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  • Paqvalen, Rita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The Struggle for Eros: On Love and Gender in the Pahlen Series The present dissertation examines how gender, sexuality and motherhood are constructed in the novel series Fröknarna von Pahlen (The Misses von Pahlen, I VII, 1930 1935) by the Swedish author Agnes von Krusenstjerna. The aim of the study is to analyze how the Pahlen series relates to the discourses on gender and sexuality circulating in the 1930s, and how the series opens a dialogue with the feminist thinking of the time especially with the book Lifslinjer I (Love and Marriage, 1903) by the Swedish author Ellen Key. Fröknarna von Pahlen holds a central position in the research on Agnes von Krusenstjerna partly due to the literary debate that the novel series triggered. The debate was connected to the development taking place in the Swedish society in the beginning of the 1930s, in the so-called second phase of the Modern Breakthrough. Sweden was at that time characterized by struggle over the definitions of gender, sexuality and parenthood, and this struggle is also visible in the Pahlen series. The literary debate took place in 1934 1935 and it began after an article by the modernist writer Karin Boye was published in Social-Demokraten on 28 January 1934. In her polemic article, Boye saw the Pahlen series as a sign that the family institution is on the verge of a breakdown and with it the whole moral system that has come to existence through it . Boye went on to state that Krusenstjerna only sees and describes and that she explores neither new literary forms nor new values. Boye wrote the article before the last two parts of the novel series were published, so obviously she could not discuss the utopian vision characterizing those parts. This study, however, strives to demonstrate that Krusenstjerna not only sees and describes, but that she like many of her contemporary female colleagues appears to take the request of Friedrich Nietzsche to revaluate all values seriously. Like the works of her contemporaries, Krusenstjerna s Pahlen series is marked by a double vision on the one hand a critique of the prevailing social order, and on the other hand a dream of a new world and a new human being. In this research the vision of the Pahlen series is characterized as queer in order to emphasize that the series not only criticizes the prevailing gender order and its morals, but is also open for new ways of doing gender, parenthood, and family.
  • Piispanen, Sirkku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    In my research I discuss belief legends as representations of folk morals. Doing wrong is not one s private affair because it can have consequences for the life of a whole community, and therefore, it is in a community s interest to control the conduct of its members. Belief legends have served as a means of instruction for proper behaviour. In this way a community has contributed to the socialization of its members so as to make them comply with common norms and morals. My study is focused on belief legends relating to some type of offence (a crime, an infringement or another kind of misdeed) and its consequences. I try to find out whether there are regional differences and similarities. The material consists of 3120 warning legends that have been recorded in the years 1881‒1981, mainly in Southern Savo and Southern Ostrobothnia, partly in Northern Savo and Northern Ostrobothnia. I have collected the material at the Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society. As a research method I apply discourse analysis to outline the schematic model of the legends, the superstructure, and the substance of the legends, the semantic macrostructure. Also I apply quantitative methods such as cross tabulations in order to establish regional differences and similarities in the concentrated and far abstracted semantic macrostructure of the legends. I look for explanations for the perceptions made in, above all, the cultural context but also with the view of the development of judicial history. Warning legends relating to what is wrong or right are clearly an expression of peasant folklore. The most common types of offences are violations of law and transgressions of Christian traditions and of social conduct. Transgression of Christian traditions is the most frequently committed offence in all geographical areas surveyed. Warning legends have an explicit focus on offence committed by a single person. The most common punishing figure in Southern Savo is the Devil, in Southern Ostrobothnia the Dead, in Northern Savo God, and in Northern Ostrobothnia the Dead or God. The most rigid folk morals are manifested in legends from Northern Savo, where narratives of mortal sin are more frequent than in other areas. The influence of the revivalist movements may be alleged in explanation of this phenomenon. According to these legends people living in Southern Savo are the most tolerant of those included in the study, presumably because of a more liberal revivalist movement in this area, called the Friendship movement. In folk morals women are treated more severely than men. Characteristic of the legends from Ostrobothnia is the emphasis on community, while the legends from Savo lay stress on individuality. The legends from Ostrobothnia manifest a more explicit distinction between the offence committed by a woman and one committed by a man than do legends from Savo. An explanation may be found in the prevailing industries, adherent in the division of labour between the sexes, in this region. The legends are man-centric. Women s occupations are connected with home and family, whereas men s fields of activities are wider. Women moralise each other harsher than do men. Folk morals advise people to be moderate in every sense. Through belief legends people are taught to respect human beings and the rest of creation, to obey the Christian religion and God, and to be moderate in search of wealth.
  • Tapaninen, Irma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation examines Finnish writer Algot Untola's (1868-1918) artistic mission in writing his first novel Harhama and presents a new interpretation. The research task focused on understanding the logic of his creative activity between the years 1906-1909. According to the main hypothesis Harhama and his other writings belong to the carnivalesque genre, which is always opposed to the mainstream culture of the era. The study applies Mikhail Bakhtin's language and literary theory to demonstrate the interaction between Untola's writings and the writings of other authors. The study investigates the value and meaning context in which Untola wrote Harhama, the values and meanings that Untola introduces in Harhama, and the value and meaning context where Harhama has been received. Harhama provides the most important research data, while the sequel Martva was a secondary source. Untola's newspaper articles of the same period are also important data as well as texts that have dealt with Untola or his writings during the research period in 1906 to 1909. One of the most important perspectives based on Bakhtin s theory has been an important theme in carnivalesque literature: the struggle between an official serious culture and unofficial comic culture. In Harhama Untola wrote from the perspective of traditional Finnish agrarian culture and attempted discourse with the national high culture. The study examines the carnival features of Harhama. It is a Menippean satire which includes a hidden polemic toward different philosophical and ideological trends. Harhama was Untola's statement commenting on topical cultural issues. He discussed in particular the ideas that characterized the radical cultural youth: political activism, free love and symbolist/decadent literature. The analysis in a broad context illuminates Untola's critical attitude toward these ideas. Untola was a dissident, which is why Harhama as well as his other texts caused much debate. The reception of Harhama linked to the struggle between liberal and conservative nationalist Finns. Untola s worldview was originally close to conservative nationalist thinking. The nationalist elite and Untola had, however, a big difference in their attitudes toward lower class people. In particular, this difference was reflected in morality and culture-related issues. Previous studies on Untola's writings and activity interpreted them from the cultural elite point of view. This study turns that perspective upside down and illuminates how Untola saw society. Thus, it also gives a new perspective on Finnish history.
