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  • Richter-Vapaatalo, Ulrike (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Da hatte das Pferd die Nüstern voll. Gebrauch und Funktion von Phraseologie im Kinderbuch. Untersuchungen zu Erich Kästner und anderen Autoren. [Da hatte das Pferd die Nüstern voll. Use and Function of Phraseology in Children’s Literature. Studies in the Works of Erich Kästner and Other Authors.] Idioms are widely believed to be difficult for children to understand. Nevertheless, children’s literature shows abundant use of phraseological units in a wide variety of different functions. This study investigates the use and functions of idiomatic phraseology in German children’s literature starting with Erich Kästner (1899-1976) up until the present. On the basis of three different corpora (905 instances of idiom use from six Kästner children’s books, 333 examples of the use of idioms from two of Kästner’s novels for adults, and 580 idioms extracted from six German children’s books by different authors), and using the methodology and concepts of text linguistics, this study attempts to answer the following questions: How many and what kind of phraseological units are used in the texts? By what means are they embedded into the context, what kind of contextual relations do they form? What are the differences in the use of idioms between the different children’s books by one author (Kästner), between the children’s books and the adult novels by Kästner and between the different authors of children’s books? The analysis indicates that the use of phraseology in children’s literature is primarily a feature of the individual authors – different ‘phraseological profiles’ can be constructed. For example, Kästner not only uses idioms frequently, but also conspicuously, in plays on words, modifications, and contextual relations of all kinds. It can be stated that the extensive use of paraphrases to the idioms is common to more or less all of the children’s books that were analyzed for this study. For Kästner a noticeable difference between the use of paraphrases in the children’s books and in the novels can be discerned. Thus a consideration of the children’s (phraseological) competence seems to be an inherent constituent of children’s literature.
  • Wessman, Anna (Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys ry, 2010)
    The thesis is connected with death, memory and ancestor commemoration during the Merovingian Period, the Viking Age and the beginning of the Crusade Period (AD 550-1150) in Finland. During this time, cremation was the dominant burial rite. It was not until the end of the Viking Age that inhumation became more common but both cremations and inhumations are performed even at the same sites throughout the time. Three different burial types 1) cremation cemeteries below level ground, 2) inhumation burials and 3) water burials are discussed in five articles. I consider these burial forms from three different viewpoints; collectivity-individuality, visibility-invisibility and cremation-inhumation. The thesis also discusses the topics of memory, memorialisation and monument re-use, which have been neglected subjects in Finnish archaeology until now. Both cremation cemeteries below level ground and inhumation burials have been re-used during their time of usage, and on most occasions are situated in a landscape that is overlaid by other monuments as well. The main questions of the thesis are: What kinds of ritual behaviour can we detect in the burials during the period (AD 550-1150)? How did people perceive the moraine hills that functioned as burial places? What kind of re-use can be detected in the Iron Age cemeteries? Why have ancient sites and artefacts been re-used? This thesis shows that it is possible to claim that both artefact and site re-use is a much more widespread phenomenon than has previously been thought in Finnish archaeology. It is also a conscious and deliberate behaviour that can be related to an ancestor cult and commemoration of the dead. The funerary rituals during this time period show great variation and complex, both regionally and nationally. Not only have the dead been buried using elaborate rituals, they have also been mourned and commemorated in intricate ways that proves that death was not an end product, but the start of something new.
