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  • Vehmas-Lehto (nykyinen Vehmas-Thesslund), Inkeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 1989)
    This is a study in the field of translation criticism: it assesses the quality of certain translations, finds reasons for their inadequacy, and suggests methods for their improvement. The leading principle is that adequacy, that is to say the compliance of a translation with the norms of the target language, and, to a certain extent, with those of the target culture as well, is an inherent part of translation quality. The study is based on the hypothesis that, in order to be adequate, Finnish translations of Russian journalistic texts should resemble the corresponding Finnish functional style, i.e. Finnish journalistic language. The text corpus used in the study consists of (1) Russian journalistic texts, (2) their published translations (PTrs), (3) alternative translations serving as suggestions for improvement, and (4) authentic Finnish journalistic texts used as material for comparison. The assessment of the quality of the PTrs is based both on the intuition of the researcher and on a series of experiments. According to experiment (1), the PTrs are usually identifiable as translations, primarily because of the general impression they make of clumsiness and obscurity. Experiment (2) shows that the PTrs are experienced as unpleasant, uninteresting, and apt to arouse suspicion. Experiment (3) reveals an abundance of emotive elements in the vocabulary. Experiment (4) corroborates the difficulty of comprehending the PTtrs. The reasons for the inadequacy of the translations are investigated using textual comparisons. These reveal a number of covert errors, i.e. deviations from the usage and recommendable norms of Finnish journalistic language. Covert errors are basically due to interference from the source texts. They are mostly quantitative: e.g. an abundance of coordinated constructions, emotive words, and clichés, a high average length of sentences, clauses, and noun phrases, a high frequency of nouns and adjectives, and a low frequency of connectives. Covert errors are due to translation interference, i.e. the influence of source language features on the translation. Interference reduces the comprehensibility of translations. The gravest covert error in the PTrs is their nominal style. Verbal nouns give rise to a great amount of long, left-branching noun phrases, which overload the short-time memory of the reader. In the source texts, long noun phrases constitute no big problem, because Russian modifiers stand after the noun.
  • Kornak, Jacek (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The subject of this study is the term: queer which I analyse as a political concept. In many English-speaking countries queer has been a common abusive term for homosexuals and other sexually non-normative individuals. From around the end of the 1980s the term was picked up by many activists and academics as a tool for political engagement. Initially queer was politicized in the context of the AIDS crisis but soon afterwards, the term was used to address political, social and cultural marginalization of sexual minorities. Queer has ever since remained one of the most significant concepts in contemporary sexual minority politics. I examine how queer became a powerful political signifier and I study political messages that the term carried. My study focuses on multiple uses of queer , rising from various forms of direct political activism to numerous academic publications. I argue that the term often functioned as a type of alternative identity, a basis of community, an incitement for political action and even a philosophical category. Rather than trying to establish common elements between the uses of queer , I present the multiplicity of routes by which queer was mobilized politically. The research here described investigates an underexplored topic in the academic literature, as most publications to this day offer analyses of queer theories or activism, while the very concept queer has often been overlooked. By discussing the political uses of the term, my study therefore goes beyond the scope of so-called queer theory. Instead, I analyse these theories from a novel standpoint, reflecting on the conceptual politics that queer performs in various texts. This thesis traces the conceptual change that queer underwent to become an umbrella term for various political claims. At the end of the 1980s, queer was used by ACT UP activists and, subsequently, by other groups and individuals to express disagreement with mainstream U.S. sexual politics. From about 1991 queer enters academia. I study texts by Teresa de Lauretis, Michael Warner, Judith Butler, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Lee Edelman and several others. I offer conceptual analyses of their use of queer as a political concept. I also engage in discussion about the consequences of certain political claims for sexual minorities. My findings indicate that queer was one of the central concepts used in academic debates concerning sexual minorities in the 1990s. For instance, Teresa de Lauretis used the term to criticize the previous lesbian and gay discourse and to incite development of a new language that would accommodate the multiplicity of experiences of lesbian and gay people. Judith Butler used the term to address intersections of sex, class and race. For Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick queer is a specific deconstructive term, whereas for Jack (Judith) Halberstam it is an anarchic term that opens a horizon of an alternative politics. Over the past recent decades there have been countless uses of queer as a political concept. My thesis analyses the most influential ones. I present a variety of political purposes the concept serves and point out the importance of this concept within contemporary sexual minority movement and thought.
