been automatized as conversational routines, whereas Spanish swear words and colloquialisms have become conventionalized because of the domains they are associated with, and because of the lack of these stylistic categories in standard Basque.
  • Peltola, Rea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Modal cohesion and subordination. The Finnish conditional and jussive moods in comparison to the French subjunctive This study examines verb moods in subordinate clauses in French and Finnish. The first part of the analysis deals with the syntax and semantics of the French subjunctive, mood occurring mostly in subordinate positions. The second part investigates Finnish verb moods. Although subordinate positions in Finnish grammar have no special finite verb form, certain uses of Finnish verb moods have been compared to those of subjunctives and conjunctives in other languages. The present study focuses on the subordinate uses of the Finnish conditional and jussive (i.e. the third person singular and plural of the imperative mood). The third part of the analysis discusses the functions of subordinate moods in contexts beyond complex sentences. The data used for the analysis include 1834 complex sentences gathered from newspapers, online discussion groups and blog texts, as well as audio-recorded interviews and conversations. The data thus consist of both written and oral texts as well as standard and non-standard variants. The analysis shows that the French subjunctive codes theoretical modality. The subjunctive does not determine the temporal and modal meaning of the event, but displays the event as virtual. In a complex sentence, the main clause determines the temporal and modal space within which the event coded by the subjunctive clause is interpreted. The subjunctive explicitly indicates that the space constructed in the main clause extends its scope over the subordinate clause. The subjunctive can therefore serve as a means for creating modal cohesion in the discourse. The Finnish conditional shares the function of making explicit the modal link between the components of a complex construction with the French subjunctive, but the two moods differ in their semantics. The conditional codes future time and can therefore occur only in non-factual or counterfactual contexts, whereas the event expressed by French subjunctive clauses can also be interpreted as realized. Such is the case when, for instance, generic and habitual meaning is involved. The Finnish jussive mood is used in a relatively limited number of subordinate clause types, but in these contexts its modal meaning is strikingly close to that of the French subjunctive. The permissive meaning, typical of the jussive in main clause positions, is modified in complex sentences so that it entails inter-clausal relation, namely concession. Like the French subjunctive, the jussive codes theoretical modal meaning with no implication of the truth value of the proposition. Finally, the analysis shows that verb moods mark modal cohesion, not only on the syntagmatic level (namely in complexe sentences), but also on the paradigmatic axis of discourse in order to create semantic links over entire segments of talk. In this study, the subjunctive thus appears, not as an empty category without function, as it is sometimes described, but as an open form that conveys the temporal and modal meanings emerging from the context.
  • von Bonsdorff, Anna-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This study proposes a point of departure for the study of images which in Finnish art history have tended be read as an expression of style, ideas or movements toward a study of a specific palette and the two-colour practices at the turn of the twentieth century. I am adapting the notion of painting as a deposit of a colour consciousness in a specific turn-of-the-twentieth century context. The focus of my investigation is on Finnish and European artists who used the new colour concepts, colour ascetism and synthetist colour in their paintings. As my examples I have chosen the Finnish artists Väinö Blomstedt, Magnus Enckell, Axel Gallén, Pekka Halonen, Eero Järnefelt, Helene Schjerfbeck and Ellen Thesleff. Thus, explaining these painters use of ascetic or synthetist palettes must take into consideration a much larger context and time span. In discussing these concepts of colour, and to illustrate the long tradition of colour ascetism, I will draw on such precursors as Eugène Carrière, Édouard Manet, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and James McNeill Whistler. These artists and their personal palettes were important, not only to Finnish, but also to many artists around the turn of the twentieth century. Although considered artists of the modern period, they looked to the past for their inspiration on a restricted palette: Spanish art, Rembrandt, Frans Hals and Early Renaissance were among the sources of art as they were the inspiration for Finnish artists too in the 1890s. They all developed their personified ascetic palette. It is my intention to show that acromatic art and anti-colourism is a much broader and more significant phenomenon in western art than has hitherto been believed. The muted, restrained, ascetic colours were the key element in depicting modern melancholy, silence, inwardness and harmony in painting. For synthetist colour I will present Paul Gauguin and his followers Paul Sérusier, Jan Verkade and Maurice Denis who have now be studied from the point of establishing a synthetist colour practice of tertiary close-tones which differs from the use of pure colours. Finnish artists who explored the synthetist colour range are Blomstedt, Gallén and Järnefelt. Synthetist colour was used to enhance the non-mimetic effect, the surnaturelle, which was to be the expressive force in painting. The key words for synthetist colour are vision, dynamism, primitive, emotion, sensation and dream image. During this period in Finnish art ascetic and synthetist colour can be seen as parallel colour practices away from the mimetic range. The adoption of these new palette practices also brought innovations in painting and in the use of different mediums such as tempera and gouache. The time of traditional oil painting was changing. This colour-conscious art was created to present new content. This study offers two new colour concepts and new readings of nineteenth-century art, assessing the wider resonances of artists debates on colour and medium as they tested the limits of painting as a new language of colour .
