Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 201-220 of 431
  • Halonen, Tero (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    From Provincial Institutes to the University. The Academisation Process of the Research and Teaching of Agricultural and Forest Sciences at the University of Helsinki before 1945. This study focuses on the teaching and research conducted in the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Helsinki, as well as in its predecessor, the Section of Agriculture and Economics before 1945. The study falls into the field of university history. Its key research question is the academisation process, an example of which is the academisation process of the teaching and research of agricultural and forest sciences in Finland. From a perspective of university history, the study looks at academisation as the beginning of university-level teaching and research in these fields, or their relocation to a university or another institute of university standing. In addition to the above, the academisation process also includes the establishment of the position of the subjects and their acceptance as part of university activity. Academic closure, on the other hand, prevents the academisation of new subjects. In Finland, the preliminary stage of the academisation of the research and teaching of the agriculture and forestry was the Age of Utility, when questions concerning the subjects became part of clerical and civil service training at the Royal Academy of Turku in the mid-18th century. In the mid-19th century, as a result of social and economic development, agricultural and forestry professionals needed more theoretical professional training. At that time, the Imperial Alexander University was focused on traditional professional training and theoretical education, so, because of this academic closure, practical training for agronomists and foresters was organised at first outside the University at the Mustiala Agricultural Institute and the Evo Forest Institute. In the late 19th century, discussion began on the reform of higher agricultural and forestry education. This led, from the 1890s, to the academisation of higher agricultural and forestry education and research at the Alexander University. Academisation was followed by a transitional stage, during which the work of the Section of Agriculture and Economics, which had begun in 1902, became more established in about 1910. The position of the agricultural and forest sciences was, however, largely temporary, because of the planned Agricultural University. A sign of this establishment and of the rise in scientific status of the subjects was the commencement of operations of the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry in 1924. Furthermore, as a consequence of the development of the subjects and the collapse of the Agricultural University project, agricultural and forest sciences gradually began to be accepted at the University of Helsinki from the end of the 1920s. This led to the allocation of sites for the faculty buildings and research farms, and to the building of ‘Metsätalo’ before the Second World War. Key words: academisation, academisation process, academic closure, university history, University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, agricultural sciences, forest sciences, agronomy training, forestry training
  • Koponen, Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation investigates the practice of machine translation post-editing and the various aspects of effort involved in post-editing work. Through analyses of edits made by post-editors, the work described here examines three main questions: 1) what types of machine translation errors or source text features cause particular effort in post-editing, 2) what types of errors can or cannot be corrected without the help of the source text, and 3) how different indicators of effort vary between different post-editors. The dissertation consists of six previously published articles, and an introductory summary. Five of the articles report original research, and involve analyses of post-editing data to examine questions related to post-editing effort as well as differences between post-editors. The sixth article is a survey presenting an overview of the research literature. The research reported is based on multiple datasets consisting of machine translations and their post-edited versions, as well as process and evaluation data related to post-editing effort. The dissertation presents a mixed methods study combining qualitative and quantitative approaches, as well as theoretical and analytical tools from the fields of language technology and translation studies. Data on edits performed by post-editors, post-editing time, keylogging data, and subjective evaluations of effort are combined with error analyses of the machine translations in question, and compared for various post-editors. The results of this dissertation provide evidence that, in addition to the number of edits performed, post-editing effort is affected by the type of edits as well as source text features. Secondly, the results show that while certain language errors can be corrected even without access to the source text, certain other types that more severely affect the meaning cannot. Thirdly, the results show that post-editors' speed and the amount of editing they perform differ, and that various profiles can be identified in terms of how the edits are planned and carried out by the post-editors. The results of this work may have both theoretical and practical implications for the measurement and estimation of post-editing effort.