  • Granvik, Anton (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    El presente estudio supone un intento de describir y analizar el uso de la preposición "de" sobre la base de un corpus diacrónico, con énfasis en las diferentes relaciones semánticas que establece. Partiendo de un total de más de 16.000 casos de "de" hemos establecido 48 categorías de uso, que corresponden a cuatro tipos de construcción sintáctica, a saber, el uso de "de" como complemento de nombres (CN), verbos (CV), adjetivos (CA) y, finalmente, su uso como núcleo de expresiones adverbiales independientes (CI). El estudio consta de tres partes fundamentales. En la parte I, se introduce la Lingüística Cognitiva, que constituye la base teórica esencial del trabajo. Más exactamente, se introducen conceptos como la teoría del prototipo, la teoría de las metáforas conceptuales y la gramática cognitiva, especialmente las ideas de "punto de referencia" y "relación intrínseca" (Langacker 1995, 1999). La parte II incluye el análisis de las 48 categorías. En esta parte se presentan y comentan casi 2.000 ejemplos del uso contextual de "de" extraídos del corpus diacrónico. Los resultados más importantes del análisis pueden resumirse en los siguientes puntos: El uso de "de" sigue siendo esencialmente el mismo en la actualidad que hace 800 años, en el sentido de que todas las 48 categorías se identifican en todas las épocas del corpus. El uso de "de" como complemento nominal va aumentando, al contrario de lo que ocurre con su uso como complemento verbal. En el contexto nominal son especialmente las relaciones posesivas más abstractas las que se hacen más frecuentes, mientras que en el contexto verbal las relaciones que se hacen menos frecuentes son las de separación/alejamiento, causa, agente y partitivo indefinido. Destaca la importancia del siglo XVIII como época de transición entre un primer estado de las cosas y otro posterior, en especial en relación con el carácter cada vez más abstracto de las relaciones posesivas así como con la disminución de las categorías adverbales de causa, agente y partitivo. Pese a la variación en el contexto inmediato de uso, el núcleo semántico de "de" se mantiene inalterado. La parte III toma como punto de partida los resultados del análisis de la parte II, tratando de deslindar el aporte semántico de la preposición "de" a su contexto de uso del valor de la relación en conjunto. Así, recurriendo a la metodología para determinar el significado básico y la metodología para determinar lo que constituyen significados distintos de una preposición (Tyler , Evans 2003a, 2003b), se llega a la hipótesis de que "de" posee cuatro significados básicos, a saber, 'punto de partida', 'tema/asunto', 'parte/todo' y 'posesión'. Esta hipótesis, basada en las metodologías de Tyler y Evans y en los resultados del análisis de corpus, se intenta verificar empíricamente mediante el uso de dos cuestionarios destinados a averiguar hasta qué punto las distinciones semánticas a las que se llega por vía teórica son reconocidas por los hablantes nativos de la lengua (cf. Raukko 2003). El resultado conjunto de los dos acercamientos tanto refuerza como especifica la hipótesis. Los datos que arroja el análisis de los cuestionarios parecen reforzar la idea de que el núcleo semántico de "de" es complejo, constando de los cuatro valores mencionados. Sin embargo, cada uno de estos valores básicos constituye un prototipo local, en torno al cual se construye un complejo de matices semánticos derivados del prototipo. La idea final es que los hablantes son conscientes de los cuatro postulados valores básicos, pero que también distinguen matices más detallados, como son las ideas de 'causa', 'agente', 'instrumento', 'finalidad', 'cualidad', etc. Es decir, "de" constituye un elemento polisémico complejo cuya estructura semántica puede describirse como una semejanza de familia centrada en cuatro valores básicos en torno a los cuales se encuentra una serie de matices más específicos, que también constituyen valores propios de la preposición. Creemos, además, que esta caracterización semántica es válida para todas las épocas de la historia del español, con unas pequeñas modificaciones en el peso relativo de los distintos matices, lo cual está relacionado con la observada variación diacrónica en el uso de "de".
  • Kepsu, Kasper Eskil Olavi (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, 2014)
    The Swedish province of Ingria was a turbulent region in the 17th century. This thesis examines the position of the province in the Swedish Empire, mainly by investigating the relations between peasants and authorities. In addition, this thesis discusses other themes, such as the reduction of the estates, the initiation of tax farming, the manorial economy, the character of Ingria as a border region, and the objective of the Swedish authorities to unify its provinces to the realm. Sweden was a typical conglomerate state that comprised different territories. This thesis demonstrates that military competition between states was the main driving force in the early modern European state building process. Ingria had a pivotal military importance for Sweden as a buffer zone against Russia. The income that the state gained out of the reduction and the initiation of tax farming was almost entirely invested in Ingrian fortresses. The Crown also attempted to integrate Ingria closer to the realm. Tax farming demonstrates nevertheless that the Crown was not strong enough to carry out a coherent integration process. Thus Ingria was still treated as a province. During the 1680s, there were numerous quarrels between peasants and leaseholders who administrated the manors. This thesis argues that bargaining was an essential part of the political culture in the Swedish provinces. The Crown officials negotiated with the peasants and took their opinions into account. Peasants were irritated by the heavy tax burden, the obligation to statute labour, the arbitrariness of the manorial officials, and the tax farming system itself. Peasants used both legal and illegal methods in trying to get a fixed rent and to get rid of the tax farming system. A typical legal method was to write complaints. However, there were many forms of illegal resistance from collective strikes to violent assaults. The mobility of the Ingrian population made it very difficult for the authorities to control the region. This study shows that the Ingrian peasants used borders in a very tactical manner in order to avoid various obligations both from the Crown and the manors. This thesis sheds new light on the early modern Swedish state. Previous studies perceive Sweden as a representative example of a power state. This thesis however shows that in the periphery the Swedish Empire was more like a powerless state.