  • Tanner, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The study is concerned with the models of interaction represented in Finnish as a second language (L2) textbook dialogues. The analysis focuses on service encounter dialogues and more specifically on the requests of goods and services in the service phase of the encounter. The main questions of the study are the following: What kinds of linguistic structures are used to realize the speech function of request in different service encounter dialogues? How do these requests differ from the requests used in similar authentic service encounters? Compared to the authentic data, how representative are the models given in textbook dialogues? What kinds of factors might account for the different linguistic realizations in textbooks and authentic data? What kind of interpersonal communication is realized in dialogues and what kind of model of situationally appropriate language use do the textbooks present to the reader? From a broader perspective, how is politeness construed in the dialogues? ----- The corpus for the study consists of 9 widely used Finnish L2 textbooks directed at adult learners. The comparative data for the study includes data collected from similar authentic service encounters: transcriptions of videotaped interaction (collected mainly by a project on service encounters conducted by The Institute for the Languages of Finland) and data gathered through observation of recurrent simple service encounters. Methodologically, the study combines different but intertwining frameworks: the broader background for the study is L2 textbook research, the analysis of the data draws on conversation analysis and on lexico-grammatical concepts from Finnish traditional grammar and from Halliday's functional grammar, the description of interpersonality, situational appropriateness and (im)politeness employs and adapts current, discursive approaches to politeness. The study shows that requests in textbook dialogues are often realized in ways that do not reflect the situational variation of authentic data: full clauses as requests are often used even in routine requests, often including the verb saanko ('may I have') or the modal verb voinko ('can/could I') in the interrogative; NP requests (e.g. a coffee, thanks) are used less frequently. On the other hand, textbook dialogues tend to use more explicit formulations such as haluan ('I want'), which can make requests emphatic and demanding. While the progression of grammar in the textbooks is undoubtedly a factor motivating the realizations of requests, choosing situationally atypical forms of requesting in dialogues, nevertheless, also affects interpersonal meanings and the way in which textbooks represent social reality. The study also combines the results of the detailed grammatical analysis with current politeness research. The main contribution of the study to the current discussion on politeness is that politeness research cannot be isolated from the analysis of a large and varied authentic corpus: to be able to determine the socially appropriate forms of requesting in certain types of service encounters (or in this case, in textbook dialogues simulating certain types of service encounters) and the forms that could be considered situationally impolite or overpolite, the researcher needs to study the kinds of structures that are typical in similar situation types in authentic data. The results of the study are applicable to Finnish L2 teaching and especially to Finnish L2 textbook writing. The study also suggests ways in which textbooks could be constructed to make them represent more appropriately the situational variation and interpersonal meanings present in authentic communication.
  • Seppälä, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    FRENCH EUROPE AND FINNISH FINLAND Jean-Louis Perret as a cultural mediator and a networker in 1919-1945 This dissertation focuses on Jean-Louis Perret s (1895-1968) work and role in building networks in 1919-1945 between Finland and French-speaking Europe. A French-speaking Swiss, he worked as a teacher, diplomat and translator of Finnish literature, for example, The Kalevala. The aim of the dissertation is to explore the emergence of Francophilia in newly-independent Finland, as part of nation-building and in creating international relations. The framework for this study draws from biographical studies, the study of networks, the history of ideologies and that of Finnish-French relations. The extensive networks of Jean-Louis Perret and their various locations point to the transformation of the elite in the post World War I era, and with that, to the various forms of Francophilia that took place in Finland at the time. On one hand, traditional Francophilia was represented by the established, mainly Swedish-speaking, elite, on the other hand, by the nationalistic movement in the form of a more modern Francophilia. Also, the younger generation involved in the Academic Carelia Association (Akateeminen Karjala-Seura) showed interest in France. Perret s work in the French Legation in Finland, as well as in the Polish Legation - which had a positive predisposition towards France - in line with the commissions he received from the Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, shed light on the diplomatic and the official relations between France and Finland, as well as on the propaganda of the time. The main argument of this dissertation is that Jean-Louis Perret became a leading figure as a mediator in the cultural relations for the Finnish-speaking educated class and the rising elite, as well as a proponent of Finland in French-speaking Europe. Following Finland s independence, it was especially these circles that strived to create international contacts. The trends in both foreign and internal politics at the beginning of the 1920 s weakened the traditionally strong Scandinavic-German orientation in Finland, thus enabling Francophilia to develop. In the 1930 s, the relationship between France and Finland was troubled by Germany s rise and Finland s anti-Soviet attitude. However, this did not significantly trouble Perret s work as a lecturer in the Helsinki University, nor as a proponent of cultural relations. The outbreak of war changed Perret s role and his networks, first leading him to organize an operation of Swiss aid to Finland and then to work as an unofficial ambassador of the Finnish government in Switzerland. The shifts in political power and the re-organization of European states affected officials working in foreign and internal politics also on a personal level. When Finland came under the influence of the Soviet Union in 1945, it was no longer considered the most eastern country in Western Europe, but rather the most western country in Eastern Europe. This also marked the end of Jean-Louis Perret s 20-year long contribution to the Finnish-French relations. Paradoxically, pressure from France led Finland to force him into voluntary exile.