  • Laitinen, Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
  • Pryce, Peter (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Background Contemporary Finnish, spoken and written, reveals loanwords or foreignisms in the form of hybrids: a mixture of Finnish and foreign syllables (alumiinivalua). Sometimes loanwords are inserted into the Finnish sentence in their raw form just as they are found in the source language (pulp, after sales palvelu). Again, sometimes loanwords are calques, which appear Finnish but are spelled and pronounced in an altogether foreign manner (Protomanageri, Promenadi kampuksella). Research Questions What role does Finnish business translation play in the migration of foreignisms into Finnish if we consider translation "as a construct of solutions determined by the ideological constraints and conflicts characterizing the target culture" (Robyns 1992: 212)? What attitudes do the Finns display toward the presence of foreignisms in their language? What socio-economic or ideological conditions (Bassnett 1994: 321) are responsible for these attitudes? Are these conditions dynamic? What tools can be used to measure such attitudes? This dissertation set out to answer these and similar questions. Attitudes are imperialist (where otherness is both denied and transformed), defensive (where otherness is acknowledged, transformed, and vilified), transdiscursive (a neutral attitude to both otherness and transformation), or finally defective (where alien migration is acknowledged and "stimulated") (Robyns 1994: 60). Methodology The research method follows Rose's schema (1984: 8): (a) take an existing theory, (b) develop from it a proposition specific enough to be tested, (c) devise a scheme that tests this proposition, (d) carry through the scheme in practice, (e) draw up results and discuss conclusions in relation to the original theory. In other words, the method attempts an explanation of a Finnish social phenomenon based on systematic analyses of translated evidence (Lewins 1992: 4) whereby what really matters is the logical sequence that connects the empirical data to the initial research questions raised above and, ultimately to its conclusion (Yin 1984: 29). Results This research found that Finnish translators of the Nokia annual reports used a foreignism whenever possible such as komponentin instead of rakenneosa, or investoida instead of sijoittaa, and often without any apparent justification (Pryce 2003: 203-12) more than the translator's personal preference. In the old documents (minutes of meetings of the Board of Directors of Osakeyhtio H. Saastamoinen, Ltd. dated 5 July 1912-1917, a NOPSA booklet (1932), Enzo-Gutzeit-Tornator Oy document (1938), Imatra Steel Oy Annual Report 1964, and Nokia Oy Annual Report 1946), foreignisms under Haugen's (1950: 210-31) Classification #1 occurred an average of 0.6 times, while in the new documents (Nokia 1998 translated Annual Reports) they occurred an average of 6.5 times. That big difference, suggests transdiscursive and defective attitudes in Finnish society toward the other. In the 1850s, Finnish attitudes toward alien persons and cultures were hardened, intolerant and prohibitive because language politics were both nascent and emerging, and Finns adopted a defensive stance (Paloposki 2002: 102 ff) to protect their cultural and national treasures such as language and folklore. Innovation The innovation here is that no prior doctoral level research measured Finnish attitudes toward foreignisms using a business translation approach. This is the first time that Haugen's classification has been modified and applied in target language analysis. It is hoped that this method would be replicated in similar research in the future. Applications For practical applications, researchers with interest in languages, language development, language influences, language ideologies, and power structures that affect national language policies will find this thesis useful, especially the model for collecting, grouping, and analyzing foreignisms that has been demonstrated here. It is intended to document for posterity current attitudes of Finns toward the other as revealed in business translations from 1912-1964, and in 1998. This way, future language researchers would be able to explore a time-line of Finnish language development and attitudes toward the other. Communication firms may also find this research interesting. In future, could the model we adopted be used to analyze literary texts or religious texts for example? Future Trends Though business documents show transdiscursive attitudes, other segments of Finnish society may show defensive or imperialist attitudes. When the ideology of industrialization changes in the future, will Finnish attitudes toward the other change as well? Will it then be possible to use the same kind of analytical tools to measure Finnish attitudes? More broadly, will linguistic change continue in the same direction of transdiscursive attitudes, or will the change slow down or even reverse into xenophobic attitudes? Is this our model culture-specific or can it be used in the context of other cultures? Conclusion There is anger against foreignisms in Finland as newspaper publications and television broadcasts show, but research shows that a majority of Finns consider foreignisms and the languages from which they come as sources of enrichment for Finnish culture (Laitinen 2000, Eurobarometer series 41 of July 1994, 44 of Spring 1996, 50 of Autumn 1998). Ideologies of industrialization and globalization in Finland have facilitated transdiscursive tendencies. When Finland's political ideology was intolerant toward foreign influences in the 1850s because Finland was in the process of consolidating her nascent country and language, attitudes toward the importation of loanwords also became intolerant. Presently, when industrialization and globalization became the dominant ideologies, we see a shift in attitudes toward transdiscursive tendencies. Ideology is usually unseen and too often ignored by translation researchers. However, ideology reveals itself as the most powerful factor affecting language attitudes in a target culture. Key words Finnish, Business Translation, Ideology, Foreignisms, Imperialist Attitudes, Defensive Attitudes, Transdiscursive Attitudes, Defective Attitudes, the Other, Old Documents, New Documents.
