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  • Reenkola, Kaarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    I WANT TO ACT FOR MY COUNTRY Heikki Renvall as a mediator of transnational cultural phenomena and ideas in early 20th century Europe This dissertation focuses on Heikki Renvall's (1872-1955) role as a mediator of transnational cultural and political phenomena in early 20th-century Europe. As a national economist, he was paying attention to the factors of social reform. As one of the leaders of the political group called the Young Finns, he was able to carry out his political as well as his cultural ambitions. The aim of the dissertation is to explore which nation-building social and cultural elements Renvall was involved in and influenced by in terms of the more advanced cultures he was connected with. By examining the similarity of the ideologically based functions in Europe and in Renvall's home country Finland, his activity as a mediator shows, as well as the reception of his apparently too modern ideas. The framework for this study draws from history of ideologies and more specifically from the research on cultural transfer focused on the comparison between apparently parallel concepts. In this study, a microhistorical approach is used in examining Renvall's letters to his spouse, the opera singer Aino Ackté, as a biographical source material. As a scientist Renvall published up-to-date articles and lectures covering his field, discussing the studies at universities abroad, mainly in Berlin, Munich, Paris and London. His world of ideas appears in this material. Despite his propagandist activity, which did not go unnoticed in Finland and where the Russian government was forcing its national tendences, he was nominated as the first managing editor-in-chief of the daily newspaper Helsingin Sanomat in 1904. He was selected for this role because of his leading position among the Young Finns. He grounded yet another newspaper Suomalainen Kansa in 1907 to support his constitutional political mission. Renvall was fascinated by the publicity that French newspapers offered as a role model for the Finnish situation defending its threatened autonomy in 1903. He was elected as a member of the new parliament and was then able to carry through his political ambitions. In this study I bring out cultural phenomena, ideas and mode of action that were developed and modified in forcefully industrializing centrals of early 20th century Europe which Renvall seek to integrate for the benefit of his own national building country. The main argument of this study is that, as a mediator, Renvall suggested reforms that were way ahead of his time in Finland. He could be called as an intellectual cosmopolitan because he managed to create an international network while studying and travelling in Europe.
  • Paloposki, Hanna-Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This dissertation examines the role of art exhibitions in bilateral relations between newly independent Finland and fascist Italy in the context of visual arts and culture from the 1920s to the end of the Second World War. The dissertation examines and analyses extensive source material within the framework of historical research. The theoretical tools employed include the analysis of discourses, Pierre Bourdieu s field theory as well as social networks. One of the perspectives adopted is that of nationalism. The research focuses on Finland s participation in international exhibitions held in Italy and related plans as well as the exchange of art exhibitions between Finland and Italy in the 1930s. Art exchange projects that were never realised are also considered. The dissertation outlines the inception and implementation of exhibitions and exhibition projects, the responses received, as well as the exhibition and project initiators, organisers and sponsors, including their respective motives. The background is established by exploring Finnish and Italian cultural policy and administration, the various forms of cultural relations and the people involved, the inception of international exhibitions and exhibition exchange, the fascist exhibition system and Finnish projects for art exhibition exchange. The dissertation demonstrates that Finnish-Italian art exhibition relations primarily developed through the initiative of private individuals and the Italian side. However, all exhibitions included in the exchange projects three Italian exhibitions brought to Finland and one Finnish exhibition taken to Italy gained official status. The official fascist system of exhibitions could occasionally be bypassed. Exhibitions of Italian contemporary art toured various countries, with only one specifically designed for Finland. In contrast, Finns designed a retrospective exhibition of 19th and 20th century art exclusively for an Italian audience. For Italy, Finland was a minor player in terms of exhibition exchange projects, whereas artistic relations with Italy were important to Finland, which was honoured to receive an invitation from a country with such a long artistic history. Attempts to secure Finland s participation in the Venice Biennale failed in the 1930s and again during the Second World War. Art exhibition exchange and participation in international exhibitions both required and created new networks. Exhibitions were also deemed important enough to become stakes in the struggles of the art fields in each country. The source material indicates that art exhibitions were used for nation building similarly as world fairs and other major exhibitions, as well as for strengthening the national identity and boosting national confidence in an era of intense nationalism. Nationalism was invoked to justify and assess exhibitions and participation in them; this may be called reflective discourse on the nation. The nation and national culture were also used to analyse the works of art or artists featured in exhibitions; this may be called routine discourse on the nation. In the background was also the desire, typical of the period, to create national art, or in Italy, new fascist art. Consequently, art exhibitions can be interpreted as a nationalist gesture, without forgetting their international dimension. Art exhibitions and participation in international exhibitions were important in that they raised a country s profile and were exploited as tools of both domestic and foreign policy. However, politics can only partly explain the direction taken in Finnish exhibition exchange projects. Exchange activities with Italy were not driven by Finnish policies, but rather by Italian initiatives, to which the Finns responded. Although Finnish exhibition exchange projects were fairly active, they generally were not supervised or systematic enough to justify claims that Finland was promoting a specific policy agenda or that the projects were steered by policy makers pursuing political goals. By drawing on archival research, the dissertation challenges previous notions of Finland being a culturally isolated country in the period between the two world wars.