  • Hautsalo, Liisamaija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    L Amour de loin: The semantics of the unattainable in Kaija Saariaho s opera Kaija Saariaho (born 1952) is one of the most internationally successful Finnish composers there has ever been. Her first opera L Amour de loin (Love from afar, 1999-2000) has been staged all over the world and has won a number of important prizes. The libretto written for L Amour de loin by Amin Malouf (born 1949) sets the work firmly in the culture of courtly love and the troubadours, which flourished in Occitania in the South of France during the Middle Ages. The male lead in the opera is the troubadour Jaufré Rudel, who lived in the twelfth century and is known to have taken part in the Second Crusade in 1147-1148. This doctoral thesis L Amour de loin: The semantics of the unattainable in Kaija Saariaho s opera, which comes within the field of musicology and opera research, examines the dimensions of meaning contained in Kaija Saariaho s opera L Amour de loin. This hermeneutic-semiotic study is the first doctoral thesis dealing with Saariaho to be completed at the University of Helsinki. It is also the first thesis-level study of Saariaho s opera to be completed anywhere in the world. The study focuses on the libretto and music of the opera, that is to say the dramatic text (L Amour de loin 1980), and examines on the one hand the dimensions of meaning produced by the dramatic text and on the other, the way in which they fix the dramatic text in a historical and cultural context. Thus the study helps to answer questions about the dimensions of meaning contained in the dramatic text of the opera and how they can be interpreted. The most important procedural viewpoint is Lawrence Kramer s hermeneutic window (1990), supplemented by Raymond Monelle s semiotic theory of musical topics (2000, 2006) and the philosophical concept of Emmanuel Levinas (1996, 2002) in which the latter acts as an instrument for semantic interpretation to build up an analysis. The analytical section of the study is built around the three characters in the opera, Jaufré Rudel, Clémence the Countess of Tripoli, and the Pilgrim. The study shows that the music of Saariaho, who belongs to the third generation of Finnish modernists, has become distanced from the post-serial aesthetic towards a more diatonic form of expression. There is diatonicity, for instance, in the sonorous individuality of the male lead, which is based on the actual melodies of the historical Jaufré Rudel. The use of outside material in this context is exceptional in the work of Saariaho. At the same time, Saariaho s opera contains a wealth of expressive devices she has used in her earlier work. It became apparent during the study that, as a piece of music, L Amour de loin is a many layered and multi-dimensional work that does not unambiguously represent any single stylistic trend or aesthetic. Despite the composer s post-serial background and its abrasive relationship with opera, L Amour de loin is firmly attached to the tradition of western opera. The analysis based on the theory of musical topics that was carried out in the study, shows that topics referring to death and resurrection, used in opera since the seventeenth century, appear in L Amour de loin. The troubadour topic, mainly identified with the harp, also emerges in the work. The study also shows that the work is firmly attached to the tradition of western opera in other aspects, too, such as the travesti or trouser role played by the Pilgrim, and the idea of deus ex machina derived from Ancient Greek theatre. The study shows that the concept of love based on the medieval practices of courtly love, and the associated longing for another defined by almost 1,000 years of western culture, are both manifested in the semantics of Kaija Saariaho s opera which takes its place in the contemporary music genre.