  • Albjerg, Asger (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Professor Knud Lyne Rahbek was a novelist, playwright, poet, magazine editor, journalist, socialite person, host of the Bakkehus , historian, theatre manager, translator, publisher etc., but his versatility either side of 1800 is better known than read and more despised than understood. In terms of methodology, the thesis is based on biographical, historical and philological research, while at the same time making use of formalistic and close reading methods. This study begins and ends with 7th of February 1800, when Kamma and Knud Lyne Rahbek join the exiled P.A. Heiberg at the inn near Frederiksberg Castle. What falls between is an interpretation of Rahbek s works in the service of democracy, human rights and freedom of the press as a pragmatic navigation between activities - both subversive and legitimate. Posterity mistook this range as mere spinelessness, and Rahbek was relegated to the literary and historical margins as an anachronism and as a jack of all trades, who did not know what he really wanted and therefore flitted about in so many fields just to be present. But Rahbek s problem was not one of standpoint, but rather how to find a balance between totalizing attitudes and confrontations between rebellious idealism and deep-rooted absolutism, without foregoing his belief in enlightenment, humanism and tolerance. In this way, and also through his personal conduct, which at that time was seen as jovial bonhommie, he made his contribution to the development of modern democratic Denmark in the full awareness of a popular, peaceful and down-to-earth community. Rahbek s principal work about the event of the French Revolution, which provides the focus for the above, is Camill og Constance. Et Revolutions Skilderie (1799). For today s reader, the novel about the revolution is an obvious example of a historical novel, as it does not only provide fictionalized information about past events placing them in a generally accepted perspective of historical development, but also gives the characters qualities, which, in Rahbek s words, allows the real events to influence the fictional characters. From this point of view, the novel of the revolution has shifted the benchmark for the first real historical novel on the European literary scene back by fifteen years. Lacking the aura so easily foisted on fearless iconoclasts or tragic losers, Rahbek s contribution may seem modest in spite of its enormous volume; but only when it is not evaluated in its full context, which is the development of Denmark towards an international democratic society.
  • Marjanen, Jani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Eighteenth-century Europe saw the emergence and spread of organizations known as economic societies which aimed to improve the economic basis of their respective countries. The study traces the rise and decline of the discourse of economic patriotism within these societies. Special emphasis is placed on the Finnish Economic Society (founded 1797) and its use of patriotic vocabulary first within the Swedish realm, and, after 1809, within the newly founded Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire. The primary methodological inspiration is Begriffsgeschichte (conceptual history) as formulated by Reinhart Koselleck. The study also draws from Cambridge-style contextual analysis of historical texts á la Quentin Skinner. Conceptual change and rhetorical innovation are seen both as mirroring changes in society as well as vehicles for historical change. Thus, the emphasis is on understanding the political and economic rhetoric employed within and outside the economic societies. Further, the study draws from the emerging field of transnational history. The main sources of the study are the economic societies published documents, particularly from the Finnish Economic Society. To contextualize the rhetoric in the documents, newspaper texts and other relevant publications from the period have been looked at. The study commences by charting the emergence and spread of economic societies in Europe and the overseas colonies of European powers. The first societies of this kind were founded in Britain and Ireland in the 1720s and 1730s. A second wave was established in the wake of the Seven Years War in most of continental Europe, whereas the era of the French Revolution can be seen as a third wave. Although the societies differed regionally, they generally combined the following three elements: 1) economic reform initiatives, 2) republican patriotic rhetoric and 3) the organizational form of a voluntary association. The study proceeds by addressing the radicalization and decline of the language of economic patriotism in Finland. This language was to be outrivaled from the 1830s onwards by the new dominant discourse of nation, culture and language as the basis of national improvement. The study traces this shift in the Finnish context and relates it to the development of the patriotic discourse as well as economic societies in neighboring areas.