  • Niemi, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Chinese Buddhist texts contain expressions that deal with metaphorical hunger. These phrases appear at different times and in different contexts, beginning with Indian sutras that were translated into Chinese, and ending with Classical Chan (Jap. Zen) Buddhist texts. Each context is new, and one can understand the different expressions in different ways. Some expressions can be understood in the same way despite the context, and others have to be understood differently, depending on the context. At the outset of the study is a group of sayings the content of which is metaphorical hunger. These sayings are followed by an inquiry where a total of 132 textual extracts are examined. Most of these excerpts are translated into English for the first time here. Typical Chan Buddhist research proceeds from whole texts to smaller units, translating the whole and acknowledging the small. In the present work, however, we proceed from small components towards bigger ensembles. We analyze the sayings and expressions of hunger thematics and then place them on the map of Chinese Buddhist philosophy. Here, we concentrate on the contextual, on each and every saying, phrase, doctrinal expressions and quotation: they all refer to something greater. This is revealed when we sieve through the textual material. Three sayings in particular are examined more thoroughly. “Talking about food does not pease hunger” is a phrase that appears in different contexts and can be understood differently throughout history according to the context. One can detect a development in how the phrase is read throughout Chan Buddhist history: in the first texts it was quoted in order to express the empty nature of concepts and words; in the final texts it was quoted to express the importance of realization. “Eating food, wearing clothes”, the paper argues, appears in three different contexts, the philosophical notions of which are well known from classical Chinese texts: when practicing gongan 公安; as representing “ordinary mind” (pingchang xin 平常心) and when describing non-action, wuwei 無為. “Eating food, wearing clothes” means the same thing in all of these excerpts: it is by no means a metaphorical expression. One can see the three contexts representing three different practice stages, starting from meditative practice (of gongan), continuing with the early stages of enlightenment and ending at the stage where all practice is eliminated. Finally, “eating when hungry” is a phrase that concludes the examination. This is an expression that appears unchanged throughout classical Chan texts. Compared with the “eating food, wearing clothes,” here the saying is used to describe the developed state of mind of a Chan teacher, where the practices are not only eliminated but where the senses re-emerge.