  • Vuorikuru, Silja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    At the Gate of the Temple of Beauty. Aino Kallas' Oeuvre and the Biblical Subtext. This study deals with the intertextual relationship between Aino Kallas oeuvre and the Bible. In this study, the Bible is understood as a general subtext of Kallas works. Aino Kallas (former Krohn, 1878-1956) was a Finnish-Estonian author, whose oeuvre nowadays is a part of the literary canons of both countries. Her role in the canon is, however, considered differently in Finland and in Estonia. The notion of intertextuality has been redefined several times in the past decades. In this study, intertextuality is, mainly, understood as a practical tool for analysing texts (e.g. K. Taranovski, H. F. Plett, W. Müller). In the previous body of research, the role of the Bible in Kallas oeuvre has been seen in a much smaller role than in this study. It has previously been suggested, that Kallas imitated a biblical style mainly in her historical stories of the 1920s. Primarily, imitation of the biblical style has been seen as a feature of her so-called archaic style. In this study, the biblical subtext is considered as one of the most significant features in Kallas works, opening up whole new interpretations of her stories. The most essential works in this study are Kallas novels, short stories and plays between the years of 1910 and 1937. In 1904, Aino Kallas published her first work set in an Estonian milieu. Soon after that, she began to search for new forms of literary expression. This period is currently known as the literary crisis of Aino Kallas (between the years of 1908 and 1912). In this study, it is argued that Kallas started to use the Bible as a general subtext in her works during the years of her literary crisis . The earliest and also the strongest indication of this is her biblical poetic play Bathseba (1910). For Aino Kallas, writing Bathseba was an ambitious project. However, at the time, the play was not considered to be of any merit and was not published. It was also believed to be totally lost, until the author of this study came across it in the archives of the Estonian Literary Museum (2008). In the 1910s and 1920s, Aino Kallas published several short stories with strong intertextual connections to biblical myths. The best-known part of Kallas oeuvre is her historical stories of the 1920s and 1930s, which also are analysed in the present study. In the 1940s, Kallas published three works of poetry, in which she returned to the traces of her early Bathseba. She, for example, uses the biblical subtext in a way characteristic only of Bathseba: by imitating the style of the poetry of the Old Testament. Aino Kallas oeuvre has been studied largely in Finland and in Estonia. However, these previous studies have had a contextual and a bibliographical orientation towards the subject. This dissertation is the first text-orientated, intertextual study of Kallas works. It is also the first monograph which deals with the intertextual relationship between the Bible and the oeuvre of a Finnish female author. Key words: Aino Kallas, intertextuality, biblical subtext, Finnish literature, Estonian literature
  • Keski-Rauska, Riku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Georg C. Ehrnrooth (1926-2010), Lawyer and Licentiate in Law, was one of the most well-known right-wing opposition politicians during the Presidency of Urho Kekkonen. His career in national politics started in the Swedish People s Party, where he became well known as an opponent of Urho Kekkonen and Communism. He was also known as a defendant of parliamentarianism and an advocate for the Nordic rule of law. As a long-time member of the Helsinki City Council, Ehrnrooth was known for his special interest in the social problems of the elderly. This thesis, a partial biography written using the traditional historical research method, examines the political involvement of Ehrnrooth during 1945-1982. The core issues researched in this study are Ehrnrooth s involvement in national politics as well as the development of his profile as a political opponent of Kekkonen and Communism. The development of Ehrnrooth s image and political career can begin to be uncovered by looking into his family, childhood, early years and education. The study pays special attention to the causes of Ehrnrooths political awakening and the formation of his political inclination. In addition to societal factors, research is conducted on other determining reasons for his political involvement such as psychological factors, family background and the environment he was brought up in. The activity leading up to Ehrnrooths political marginalization is studied by examining political harmony during the era as well as Cold War culture. The central questions of my thesis are: What factors caused the development of Ehrnrooths persona and political thinking? From where did his opposition to Kekkonen and Communism originate? Why did he continue on his political line, even though it caused his political marginalization? The most significant sources of data for the thesis are the Georg C. Ehrnrooth archives at the National Library, documents obtained directly from Georg C. Ehrnrooth and personal interviews and documents kept in several political party archives. In my thesis, I argue that the foundation of Georg C. Ehrnrooths inclination to the opposition of Communism and Kekkonen lies within his family roots, his future political inheritance and the societal events that took place between 1939-1946 in both Finnish society and his family life. The tradition of Christian-patriotism and the rule of law stems from his family, and ultimately leads to the development of his political thinking in combination with the resolutions that took place after World War II. In terms of his opposition to Kekkonen and Communism, the most significant event that took place was the war crime trials. In terms of the evolution of his political career, it was Ehrnrooths uncompromising character, criticism of Finlands official foreign policy and his steadfast belief in his own political disposition that led to his political marginalization - in reality this meant the weakening of possibilities for cooperation and falling outside the nucleus of the government. In addition to these other factors, Ehrnrooths political marginalization was also impacted by his western contacts and his settlement on the side of the United States in the confrontations of the Cold War.
  • Pallaskallio, Ritva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The news genre is generally defined by a strong demand of objectivity. Objectivity, on the other hand, is a more or less vague concept connected to neutrality, factuality and impersonality. The present study deals with the idea of objectivity from a diachronic point of view. More specifically, it highlights the linguistic means by which objectivity is construed in news texts from the 19th century to the present day. This doctoral dissertation examines tense usage in Finnish disaster news texts from the 1860´s to 2004. The study investigates the kinds of meanings associated with the use of tenses in the news text and the reasons for differing use of tenses during the time investigated. In addition, through grammatical and textual analysis, it describes changes in news writing conventions. Also relevant are approaches to text analysis taken in communication and literature studies. The data comprises 49 news texts and 9 800 finite verbs in 29 news events during 145 years. The structure of the news genre is seen as a dynamic interplay of two parallel traditions: dissemination of information and storytelling. The study demonstrates that this interplay is reflected in the disaster news conventions through the varying presence of two different discourse frames: perceiving and narrating. The changing relations of the discourse frames manifested are investigated by looking at the changes in tense usage as well as other deictic elements. It is argued that there are four different layers in disaster news production. What is more, every series of events reported is perceived through the eyes of someone who has participated in the original events. The study shows how a similar patterning of the production process is present in every disaster news text, but at different times different stages of the process are highlighted in the news texts. As a result, the data is divided into four different periods on the basis of tense usage and tense occurrence as well as the reporting style: the period of narrative news (1860−1892), the period of news room reporting (1903−1924), the period of news reportage (1929−1959), and finally, the period of factual news (1964−2004). The diachronic tense variation in disaster news text can thus be seen as reflecting the different aims and operating methods of the media at different times.