  • Hirvi-Ijäs, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The Gesture of Exposure On the presentation of the work of art in the modern art exhibition The topic of this dissertation is the presentation of art works in the modern art exhibition as being the established and conventionalized form of art encounter. It investigates the possibility of a theorization of the art exhibition as a separate object for research, and attempts to examine the relationship between the art work and its presentation in a modern art exhibition. The study takes its point of departure in the area vaguely defined as exhibition studies, and in the lack of a general problematization of the analytical tools used for closer examination of the modern art exhibition. Another lacking aspect is a closer consideration of what happens to the work of art when it is exposed in an art exhibition. The aim of the dissertation is to find a set of concepts that can be used for further theorization The art exhibition is here treated, on the one hand, as an act of exposure, as a showing gesture. On the other hand, the art exhibition is seen as a spatiality, as a space that is produced in the act of showing. Both aspects are seen to be intimately involved in knowledge production. The dissertation is divided into four parts, in which different aspects of the art exhibition are analyzed using different theoretical approaches. The first part uses the archaeological model of Michel Foucault, and discusses the exhibition as a discursive formation based on communicative activity. The second part analyses the derived concepts of gesture and space. This leads to the proposition of three metaphorical spatialities the frame, the agora and the threshold which are seen as providing a possibility for a further extension of the theory of exhibitions. The third part extends the problematization of the relationship between the individual work of art and its exposure through the ideas of Walter Benjamin and Maurice Blanchot. The fourth part carries out a close reading of three presentations from the modern era in order to further examine the relationship between the work of art and its presentation, using the tools that have been developed during the study. In the concluding section, it is possible to see clearer borderlines and conditions for the development of an exhibition theory. The concepts that have been analysed and developed into tools are shown to be useful, and the examples take the discussion into a consideration of the altered premises for the encounter with the postmodern work of art.
  • Kauppinen, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study discusses the language, especially the communicative structures, of Greek dialogue epigrams. The central research questions include: Who are the speakers? How are they identified? How does the recipient know when the speaker changes? How is the turn-division implied? What are the functions of the speakers? In the study, all the dialogue verse inscriptions are collected and divided according to typology that was created for this study and which is based on the pair structure. The most common adjacency pair of dialogue epigrams is a question answer pair, and many of the elements studied here are features of question structures, but other pairs, such as greeting pairs, are also taken into account. The dialogues contain either one adjacency pair (type 1), several of them (type 2) or longer, often narrative units that form pair-like structures (type 3). The types, their variants and features of the language characteristic of each are discussed using examples. Elements such as addresses, imperatives and particles are central to my argument, and speaker roles and pair structure variants are also discussed. Non-inscriptional epigrams are given as parallels for each type, and the mutual influence between them and the verse inscriptions is discussed using examples. The reception situation and possible performance of the epigrams is also discussed, and on the basis of various examples, it is stated that the representation of the speakers often implies the complex reception situation, part of which was most probably reading the epigram aloud. Epigraphic methods are used and combined, and the linguistic aspect brings a new perspective to epigraphic studies. The comparison of the verse inscriptions and the literary ones contributes to ongoing discussions on the epigram genre and its inscriptional counterparts. The material discussed is mainly from the Roman period, a phase less well discussed in recent epigram studies, and the study thus adds to our knowledge of the genre and the mutual influence between the post-Hellenistic verse inscriptions and non-inscriptional epigrams.
  • Alho, Marjut (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This dissertation deals with the terminology of the Euro currency. Its aims are to determine the characteristics of the designations in a certain LSP and to discover whether the recommendations and rules that have been given to the formation of designations and 'ideal' designations have any influence on the usage of the designations. The characteristics analysed include length of the designation, part of speech, form, formation method, constancy, monosemy, suitability to a concept system and degree of specialty. The study analyses the actual usage of the designations in texts and the implementation of the designations. The study is an adaptation of a terminometric survey and uses concept analysis and quantitative analysis as its basic methods. The frequency of each characteristic is measured in terms of statistics. It is assumed that the 'ideality' of a designation influences its usage, for example that if a designation is short, it is used more than its longer rivals (synonyms). The results are analysed in a corpus consisting of a compilation of different texts concerning the Euro. The corpus is divided according to three features: year (1998-2003), genre (judicial texts, annual reports and brochures) and language (Finnish and German). Each analysis is performed according to each of these features and compared with the others. The results indicate that some of the characteristics of the designations indeed seem to have an influence on the usage of the designations. For example, monosemy and suitability to the concept system often lead to the implementation of the designation having the ideal or certain value in these characteristics in the analysed Finnish material. In German material, an 'ideal' value in the characteristics leads to the implementation of the designations more often than in Finnish. The contrastive study indicates that, for example, suitability to a concept system leads to implementation of a designation in judicial texts more often than in other genres. The recommendations given to an 'ideal' designation are thus often acceptable, but they cannot be generalized for all languages in the same extent.