  • Ahonen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The subject of the thesis is the mediated construction of author images in popular music. In the study, the construction of images is treated as a process in which artists, the media and the members of the audience participate. The notions of presented, mediated and compiled author images are used in explaining the mediation process and the various authorial roles of the agents involved. In order to explore the issue more closely, I analyse the author images of a group of popular music artists representing the genres of rock, pop and electronic dance music. The analysed material consists mostly of written media texts through which the artists authorial roles and creative responsibilities are discussed. Theoretically speaking, the starting points for the examination lie in cultural studies and discourse analysis. Even though author images may be conceived as intertextual constructions, the artist is usually presented as a recognizable figure whose purpose is to give the music its public face. This study does not, then, deal with musical authors as such, but rather with their public images and mediated constructions. Because of the author-based functioning of popular music culture and the idea of the artist s individual creative power, the collective and social processes involved in the making of popular music are often superseded by the belief in a single, originating authorship. In addition to the collective practices of music making, the roles of the media and the marketing machinery complicate attempts to clarify the sharing of authorial contributions. As the case studies demonstrate, the differences between the examined author images are connected with a number of themes ranging from issues of auteurism and stardom to the use of masked imagery and the blending of authorial voices. Also the emergence of new music technologies has affected not only the ways in which music is made, but also how the artist s authorial status and artistic identity is understood. In the study at hand, the author images of auteurs, stars, DJs and sampling artists are discussed alongside such varied topics as collective authorship, evaluative hierarchies, visual promotion and generic conventions. Taken altogether, the examined case studies shed light on the functioning of popular music culture and the ways in which musical authorship is (re)defined.
  • Arho Havrén, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    "We have neither Eternal Friends nor Eternal Enemies. We have only Eternal Interests .Finland's Relations with China 1949-1989 The study focuses on the relations between Finland and the People s Republic of China from 1949-1989 and examines how a small country became embroiled in international politics, and how, at the same time, international politics affected Finnish-Chinese relations and Finland s China policy formulation. The study can be divided into three sections: relations during the early years, 1949-1960, before the Chinese and Soviet rift became public; the relations during the passive period during the 1960s and 1970s; and the impact of China s Open Door policy on Finland s China policy from 1978-1989. The diplomatically challenging events around Tiananmen Square and the reactions which followed in Finland bring the study to a close. Finland was among the first Western countries to recognise the People s Republic and to establish diplomatic relations with her, thereby giving Finland an excellent position from which to further develop good relations. Finland was also the first Western country to sign a trade agreement with China. These two factors meant that Finland was able to enjoy a special status with China during the 1950s. The special status was further strengthened by the systematic support of the government of Finland for China's UN membership. The solid reputation earned in the 1950s had to carry Finland all the way through to the 1980s. For the two decades in between, during the passive policy period of the 1960s and 1970s, relations between Finland and the Soviet Union also determined the state of foreign relations with China. Interestingly, however, it appeared that President Urho Kekkonen was encouraged by Ambassador Joel Toivola to envisage a more proactive policy towards China, but the Cultural Revolution cut short any such plan for nearly twenty years. Because of the Soviet Union, Finland held on to her passive China policy, even though no such message was ever received from the Soviet Union. In fact, closer relationships between Finland and China were encouraged through diplomatic channels. It was not until the presidency of Mauno Koivisto that the first high-level ministerial visit was made to China when, in 1984, Foreign Minister Paavo Väyrynen visited the People s Republic. Finnish-Chinese relations were lifted to a new level. Foreign Minister Väyrynen, however, was forced to remove the prejudices of the Chinese. In 1985, when the Speaker of the Finnish Parliament, Erkki Pystynen visited China he also discovered that Finland s passive China policy had caused misunderstandings amongst the Chinese politicians. The number of exchanges escalated in the wake of the ground-breaking visit by Foreign Minister Väyrynen: Prime Minister Kalevi Sorsa visited China in 1986 and President Koivisto did so in 1988. President Koivisto stuck to practical, China-friendly policies: his correspondence with Li Peng, the attitude taken by the Finnish government after the Tiananmen Square events and the subsequent choices made by his administration all pointed to a new era in relations with China.