  • Tuomaala, Salome (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The present study focuses on the question of agency in the narratives of women who have experienced an abortion. The study scrutinizes agency by analyzing narratives and their context, that is, how narratives are entwined with cultural discourses and societal practices. The study thus addresses also the wider framework within which experiences and actions can be constructed in abortion narratives in the contemporary Finnish society. The women who wrote their stories or were interviewed were of different ages and had different social and religious backgrounds. Many variations of agency were found when abortion experiences were analyzed through the women s embodied and historically specific accounts. Independent and rational choices are entwined with emotions and choices made together with other people. Intimate relationships with family and friends have an important role in the choices regarding abortion. These relationships do not, however, simply belong in the private sphere but reflect the wider socio-cultural meanings of social bonds and family ties. Women s agency with regard to abortion is also constructed in encounters with the medical profession and within the wider framework of abortion legislation. The Finnish legislation grants women an abortion within certain parameters but not solely on the basis of a woman s wish to have an abortion. The data consists primarily of written narratives and interviews. All together 39 women shared their experiences with the researcher. The analysis focuses on decision-making regarding abortion, depictions of freedom and responsibility, emotions around abortion and expressions of values and religious views. The links between the women's experiences and the wider socio-cultural norms and institutions are analyzed through materials consisting of public debate on abortion in the media, ethical statements as well as literature and legislation on abortion. The analysis sheds light on the tensions apparent in the women's narratives between the legal status of abortion and more traditional views on abortion. The study demonstrates that the freedom linked to abortion is not solely to do with the right to have an abortion but also how abortion can be experienced, understood and where one can talk about the experience afterwards. The analysis reveals that Christian values shape women's experiences but that there are also new religious ways to deal with the ethical considerations brought about by abortion. Annually over 10 000 Finnish women experience an abortion, which is a situation involving ethical considerations. The study provides a nuanced account of the ways in which one can think and act when going through an abortion.
  • Honkanen, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This study addresses the interplay of lexico-grammatical and wider textual patterns by which directive meanings are created in an administrative genre. The data comprises 123 circular letters sent to city schools by the Helsinki City Education authority. The dialogically oriented analysis draws on the concept of genre as a dynamic nexus between an individual s actions and a socially defined context. Further tools are utilized from cognitive and systemic-functional linguistics. The study first investigates conventionalized directives as clause(-like) lexico-grammatical units, profiling the directive function of the text and the agentive role handed down to the addressee. In the data, conventionalized directives are demonstrated to have a central role in the construal of a particular functional stage, the request sequence, realized differently in the three major sub-genres recognized in the data. In the request sequence, conventionalized directives further realize two functions, distinguished by different patterns of argument structure and thematic progression. Secondly, the study focuses on co(n)textual factors influencing the use of conventionalized directives as constitutive elements of the request sequence. The analysis shows that conventionalized directives not only function as a means of formulating requests for action but also direct the addressee s attention to the requests treated as the most newsworthy by the writer. The degree of newsworthiness is reflected in the argument structure of the conventionalized directive chosen at the beginning of the request sequence. Through the argument structure, it further shapes the structure of the sequence. Finally, the study investigates the kinds of co(n)texts in which a conventionalized directive construes the addressee as the agent of the desired action in an explicit way. The analysis shows that explicit construal is sometimes used to delimit the group of desired actors. However, it is also used when the linguistic choices made indicate that the request is treated by the writer as potentially problematic. This further confirms the finding of the explicit marking of the agent as a particular kind of focusing device, allowing for the interactants to treat the request given as particularly relevant in the ongoing interaction. In conclusion, the study shows how relevant aspects of the situation are dynamically fore- and backgrounded by the participants in and through linguistic action. In this way, it advocates an approach to directive language use in written data that resembles the one advocated for spoken data by interactional linguistics. The study also adds to knowledge on municipal workplace communication, offering tools for training of administrative staff and for analyzing organizational change discourse.
  • Roselius, Aapo (Suomen Tiedeseura, 2011)
    Conflict, Unity, Oblivion: Commemoration of the Liberation War by the Civic Guard and the Veterans´ Union in 1918-1944 The Finnish Civil War ended in May 1918 as a victory for the white side. The war was named by the winners as the Liberation War and its legacy became a central theme for public commemorations during the interwar period. At the same time the experiences of the defeated were hindered from becoming a part of the official history of Finland. The commemoration of the war was related not only to the war experience but also to a national mission, which was seen fulfilled with the independence of Finland. Although the idea of the commemoration was to form a unifying non-political scene for the nation, the remembrance of the Liberation War rather continued than sought to reconcile to the conflict of 1918. The outbreak of the war between the Soviet Union and Finland in 1939 immediately affected the memory culture. The new myth of the Miracle of the Winter War, which referred to the unity shown by the people, required a marginalization of controversial memory of the Liberation War. This study examines from the concepts of public memory and narrative templates how the problematic experience of a civil war developed to a popular public commemoration. Instead of dealing with the manipulative and elite-centered grandiose commemoration projects, the study focuses on the more modest local level and emphasizes the significance of local memory agents and narrative templates of collective memory. The main subjects in the study are the Civil Guard and the Veterans´ Union. Essential for the widespread movement was the development of the Civic Guard from a wartime organization to a peacetime popular movement. The guards, who identified themselves trough the memories and the threats of civil war, formed a huge network of memory agents in every corner of the country. They effectively linked both local memory with official memory and the civic society with the state level. Only with the emergence of the right wing veteran movement in the 30ies did the tensions grow between the two levels of public memory. The study shows the diversity of the commemoration movement of the Liberation War. It was not only a result of a nation-state project and political propaganda, but also a way for local communities to identify and strengthen themselves in a time of political upheaval and uncertainty.