  • Lahti, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Empire is central to U.S. history. When we see the U.S. projecting its influence on a global scale in today s world it is important to understand that U.S. empire has a long history. This dissertation offers a case study of colonialism and U.S. empire by discussing the social worlds, labor regimes, and culture of the U.S. Army during the conquest of southern Arizona and New Mexico (1866-1886). It highlights some of the defining principles, mentalities, and characteristics of U.S. imperialism and shows how U.S. forces have in years past constructed their power and represented themselves, their missions, and the places and peoples that faced U.S. imperialism/colonialism. Using insights from postcolonial studies and whiteness studies, this work balances its attention between discursive representations (army stories) and social experience (army actions), pays attention to silences in the process of historical production, and focuses on collective group mentalities and identities. In the end the army experience reveals an empire in denial constructed on the rule of difference and marked by frustration. White officers, their wives, and the white enlisted men not only wanted the monopoly of violence for the U.S. regime but also colonial (mental/cultural) authority and power, and constructed their identity, authority, and power in discourse and in the social contexts of the everyday through difference. Engaged in warfare against the Apaches, they did not recognize their actions as harmful or acknowledge the U.S. invasion as the bloody colonial conquest it was. White army personnel painted themselves and the army as liberators, represented colonial peoples as racial inferiors, approached colonial terrain in terms of struggle, and claimed that the region was a terrible periphery with little value before the arrival of white civilization. Officers and wives also wanted to place themselves at the top of colonial hierarchies as the refined and respectable class who led the regeneration of the colony by example: they tried to turn army villages into islands of civilization and made journeys, leisure, and domestic life to showcase their class sensibilities and level of sophistication. Often, however, their efforts failed, resulting in frustration and bitterness. Many blamed the colony and its peoples for their failures. The army itself was divided by race and class. All soldiers were treated as laborers unfit for self-government. White enlisted men, frustrated by their failures in colonial warfare and by constant manual labor, constructed worlds of resistance, whereas indigenous soldiers sought to negotiate the effects of colonialism by working in the army. As colonized labor their position was defined by tension between integration and exclusion and between freedom and colonial control.