  • Pasanen, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The methodology of extracting information from texts has widely been described in the current literature. However, the methodology has been developed mainly for the purposes of other fields than terminology science. In addition, the research has been English language oriented. Therefore, there are no satisfactory language-independent methods for extracting terminological information from texts. The aim of the present study is to form the basis for a further improvement of methods for extraction of terminological information. A further aim is to determine differences in term extraction between subject groups with or without knowledge of the special field in question. The study is based on the theory of terminology, and has mainly a qualitative approach. The research material consists of electronically readable specialized texts in the subject domain of maritime safety. Textbooks, conference papers, research reports and articles from professional journals in Finnish and in Russian are included. The thesis first deals with certain term extraction methods. These are manual term identification and semi-automatic term extraction, the latter of which was carried out by using three commercial computer programs. The results of term extraction were compared and the recall and precision of the methods were evaluated. The latter part of the study is dedicated to the identification of concept relations. Certain linguistic expressions, which some researchers call knowledge probes, were applied to identify concept relations. The results of the present thesis suggest that special field knowledge is an advantage in manual term identification. However, in the candidate term lists the variation between subject groups was not as remarkable as it was between individual subjects. The term extraction software tested here produces candidate term lists which can be useful, but only after some manual work. Therefore, the work emphasizes the need to further develop term extraction software. Furthermore, the analyses indicate that there are a certain number of terms which were extracted by all the subjects and the software. These terms we call core terms. As the result of the experiment on linguistic expressions which signal concept relations, a proposal of Finnish and Russian knowledge probes in the field of maritime safety was made. The main finding was that it would be useful to combine the use of knowledge probes with semi-automatic term extraction since knowledge probes usually occur in the vicinity of terms.
  • Hakulin, Lena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The aims of the study were both to determine whether a systematic analysis of the quantity and quality of the copper and bronze metal finds in all their forms in the preserved metal record from the Minoan Neopalatial and the Mycenaean Final Palatial and Postpalatial societies on Late Bronze Age Crete (ca. 1600 - 1200 BC) increases our understanding of these metal systems and their effect on the political economy, social values, and cultural habits in the society and to test a method devised especially for this study. The most decisive feature of the metal system on LBA Crete is that the island lacked viable ore deposits: the copper and tin needed in the bronze industry had to be imported from abroad. A surprisingly large amount of metal, ca. 2000 kg., has been preserved from LBA Crete, divided equally between ingots and objects. Scholars are generally in agreement on the importance of metals in the Bronze Age societies, but so far no one has focused directly on this topic. The study material consists of published bronze objects, ingots and refractory material, in total ca. 3300 finds collected from many sources. This heterogeneous material was managed by coding the finds and registering them in a flexible database ΧΑΛΚΟΣ especially designed for this study, enabling searching and sorting of the material at will. Central to the method is its focus on the metal amount, its volume, use and circulation, and not on specific bronze objects. Analyses of selected aspects of the record included the spatial distribution of the metal amount, the balances between metal in prestige and utilitarian objects and that between metal in circulation and metal permanently deposited plus its distribution in the metal cycle. The analyses were made for the three periods, each subdivided geographically for East, Central and West Crete. The approach is new in three ways: the metal-centered focus for studying Aegean societies, the holistic view comprising all types of copper-based metal finds, and the quantification of the metal finds by weight. As only some few metal weights have been published, weight estimations were an important part of the study. In conclusion it is argued that the method devised for the study works. The results indicate that metal seems to have been a crucial, strategic resource for both the Minoan and the Mycenaean palatial societies on LBA Crete, but the motives for acquiring it and its uses might have been different: for the Minoans metals were mainly prime movers for general economic development, they let the metal make the world go round, with metals a part of daily life, whereas the Mycenaeans regarded metal mainly as a means for generating status and power for an elite, strictly controlling it. In the third, Postpalatial, period metals seem to have been one commodity of many, to which the whole population had access.