  • Särkikoski, Tuomo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This dissertation investigates the atomic power solution in Finland between 1955 - 1970. During these years a national arrangement for atomic energy technology evolved. The foundations of the Finnish atomic energy policy; the creation of basic legislation and the first governmental bodies, were laid between 1955 - 1965. In the late 1960's, the necessary technological and political decisions were made in order to purchase the first commercial nuclear reactor. A historical narration of this process is seen in the international context of "atoms for peace" policies and Cold War history in general. The geopolitical position of Finland made it necessary to become involved in the balanced participation in international scientific-technical exchange and assistive nuclear programs. The Paris Peace Treaty of 1947 categorically denied Finland acquisition of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, from the "Geneva year" of 1955, the emphasis was placed on peaceful purposes for atomic energy as well as on the education of national professionals in Finland. An initiative for the governmental atomic energy commission came from academia but the ultimate motive behind it was an anticipated structural change in the supply of national energy. Economically exploitable hydro power resources were expected to be built within ten years and atomic power was seen as a promising and complementing new energy technology. While importing fuels like coal was out of the question, because of scarce foreign currency, domestic uranium mineral deposits were considered as a potential source of nuclear fuel. Nevertheless, even then nuclear energy was regarded as just one of the possible future energy options. In the mid-1960 s a bandwagon effect of light water reactor orders was witnessed in the United States and soon elsewhere in the world. In Finland, two separate invitations for bids for nuclear reactors were initiated. This study explores at length both their preceding grounds and later phases. An explanation is given that the parallel, independent and nearly identical tenders reflected a post-war ideological rivalry between the state-owned utility Imatran Voima and private energy utilities. A private sector nuclear power association Voimayhdistys Ydin represented energy intensive paper and pulp industries and wanted to have free choice instead of being associated themselves with "the state monopoly" in energy pricing. As a background to this, a decisive change had started to happen within Finnish energy policy: private and municipal big thermal power plants became incorporated into the national hydro power production system. A characteristic phenomenon in the later history is the Soviet Union s effort to bid for the tender of Imatran Voima. A nuclear superpower was willing to take part in competition but not on a turnkey basis as Imatran Voima had presumed. As a result of many political turns and four years of negotiations the first Finnish commercial light water reactor was ordered from the East. Soon after this the private nuclear power group ordered its reactors from Sweden. This work interprets this as a reasonable geopolitical balance in choosing politically sensitive technology. Conceptually, social and political dimensions of new technology are emphasised. Negotiations on the Finnish atomic energy program are viewed as a cooperation and a struggle, where state-oriented and private-oriented regimes pose their own macro level views and goals (technopolitical imaginaries) and defend and advance their plans and practical modes of action (schemata). Here, not only technologists but even political actors are seen to contribute to technopolitical realisations.
  • Arvas, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Vilho Helanen (1899 1952) was a right-wing opinion leader in interwar Finland. But following the Second World War, the political situation in the country changed dramatically, and Helanen lost his job as well as his influential social station. He began to write detective fiction, and between 1946 and 1952 published seven novels (one had already been published in 1941). The novels protagonist is Kaarlo Rauta, a lawyer who acts as a private investigator. This doctoral dissertation analyzes the Rauta series from three different points of view. It investigates the extent to which the author s life and his strong political background appears in the series. The study also situates the series within Finnish society during and after the war. Finally, the study examines the Rauta series in terms of the genre conventions of detective fiction, that is, the study compares the Rauta series with other Finnish crime fiction and international crime fiction written during the 1940s. The Iron and The Cross Spider uses the term citizenship education when analyzing how Helanen implicitly continued his political teaching when writing crime fiction. The series includes a didactic register, which instructs the middle class in appropriate behaviour and manners, and the social roles entailed by gender. A special area of focus in this didacticism are norms of correct masculinity and femininity. The study devotes specific attention to the status of character in the series. The masculine detective and his beautiful wife are prominent, as is the fictive community and the tensions that criss-cross it. After the war, the Rauta series takes on a positive tone. Men can earn their place in society by fighting at the front, and after the war a homosocial bond exists between all the former soldiers. Women are shut out of the war experience. The detective hero has served in the war, but he is physically and psychologically untouched by it. The community is threatened by artists and immoral bohemians, but not the working class. Artists have affairs outside of marriage and abnormal sexual habits. The members of the upper class are also described as immoral in the series. Sadistic sexuality is often characteristic of the criminals, who are mostly femme fatales in the fashion of hard-boiled detective stories and film noir. Also, strong feelings have a negative connotation in the series, and showing them is forbidden behaviour. Men become criminals when they are insufficiently masculine or when they have not carried out their duty by fighting in the war. Helanen portrayed the communists, his political opponents from the 1930s, as criminals in his post-war series, but they were not openly represented as Russians or communists. Instead, Helanen used the cross spider as their symbol, a symbol which the readers of the time would recognize.