  • Backman, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The attempt to refer meaningful reality as a whole to a unifying ultimate principle - the quest for the unity of Being - was one of the basic tendencies of Western philosophy from its beginnings in ancient Greece up to Hegel's absolute idealism. However, the different trends of contemporary philosophy tend to regard such a speculative metaphysical quest for unity as obsolete. This study addresses this contemporary situation on the basis of the work of Martin Heidegger (1889-1976). Its methodological framework is Heidegger's phenomenological and hermeneutical approach to the history of philosophy. It seeks to understand, in terms of the metaphysical quest for unity, Heidegger's contrast between the first (Greek) beginning or "onset" (Anfang) of philosophy and another onset of thinking. This other onset is a possibility inherent in the contemporary situation in which, according to Heidegger, the metaphysical tradition has developed to its utmost limits and thereby come to an end. Part I is a detailed interpretation of the surviving fragments of the Poem of Parmenides of Elea (fl. c. 500 BC), an outstanding representative of the first philosophical beginning in Heidegger's sense. It is argued that the Poem is not a simple denial of apparent plurality and difference ("mortal acceptances," doxai) in favor of an extreme monism. Parmenides' point is rather to show in what sense the different instances of Being can be reduced to an absolute level of truth or evidence (aletheia), which is the unity of Being as such (to eon). What in prephilosophical human experience is accepted as being is referred to the source of its acceptability: intelligibility as such, the simple and undifferentiated presence to thinking that ultimately excludes unpresence and otherness. Part II interprets selected key texts from different stages in Heidegger's thinking in terms of the unity of Being. It argues that one aspect of Heidegger's sustained and gradually deepening philosophical quest was to think the unity of Being as singularity, as the instantaneous, context-specific, and differential unity of a temporally meaningful situation. In Being and Time (1927) Heidegger articulates the temporal situatedness of the human awareness of meaningful presence. His later work moves on to study the situational correlation between presence and the human awareness. Heidegger's "postmetaphysical" articulation seeks to show how presence becomes meaningful precisely as situated, in an event of differentiation from a multidimensional context of unpresence. In resigning itself to this irreducibly complicated and singular character of meaningful presence, philosophy also faces its own historically situated finitude. This resignation is an essential feature of Heidegger's "other onset" of thinking.
  • Konttinen, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Anu Konttinen: Conducting Gestures Institutional and Educational Construction of Conductorship in Finland, 1973-1993. This doctoral thesis concentrates on those Finnish conductors who have participated in Professor Jorma Panula s conducting class at the Sibelius Academy during the years 1973 1993. The starting point was conducting as a myth, and the goal has been to find its practical opposite the practical core of the profession. What has been studied is whether one can theorise and analyse this core, and how. The theoretical goal has been to find out what kind of social construction conductorship is as a historical, sociological and practical phenomenon. In practical terms, this means taking the historical and social concept of a great conductor apart to look for the practical core gestural communication. The most important theoretical tool is the concept of gesture. The idea has been to sketch a theoretical model based on gestural communication between a conductor and an orchestra, and to give one example of the many possible ways of studying the gestures of a conductor.
  • Jok, Kuel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This study addresses the contemporary conflict of national identity in Sudan between the adherents of Islamic nationalism and customary secularism . The former urge the adoption of a national constitution that derives its civil and criminal laws from Sharia (Islamic law) and Arabic be the language of instruction in national institutions of Sudan. The group argues that the intertwined model of the Islamic-Arab cultural identity accelerates assimilation of the heterogeneous African ethnic and religious diversities in Sudan into a homogeneous national identity defining Sudan as an Islamic-Arab state. The latter demand the adoption of secular laws, which must be derived from the diverse set of customary laws and equal opportunities for all African languages beside Arabic and English. The group claims that the adoption of the Islamic laws and Arabic legalises the treatment of the citizens in the country in terms of religion and race and that implies racism and discrimination. In this way, the adherents of the Islamic nationalism imposed the Islamic-Arab model. In reaction, the Muslims and the non-Muslim secularists resort to violence as an alternative model of resistance. In pursuance of war, the Islamists declared Jihad against the secularists in Nuba Mountains, South Blue Nile (Ingessana) and adopt the racial war in Darfur. In this region, the janjaweed (armed Arab militias) in Darfur fight inclusively the insurgents and the indigenous African Muslims in Darfur in equal terms. This form of war has caused a humanitarian disaster in this region. The method of the research is qualitative and its main primary source material was based on a survey conducted among students of five universities in Sudan. Prepared and organised questionnaires in English and Arabic were given to five hundred students. Participant observation, interviews and relevant secondary sources were also used. The findings of the study indicate that every religion and culture in Sudan provides a set of regulations which promote political ethics of cultural and religious diversities as well as equal distribution of power and national wealth. The new emerging phenomenon that attempts to project religion as the source of human insecurity and injustice embodies some psychological and ideological orientations emanating from human nature and not the historical religions of God. It recommends the durable resolutions taking into consideration the diverse theoretical models for the formation of a nation-state, where the diversity is not discouraged; instead states apply laws which promote religious and ethnic diversities within one territorial state. The insistence of the Islamists on the application of the Islamic law and marginalisation of the non-Arab groups in Darfur, Eastern Sudan of Beja, Ingessana of South Blue Nile and Nuba Mountains threaten the territorial integrity of the state. The secession of South Sudan from the current Sudan in the internationally surpvised referendum in January 2011 was a paradigm resulting from economic and political imbalance in the former Sudan.