  • Oksanen, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    My dissertation deals with metaontology or metametaphysics. This is the subdiscipline of philosophy that is concerned with the investigation of metaphysical concepts, statements, theories and problems on the metalevel. It analyses the meaning of metaphysical statements and theories and discusses how they are to be justified. The name "metaontology" is recently coined, but the task of metaontology is the same as Immanuel Kant already dealt with in his Critique of Pure Reason. As methods I use both historical research and logical (or rather semantical) analysis. In order to understand clearly what metaphysical terms or theories mean or should mean we must both look at how they have been characterized in the course of the history of philosophy and then analyse the meanings that have historically been given to them with the methods of modern formal semantics. Metaontological research would be worthless if it could not in the end be applied to solving some substantive ontological questions. In the end of my dissertation, therefore, I give arguments for a solution to the substantively ontological problem of universals, a form of realism about universals called promiscuous realism. To prepare the way for that argument, I argue that the metaontological considerations most relevant to the problem of universals are considerations concerning ontological commitment, as the American philosophers Quine and van Inwagen have argued, not those concerning truthmakers as such philosophers as the Australian realist D. M. Armstrong have argued or those concerning verification conditions as such philosophers as Michael Dummett have argued. To justify this conclusion, I go first through well-known objections to verificationism, and show that they apply also to current verificationist theories such as Dummett's theory and Field's deflationist theory of truth. In the process I also respond to opponents of metaphysics who try to show with the aid of verificationism or structuralism that metaphysical questions would be meaningless or illegitimate in some other way. Having justified the central role of ontological commitment, I try to develop a detailed theory of it. The core of my work is a rigorous formal development of a theory of ontological commitment. I construct it by combining Alonzo Church's theory of ontological commitment with Tarski's theory of truth.
  • Yrjänä, Jouni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The Forest devil. Businessman Erik Johan Längman (1799 1863) in the transition of economic system In Finnish historiography, Erik Johan Längman (1799-1863) bears a bad reputation of his own level: a mean, profit-seeking businessman who did not care too much about methods in his operations. Although little known, Längman has been praised as one of the pioneers of modern industry in the Grand Duchy of Finland, which belonged to the Russian Empire. From the mid 1830s Längman owned iron mill and several sawmills around the country. The growing demand of the markets in the 1830s, especially in Great Britain, marked a strong stimulus to Finnish lumber industry. At the same time claims for stricter rule over the sawmill industry were raised by high officials. The momentum of the conflict, the Forest Act of 1851, brought an end to illegal overproduction. In this biography, particular emphasis is laid on the entrepreneurial behaviour of Längman, but also on the effect the entrepreneurs had on the Crown s policies. On the other hand, how did the limitations imposed by the Crown guide the actions of the sawmill owners? The solutions adopted by the sawmill owners and the manoeuvring of the government are in a constant dialogue in this study. The Finnish sawmill industry experienced a major change in its techniques and methods of acquiring timber during the 1830s. Längman particularly, with his acquisition organisation, was able to find and reach faraway forests with unexpected results. The official regulating system with its strict producing quotas couldn t follow the changes. When the battle against the sawmill industry really started on, in 1840, it didn t happen for the benefit of iron industry, as argued previously, but to save Crown forests from depletion. After the mid 1840s Längman and the leader of the Finnish nationalistic movement, J. V. Snellman questioned the rationality of the entire regulation system and in doing so they also posed a threat against the aristocratic power. The influential but now also badly provoked chairman of the economic division of senate, Lars Gabriel von Haartman, accused the sawmill-owners harder than ever and took the advantage of the reactionary spirit of imperial Russia to launch the state forest administration. Längman circumvented the conditions of privileges, felled Crown forests illegally and accusations were brought against him for destroying his competitors. The repeated conflicts spoke primarily about a superior business idea and organisational ability. Although Längman spent his last years mostly abroad he still had interests in Finnish timber business when the liberation of sawmill-industry was established, in 1861. Surprisingly, the antagonism around the Crown forests continued, probably even more heated.