  • Viimaranta, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    In this study I look at what people want to express when they talk about time in Russian and Finnish, and why they use the means they use. The material consists of expressions of time: 1087 from Russian and 1141 from Finnish. They have been collected from dictionaries, usage guides, corpora, and the Internet. An expression means here an idiomatic set of words in a preset form, a collocation or construction. They are studied as lexical entities, without a context, and analysed and categorized according to various features. The theoretical background for the study includes two completely different approaches. Functional Syntax is used in order to find out what general meanings the speaker wishes to convey when talking about time and how these meanings are expressed in specific languages. Conceptual metaphor theory is used for explaining why the expressions are as they are, i.e. what kind of conceptual metaphors (transfers from one conceptual domain to another) they include. The study has resulted in a grammatically glossed list of time expressions in Russian and Finnish, a list of 56 general meanings involved in these time expressions and an account of the means (constructions) that these languages have for expressing the general meanings defined. It also includes an analysis of conceptual metaphors behind the expressions. The general meanings involved turned out to revolve around expressing duration, point in time, period of time, frequency, sequence, passing of time, suitable time and the right time, life as time, limitedness of time, and some other notions having less obvious semantic relations to the others. Conceptual metaphor analysis of the material has shown that time is conceptualized in Russian and Finnish according to the metaphors Time Is Space (Time Is Container, Time Has Direction, Time Is Cycle, and the Time Line Metaphor), Time Is Resource (and its submapping Time Is Substance), Time Is Actor; and some characteristics are added to these conceptualizations with the help of the secondary metaphors Time Is Nature and Time Is Life. The limits between different conceptual metaphors and the connections these metaphors have with one another are looked at with the help of the theory of conceptual integration (the blending theory) and its schemas. The results of the study show that although Russian and Finnish are typologically different, they are very similar both in the needs of expression their speakers have concerning time, and in the conceptualizations behind expressing time. This study introduces both theoretical and methodological novelties in the nature of material used, in developing empirical methodology for conceptual metaphor studies, in the exactness of defining the limits of different conceptual metaphors, and in seeking unity among the different facets of time. Keywords: time, metaphor, time expression, idiom, conceptual metaphor theory, functional syntax, blending theory
  • Leikola, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The Manjo, a marginalized Kafa-speaking minority of former hunters in southwest Ethiopia, claim that they lack linguistic competence in the interaction with non-Manjo Kafa speakers. This is surprising in the African context where spontaneous acquisition of different linguistic codes is common. The boundary inside the Kafa society has also been a linguistic boundary and the emic interpretation states that not having cross-group communicative skills is a key component in marginalization, a subject that is not studied in relation to polluting minorities. This thesis is a socio-ethnographic investigation of how members of this stigmatized group conceptualize and negotiate their marginalized status by means of language ideologies and linguistic behaviour. The local explanation forms the core of the research. The primary data consists of 50 speeches delivered by the Manjo in Kafa (Omotic) and partly Amharic (Semitic). All deal with the relation between the Manjo and the majority. When analyzing the speeches an interactionist perspective was linked with ethnographic tools. By seeing language use as a central form of social action itself, it was possible to address the ways in which social processes unfold, and explain why they do so in this specific social and historical context of production and distribution of symbolic and material resources. The articulation of being Manjo highlighted the social relationships and led to a search for the mechanisms of network formation. The ways the existing social networks promote the access to certain registers was reflected with reference to the findings of variationists (Milroy, Eckert), and the components of the repertoires utilized were defined through the concept of style (Coupland, Mendoza-Denton). The influence the access to different communities of practice has had for different individuals is described in a sample of case studies from the primary data. The approach of Bucholtz and Hall, bringing together research traditions within sociolinguistics anchoring identity in interaction, is used for synthesizing the findings. The research shows the importance of networks in connecting marginalized minorities to different repertoires. The repertoires are sought and the language ideologies they represent are used in creation and representation of various social and cultural identities according to need. These repertoires are used either for demolishing the boundary in order to integrate into the majority or for strengthening it in order to gain recognition as a separate group. The linguistic boundary is thus far from being an externally created barrier coming automatically with the stigma imposed by the majority. Rather, it is also Manjo-enacted and contributes to identity construction tendencies inside the Manjo group.
  • Soronen, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The study focuses on the Finnish home makeover shows Inno (2004 , Nelonen) and Kodin kääntöpiiri (2001 2005; YLE TV2) and their episodes broadcast in spring 2004. The research material also includes the websites of both shows and messages concerning Inno from an online discussion forum. As people decorate their homes and reflect on them, they engage in negotiations of taste and in the construction of the ideal self. The main question of the study is: how are representations of the gendered self produced in home makeover shows? The broader theoretical and methodological context of the study is based on intersectionality, or simultaneous study of different identity categories. In this study, the main focus is on the intersections of gender, class and sexuality. Hence, the secondary research question is: how do ways of doing gender intersect with producing the ideas of class and sexuality in the representations of home makeover shows? The theoretical framework of the study combines Judith Butler s theory of gender performativity and Pierre Bourdieu s theory of taste. The analysis is founded upon a close reading focusing on the details and ambiguous meanings contained in the televisual representation. Home makeover shows are explored as a part of contemporary television culture, which is characterised by a significant increase in the number of both television channels and global television formats, as well as the hybridisation of programme types. Researchers on lifestyle television have paid attention to male designers and their ability to reconstruct meanings related to domesticity and home decoration as feminine spheres. The dissertation contributes to this discussion by analysing the representations of the male interior decorator in Inno and the four female interior decorators in Kodin kääntöpiiri. The focus is on the professional self and how it is both gendered