  • Polvinen, Merja (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Reading the Texture of Reality presents readings of works of fiction, poetry and drama where the concepts developed by chaos theory appear. The study also examines the use of those concepts in literary scholarship and argues that chaos theory is deeply involved in redefining notions central to literary studies, such as literary form, authorial identity and the relation of literature to reality. The study examines the uses of chaos theory in the context of four major theoretical questions: What is literary scholarship and how does it differ from the natural sciences? What is the nature of the literary work and how can it be analysed? What is the relationship between self and other, both in terms of human identity and the different agencies involved in the reading of a literary work? How does the human mind connect to the material universe and how can that universe be represented in literature? All of these questions have been approached by scholars armed with the concepts of chaos theory. The fulcrum of the dissertation is a group of literary works that have clearly been influenced by chaos theory, but which equally clearly fall outside the categories and descriptions suggested by previous theoretical approaches to literature and chaos theory. The emphasis that previous research laid on disorder and uncertainty makes it unable to accommodate works that, while obviously referring to the methods of chaos theory and the systems it studies, also engage the order found in the seemingly complex, the possibility of coherent meaning despite the noise in the message, and the physical reality that lurks behind human sign systems. The discussion focuses on British playwright Tom Stoppard, American novelist John Barth, and American poet Jorie Graham. The issues that their works deal with through chaos theory are similar to those that appear in the works of many of the literary scholars discussed in this study, and thereby make possible a dialogue between literary works and theory. The humanist perspective presented in this study is shown to involve the appreciation of the role of scientific knowledge in culture, the conceptualisation of the literary work as a semi-autonomous and meaningful entity and of human identity as coherence rather than dissolution, as well as the belief that physical reality and embodiment can be represented in literature.
  • Paukkeri, Pirkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The study investigates actions by recipients in spontaneous Russian conversations by focusing on DA, NU and TAK, when they are used as responses to the main speaker's larger on-going turn. The database for the study consists of some 7 hours of spontaneous conversations. The participants of the conversations come from different parts of Russia. The use of DA, NU and TAK was analyzed by applying the method of ethnomethodological conversation analysis from the point of view of the type of the context, the sequential placement of the response and its manner of production. The particles were analyzed both in contexts in which they responded to an informing and in affective contexts. The particles NU and TAK were used by the speakers almost exclusively in informing contexts, whereas DA was the central response type in affective contexts. DA was also the most common response to information with affective implications. The information, to which the particle NU provided as response, was often unspesific and projected a spesification or explanation by its speaker as the next action. DA and TAK, by contrast, treated the information as one that could be followed and was sufficient in its local context. As a response to parenthetical information NU responded to information that was only loosely connected with the mainline of talk. The particle DA, by contrast, was used as a response to such parenthetical information, which was more crucial for the larger on-going activity. Only NU was used as a response that invited the main speaker to continue a turn that she or he had offered as possibly complete. NU was also used by the recipient after her or his own contribution as a continuer. In affective contexts, DA expressed, depending on its more spesific context, not only agreement but also other functions, such as giving up arguing or prior knowledge on the topic being discussed. In addition DA responses were used to display empathy and identification with the state of affairs expressed by the co-participant. NU, by contrast, was seldom used as a response to a turn that expressed affect. When it was used in affective contexts, it displayed agreement with the co-participant or just registered an assessment by her or him.
  • Puolakka, Kalle (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This study focuses on two philosophical issues related to the interpretation of art. Firstly, it considers the role of authorial intentions in interpretation. Secondly, the study raises the issue of relativism in interpretation through a discussion of the relativistic tendencies apparent in the views of three major figures of contemporary philosophy: Joseph Margolis, Hans-Georg Gadamer, and Richard Rorty. The major goal of the thesis is to develop a theory of interpretation supporting the role of authorial intentions in interpretation on the basis of Donald Davidson s late philosophy of language and the holistic account of interpretation that underlies different parts of his philosophy. It is my belief that an intentionalist view of interpretation built on Davidsonian elements manages to form the most convincing defense of that interpretive position against the skepticism present in the views of Margolis, Gadamer, and Rorty. The theoretical issues addressed in the thesis are illuminated by discussions of case-examples, most importantly Richard Wagner s The Valkyrie, Thomas Adés America: A Prophecy, and some symphonies by Dimitri Shostakovich. In chapter one, I present a critical discussion of Margolis robust relativism. While finding Margolis criticism of the self-refutive argument plausible, I, nevertheless, argue that the relativistic logic Margolis offers should not be favored in interpretation. The first parts of chapter two outline Davidsonian intentionalism by presenting a reading of Davidson s later work in philosophy of language and mind, and by indicating its relationship to Davidson s views of literature. Then, I shall compare Davidson s ideas with some recent modest forms of intentionalism found in analytic aesthetics, and argue that Davidsonian intentionalism is in many respects more satisfactory compared to them. Chapter three engages Gadamer s hermeneutics by defending E.D. Hirsch s criticism of Gadamer. Uncovering the shortcomings in the replies of Gadamer s followers to Hirsch s criticism serves as a basis for the defense of intentionalism in interpretation carried out in the chapter. That defense is then extended with a discussion of some recent hermeneutic readings of Davidson s views. Chapter four deals with the standing of intentionalism through Rorty s pragmatist approach to literature. By indicating the position of pragmatist notions of aesthetic experience and imagination in Davidsonian intentionalism, it is shown that an intentionalist approach need not be as impoverished with regard to the value Rorty attributes to literature as he assumes. The concluding chapter outlines some ways in which one can be a pluralist with regard to art and interpretation without falling into relativism.