  • Rybatzki, Volker (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The present research is an investigation into the corpus of personal names and titles that are found in sources from the Middle Mongolian period, that is the time from the 13th to the beginning of the 15th century. The entry for every name or title has been divided into three parts: occurence(s) of a given name in Middle Mongolian sources (primary sources), etymology, and occurence(s) in sources other than Middle Mongolian (secondary sources). Culturally and lingistically the corpus can be divided into six sub-groups: Mongolian, Turkic (Old, Middle and Modern), Arabo-Persian (Islamic), Indo-Iranian and Tibetan (Buddhist), as well as Chinese. Among these, the largest group is formed by Mongolian and Turkic, followed by Chinese (mostly titles), Indo-Iranian, Arabo-Persian and Tibetan. With regard to the primary and secondary occurences the research is based mainly on primary sources including text-publications and dictionaries. Every name or title is documented as completely as possible within a Central Asian framework. However, due to the divergency of the sources available as well as diachronical importance, each sub-group has been dealt with slightly differently, but consistently. The corpus of investigated names and titles gives a fairly correct picture of the multi-ethnical composition of the Mongolian world-empire. It also shows the foreign influences on Mongolian names and titles, being in this respect a mirror of the influences that are visible in other parts of the Middle Mongolian culture too. Furthermore, the investigated corpus reflects the transitory stage of the 13th to 15th century in Central Asian history, and includes thus material from the past (Indo-Iranian, Old and Middle Turkic), and material that points to the future (Arabo-Persian, Tibetan, Modern Turkic).
  • Lauranto, Yrjö (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines directivity and imperative clauses (henceforth i-clauses) in Finnish. It consists of 3 publications (P1, P2 and P3). While the theoretical basis of the study is systemic-functional linguistics, use is also made of other approaches. P1 concentrates on the description of the imperative, and, thus, the data consist mainly of intuited examples. Firstly, the Finnish imperative can be regarded as a paradigm consisting of the personal forms of the present. This is reflected in traditional descriptions of the Finnish verb, which treat the imperative as one of the moods. This is referred to as the synchronic-morphological perspective. Secondly, the imperative can be examined from the perspective of interaction and interactional constructions. This is called the diachronic-interactive perspective. P2 investigates the canonical i-clause in everyday conversations between friends and family members. The data consist of approx. 140 conversations or excerpts of conversation. 70 % of the data are telephone conversations. One of the characteristics of the i-clause is that it is employed as a response to what has been said before or as a response to the non-linguistic action that is going on during the conversation. Approx. 63 % of the i-clauses in the data (n = 243) can be considered strongly responsive. Another significant finding is that only 10 % of the i-clauses of the data are interpreted by the participants in the conversations as commands. P2 suggests two ways of defining the notion of a directive. From a wider perspective, directives include not only exhortations to action but also offers and permissions. From a narrow perspective, offers and permissions are excluded because they are used to provide addressees with commodities or to enable them to act in the way they themselves wish. P3 discusses two clause constructions that begin with a finite verb conjugated in the 2nd person of the conditional mood but which do not allow a pronoun functioning as the subject. The data consist of everyday interaction and electronically mediated conversations from the Internet. One of the constructions is clearly an optative structure, whereas the other tends to be used as a persuasive expression. It can thus be seen as a grammaticalization of directivity. The study sheds light on the Finnish i-clause and its use, but also on directivity in general. The results are also of relevance to the teaching of Finnish as a second language. Key words: interactional syntax, interpersonal, imperative clause, morphological imperative, everyday conversations, directives, directivity, grammatical metaphor, optative, persuasion, grammaticalization, systemic-functional linguistics
  • Blackie, Daniel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This thesis addresses the following broad research question: what did it mean to be a disabled Revolutionary War veteran in the early United States during the period from 1776 to roughly 1840? The study approaches the question from two angles: a state-centred one and an experiential one. In both cases, the theoretical framework employed comes from disability studies. Consequently, disability is regarded as a sociocultural phenomenon rather than a medical condition. The state-centred dimension of the study explores the meaning of disability and disabled veterans to the early American state through an examination of the major military pension laws of the period. An analysis of this legislation, particularly the invalid pension acts of 1793 and 1806, indicates that the early United States represents a key period in the development of the modern disability category. The experiential approach, in contrast, shifts the focus of attention away from the state towards the lived experiences of disabled veterans. It seeks to address the issue of whether or not the disabilities of disabled veterans had any significant material impact on their everyday lives. It does this through a comparison of the situation of 153 disabled veterans with that of an equivalent number of nondisabled veterans. The former group received invalid pensions while the latter did not. In comparing the material conditions of disabled and nondisabled veterans, a wide range of primary sources from military records to memoirs and letters are used. The most important sources in this regard are the pension application papers submitted by veterans in the early nineteenth century. These provide us with a unique insight into the everyday lives of veterans. Looking at the issue of experience through the window of the pension files reveals that there was not much difference in the broad contours of disabled and nondisabled veteran life. This finding has implications for the theorisation of disability that are highlighted and discussed in the thesis. The main themes covered in this study are: the wartime experiences of injured American soldiers, the military pension establishment of the early United States and the legal construction of disability, and the post-war working and family lives of disabled veterans. Keywords: disability, early America, veterans, military pensions, disabled people, Revolutionary War, United States, disability theory.