  • Juvonen, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The study examines framing (or projecting) clause complexes in Finnish-language matriculation essays from the point of view of the intersubjective positioning of the writer. The clause complexes investigated comprise of a matrix clause and its complement, mainly an että that or a kuinka/miten how clause. The starting point for the analysis is the assumption that the matrix clause expresses a stance towards the complement and also the potential source of the stance (e.g. Luulen, että / on selvää, että / en tiedä, miksi kissat tarvitsevat paljon unta I think / it s clear that / I don t know why cats need a lot of sleep ). The analysis focuses on how students use these complexes to position themselves in respect to prior texts and to the putative reader: allowing for alternative positions (dialogic expansion) or restricting the dialogic space (dialogic contraction). The study also looks at the relation between the use of dialogic expansion and contraction in clause complexes and a) the communicative task required in the assignment and b) the grade given to the essay. Theoretically and methodologically the study draws on linguistically oriented discourse analysis, especially the study of evaluative language (in particular, the appraisal theory), textual interaction and text type (developed on the basis of e.g. Werlich s typology of textual strategies). The study is based on a corpus of 301 Finnish (mother tongue) matriculation essays given either high or low grades. The study consists of a summary and four published articles. The study shows how framing clause complexes can form rhetorical patterns involving dialogic expansion or contraction within the text. The rhetorical function of the clause complex derives both from the type of the clause complex and its co-text, particularly its text type (e.g. narration, description or exposition). The most clear-cut patterns relate to concession, juxtaposing competing claims, explicating reasoning processes and topic shifting. The patterns consist of sequential actions that stretch over clause boundaries and are accompanied with several cohesive elements. A key finding is that the cohesive function of a pattern is related to intersubjective positioning: to the ways the reader is expected to respond to the claims that are being made and to their relations as presented in the text. However, the study also shows that some of the analyzed clause complexes have only a localized scope, without a clear connection to a rhetorical pattern in the text.
  • Tervo, Petri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Dissertation considers the birth of modernist and avant-gardist authorship as a reaction against mass society and massculture. Radical avant-gardism is studied as figurative violence done against the human form. The main argument claims avant-gardist authorship to be an act of masculine autogenesis. This act demands human form to be worked to an elementary state of disarticulateness, then to be reformed to the model of the artist's own psychophysical and idiosyncratic vision and experience. This work is connected to concrete mass, mass of pigment, charcoal, film, or flesh. This mass of the figure is worked to create a likeness in the nervous system of the spectator. The act of violence against the human figure is intended to shock the spectator. This shock is also a state of emotional and perceptional massification. I use theatrical image as heuristic tool and performance analysis, connecting figure and spectator into a larger image, which is constituted by relationships of mimesis, where figure presents the likeness of the spectator and spectator the likeness of the figure. Likeness is considered as both gestural - social mimetic - and sensuous - kinesthetically mimetic. Through this kind of construction one can describe and contextualize the process of violent autogenesis using particular images as case studies. Avant-gardist author is the author of theatrical image, not particular figure, and through act of massification the nervous system of the spectator is also part of this image. This is the most radical form and ideology of avant-gardist and modernist authorship or imagerial will to power. I construct a model of gestural-mimic performer to explicate the nature of violence done for human form in specific works, in Mann's novella Death in Venice, in Schiele's and Artaud's selfportaits, in Francis Bacon's paintings, in Beckett's shortplat NOT I, in Orlan's chirurgical performance Operation Omnipresense, in Cindy Sherman's Film/Stills, in Diamanda Galás's recording Vena Cava and in Hitchcock's Psycho. Masspsychology constructed a phobic picture of human form's plasticity and capability to be constituted by influencies coming both inside and outside - childhood, atavistic organic memories, urban field of nervous impulses, unconsciousness, capitalist (image)market and democratic masspolitics. Violence is then antimimetic and antitheatrical, a paradoxical situation, considering that massmedias and massaudiences created an enormous fascination about possibilities of theatrical and hypnotic influence in artistic elites. The problem was how to use theatrical image without coming as author under influence. In this work one possible answer is provided: by destructing the gestural-mimetic performer, by eliminating representations of mimic body techniques from the performer of human (a painted figure, a photographed figure, a filmed figure or an acted figure, audiovisual or vocal) figure. This work I call the chirurgical operation, which also indicates co-option with medical portraitures or medico-cultural diagnoses of human form. Destruction of the autonomy of the performer was a parallel process to constructing the new mass media audience as passive, plastic, feminine. The process created an image of a new kind of autotelic masculine author-hero, freed from human form in its bourgeois, aristocratic, classical and popular versions.