and defined as an arbiter of taste. The programme concepts produce the impression that the makeover homes and their occupants are ordinary . The manufactured sense of ordinariness often conceals differences between the participants. One argument of the study is that the ordinariness of participants on lifestyle television should not be taken for granted without further reflection on the implications of labeling something as ordinary. Updating of interior decoration in home makeover shows can be interpreted as an area of doing gender that requires deliberation, effort, expert knowledge and a sufficient budget. The ideal lay decorator is portrayed as culturally omnivorous, brave and receptive to new ideas. The ability to reflect on ways of representing masculinity and femininity through decoration is also implied. In home makeover shows, greater self-awareness regarding the ways in which gender is produced does not lead to repeating gender differently. The idea of normative heterosexuality is in a hegemonic position in the representations of the participants. In Inno and Kodin kääntöpiiri questions of class are not made explicit. However, the idea of class is produced indirectly e.g. by describing the apartments and houses of the participants, by discussing their hobbies or interest in cultural products. In Inno, home decoration is primarily depicted as an individualistic consumer choice, while in Kodin kääntöpiiri it is often defined as a way to strengthen the ties of nuclear families. In Kodin kääntöpiiri, the ethos of familism is combined with pleasures gained from consumption and DIY activities. As a whole, the multidisciplinary study indicates a great number of differences between the two shows.
  • Laukia, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Educating good citizens and workers. Vocational School in Finland 1899 1987. The first vocational school was established in Helsinki in 1899. It was a new type of school where students studied both theory and practical skills under the guidance of a teacher. The key question in this research is: what was the role of vocational schools in educating not only good workers but also good citizens? Another question is: who were the founders of vocational schools? Primary information for the research questions is found in documents, regulations and interviews. The international liberal social movement played an important role in the founding of vocational schools in Finland. Liberal upper class people with good education and connections to business life were interested in developing vocational education. Many of them had studied at Helsinki Polytechnic College, later Helsinki Technical University. Their main concern was the labour class children who had completed their basic comprehensive education but who, because of their young age, were unable to complete paid work. The aim of these vocational schools was to integrate labour class children into the society and give them the basic working skills required in industry and workshops. Offering vocational education to these children would not only improve the living conditions of the labour class but it would also improve the business life in terms of motivated workers. The founders of the vocational schools also hoped that education would prevent young people from getting involved in socialistic ideas. Lecturer Jonatan Reuters and Jalmari Kekkonen, the Inspector of Vocational Education in the Ministry of Trade and Commerce, were actively involved in developing Finnish vocational education. They brought new ideas from abroad, especially from Austria and Sweden. Vocational schools in Finland were influenced by reformistic pedagogical movements, especially by the one developed by Georg Kerschensteiner in Germany. In the 1920s and 1930s, after WWI and the declaration of independence of Finland, vocational schools were more and more influenced by nationalistic right-wing ideas. Big companies established their own vocational schools which also operated under the control of the Department of Trade and Industry. After WWII, Aarno Niini, the Director of the Vocational Education Department of the Ministry of Trade and Commerce, wanted to increase the quality of vocational education and encourage wider recognition of vocational schools. Vocational education was offered not only to the labour class children but also to the children from other social classes. Regular teacher education for vocational school teachers started in 1958. Key words: Vocational School, Vocational education and training, education, Georg Kerschensteiner, Jalmari Kekkonen, Aarno Niini
  • Vuorijärvi, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    University of Applied Sciences (UAS) bachelor theses are an important genre in training for and working in the healthcare profession. Their discussion sections, in particular, are considered to be of relevance to readers in the work community. This study examines the functional structure of discussions by using linguistic genre analysis. Additional contextual information on the genre was also collected from thesis advisors via a survey. The dataset consists of 40 bachelor theses of healthcare students. They can be divided into two subgenres based on their structure and methodology: research-based theses, which follow traditional thesis structures (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion = IMRD), and product-based theses, which follow topic-based formats. The method of analysis in this study is a modified version of the Dudley-Evans (1994) move structure model that was created specifically over the course of this study. The units of analysis are text segments known as moves. In the analysis, the discussions in the two thesis types are compared with each other, with the entire corpus and with the overall structure of bachelor theses. The study provides a description of the functional structure of the discussion, of the move types it contains, and the language components that manifest them. Although the prevailing moves vary, the schematic structure of the discussions is very similar. Discussion in research-based theses is results-driven, while discussion in product-based theses is more process-driven. A typical discussion begins with moves to orient the reader, and continues with a recurring cycle of result or process moves and the additional moves that provide their background information. The discussion ends either with reflection moves evaluating the author s professional competence or with recommendation moves presented to the discourse community. The findings of the study indicate that the presentation of recommended practical courses of action is a convention that is disctinctive of UAS bachelor theses. The focus of detailed analysis is on tense, modality changes, author expressions, negations, questions and lexical devices. Observations were also made on the use of references. Choices made in the texts are interpreted as expressions of the degree of certainty of the propositional content, as the promotion of expertise and more broadly as a discussion between author and readers. Based on the examined text conventions, the two variants of bachelor theses in healthcare are sufficiently similar to be of the same genre and to fulfill the functions of bachelor theses in the discourse community. Nevertheless, it is important to recognize the variation and to take it into account in instruction. The findings of the study can be applied to genre-based teaching of the literacy required for research and development. The modified move analysis method created in this study can be applied to the study of other genres in a variety of different fields. In particular, the community-based move analysis of the most relevant genres of the Finnish work community would be topical.