  • Hacklin, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961) has been known as the philosopher of painting. His interest in the theory of perception intertwined with the questions concerning the artist s perception, the experience of an artwork and the possible interpretations of the artwork. For him, aesthetics was not a sub-field of philosophy, and art was not simply a subject matter for the aesthetic experience, but a form of thinking. This study proposes an opening for a dialogue between Merleau-Pontian phenomenology and contemporary art. The thesis examines his phenomenology through certain works of contemporary art and presents readings of these artworks through his phenomenology. The thesis both shows the potentiality of a method, but also engages in the critical task of finding the possible limitations of his approach. The first part lays out the methodological and conceptual points of departure of Merleau-Ponty s phenomenological approach to perception as well as the features that determined his discussion on encountering art. Merleau-Ponty referred to the experience of perceiving art using the notion of seeing with (voir selon). He stressed a correlative reciprocity described in Eye and Mind (1961) as the switching of the roles of the visible and the painter. The choice of artworks is motivated by certain restrictions in the phenomenological readings of visual arts. The examined works include paintings by Tiina Mielonen, a photographic work by Christian Mayer, a film by Douglas Gordon and Philippe Parreno, and an installation by Monika Sosnowska. These works resonate with, and challenge, his phenomenological approach. The chapters with case studies take up different themes that are central to Merleau-Ponty s phenomenology: space, movement, time, and touch. All of the themes are interlinked with the examined artworks. There are also topics that reappear in the thesis, such as the notion of écart and the question of encountering the other. As Merleau-Ponty argued, the sphere of art has a particular capability to address our being in the world. The thesis presents an interpretation that emphasises the notion of écart, which refers to an experience of divergence or dispossession. The sudden dissociation, surprise or rupture that is needed in order for a meeting between the spectator and the artwork, or between two persons, to be possible. Further, the thesis suggests that through artworks it is possible to take into consideration the écart, the divergence, that defines our subjectivity.
  • Hoyer, Karin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Language Documentation and Description as Language Planning Working with Three Signed Minority Languages Sign languages are minority languages that typically have a low status in society. Language planning has traditionally been controlled from outside the sign-language community. Even though signed languages lack a written form, dictionaries have played an important role in language description and as tools in foreign language learning. The background to the present study on sign language documentation and description as language planning is empirical research in three dictionary projects in Finland-Swedish Sign Language, Albanian Sign Language, and Kosovar Sign Language. The study consists of an introductory article and five detailed studies which address language planning from different perspectives. The theoretical basis of the study is sociocultural linguistics. The research methods used were participant observation, interviews, focus group discussions, and document analysis. The primary research questions are the following: (1) What is the role of dictionary and lexicographic work in language planning, in research on undocumented signed language, and in relation to the language community as such? (2) What factors are particular challenges in the documentation of a sign language and should therefore be given special attention during lexicographic work? (3) Is a conventional dictionary a valid tool for describing an undocumented sign language? The results indicate that lexicographic work has a central part to play in language documentation, both as part of basic research on undocumented sign languages and for status planning. Existing dictionary work has contributed new knowledge about the languages and the language communities. The lexicographic work adds to the linguistic advocacy work done by the community itself with the aim of vitalizing the language, empowering the community, receiving governmental recognition for the language, and improving the linguistic (human) rights of the language users. The history of signed languages as low status languages has consequences for language planning and lexicography. One challenge that the study discusses is the relationship between the sign-language community and the hearing sign linguist. In order to make it possible for the community itself to take the lead in a language planning process, raising linguistic awareness within the community is crucial. The results give rise to questions of whether lexicographic work is of more importance for status planning than for corpus planning. A conventional dictionary as a tool for describing an undocumented sign language is criticised. The study discusses differences between signed and spoken/written languages that are challenging for lexicographic presentations. Alternative electronic lexicographic approaches including both lexicon and grammar are also discussed. Keywords: sign language, Finland-Swedish Sign Language, Albanian Sign Language, Kosovar Sign Language, language documentation and description, language planning, lexicography