  • Riippa, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The focus of this study is on textual links between ten fictional works by three French writers and the Bible. The text-orientated study illuminates how palimpsestuous writing has been actualised in the works of Paul Claudel (1868 1955), André Gide (1869-1951) and Albert Camus (1913-1960). In this dissertation, the biblical hypotext, an earlier text that the author s text imitates or transforms, is considered one of the most significant features in their works, opening up whole new interpretations of their stories. The study concentrates more precisely on the analysis of ten fictional oeuvres, narratives or plays. Some of the works are more hypertextual than others but all are in a paratextual relation to a biblical story: their titles build the first link to the writings of the Bible. Furthermore, the authors form unique, precise and opposite relationships between their text and the biblical text. Each refers to a text, a character, or an event in the Bible, or points out a question which a specific part of the Old or the New Testament evokes. The dissertation describes the differences between diverse theories of intertextuality, which examine the presence of an earlier text in another text but approach the relation in a different manner. The research shows how the intertextual concepts of Julia Kristeva, Gérard Genette and Kiril Taranovsky differ from one another. To examine textual relations and the palimpsestuous nature of literary discourse, the research utilizes the various hypertextual categories defined by Genette in Palimpsestes Literature in the Second Degree (1982). The study favors the notion of transposition and demonstrates how it can be used even to explore literary texts that are only modestly hypertextual. Unlike Genette, this study does not prefer massively hypertextual works to implicitly hypertextual works but pays attention in addition to diverse techniques of allusion to show links to other texts. The detailed analysis of the authors rewrites allows not only for the examination of the literary text itself but also the consideration of the religious, political, aesthetic and ethical matters that are present in the texts as well as their significance in the writers worldviews. One of the key findings of this investigation is that a writer s interpretation of a biblical text depends on existing biblical interpretations, such as institutional interpretations (Catholic or Protestant) or ones based on the works of the Church Fathers (Saint Augustine, Saint Thomas). In fact, the selected literary texts reveal critical re-readings of the Bible and characteristics of Christian apology. Each author featured in this study has a very different relation to Christianity: Paul Claudel is a practicing Catholic; André Gide who comes from a Protestant background is anti-religion; Albert Camus is an agnostic from a Catholic background. The case of Claudel is interesting: in his oeuvre, the biblical re-writing integrates the Catholic dogma and the influence of Saint Thomas. The writing of Gide proves the influence of the French Protestantism of his era; whereas Camus interpretation of the biblical text is a consequence of a personal and selective reading containing reflections of Saint Augustine s notions. The significance of this study for literary research is to demonstrate that it is possible to apply precise theoretical models and exegesis in order to create interpretations that establish new meanings. The study also points out the relationship between literature and religion from a text-orientated perspective.
  • Salo, Merja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    All of the Volga region languages investigated in this study (Mordvin, Mari, and Chuvash) have a rich derivational morphology. In general linguistics terms, they all have a passive classified as a reflexive passive. The relationship between the derivative and the root verb is described using the valence roles of case grammar. The role of the first, or primary, actant is crucial in defining all the different meanings of the derived verbs in question. The main roles used to express the first actants are: AGENTIVE, ACTOR, NEUTRAL, EXPERIENCER, and FORCE. In Mordvin, passive sentences contain a special polyfunctional derivative suffix, -v-, which also renders the automative, reflexive, perfective and unintentional meaning, as well as dynamic modality. Besides the -v-, the rare and almost forgotten -t-, shares most of these meanings. Moreover, in many respects, these suffixes show parallel development. Contemporary speakers use these t-verbs to express unpleasant feelings and negative physiological states. t-derivatives can also be used to describe weather conditions as the only constituent part of a sentence, but this use is marginal. These two usages bring the t-derivatives close to the impersonal in the Indo-European languages. Furthermore, Mari and Chuvash have very similar suffixes, the reflexive-passive -ǝlt- or -Alt-, and the passive -l- and the reflexive -n-, respectively. Their passives do not permit an agent, and automative meanings are common, as are reflexives. My material proves that both Chuvash suffixes can have identical meanings. Interestingly, in all three languages, zero meaning occurs with intransitive root verbs. Finally, meteorological verbs in 14 Uralic languages were studied from a syntactic perspective. Some verbs have zero valence, others display a more or less semantically faded subject, while others feature an object. With causative transitive verbs, the prevailing restriction seems to be that either a subject or an object is possible, but both are not. Earlier, it was assumed that the sentence type V is Uralic, but according to my findings it is absent in some of the Samoyed languages and that the SV or VS type is more widely known. The introduction provides background information on the history of the Volga region and the many alternative ways of expressing passive and related meanings in the Uralic languages. An agent in a passive sentence is rare, and thus special attention is given to its expression. It seems obvious that the agent has been completely absent in passive sentences in the Uralic and Turkic languages. Many of these languages, however, have now developed an agent under the influence of the Indo-European languages. Furthermore, the construction with a dummy subject has started to spread and now occurs in the Saami and Finnic languages.