  • Möttönen, Tapani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral dissertation is a metatheoretical survey into the central semantic concepts of Cognitive Grammar (CG), a semantics-driven theoretical grammar developed by Ronald W. Langacker. CG approaches language as a semiotic system inherently structured by certain cognition-general capacities, and it defends a usage-based conception of language, therefore denying the strict dichotomy between language and other realms of conceptualization and human experience. For CG, linguistic meaning is thus defined relative to our general cognitive and bodily disposition, as well as to the contents of experience the former structure. The cognitive and experiential aspects of meaning are described relative to so-called dimensions of construal. In this study, I will provide a systematic critical account of the theoretical explanation Cognitive Grammar provides for the dimensions of construal. The point of departure will be in social ontology of linguistic meaning developed and defended by Esa Itkonen, who has accordingly criticized Cognitive Grammar for inconsistent psychologism. According to Itkonen, linguistic meaning is an object of common knowledge and cannot be reduced into an individual s conceptualization; the dimensions of construal capture experiential meaning that is part of language as a social semiotic resource. This entails that linguistic semantics assume as its object of description non-objective, perspectival meanings that are commonly known. It will be argued that the usage-based nature of CG provides a way to release this tension between objective and non-objective aspects of meaning by explaining how perspectivity of semantics results from the acquisition and adjustment of meanings in actual discourse. This, however, necessitates an ontological revision of Cognitive Grammar and rehabilitation of the sociality of a linguistic meaning, which is the topic of this study. In addition to the work by Itkonen, prominent socially oriented cognitive linguists, such as Jordan Zlatev, have emphasized the necessary intersubjective basis of experiential meaning. Within the Fennistic studies, on the other hand, the intersubjective approach to CG and Cognitive Linguistics in general has taken the form of combining cognitive linguistic methodologies with Conversation Analysis. This study combines elements from both of these approaches in order to provide a comprehensive assessment of the notion of construal in CG. In so being, the main task of this study is to critically evaluate the cognition-based explanation for the dimensions of construal, provide a socially grounded alternative, and apply the alternative into analysis of construal in (written discourse). The thesis demonstrates that the dimensions of construal are not dependent on the aspects of cognitive theory on the basis of which they are argued for. Instead, the notion of construal is shown to be inherently intersubjective and context-sensitive. Construal captures aspects of semantic organization that are correlates of intersubjective alignment between conceptualizing subjects in a given discursive context.