  • Wager, Henrik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    My thesis concerns the plans drawn up by architect Bertel Liljequist (1885 1954) for an industrial corporation and a city in Finland during the interwar years. These were two quite different clients: the Kymi Company operating in Kuusankoski and the City of Helsinki. My study includes the micro-examination of the wider social issues involved. That the industrial community and factories in Kuusankoski be constructed correctly in a way supporting corporate strategy was of primary importance for the company s operations. Through the planning process for Helsinki s abattoirs, I show how a city dealt with the twin problems of hygiene and increasing demand for food resulting from a growth in population. I clarify how society and its economic, political and class structures affected the practice of architecture and its expression in the built environment. I analyse how the different backgrounds and starting points of the clients affected the construction projects under study and architect Bertel Liljequist s work. In studying Liljequist as an industrial designer, I have considered it vital to ascertain the client s intentions and objectives within the framework of the prevailing social situation. I examine the meanings the client wished the architecture to express and also to communicate to those working in the factory and the area as well as to the workers living on company land. The social outlook of the owners and management of Kymi Company implicitly affected the appearance of the factory. A brick fairface for the factories was a safe and natural material at the beginning of the 1920s when taking into consideration the events of the 1918 Civil War. To have built a White factory in the style of a defence building would have been provocative. Outside the factory gates, however, the company supported White architecture. The company used the factory buildings to manifest its power and the dwellings to bind the workers and make them loyal to the company. Architecture was thus one way in which the company manifested its position as the higher and undisputed authority. The role of the City of Helsinki within the planning process was for its officials to provide expert opinions but also to arrange study trips for the architect and the abattoir s general manager. The city also decided on the standard of the design. The city s responsibility for the health of its inhabitants and the requirements of modern meat production can be seen in the minimal architecture and clear functionality of the plant. The architecture left no doubt about the trustworthiness of the modern city. Translation: Michael Wynne-Ellis
  • Ratia, Maura (Uusfilologinen yhdistys, Helsinki, 2011)
    The habit of "drinking smoke" , meaning tobacco smoking, caused a true controversy in early modern England. The new substance was used both for its alleged therapeutic properties as well as its narcotic effects. The dispute over tobacco continues the line of written controversies which were an important means of communication in the sixteenth and seventeenth century Europe. The tobacco controversy is special among medical controversies because the recreational use of tobacco soon spread and outweighed its medicinal use, ultimately causing a social and cultural crisis in England. This study examines how language is used in polemic discourse and argumentation. The material consists of medical texts arguing for and against tobacco in early modern England. The texts were compiled into an electronic corpus of tobacco texts (1577 1670) representing different genres and styles of writing. With the help of the corpus, the tobacco controversy is described and analyzed in the context of early modern medicine. A variety of methods suitable for the study of conflict discourse were used to assess internal and external text variation. The linguistic features examined include personal pronouns, intertextuality, structural components, and statistically derived keywords. A common thread in the work is persuasive language use manifested, for example, in the form of emotive adjectives and the generic use of pronouns; the latter is especially pronounced in the dichotomy between us and them. Controversies have not been studied in this manner before but the methods applied have supplemented each other and proven their suitability in the study of conflictive discourse. These methods can also be applied to present-day materials.