  • Jauhiainen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This dissertation is a study of the forms and functions of feasts and feasting in the ancient Egyptian village of Deir el-Medina in Thebes (modern Luxor). This particular village, during the New Kingdom (c. 1550 1069 BC), was inhabited by the men (and their families) who constructed the Royal Tombs in the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens. The royal artisans were probably more literate than the average Egyptians and the numerous Ramesside Period (c. 1295 1069 BC) non-literary texts found in the excavations of the village and its surroundings form the source material for this study. In this study, the methods used are mainly Egyptological and the references to feasts and feasting are considered in view of what is known of New Kingdom Egypt, Thebes, and Deir el-Medina. Nevertheless, it is the use of the methodological concept local vernacular religion that has resulted in the division of the research findings into two sections, i.e., references to feasts celebrated both in and outside the community and other references to feasts and feasting in the village. When considering the function of the feasts celebrated at Deir el-Medina, a functional approach to feasts introduced by anthropologists and archaeologists is utilized. The Deir el-Medina feasts which were associated with the official religion form a festival calendar of feasts celebrated annually on the same civil calendar day. The reconstructed festival calendar of Deir el-Medina reflects the feasts celebrated around Thebes or, at least, in Western Thebes. The function of the nationally and regionally observed feasts (which, at least at Deir el-Medina, resulted in a work-free day) may have been to keep people content so that they would continue to work which was to the advantage of the king and the elite surrounding him. Local feasts appear to have been observed more irregularly at Deir el-Medina or perhaps according to the lunar calendar. Feasts celebrated by the community as a whole served to maintain the unity of the group. In addition to feasts celebrated by the entire community, the inhabitants of Deir el-Medina could mark their own personal feasts and organize small gatherings during public feasts. Through such feasts, an individual man might form alliances and advance his chances of a favourable marriage or of acquiring a position on the work crew.
  • Söderling, Trygve (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The objective of my dissertation Pull (or Draught, or Moves) at the Parnassus , is to provide a deeper understanding of Nordic Middle Class radicalism of the 1960 s as featured in Finland-Swedish literature. My approach is cultural materialist in a broad sense; social class is regarded a crucial aspect of the contents and contexts of the novels and literary discussions explored. In the first volume, Middle Class With A Human Face , novels by Christer Kihlman, Jarl Sjöblom, Marianne Alopaeus, and Ulla-Lena Lundberg, respectively, are read from the points of view of place, emotion, and power. The term "cryptotope" is used to designate the hidden places found to play an important role in all of these four narratives. Also, the "chronotope of the provincial small town", described by Mikhail Bakhtin in 1938, is exemplified in Kihlman s satirical novel, as is the chronotope of of war (Algeria, Vietnam) in those of Alopaeus and Lundberg s. All the four novels signal changes in the way general "scripts of emotions", e.g. jealousy, are handled and described. The power relations in the novels are also read, with reference to Michel Foucault. As the protagonists in two of them work as journalists, a critical discussion about media and Bourgeois hegemony is found; the term "repressive legitimation" is created to grasp these patterns of manipulation. The Modernist Debate , part II of the study, concerns a literary discussion between mainly Finland-Swedish authors and critics. Essayist Johannes Salminen (40) provided much of the fuel for the debate in 1963, questioning the relevance to contemporary life of the Finland-Swedish modernist tradition of the 1910 s and 1920 s. In 1965, a group of younger authors and critics, including poet Claes Andersson (28), followed up this critique in a debate taking place mainly in the newspaper Vasabladet. Poets Rabbe Enckell (62), Bo Carpelan (39) and others defended a timeless poetry. This debate is contextualized and the changing literary field is analyzed using concepts provided by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. In the thesis, the historical moment of Middle Class radicalism with a human face is regarded a temporary luxury that new social groups could afford themselves, as long as they were knocking over the statues and symbols of the Old Bourgeoisie. This is not to say that all components of the Sixties strategy have lost their power. Some of them have survived and even grown, others remain latent in the gene bank of utopias, waiting for new moments of change.