  • Fields, Marek (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The study examines British and American propaganda and cultural diplomacy in Finland during the first decades of the Cold War. As the Cold War intensified in the late 1940s, both Britain and the United States sharpened their informational and cultural activities throughout the world. The general goal of these operations was not only the promotion of culture and the Western way of life , but also the containment of communism. For the distribution of anti-communist propaganda and the projection of culture, the British used printed material prepared by a special Foreign Office unit, BBC broadcasts and operations executed by the British Council, while the Americans relied on material produced by the United States Information Agency (USIA), including Voice of America (VOA) broadcasts. The United States also emphasised the importance of the exchange of people through, for example, the Fulbright Programme. The two Western powers operations were also conducted in exceptional environments such as Finland, in which the country s complex relationship with the Soviet Union meant that the distribution of anti-communist propaganda, for example, through Finnish newspapers was always going to be a sensitive affair. Although the British and Americans knew that the majority of Finns resented communism, they were constantly worried about finding the appropriate methods to promote their message to the broader masses. In addition to informational and cultural activities, Britain, and in particular the United States, through the CIA, also supported the anti-communist work of some Finnish organisations. The general objective of this study is to discover the nature of British and American propaganda and cultural diplomacy operations in Finland. The focus lies on their breadth, closer traits and the channels used in their execution. Furthermore, the aim is to discuss how certain characteristics of Finnish society, such as the widely accepted practice of self-censorship, affected the Western powers operational methods. Some emphasis is also placed on examining the effects of these activities and comparing the two campaigns with each other. The study is predominantly based on archived documents of the British Foreign Office, the British Council, the BBC, the US State Department and the USIA. Furthermore, records filed at numerous Finnish archives provide valuable information about the Western operations' distribution processes, while certain Finnish newspapers and magazines make up essential sources for the examination of propaganda content. This study comes to the conclusion that both Britain and the United States carried out reasonably extensive propaganda and cultural diplomacy operations in Finland in the first Cold War decades, and as a consequence supported the country's independence and attachment to the West to a greater extent than has been previously recognised. The placement of British anti-communist articles in Finnish newspapers was especially successful in the early 1950s. The BBC Finnish Service broadcasts, which included anti-communist output, were also rather warmly welcomed by the Finns as were the operations of the British Council, despite its fairly slim resources. In addition to press operations, the Americans were able to influence a considerable number of Finns especially through USIA films, television programmes, the exchange of people and other cultural operations. The Finnish political crises of the late 1950s and early 1960s restricted Western activities and forced the countries to find new methods of operation. Despite this, the impact British and American informational and cultural activities had on Finnish society can be regarded as substantial.
  • Vatanen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This study examines overlapping talk in naturally occurring interaction by focusing on the social actions that are accomplished through both the overlapping and the overlapped turns with the aim of determining the motivation for early turn-onset. The focus is on the agreeing non-minimal responding turns that start up in overlap at a point that is not a transition relevance place, that is, in the middle of a turn, where not all projected elements have yet been produced. The data consist of such responding turns from seven hours of monolingual everyday face-to-face conversation in Finnish and Estonian. This study adopts the framework of conversation analysis, which is supplemented by interactional linguistics. The early-onset responses are rather uniform in the social action types they implement. While they affiliate and align with the overlapped initiating action, they all convey an aspect of independence in their epistemic access. Three different response types are attested in the data: (1) claims of similar knowledge and experience, (2) independent agreements and (3) demonstrations of understanding. The participants do not orient to these overlapping responses as being interruptive. The overlapped initiating actions belong to a previously understudied turn type, assertion. In assertion turns, the speaker asserts something concerning a rather general state of affairs, often attaching an evaluative, personal stance to it. Comparing the early-onset overlaps to other turn-onset types, it is shown that early response-onset is due to an aspect of epistemic independence in the turn rather than to the turn being in agreement with the prior one. In other words, epistemic factors are crucial in explaining the early response-onset. The motivation for this turn-onset type lies in the recipient s expression of equal commitment to the assertion being made. The recipient thus strives for a more balanced, symmetrical relationship between the participants with regard to both time (turn-onset point) and agency (rights to make the assertion). Early-onset overlap is shown to be a patterned practice for indicating strong agreement with an independent stance. The data suggest that in everyday conversations, participants do not invariably aim for no-gap-no-overlap; instead, the social action type also affects turn-taking practices. Patterned and legitimate turn transfer does not occur solely around transition relevance places but also elsewhere. The lack of completion of the prior/ongoing turn is exploited for the interactional purpose of implementing the responsive social action types that are attested here. The research results show no differences between the Finnish and Estonian conversations in terms of the phenomenon investigated here.