  • Kaljundi, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This article-based dissertation tackles the role of cultural representations and practices in the medieval expansion of Latin Christendom, analysing the historiography concerning the conversion and conquest of the Baltic Sea area. Four of the articles examine Latin missionary historiography from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, concentrating on the chronicles related to the archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen (with a particular focus on the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia). These founding narratives of the frontier settlements and institutions allow insight into the function of literary representations in legitimising the new rule, but they also highlight the importance of performative practices in the Christianisation of the borderlands. The dissertation also has a more generally theoretical dimension, addressing the oft-debated problem that we can analyse medieval rituals only indirectly, through textual or visual mediations. It argues that because it is impossible to know whether the described rituals actually took place, we should instead focus on the ways in which their historiographical representations enable to analyse the meaning and significance of the rituals. In addition to that the thesis demonstrates that there are fruitful perspectives for analysing the appropriation of rituals in the medieval history writing offered by the studies of cultural memory. These studies have emphasised that the formation of effective memorial figures is based on their remediation in various cultural media. In the frontier chronicles, authority is first and foremost based on the connections with the Christian past. Yet these texts also reveal an understanding that these contacts with the sacred past should be manifested through various media: through textual quotations, but also through rituals and other performances. The dissertation also considers the cultural memory of the Christianisation period in a longer historical perspective, two of the articles discussing its afterlives during later periods: the early modern, the Enlightenment and the modern eras. The rivalry for hegemony in the Eastern Baltic has kept the legacy of the conquest and conversion a topical as well as a political issue. The active appropriations have secured a constant remediation of the medieval narratives in different cultural media, while also resulting in their considerable transformations.
  • Kopisto, Lauri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Soon after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, a three-year civil war broke out in Russia. As in many other civil wars, foreign powers intervened in the conflict. Britain played a leading role in this intervention and had a significant effect on the course of the war. Without this intervention on the White side, the superiority of numbers in manpower and weaponry of the Bolsheviks would have quickly overwhelmed their opponents. The aim of this dissertation is to explain the nature and role of the British intervention on the southern, and most decisive, front of the Civil War. The political decision making in London is studied as a background, but the focus of the dissertation is on the actual implementation of the British policy in Russia. The British military mission arrived in South Russia in late 1918, and started to provide General Denikin s White army with ample supplies. General Denikin would have not been able to build his army of more than 200,000 men or to make his operation against Moscow without the British matériel. The British mission also organized the training and equipping of the Russian troops with British weapons. This made the material aid much more effective. Many of the British instructors took part in fighting the Bolsheviks despite the orders of their government. The study is based on primary sources produced by British departments of state and members of the British mission and military units in South Russia. Primary sources from the Whites, including the personal collections of several key figures of the White movement and official records of the Armed Forces of South Russia are also used to give a balanced picture of the course of events. It is possible to draw some general conclusions from the White movement and reasons for their defeat from the study of the British intervention. In purely material terms the British aid placed Denikin s army in a far more favourable position than the Bolsheviks in 1919, but other military defects in the White army were numerous. The White commanders were unimaginative, their military thinking was obsolete, and they were incapable of organizing the logistics of their army. There were also fundamental defects in the morale of the White troops. In addition to all political mistakes of Denikin s movement and a general inability to adjust to the complex situation in Revolutionary Russia, the Whites suffered a clear military defeat. In South Russia the Whites were defeated not because of the lack of British aid, but rather in spite of it.