  • Jauhiainen, Ilmari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The object of this work is Hegel's Logic, which comprises the first third of his philosophical System that also includes the Philosophy of Nature and the Philosophy of Spirit. The work is divided into two parts, where the first part investigates Hegel s Logic in itself or without an explicit reference to rest of Hegel's System. It is argued in the first part that Hegel's Logic contains a methodology for constructing examples of basic ontological categories. The starting point on which this construction is based is a structure Hegel calls Nothing, which I argue to be identical with an empty situation, that is, a situation with no objects in it. Examples of further categories are constructed, firstly, by making previous structures objects of new situations. This rule makes it possible for Hegel to introduce examples of ontological structures that contain objects as constituents. Secondly, Hegel takes also the very constructions he uses as constituents of further structures: thus, he is able to exemplify ontological categories involving causal relations. The final result of Hegel's Logic should then be a model of Hegel s Logic itself, or at least of its basic methods. The second part of the work focuses on the relation of Hegel's Logic to the other parts of Hegel's System. My interpretation tries to avoid, firstly, the extreme of taking Hegel's System as a grand metaphysical attempt to deduce what exists through abstract thinking, and secondly, the extreme of seeing Hegel's System as mere diluted Kantianism or a second-order investigation of theories concerning objects instead of actual objects. I suggest a third manner of reading Hegel's System, based on extending the constructivism of Hegel's Logic to the whole of his philosophical System. According to this interpretation, transitions between parts of Hegel's System should not be understood as proofs of any sort, but as constructions of one structure or its model from another structure. Hence, these transitions involve at least, and especially within the Philosophy of Nature, modelling of one type of object or phenomenon through characteristics of an object or phenomenon of another type, and in the best case, and especially within the Philosophy of Spirit, transformations of an object or phenomenon of one type into an object or phenomenon of another type. Thus, the transitions and descriptions within Hegel's System concern actual objects and not mere theories, but they still involve no fallacious deductions.
  • Holm, Ruurik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Constructive (intuitionist, anti-realist) semantics has thus far been lacking an adequate concept of truth in infinity concerning factual (i.e., empirical, non-mathematical) sentences. One consequence of this problem is the difficulty of incorporating inductive reasoning in constructive semantics. It is not possible to formulate a notion for probable truth in infinity if there is no adequate notion of what truth in infinity is. One needs a notion of a constructive possible world based on sensory experience. Moreover, a constructive probability measure must be defined over these constructively possible empirical worlds. This study defines a particular kind of approach to the concept of truth in infinity for Rudolf Carnap's inductive logic. The new approach is based on truth in the consecutive finite domains of individuals. This concept will be given a constructive interpretation. What can be verifiably said about an empirical statement with respect to this concept of truth, will be explained, for which purpose a constructive notion of epistemic probability will be introduced. The aim of this study is also to improve Carnap's inductive logic. The study addresses the problem of justifying the use of an "inductivist" method in Carnap's lambda-continuum. A correction rule for adjusting the inductive method itself in the course of obtaining evidence will be introduced. Together with the constructive interpretation of probability, the correction rule yields positive prior probabilities for universal generalizations in infinite domains.
  • Yli-Jyrä, Anssi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
    This dissertation is a theoretical study of finite-state based grammars used in natural language processing. The study is concerned with certain varieties of finite-state intersection grammars (FSIG) whose parsers define regular relations between surface strings and annotated surface strings. The study focuses on the following three aspects of FSIGs: (i) Computational complexity of grammars under limiting parameters In the study, the computational complexity in practical natural language processing is approached through performance-motivated parameters on structural complexity. Each parameter splits some grammars in the Chomsky hierarchy into an infinite set of subset approximations. When the approximations are regular, they seem to fall into the logarithmic-time hierarchyand the dot-depth hierarchy of star-free regular languages. This theoretical result is important and possibly relevant to grammar induction. (ii) Linguistically applicable structural representations Related to the linguistically applicable representations of syntactic entities, the study contains new bracketing schemes that cope with dependency links, left- and right branching, crossing dependencies and spurious ambiguity. New grammar representations that resemble the Chomsky-Schützenberger representation of context-free languages are presented in the study, and they include, in particular, representations for mildly context-sensitive non-projective dependency grammars whose performance-motivated approximations are linear time