  • Komppa, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Rhetorical structure theory in study of the schematic, rhetorical and paragraph structure of matriculation essays in Finnish as a second language. Johanna Komppa, University of Helsinki Non-native Finnish matriculation examination participants can sit for the Finnish as a sec-ond language examination instead of the Finnish examination for native Finnish writers. What is the essay for the Finnish as a second language examination like and what kind of writing skills does it demand from students writing in their second language? This thesis is concerned with the schematic structure of matriculation essays written in Finnish as a second language. The aim of the study is threefold. Firstly, the study focuses on increasing descriptive knowledge of the rhetoric and schematic structure of the expository essay written in Finnish as a second language. Secondly it examines the written texts according to their paragraphing. Finally the thesis tests a theory of text structure to material written by non-native student writers. The study employs Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) as a method for researching the structure of the matriculation examination essay. The corpus for the thesis comes from matriculation essays written in Finnish as a second language in spring 2001. The total number of essays is 136, but the main corpus is comprised of 96 expository essays. The analysis concludes that the key rhetoric relations are elaboration, evaluation, causal relations, preparation, summary, conjunction, contrast and list. Especially elaborative relations are widely used both at the sentence and the discourse level. At the discourse level, orientation, summary, evaluation and list are common rhetorical relations. The schematic structure of the expository essay typically consists of four parts: deductive or inductive orientation, topic or statement, elaboration and evaluating summary. There are also two divergent structures, which are referred to as the narrative structure and the satellite structure. Further, the analysis of the interplay of rhetoric components and paragraph supports the notion that paragraphing constructs and emphasizes meanings in texts. The findings of this study suggest that matriculation examination essay written in Finnish as a second language could be developed in such a way as to elicit more argumentative and expository texts from the candidates. The findings also suggest that writers would benefit if they were given source material in the examination. Furthermore, the teaching of the use of conjunctions and connectors is essential if the writing skills of non-native writers is to be improved. Even if an essay contains several morphological or syntactical mistakes, the appropriate use of conjunctions would improve its intelligibility. Keywords: expository essay, rhetoric structure theory, schematic structure, function of the paragraph, second language writing, upper secondary school writing, matriculation exami-nation
  • Tahvanainen, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The study analyses the ambivalent relationship republicanism, as a form of self-government free from domination, had with the ideal of participatory oratory and non-dominated speech on the one hand, and with the danger of unhindered demagogy and its possibly fatal consequences to that form of government on the other. Although previous scholarship has delved deeply into republicanism as well as into rhetoric and public speech, the interplay between those aspects has only gathered scattered interest, and there has been no systematic study considering the variety of republican approaches to rhetoric and public speech in 17th-century England. The rare attempts to do so have been studies in English literature, and they have not analysed the political philosophy of republicanism, as the focus has been on republicanism as a literary culture. This study connects the fields of political theory, political history as well as literature in order to make a multidisciplinary contribution to intellectual history. The study shows that, within the tradition of classical republicanism, individual authors could make different choices when addressing the problematic topics of public speech and rhetoric, and the variety of their conclusions often set the authors against each other, resulting in the development of their theories through internal debates within the republican tradition. The authors under study were chosen to reflect this variety and the connections between them: the similarities between James Harrington and John Streater, and between John Milton and John Hall of Durham are shown, as well the controversies between Harrington and Milton, and Streater and Hall, respectively. In addition, by analysing the writings of Marchamont Nedham the study will show that the choices were not limited to more, or less, democratic brands of republicanism. Most significantly, the study provides a thorough analysis of the political philosophies behind the various brands of republicanism, in addition to describing them. By means of this analysis, the study shows that previous attempts to assess the role of free speech and public debate, through the lenses of modern, rights-based liberal political theory have resulted in an inappropriate framework for understanding early modern English republicanism. By approaching the topics through concepts used by the republicans legitimate authority, leadership by oratory, and republican freedom and through the frames of reference available and familiar to them roles of education and institutions the study presents a thorough and systematic analysis of the role and function of rhetoric and public speech in English republicanism. The findings of this analysis have significant consequences to our current understanding of the history and development of republican political theory, and, more generally, of the connections between democratic theory and free speech.