  • Salmenkivi, Eero (Eero Salmenkivi, 2010)
    According to Meno s paradox we cannot inquire into what we do not know because we do not know what we are inquiring into. There are many ways to interpret the paradox but the central issue about our ability to reach truth is a profound one. In the dialogue Meno, Plato presents the paradox and an outline of a solution which enables us to reach knowledge (epistēmē) through philosophical discussion. During the last century Meno has often been considered transitional between Socratic thinking and Plato s own philosophy, and thus the dialogue has not been adequately interpreted as an integrated whole. Therefore the distinctive epistemology of the dialogue has not gained due notice. In this thesis the dialogue is analysed as an integrated whole and the philosophical interpretation also takes into account its dramatic features. The thesis emphasises the role of language and definitions in acquiring knowledge. Among the results concerning these subjects is a new interpretation of Socrates s defintion of shape (schēma). The theory of anamnēsis all learning is recollection in the Meno is argued to answer the paradox philosophically although Plato s presentation also contains playful and ironic elements. The background of the way Plato presents his case is that he appreciated the fact that no argument can plausibly demonstrate that argumentation is able to reach truth. In the Meno, Plato makes the earliest explicit distinction between knowledge and true belief in the history of Western philosophy. He also gives a definition of knowledge which is the basis of the so called classical definition of knowledge as justified true belief. In the Meno, true beliefs become knowledge when someone ties them down by reasoning about the explanation. The analysis of the epistemology of the dialogue from this perspective gives an interpretation which integrates the central concepts of the epistemology in the dialogue elenchos, anamnēsis and hypothetical inquiry into a unified whole which contains a plausible argument according to which the ignorant can reach knowledge through discussion. The conception that emerges by such an analysis is interesting both from the point of view of current interests and that of the history of philosophy. The method of knowledge acquisition in the Meno can, for example, be seen as a predecessor of modern scientific methods. The Meno is the earliest Greek mathematical text that has survived in its original form. The analysis presented in the thesis of the geometric passages in the dialogue provides new results both concerning Socrates s geometry lesson with the slave and the example presenting the hypothetical method. Concerning the latter, a new interpretation is presented. Keywords: anamnēsis, epistēmē, knowledge, Meno s paradox, Plato
  • Schybergson, Anita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This dissertation is an onomastic study of Finland s stock of ship names (nautonomasticon) recorded over the period 1838 1938. The primary material investigated consists of 2 066 examples of ship names from the fleets of coastal towns, distributed over five sample years. The material is supplemented with two bodies of comparative data; one that consists of 2 535 examples of boat names from the archipelago area at the corresponding time, and another that comprises 482 examples of eighteenth century Finnish ship names. This study clarifies the categories of names that appear the frequency of the names, formation, morphology, linguistic origin, functions, and semantic qualities. By comparing the material with boat names from previous centuries, and from other countries, the characteristics of Finnish vessel names are further highlighted. Additional clarification is brought to the chronological, regional, and social variations, and to the emergence of various forms of systematic naming. This dissertation builds on older research from other countries, and uses traditional onomastic methods alongside a more modern methodology. The approach is interdisciplinary, meaning that the names are explored using facts not only from nautical history, but also from a range of other historical disciplines such as economics, culture, art, and literature. In addition, the approach is socio-onomastic, i.e. that the variations in names are studied in a societal context. Using a synchronised perspective, cognitive linguistic theories have provided the tools for this exploration into the metaphorical and the prototypical meaning of the names, and the semantic domains that the names create. The quantitative analysis has revealed the overall picture of Finnish boat names. Personal names, names from mythology, and place names, emerge as significant categories, alongside nonproprial names in Swedish and Finnish. The interdisciplinary perspective has made it possible to explain certain trends in the stock of boat names, for example, the predisposition towards names from classical mythology, the breakthrough of names taken from the national epos Kalevala, names in the Finnish language from around the middle of the nineteenth century, and the continuing rise of place names during the latter part of the period 1838 1938. The socio-onomastic perspective has also identified clear differences between those ship names used in towns, and those ship names used in the archipelago, and it has clarified how naming conventions tend to spread from town centres to peripheral areas. The cognitive linguistic methods have revealed that the greater part of the vessel names can be interpreted as metaphors, in particular personifications, and that many names are related in their content and also form semantic networks and cognitive systems. The results indicate that there is a mental nautonomasticon that consists of a standard set of traditional ship names, but they also reveal the existence of conscious or unconscious cognitive systems (rules and conventions) that guide the naming of boats.
  • Tyrväinen, Helena (Suomen musiikkitieteellinen seura ; Suomen musiikkikirjastoyhdistys, 2013)
    Uuno Klami (1900-61) was the most successful of all those Finnish composers who made their debuts between the two World Wars. The interest stimulated in Helsinki by his student works, together with his sensational debut concert in 1928, launched a meteoric career that culminated in his recognition as one of the most esteemed figures in the musical life of his country through his election to the Academy of Finland. Yet Klami was also a controversial figure. His music was felt to be fragmentary, derivative, and oddly detached in tone, and his contemporaries found it notably difficult to find adequate terms in which to conceptualize it. This study is historical-critical, evidence-based and contextualising in orientation. Its two inseparable aims are to describe and conceptualize the evolution and distinctive character of Klami s musical style, and to spotlight the two cities, Helsinki and Paris, that shaped him as a composer. It is taken as given that there are multiple subjective factors at work in leading a creative individual towards some choices rather than others. I ask what are the memorable features of Klami s music, whether we can distinguish in them specific choices that lend themselves to conceptual interpretation, and what sorts of subject position they might reflect. French and Russian music formed a part of Klami s Finnish education, but it was only during his Paris year (1924-25) that a notably eclectic attitude to pre-existing repertories began to emerge in his music. A cosmopolitan identity was manifest in his obvious affiliations to the music of la belle époque, with its distinctive Franco-Russian orchestral idioms, and to the anti-romanticism characteristic of the time (and place). An indifference to the values associated with a German Romantic aesthetic (notably its ethos of individualism and its ideal of musical progress) values that seemed outmoded to many European contemporaries was thereby revealed. Despite this cosmopolitanism, Klami s return to his home country was marked by his successful integration to the network of actors prominent within a Finnish national culture. His best-known work, the Kalevala Suite (Kalevala-sarja) on the topic of the Finnish national epic, emerged in this context over a fourteen-year period (1929-43). It is true that towards the end of this project his antiromantic attitude and his cosmopolitan subject position began to make room for a rather different aesthetic. But at the same time Klami held onto, and continued to refine, his colourful, Franco-Russian virtuoso orchestral style. His success in inter-war Finland does not primarily speak of the conservatism of Finnish culture, but rather of its receptiveness to novelty and in particular the novelty of a virtuoso orchestral style.