  • Nokso-Koivisto, Inka (2014)
    The microcosm-macrocosm analogy – the idea of man as a miniature of the surrounding reality or part of it – is a prevailing theme in Rasail Ikhwan as-Safa. This study examines the analogy primarily in this encyclopaedia completed during the tenth century and compares the views presented in it to those in certain other texts from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries: Sirr al-khaliqa, some texts attributed to Jabir ibn Hayyan, some Sufi writings of al-Ghazali (d. 1111), Suhrawardi (d. 1191) and Ibn Arabi (d. 1240), and al-Qazwini’s (d. 1283) Ajaib al-makhluqat. The aim is to explore the influence of microcosmism on the idea of man in these texts and to define the position of the Rasail in the development of the topic in mediaeval Islamic thought. Rudolf Allers’s classification of microcosmism is used as the main conceptual framework in this analysis. All Allers’s six varieties of the analogy receive various interpretations in the Islamic tradition. This study also proposes a threefold approach to the examination of microcosmism. Firstly, the analogy appears as a human-specific feature defining the cosmological position of the human species. In this form, microcosmism is used in all of the studied texts and often the role of the human being as an intermediate being in the universe is in focus. Secondly, attitudes towards the corporeal aspect of man are approached through the use of the analogy. In this form, the idea is closely related to the scientific worldview and sometimes the meaning given to the analogy can only be understood within the frames of a scientific theory. Thirdly, the normative aspect is included in the analogy and it is used in descriptions of epistemological and ethical ideals. Especially Sufi thinkers elaborate this form of the analogy and it is also in the key position of microcosmism in the Rasail. Microcosmism in the Rasail is a synthesis of various forms of the analogy developed earlier in the Islamic tradition and it anticipates many ideas that only become central in the later texts. Obvious thematic similarities between the texts can be found, but transmission of particular elements of microcosmism is possible to trace in only a few cases. For instance, some comparisons of the Rasail between the human body and the surrounding reality seem to be transmitted – directly or indirectly – even to the latest texts of the corpus.
  • Kostov, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
    This dissertation focuses on the mythopoetics of the Soviet writer Andrej Platonov (1899-1951) in his late novel Schastlivaja Moskva (Happy Moscow), written in 1932 1936. The purpose of the work is to reveal the mythopoetic world model in the novel, to characterize the most significant features of Platonov's mythopoetics and finally, to reconstruct the author's myth in the novel by placing the novel in the context of Platonov's oeuvre and Russian literature and culture as a whole. The first chapter provides a representation of the problem and methodology of the work, a short overview of the history of creating and publishing the novel, and a survey of critical work on Platonov done to date. The study utilizes a structuralistic-semiotic approach devised by Tarto-Moscow scholars for analyzing mythopoetic texts and applies the methodology of a conceptual analysis of the mythology of language. The second chapter examines the peculiarities of Platonov's mythopoetics, and its relation to the neomythological paradigm of Russian literature. Some special consideration is given to the character of the scientific utopism of Platonov's myth, to the relation of Platonov's mythopoetic world model with mythopoetic thinking and to the syntagmatical, and paradigmatical aspects of Platonov's myth, in particular to the mythopoetical metasjuzhet and the ambivalent binary structure of myth. The third chapter presents a close examination of the mythopoetics of the novel by discerning the motif structure of the novel, analyzing the characters and main thematic oppositions of Platonov's myth in the novel. It is contended that in every textual level Platonov strives for ambivalency which provides an opportunity to discern his poetics as both utopian and antiutopian. The analysis in the fourth chapter of the key Platonovian ideological concepts revoljucia, kommunizm and socializm confirms this observation. The study concludes that Platonov's myth in the novel is based on the mythologema of his early prose, but reflect the gradual transition from early utopian themes to the intimate "humble" prose of the late 1930's.
  • Perhoniemi, Tuukka (Vastapaino, 2014)
    In our society almost everything is measured. The world is quantified in all of its aspects, from atoms to individuals to global markets and to the vast dimensions of the universe. All the same, we are so used to this that it is not easy to consider in which fundamental yet subtle ways measures influence our lives. The Varieties of Measure comprises historical case studies which reveal the conceptual presuppositions embedded in measures and measurement. The studies discuss the conceptualization of measurement in the thinking of Plato and Aristotle, in the modern science of Galileo Galilei, and in the birth of the metric system at the beginning of the 19th century. In each case the prominent features of measures and measurement are stressed. These features are the ontological connections between different measures, the representational possibilities of measurement, and the functional practices of measurement systems. These aspects relate measures in different historical times to different presuppositions that concern the structure of the world, the nature of human beings, and the status of knowledge in different contexts. The study reveals the multiple ways in which measurement is not just a neutral tool. Different interpretations and uses of measures are deeply connected to a wider understanding of reality and its nature. They tell us, for example, what is considered to be real, how and why objective matter differs from subjective consciousness, in which sense measured knowledge means probabilities, and how measurement needs active maintenance, contracts and bureaucracy in order to work and have a general meaning. With a better understanding of the conceptual processes in which things become measurable and the different epistemological, ontological, and practical aspects underlying these processes, we are able to understand better the different ways of interpreting our measurements, their outcomes, adequacy, generalizability, and the possible further actions based on them. This is all the more important when important decisions are justified with measures, especially when new phenomena are being conceptualized for measurement. This can be done in a more or less truthful and fruitful manner although aspects of reality always remain that cannot be measured.