  • Aarnio, Juuso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    During the last thirty years literary critics have become increasingly aware of the complexities surrounding the relationship between the so-called two cultures of science and literature. Today their study forms an independent field of research, in which their relationship is above all seen in terms of dynamic interaction that reflects the language, values and ideologies of our culture. Instead of regarding them as antagonistic endeavours, many now argue that the two are essentially cultural discourses that often encounter similar problems of representing reality, even though their methods differ from each other. Of the various aspects of the relationship between science and literature, my doctoral dissertation focuses on the language of popular science writing (including popularizers such as Paul Davies, James Gleick and Richard Dawkins) and the representation of scientific ideas in literature (including authors and playwrights such as Jeanette Winterson, Tom Stoppard and Richard Powers) by using methods of stylistic and thematic textual analysis on the substantial material of more than thirty texts. As regards the former, my aim is to show that our understanding of scientific ideas is to a considerable extent built on the employment of linguistic structures that allow genres of science writing such as popular science to express arguments in a persuasive manner. In this task the figurative language of classical rhetoric plays a significant role, as it helps create a close link between content and form, the latter not only stylistically supporting the former but also frequently epitomizing the philosophy behind what is said and establishing various kinds of argumentative logic. Since many previous studies have tended to focus only on the use of metaphor in scientific arguments, my thesis seeks to widen the scope by analysing the use of other figures of speech as well. I also suggest that figurative language constitutes a bridge to literature employing scientific ideas. While popular science employs figurative language to enhance its rhetorical and literary qualities, such literature uses ideas drawn from the natural sciences by its own techniques of representation, so that the rhetoric of popularized accounts is evident in the portrayals. On the other hand, it is possible to argue that the narratives of popular science writing reflect the literary portrayals of science, thus testifying to the dynamic interaction of the two cultures. Moreover, the comparative analysis of contemporary popular science writing and literature shows how the two participate in the discussion about the meaning of certain basic concepts in our culture, such as identity, knowledge and time. In this way, it is possible to understand that they are elementary constituents in the process of signification through which scientific ideas as well as fundamental questions concerning human life are given their culturally determined meaning and relevance.
  • Sorainen, Antu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
    The main focus of the research is on the genealogy of women's same-sex fornication in Finnish criminal law from 1889/1894 to 1971. Why were women included in the concept of same-sex fornication in Finland and why, where, and when was the law put into effect? Which women were tried, how did the trial proceedings evolve, and what kind of effects did the trials have afterwards? Which concepts were used? These questions have been approached through the analysis of the Finnish Penal Code, the criminal law science and four trial proceedings in Eastern Finland during the 1950s. The research draws on the epistemology of the closet and the concept of heteronormativity adapted from queer theories. It is method critical in utilising ethnography, micro history and feminist ethical self-reflection. The research consists of six scientific refereed articles (see appendix) and of a theoretical introduction. The main results of the research are: 1) The genealogy of Finnish decency [Sittlichkeit] can not be researched without oral histories, due to the late modernisation of Finnish society and the legal system, which does not follow the pattern of English, French and German societies. 2) The inclusion of women's same-sex fornication in the Finnish Penal Code is not incomprehensible when compared to the early modern European legislations and court practices. Women have been punished for the sins of Sodom, though not directly under the 1734 Swedish law. 3) Fornication and decency were ambivalent concepts in the 1889/1894 law, and juridical authorities offered controversial interpretations of them during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 4) A peak in women's convictions occurred in the 1950s, and most of the trial proceedings took place in rural Eastern Finland. Neither the state nor the police were active in prosecuting; instead, the trial proceedings began "by accident". 5) From 1940 to 1960 police training lacked instructions concerning the interrogation of women suspected of same-sex fornication. 6) The figure of the penitent woman was produced in the chiasmic encounter of confession and police interrogation which moulded and was moulded by the epistemological matrix of shame, honour, and decency. Women's speech acts were judicialised as confessions which enabled the disciplinary tampering with the women's bodies. 7) Gender and personality, more than sexuality, or "criminality" defined the status of the convicted women in their village communities after the trials. 8) Relations between police training, sexuality, and decency have not been well researched in Finland. 9) Decriminalisation in 1971 did not mark the end of homophobic legal discourse, even though the 1999 reform of sexual crimes took the form of gender neutral conceptualisation
  • Steel, Tytti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The study analyses representations of dock workers and people who worked in the Helsinki and Kotka harbours in the extended 1950s. The aim of the study is to map differences and hierarchies constructed in the harbour representations. The main sources of the study are interviews of men and women who worked in the harbours. The second important group of research material is films, both documentaries and fiction, depicting freight harbours. The study is hermeneutic and is based on the key concepts of intersections and intertextuality. Representations of harbours and people who worked there are studied within the framework of intersections: not only was the harbour a different working environment for men and women, but for different kinds of men and women. The most important intersections in this study are between gender, ethnicity, class and age. The method of the study is performative reading. Performative reading is a process based on a close reading of the sources. The question posed to the sources is, how are the categories of differences being constructed and how do they intersect? Globally, Finland is quite exceptional because women have worked in harbours. The construction of differences between women is most obvious in the sources concerning differences constructed by the dock worker women in relation to prostitutes who worked in the harbour. On the other hand, in a nostalgic light the stigmatized prostitutes become protagonists of a relaxed and hedonistic lifestyle. In the representations concerning male dockers, differences between the respectable workers and tearaways dominate the intertextual negotiations. Ports as nodes of international seafaring make interesting arenas for studying transnational relations. In Kotka, many of the town people saw the sailors as important customers for their businesses and their relations with the sailors were mostly commercial. The harbour representations can be read as a dream of an international and liberal Finland.