  • Bliumbaum, Arkadi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
    The subject of this work is the poetics of «The Wax Effigy», a short novel or novella by Jurii Tynianov, Russian writer, literary critic, historian of literature and prominent literary theoretician. The plot structure of the novel is based upon a real event, the creation by Bartolomeo Carlo Rastrelli in 1725 of a wax sculpture of the first Russian emperor, Peter the Great. «Construction of the Sham» consists of three chapters, an introduction and a conclusion. Due to the fact that Tynianov was at the same time a prose writer and theoretician of literature it seemed important to consider the reception of his prose and his works on literary theory in relationship to each other. The introduction is devoted to this task. The first chapter is about the history of the creation of the novel and its reception. Tynianov stopped writing one short story in order to write the novel; these two works have some common traits. It seems almost obvious that his work on the first text was a real step toward the creation of the second. In the first story there is an opposition of dead/alive which is semantic prefiguring of a central motif in «The Wax Effigy». An analysis of the reception of the novel demonstrated that almost every critic writing about the novel has described it as nonsense. Critics considered Tynianov's work in terms of «devices» and «content» and could not understand how devices are related to the content of the novel: the novel was thought as a signifier without any signified. Implicitly, critics thought the signified of the novel as a traditional one of the historical novel, as the historiosophical «idea», embodied in the system of literary devices. In this case literature becomes something instrumental, a kind of expression of extraliterary content. In contradistinction to that Tynianov considered literary semantics as an effect of the literary structure. From his point of view the literary sense is immanent to the process of signification accomplished inside the literary text. The second chapter is devoted to a rhetorical analysis of the opposition dead/alive. Tynianov systematically compares both terms of the opposition. As a result of this strategy the wax effigy of the dead emperor becomes «as if» alive and the world of living people «as if» dead. The qualifier «as if» refers to the fact that Tynianov creates an ambiguous semantic system. This rhetoric is related to European Romanticism and his «fantastic literature» (Merimé, Hoffmann, Maupassant etc.). But Tynianov demonstrates a linguistic origin of the strange fantoms created by romantics; he demystifies these idols by parodying the fantastic literature, that is, showing «how it was done». At the same time, the opposition mentioned above refers to his idea of «incongruity» which plays a prominent role in Tynianov s theory but has never been conceptualised. The incongruity is a inner collision of the literary text; from Tynianov's point of view the meaning of the work of literature is always a dynamic collision of semantically heterogeneous elements struggling with each other. In «The Wax Effigy» Tynianov creates a metalevel of the work demonstrating the process of creation of the literary sense. The third chapter is a reconstruction of Tynianov's conception of the historical prose, specifically of the mechanisms by which historical facts are transformed into literary events. Tynianov thought that the task of the historical novelist is to depict his hero as an actor, to demonstrate that as a wearer of many masks he is a creator of appearances, ambiguities. Here, in the «figure of fiction» (Andrei Belyi), the very idea of the historical prose and rhetoric employed in «The Wax Effigy», history and literature meet each other. In his last theoretical work, «On parody» Tynianov writes about the so-called sham structure of parody. In his opinion every parody is a text about other texts and «serious» work which could be read at the same time as a text about «reality». This twofold structure of parody is that of «The Wax Effigy»: that text speaks about ambiguities of the history and about ambiguities of the literary sense, about social reality of the past and - about the working of the literature itself. «The Wax Effigy» is written as a autoreflective text, as an experiment in literary semantics, as a system of literary ambiguities - of hero, rhetoric and the text itself. The meaning of the novel is created not by the embodiment extraliterary idea, but by the process of signification accomplished inside the work of literature. In this sense Tynianov's novel is parody, a break with the tradition of the historical novel preceding «The Wax Effigy».
  • Kotilainen, Lari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Dynamic constructions Dynamic constructions is a study of the dynamism of Finnish grammar. Dynamism as a linguistic phenomenon is studied on both the diachronic and synchronic level. The study therefore focuses not only on the temporal changes of grammar but also on the conventionality of grammatical structures and on the interplay between closely related constructions. Dynamism is also treated as a phenomenon occurring between different varieties of Finnish. All in all, dynamism is shown to be a key feature of the nature of grammar. The study is set within the framework of cognitive linguistics and construction grammar. Both theories emphasise the role of constructions pairings of form with semantic or discourse function in the composition and development of grammar. The grammar of a language is understood to be a structured inventory of such constructions. I argue that the constructions are best studied in their original contexts of use. Thus, the study is usage-based in a strict sense. The data is compiled from various corpora consisting of both written and spoken as well as standard and non-standard Finnish. The dissertation consists of an introduction and four empirical studies. The four papers examine various Finnish constructions and thereby shed light on different aspects of the dynamism of a grammar. The first paper focuses on the diachronic development of the Finnish temporal converb essa. The second paper discusses a specific construction which includes the essa converb, that is, the mikäs on ollessa construction. Some closely related constructions and their semantic interplay are also examined. The third paper extensively studies what is generally regarded as an ellipsis of the negation verb in Finnish. By using present day Finnish data, I show that the omission of the negation verb is not an instance of mere ellipsis but rather a construction. The final paper combines the themes of the second and the third paper by focusing on closely related constructions of the negative ellipsis construction.