  • Hiippala, Tuomo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This dissertation studied the structure of multimodal artefacts, or how language, image and other semiotic modes combine and interact in documents. This places the study within the emerging field of multimodal research, which uses linguistic methods to study the interaction of multiple semiotic modes. Despite the growing amount of multimodal research, the structure of multimodal artefacts has not received the attention it warrants. Previous studies have been either very detailed or exceedingly abstract, leaving a significant gap between data and theory, which this dissertation attempted to bridge. To do so, the dissertation adopted a data-driven approach to multimodal analysis, addressing the structure of multimodal artefacts, the factors that shape the artefact structure, and the role of structure in the recognition and interpretation of the artefacts. The data consisted of tourist brochures produced by the city of Helsinki between 1967 and 2008, which allowed a longitudinal perspective to their multimodal structure. A total of 58 double-pages were annotated for their content, visual appearance, layout and rhetorical organisation, and compiled into an XML-based multimodal corpus. To study the corpus, the dissertation developed visualisation methods that combined information from multiple analytical layers of the corpus to represent the multimodal structures in the data. The study revealed the functional motivation behind the structure of the tourist brochures, identifying patterns in their hierarchical and rhetorical organisation, which were used to fulfil specific communicative tasks. The configuration of these patterns, in turn, signalled how the brochure was to be interpreted. The results also showed that after the year 1985, which marked the introduction of desktop publishing software, the organising principles of the tourist brochures have shifted towards a more fragmented and non-linear structure.
  • Menanteau, Alvaro (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This research is about jazz in Chile in relation to modernity and identity. Final chapters focus and detach latest jazz musician s generation in 1990 decade and composer guitarist Angel Parra. An historic and sociological approach is developed, which will be useful for modernity and identity analysis, and so on post modernity and globalization. Modernity has been studied in texts of Adorno, Baudrillard, Brünner, García Canclini, Habermas and Jameson. Identity has been studied in texts of Aharonián, Cordúa, Garretón, Gissi, Larraín and others. Chapter 3 is about Latin-American musicology and jazz investigations, in relation to approach developed in chapter 2. Chapters 4 and 5 are about history of jazz in Chile until beginning of XXI century. Chapter 6 focuses in Ángel Parra Orrego. Conclusions of this investigation detach the modernist mechanical that has conducted jazz development in Chile, which in Ángel Parra´s case has been overcame by a post modernist behaviour. This behaviour has solved in a creative way, subjects like modernity and identity in jazz practice in a Latin-American country.
  • Pekkarinen, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The multifaceted passive present participle in Finnish This study investigates the uses of the passive present participle in Finnish. The participle occurs in a variety of syntactic environments and exhibits a rich polysemy. Former descriptions have treated it as a mainly modal element, but it has several non-modal uses as well. The present study provides an overview of its uses and meanings, with the main focus on the factors which trigger the modal reading. In addition, the study contains two case studies on modal periphrastic constructions consisting of the verb 'to be' and the present passive participle, the Obligation construction, e.g., on men-tä-vä [is go-pass-ptc], and the Possiblity construction, e.g., on pelaste-tta-v-i-ssa [is save-pass-ptc-pl-ine]. The study is based on empirical data of 9000 sentences obtained from i) large collections of transcribed material from Finnish dialects, ii) a corpus of modern Finnish newspaper texts, iii) corpora of Old Finnish texts. Both in colloquial and standard Finnish the reading of the participle is highly dependent of the context and determined by such factors as the overall syntactic environment and other co-occurring elements. One of the main findings here is that the Finnish passive present participle is not modal per se. The contextual modal reading arises whenever the state of affairs is conceptualized from the viewpoint of the implied subject of the participle, and the meaning of possibility or obligation depends mostly on whether the situation is pleasant or undesirable. In sections examining the grammaticalization of the Possibility and Obligation constructions, the perspective is diachronic. Both constructions have derived from copula constructions with the passive present participle as a predicate (adjective or adverb). These sections show how a linguistic change can be investigated on the basis of the patterns of usage in the empirical data. The Possibility construction is currently going through a restructuration to a passive verbal complex. The source of this construction is reflected in its present-day use by the fact that it heavily biased towards a small set of verbs. The Obligation construction has grammaticalized to a construction comparable to a compound tense. Patterns of use of the construction show that grammaticalization originates in specific syntactic constructions with an implication of practical necessity. Furthermore, it is shown that the Obligation construction has grammaticalized in different directions in standard and colloquial Finnish. Differing from the study on most typical phenomena investigated in the literature on grammaticalization of modality, the present study opens new perspectives and methods for discussion on these questions.