parseable. (iii) Compilation and simplification of linguistic constraints Efficient compilation methods for certain regular operations such as generalized restriction are presented. These include an elegant algorithm that has already been adopted as the approach in a proprietary finite-state tool. In addition to the compilation methods, an approach to on-the-fly simplifications of finite-state representations for parse forests is sketched. These findings are tightly coupled with each other under the theme of locality. I argue that the findings help us to develop better, linguistically oriented formalisms for finite-state parsing and to develop more efficient parsers for natural language processing. Avainsanat: syntactic parsing, finite-state automata, dependency grammar, first-order logic, linguistic performance, star-free regular approximations, mildly context-sensitive grammars
  • Airola, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This dissertation discusses the relation between lexis, grammar and textual organisation. The major premise adopted here is that grammatical structures are motivated both by semantic potential of words and by text-pragmatic demands. In other words, it is argued that grammatical structures form the interface between lexis and textual organisation, and that linguistic analysis should not concentrate on analysing grammatical structures in isolation, independent of context. From this point of view, grammatical structures are said to be 'well-formed' only in relation to the context they occur in. This study is based on a corpus of three million words of recent Finnish fiction from which all the occurrences of the coordinated verb pairs ([V ja V] -pairs]) containing one of the intransitive motion verbs 'lähteä' (to go), 'mennä' (to go), 'päästä' (to get into), 'nousta' (to get up), and 'laskea' (to go down), were extracted. This set of verbs was established using methods described in earlier work by Lagus & Airola (2001, and 2005). The quantitative analysis of the [V ja V] -pairs was used to carry out a qualitative analysis of individual texts. In analysing the texts, an analogy was made between musical and textual structure. The results show among others that individual verbs specialise in different functions when occurring in coordinated verb pairs. One aspect was that those verb pairs including the verb 'nousta' tend to function as markers of textual boundaries and thus reflect the organisation of narrative substance. The verb 'mennä' has weakened literal meanings, but strengthened modal meanings when occurring in [V ja V] -pairs, and, in many cases, the verb 'lähteä' in [V ja V] -pairs function as an aspectual marker rather than a pure verb of motion. That there is a gradient from the concrete sense of motion into more differentiated senses of a verb in [V ja V] -pairs alongside the structure-creating potential of the [V ja V] -pairs themselves suggest an ongoing grammaticalisation process of the patterns discussed.
  • Räsänen, Pajari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Titled "An Essay on Antimetaphoric Resistance", the dissertation investigates what is here being called "Counter-figures": a term which has in this context a certain variety of applications. Any other-than-image or other-than-figure, anything that cannot be exhausted by figuration (and that is, more or less, anything at all, except perhaps the reproducible images and figures themselves) can be considered "counter-figurative" with regard to the formation of images and figures, ideas and schemas, "any graven image, or any likeness of any thing". Singularity and radical alterity, as well as temporality and its peculiar mode of uniqueness are key issues here, and an ethical dimension is implied by, or intertwined with, the aesthetic. In terms borrowed from Paul Celan's "Meridian" speech, poetry may "allow the most idiosyncratic quality of the Other, its time, to participate in the dialogue". This connection between singularity, alterity and temporality is one of the reasons why Celan so strongly objects to the application of the traditional concept of metaphor to poetry. As Celan says, "carrying over [übertragen]" by metaphor may imply an unwillingness to "bear with [mittragen]" and to "endure [ertragen]" the poem. The thesis is divided into two main parts. The first consists of five distinct prolegomena which all address the mentioned variety of applications of the term "counter-figures", and especially the rejection or critique of either metaphor (by Aristotle, for instance) or the concept of metaphor (defined by Aristotle, and sometimes deemed "anti-poetic" by both theorists and poets). Even if we restrict ourselves to the traditional rhetorico-poetical terms, we may see how, for instance, metonymy can be a counter-figure for metaphor, allegory for symbol, and irony for any single trope or for any piece of discourse at all. The limits of figurality may indeed be located at these points of intersection between different types of tropes or figures, and even between figures or tropes and the "non-figurative trope" or "pseudo-figure" called catachresis. The second part, following on from the open-ended prolegomena, concentrates on Paul Celan's poetry and poetics. According to Celan, true poetry is "essentially anti-metaphoric". I argue that inasmuch as we are willing to pay attention to the "will" of the poetic images themselves (the tropes and metaphors in a poem) to be "carried ad absurdum", as Celan invites us to do, we may find alternative ways of reading poetry and approaching its "secret of the encounter", precisely when the traditional rhetorical instruments, and especially the notion of metaphor, become inapplicable or suspicious — and even where they still seem to impose themselves.