  • Forsskåhl, Mona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This study concerns the most common word pair in spoken Swedish, de e (it is, third person pronoun + copula-verb in present tense). The aim of the study is twofold, with an empirical aim and a theoretical aim. The empirical aim is to investigate if and how the string de e can be understood and described as a construction in its own right with characteristics that distinguishes it from other structures and resources in spoken Swedish. The theoretical aim is to test how two different linguistic theories and methods, interactional linguistics and construction grammar, can be combined and used to describe and explain patterns in languaging that traditional grammar does take into account. The empirical analysis is done within the interactional linguistic framework with sequence analyses of excerpts from authentic conversation data. The data consists of approximately ten hours of recorded conversation from Finland and Sweden. The sequence analysis suggests that the string de e really is used as a resource in its own right. In most cases, the string is also used in ways consistent with abstract grammatical patterns described by traditional grammar. Nevertheless, there are instances where de e is used in ways not described before: with numerals and infinitive phrases as complements, without any complements at all and together with certain complements (bra, de) in idiomatic ways. Furthermore, in the instances where de e is used according to known grammatical patterns the function of the particular string de e is clearly contextually specific and in various ways linked to the micro-context in which it is used. A new model is suggested for understanding and concluding the results from the sequence analyses. It consists of two different types of constructions grammatical and interactional. The grammatical constructions show how the string is used in eleven structurally different ways. The interactional constructions show seven different sequential positions and functions in which the string occurs. The two types of constructions are also linked to each other as potentials. This is a new way to describe how interactants use and responds to a concrete string like de e in conversation.
  • Martola, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The topic for the study is the Swedish preposition “åt”. The corresponding prepositions in English are “to”, “for” and “at”. One of the main purposes of the study is to compare the use of the preposition in two varieties of Swedish, the Swedish spoken in Sweden (Sweden Swedish, ‘sverigesvenska’) and the Swedish spoken in Finland (Finland Swedish, ‘finlandssvenska’), and to point out differences and similarities. The study is corpus-based and the corpora, one for each variety, consist mainly of newspapers and novels from 1980 to around 2000. The total number of words is around 40 million, 19 million in the Sweden Swedish and 23 million in the Finland Swedish corpus. The other purpose of the study is to analyze in what kind of patterns the preposition åt occurs. General semantic patterns, valency patterns and idiomatic patterns are all brought to the fore. The theoretical basis for the study is Construction Grammar as developed by Ch. Fillmore, Fried & Östman, A. Goldberg, and W. Croft. Also Frame Semantics and its further development FrameNet play an important role in the study. According to Construction Grammar, constructions are constellations of form and meaning/function. The constructions are abstract units, but in an empirical study it is possible to arrive at abstract constructions through generalizations over concrete occurrences. The results indicate that the use of the preposition “åt” differs in Finland Swedish from the use in Sweden Swedish – but not as much as expected (on the basis of previous studies), at least not in written language. In Finland Swedish the preposition is used more to indicate the role Recipient, whereas the role Beneficiary is more predominant in Sweden Swedish. In both varieties, however, the use of “åt” is most often highly idiomatic and it is only the Beneficiary-role that can be said to be entirely productive. As to valency binding, the preposition phrase with “åt” occurs either as an argument or as a middle. Middles are complements that are neither arguments nor real adjuncts but stand somewhere in between these two. The preposition “åt” occurs as part both of general patterns and of specific idiomatic patterns. The constructions in which the preposition “åt” is an element are connected in an intricate network.
  • Strandberg, Hindrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Cupping in Finland until the middle of the 20th century Since antiquity various forms of blood-letting based on humoral pathology the doctrine of four body fluids have been used as curing methods. Here they are studied using an ethnographic-medico-historical approach. In Finland four different methods of therapeutic blood-letting have been practised since the beginning of the 16th century A.D., namely, leeches, scarification of the calves, bleeding and cupping. The most frequent form of blood-letting in Finland has however been cupping, performed in a sauna, which was found in nearly every farmyard. The principal source for this thesis is a comprehensive body of archive material on cupping in Finland. The archive material has been combined with information about different kinds of cupping instruments used since antiquity, cupping instructions in medical books from classical antiquity, through medieval manuscripts, and medical books from the beginning of the 16th century until the beginning of the 20th century. Cupping was mainly performed in the spring and autumn in a well-heated so-called smoke-sauna and was used mostly by the middle-aged women. The main aim here is to investigate where upon the patient s body the cupping woman applied the cupping horns, using suction, how many horns were applied, and also the relationship between these application spots and the diseases, or complaints which were being treated. When the cupping horn had been applied, a small swelling appeared just beneath it. After a while the horn was removed and the cupping woman started picking small wounds or holes in the skin with her cupping axe. Then the horn was applied again and blood started to flow from the wounds. Afterwards the wounds were carefully cleaned with water. There were two kinds of cupping women. One was a woman who lived in a village and performed cupping on request. The other was a cupping woman who travelled around the district offering her services. The second aim is to investigate all the different diseases or complaints that were treated. Among the diseases which were cured, headaches and toothaches were the most common Another question is whether these diseases were really cured and if so, how is this to be explained. I have compared the diseases and complaints listed in a medieval manuscript and in later medical books with the diseases and complaints cured by our cupping women, which leads to the question of where these cupping women acquired their skills and their knowledge of where to apply the cupping horns to treat different diseases. Probably the answer is that such instructions and knowledge was handed over orally from one generation of cupping women to another. Finally there is a brief examination of modern cupping which was revived in the 1970s and is still used as a form of complementary medicine today in Finland.