  • Ameel, Lieven (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This study analyses experiences of Helsinki in prose fiction published in Finnish in the period 1889-1941. It examines the relationships that are formed between Helsinki and fictional characters, focusing, especially, on the way in which urban public space is experienced. Particular attention is given to the description of movement through urban space. The primary material consists of more than sixty novels, collections of short stories and individual short stories. Theoretically, this study draws on two sets of frameworks: on the one hand, the expanding field of literary studies of the city, and on the other hand, theoretical concepts provided by humanistic and critical geography, as well as urban studies. Following an introduction, which includes a concise history of Helsinki, a theoretical chapter charts the relevant concepts and theoretical approaches to the city in literature. The analysis of the selected corpus is divided into five chapters, loosely following a chronological order and structured thematically. In each chapter, one key text is used as a window from which to approach particular thematics. The third chapter analyses experiences of arrival in the city, using Juhani Aho s Helsinkiin (1889) as a prototypical text. The fourth chapter studies experiences of urban public space around the turn of the century, with particular attention given to Eino Leino s Jaana Rönty (1907). In the fifth chapter, Arvid Järnefelt s kaleidoscopic Veneh ojalaiset (1909) functions as a key novel to approach experiences of a transforming and even disappearing Helsinki. The sixth chapter, focusing on Mika Waltari s Suuri illusioni (1928), analyses the aestheticization and internalization of the urban experience in 1920s and 1930s Helsinki novels. The seventh and final chapter examines the cumbersome movement of socially marginalized characters on the urban fringes, with Joel Lehtonen s Henkien taistelu (1933) as a key primary text. This study argues that around the turn of the twentieth century, literary Helsinki was approached from a surprisingly rich variety of generic and thematic perspectives which were in close dialogue with international contemporary traditions and age-old images of the city, and defined by events typical of Helsinki s own history. This created a fascinating and varied imagination of the city that set the tone for later literary descriptions. Helsinki literature of the 1920s and 1930s further developed the defining traits that took form around the turn of the century, adding a number of new thematic and stylistic nuances. The city experience was increasingly aestheticized and internalized, and as the description of the city moved inwards, the experience of Helsinki became dominated by a sense of centrifugal dynamics. The centre of the city became less prominent in literature, and in its place, the margins of the city and specific socially defined neighbourhoods gain in importance.
  • Hirvonen, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The present dissertation analyses the representation of space in filmic audio description. The main objective of this study is to shed light on two critical challenges for audio description: (1) how the filmic space becomes audible in audio-described film through spoken language, sound effects, and music, and (2) how the visual representation of space in film can be cued by the linguistic mode in an audio description. This dissertation consists of four articles and a thesis summary. The first article focusses on the multimodal representation of space through auditory cues. The other three articles explore intermodal similarity, which involves the question of how language reflects visual representation. To explain the complex phenomenon of translating images into words, this study applies the theoretical and analytical tools from translation studies, film studies and cognitive linguistics, and also adopts a cognitive orientation to explain both the filmic and linguistic representations as being cognitive representations that are constructed through visual, auditory, and linguistic cues. This research first establishes that the auditory multimodality of an audio-described film creates a variant of the multimodality of the audiovisual film that entails dynamic constellations, perspectives and foci. Secondly, the analysis presents evidence for the varied potential of the linguistic mode in terms of representing space. Thirdly, this study defines strategies for intermodal similarity in terms of the corresponding linguistic signs for the filmic cues of representation and narration. The results of this dissertation may be valuable in justifying the consistency and standards for audio description as well as in developing other, more far-reaching usages of audio description as a mode of transforming information from one system of representation into another.