  • Vajanto, Krista (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation is about Late Iron Age (AD 800 – 1055/1300) woollen, visually colourful textile fragments. The aim is to identify the dyeing methods used in Finland during the Late Iron Age and to find the locally used dyestuffs. This dissertation focuses on the archaeological samples from inhumation burials and shipwrecks, which were analysed with visual analysis and microscopy observation. The reference material includes woollen yarns dyed with Finnish traditionally known dye sources. The archaeological samples and the dyed references were analysed chromatographically at the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands (RCE) and at the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (KIK-IRPA) in Belgium by HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography) and UHPLC (Ultra High performance liquid chromatography). Mordants were analysed at the Nanomicroscopy Center of Aalto University in Finland by SEM-EDX (Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Experimental archaeology was used to reconstruct the actual dyeing methods of red tannins, lichen orchil and plant mordants as well as to test the sustainability of these dyes and the effect of dyeing methods on wool yarns. The results suggest that three different dyeing methods were used in Late Iron Age Finland: vat dyeing, mordant dyeing and fermentation of tannins. Red tannins were obtained from tree barks such as alder buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula) and roots of common tormentil (Potentilla erecta). Red anthraquinones were obtained from local bedstraws (Galium boreale, Galium album and Galium verum). Mordants for dyes were prepared by fermenting clubmosses (Lycopodium species) and horsetails (Equisetum silvaticum and Equisetum arvense). Eagles fern (Pteridium aquilinum), common chickweed (Stellaria media) and red sorrel (Rumex acetosella) were also used in mordanting. Woad (Isatis tinctoria) was used for blue dyeing. Purple was obtained from orchil producing lichens such as rock tripe (Lasallia pustulata). Dyer s madder (Rubia tinctorum) and the yellow flavonoid dyes such as weld (Reseda luteola) were interpreted to indicate textile import. The Middle Ages offered new meanings for life and textile making, new handicraft methods and new dyestuffs, which ended the local prehistoric dyeing tradition. As a result of new cultural influences, red tannins were no longer used to strengthen yarns for warp-weighted loom nor were the blackish-blue and purple textiles dyed in vats in the Late Iron Age manner. The medieval culture provided a faster textile making process and offered horizontal looms and spinning wheels, the boiling method, alum and new dyestuffs.
  • Palmujoki, Katri (Uusfilologinen yhdistys, 2015)
    Kyseessä on Mallorcalla vuonna 1541 painetun ensimmäisen espanjankielisen lapsenpäästöopin ja lastenhoiden käsikirjan editio ja kommentaari. Varsinaisen tekstiedition ohella, jossa on selvitetty tekstiin liittyviä epäselviä ja vaikeasti ymmärrettäviä kohtia, on laadittu laaja kommentaari, jossa analysoidaan kirjan tekijän Damián Carbónin kieltä kaikilla sen osa-alueilla: fonologia ja grafiat, morfosyntaksi ja leksikko. 1500-luvun ensimmäinen puolisko oli espanjan kielen kehityksen kannalta murrosaikaa, jona uudet ja vanhan kielen rakenteet elivät rinnakkain, toisten jäädessä sivuun ja toisten vakiintuessa. Päämääränä on ollut luonnehtia Carbónin kieltä tämän myllerrysten kauden puitteissa, sekä sijoittaa se sille kuuluvalle paikalle espanjan kielen periodisaatiossa. Katalaaninkielisellä Mallorcan saarella espanja oli jo vakiintunut yläluokan kieleksi; Carbónin tekstistä on havaittavissa suhteellisen vähän katalaanin vaikutusta. Tutkimuksen aluksi heräsi kysymys siitä, keille kirja oli tarkoitettu. Sen oli alunperin tilannut nimeltä mainitsematon mallorcalainen arvohenkilö, jonka vaimolla oli ollut useita keskenmenoja. Ottaen huomioon naisten alhainen lukutaitoprosentti ja se seikka, että tavallinen kansa ei vielä 1500-luvulla puhunut espanjaa, että kirja on pikemminkin osoitettu välskäreille ja että se on samalla ollut sivistyneelle yleisölle ja yläluokalle suunnattu teos.
  • Mäkinen, Helka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2001)