  • Heikkinen, Seppo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The Venerable Bede s eighth-century De arte metrica was the most important treatise on Latin metrics to emerge in the early Middle Ages. It played a central role in the transmission of the classical literary tradition to the medieval audience, but, at the same time, constitutes one of the first efforts at creating a textbook on metrics that was primarily intended for the monastic curriculum. This historical background, together with the author s Christian agenda, is present in virtually every aspect of the way the work discusses the Latin poetic heritage. The main focus of De arte metrica is on hexameter verse and the problems inherent in its composition at a time when syllable quantity had disappeared from spoken Latin. The work departs from previous grammatical tradition by incorporating syllable lengths into its discussion of poetic metres, a didactic solution necessitated by the linguistic conditions of Anglo-Saxon England. Even here, Bede consciously strives to create a consistently Christian literary norm. Instead of relying on the example of Vergil and other classics, he seeks to base his presentation of metrical rules, from syllable lengths to larger structures, on the example of Christian poets, most notably Sedulius, implying that pagan authors were even prosodically less advanced than Christian ones. Bede s views have been influenced by his belief in the biblical origins of metre, an idea expounded by several Christian apologists. Bede s discussion of other poetic metres is mainly restricted to those employed in Christian hymnody, and their simplified analyses correspond with Christian usage. Bede is also the first author to give an appropriate presentation of rhythmic or non-quantitative verse, anticipating later medieval poetic practices. The aim of this thesis is to examine the ways in which Bede sought to recast the classical poetic heritage in a form more appropriate for Christian scholars. This usually manifests itself in minute alterations of wording, but sometimes Bede takes a definite stand for the virtues of Christian verse as opposed to the pre-Christian classics. As many of Bede s definitions influenced numerous generations of medieval grammarians and poets, and the work itself became a model for the genre of Artes metricae, the strong role of its Christianising tendency must not be underestimated.
  • Havumetsä, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This thesis focuses on non-literary translation and on the client as a party in the translation event. Clients norms concerning non-literary translation in the language pair Finnish and Russian, their expectations concerning non-literary translators as manifested by their expectations of good translations and the competence of translators, as well as the clients role in the translation event are considered on the basis of norm theory. These expectations may influence the requirements that translators feel that they are expected to satisfy. The norm concept refers to such expectations of what one must, may or must not do, and to the accompanying rewards of satisfying the community s expectations and the negative repercussions of not fulfilling them. The quality of translation can be seen as the degree to which a translation satisfies the evaluator s expectations of what a translation should be like. Literature on translation service quality, translation quality and norms in general is reviewed. The emphasis is on translation norms (preliminary, operational, initial, expectation, accountability, relation, and communication norms) which are discussed in detail from the client s viewpoint. Clients views on the quality of non-literary translation, their expectations regarding translators as well as their role in the translation event, and thereby in the formation of translation norms, are investigated in a survey conducted among Finnish companies that are likely to place orders for translations in the language pair Finnish Russian. In addition, real translations provided by some respondents of the survey are analysed in order to see whether they correspond with the respondents responses to the survey. The findings suggest that clients value accuracy, completeness, functionality, correct interpretation of the original author s intention and an easy-to-read quality of translations. Translators are expected to be experienced, master the terminology of a special field and to have language and translation skills. Formal qualifications were not regarded as important. Clients role in the translation event appeared to be somewhat smaller than it could be and some respondents seemed to be unwilling and/or unable to assess the quality of translations. This directs attention to the translators ethical responsibility for the quality of translation as experts and as the creators of the translation tradition. It also suggests that it would be beneficial for both translators and their clients if the clients knowledge of what competence means in translation and the general visibility of the translation profession were increased.
  • Peake, Rose-Marie (2015)
    The PhD thesis studies the value system of the French Catholic community the Filles de la Charité, or the Daughters of Charity, in the first half of the seventeenth century. The Company was founded by Louise de Marillac (1591-1660, canonised 1934) and Vincent de Paul (1581-1660, canonised 1737) in Paris in 1633. It was intended for lower class women and consisted of charity work performed outside the enclosure of a monastery. Despite its position as one of the most influential Catholic communities in France, the Company has received little secular academic attention, the most important reason being that the community s archives were inaccessible until the twenty-first century. The focus of the study is on the activities of the Company aiming at moulding and promoting Catholic morality, mainly amongst women. These activities are referred to as moral management, a term borrowed from the historians of emotions. The study analyses the activities on a broad scale incorporating not only an analysis of the measures among the poor but also of the internal moulding of images of the members of the Company. The aim of the study is to answer the following questions: what kinds of ideals of a good Catholic life and morality did the Company of the Daughters of Charity aim to create through moral management and what purposes did they serve? What was the role of gender and social status in the process of defining and creating, executing and performing these ideas of a good Catholic life? Moreover, do these ideas present continuity or discontinuity in Christian anthropology, that is, in the idea of the human being? The study, qualitative in nature, approaches the subject by employing methodology borrowed particularly from medieval studies on the interplay of gender, body, power and performance in the context of religion. The methods of the study likewise include the critical close reading of the sources (comprising most importantly the correspondence and other writings of the founders, found largely as editions, and hagiography) in an effort to move from the particular, the Daughters of Charity, toward the general, that is, mentalities and values in seventeenth-century Catholicism and French society. The most important finding of the study is that the overall aim of the Company was to create conservative Catholic subjects. This means that the value system the Company promoted was a reformulation of mentalities already present in Christian anthropology before the early modern period. Moreover, the thesis puts forward the hypothesis that the molding of traditional images and behaviour was a survival strategy for the Company itself: first of all, it faced criticism from the part of ecclesiastical authorities, as the non-cloistered lifestyle of its members had been made unlawful in the Council of Trent (1545-1563). Secondly, the Company also had to deal with internal pressures and, as a result, reassure also the Daughters who would have preferred a more nun-like vocation. On the other hand, the moral management activities also ensured the flowing of financial and intellectual resources from the Parisian elite, on whom the Company was fully dependent, in addition to a labour force provided by the lower class women. The study also reassesses the image and role of the elite widow Louise de Marillac in the organising of the moral management activities and discusses the ways she was a crucial figure.
  • Pekkanen, Hilkka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The study proposes a method for identifying the personal imprint of literary translators in translated works of fiction. The initial assumption was that the style of a target text is not determined solely by the literary style of the author but also by features of its translator s idiolect. A method was developed for identifying the idiolectal features of individual translators, which were then used to describe personal translation styles. The method is not restricted to a particular language pair. To test the method and to establish the nature of the proposed personal imprint empirically, extracts from four English-language literary source texts (two novels by James Joyce and two by Ernest Hemingway) were first compared with their translations into Finnish (by four different translators) in order to identify changes, or shifts, that had taken place at the formal linguistic level in the translation process. To allow individual propensities to manifest themselves, only optional shifts in which the translators had a range of choices available to them were included in the study. In the second phase, extracts by different authors rendered into Finnish by the same translator were compared in order to gauge the extent of the potential impact of the author's style on the translator's work. In-depth analysis of the types of shifts made most frequently by the individual translators revealed further intersubjective differences, and the shifts were used to construct translation profiles for each of the translators. In order to determine the potential effects of frequently occurring shifts on the target text, some central concepts of narratology were adapted and used to establish an intermediate link between microlevel choices and macrolevel effects. In this way the propensity of an individual translator to opt for certain types of shift could be linked with the overall artistic effect of the target text.
  • Xu, Qingbo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation studies the work of Zhang Kangkang (a contemporary Chinese woman writer, 1950- ) in the light of evolutionary feminism (also called Darwinian feminism, which studies gender issues from an evolutionary perspective, brings feminist concerns into the fields of evolutionary biology, psychology and sociobiology, and illuminates and rectifies androcentric biases in these fields). I have three main research goals: the first is to present the similarities and congeniality of Zhang and evolutionary feminism, the second to explore whether Zhang has strong feminist concerns, and the third to try to bring Darwinism and feminism together and show their compatibility. Lying at the intersection of literature, feminist criticism, and evolutionary studies, my approach is based on transcultural and transdisciplinary comparisons. My primary texts include Zhang s writings and the literature on evolutionary feminist theory by scholars including Anne Campbell, Patricia Gowaty, Sarah Blaffer Hrdy, Barbara Smuts, Griet Vandermassen, and Marlene Zuk. I find that these two textual corpuses converge around five topics: sex differences, the mother-child bond, mating systems, violence, and infanticide. I discuss in depth how Zhang s descriptions of motherhood, love and political activity in China highlight these intersections. Both Zhang and evolutionary feminists try to uncover the evolved tendencies of sex differences in reproductive interests and strategies, understand women s reproductive behavior, highlight both male and female competitiveness and violence, as well as other predispositions that we may consider morally undesirable. Even Zhang, who has much in common with evolutionary insights, several times disproves or even tries to deny what she has revealed about female behavior in her stories. But evolutionary theory is descriptive and does not pursue science and value together. On the other hand, while evolutionary theory can describe human origins and propensities, and the roots of gender and social inequality, solving possible moral dilemmas entails the involvement of ethics, literature, and feminist studies for prescriptive guidance in order to improve our societies and strengthen gender equality.