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  • Lintonen, Kati (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Photographized nature I. K. Inha s work as a signification of nature The dissertation examines, through the work of the Finnish photographer and writer I. K. Inha (formerly Konrad Into Nyström) (1865 1930), the different ways in which the signification of nature is achieved. The principal material consists of Inha s work from 1890 to 1925, from which a number of photographs and texts are considered and upon which the photographization of nature is contemplated. The dissertation addresses the issue of how nature is conceived and how the act of photographizing it can be defined. The methodical context of the study is composed of three thematic baskets that structure the material and which consist of narrations on Finnish national perception, nature conservation and understanding the world. In the first case nature is seen as the natural environment encompassing lakes, seashores, forests, and hills, which at the time were often perceived from a utilitarian viewpoint. By the photographization they generated a pictorial narrative that could be shared. The natural environment was thus turned into landscape by means of photography, following the global pictorial concepts picturesque and sublime, as well as the national canons that had been developed in literature and the visual arts. In the narrations concerning nature conservation, the photographization did not merely occur within the limits of presuppositions, but rather nature was given the opportunity to unfold itself. While the photograph was being established as a basis for supporting nature conservation or to highlight the destruction of nature at the hand of Man, an attempt was made to represent subjects that were difficult to convey in photographs, such as nature s power or the miracle of growth. The thesis suggests, that in the third case the concept of nature broke away from its strict interconnection with the natural environment and led to a contemplation of nature that is perceivable in a person. In this context the photograph and the photographization are interpreted as an attempt to understand a person and his or her very existence in the world, while this same existential wonder is seen as being embodied in Inha s portrait of a rune singer and in his photographs of forest interior and water. Further, the thesis asks whether photographing nature could be interpreted as an action similar to the idea of the phenomenological reduction as a means of bypassing the photographer s prevailing way of being.
  • Saraste, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Danielsbacka, Mirkka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Captors of Prisoners of War. The Psychology of the Human Species, Soviet Prisoners of War and Finland, 1941 1944. This study explores the treatment of Soviet prisoners of war during the Continuation war (1941 1944) fought between Finland and the Soviet Union. The study focuses especially on the mass deaths of Soviet POWs at the hands of Finns and the Finnish POW administration s handling of this crisis. During the Continuation war, Finland captured at least 67,000 Soviet POWs, of which at least 19,000 and probably over 22,000 (i.e. about one third) died. In terms of the death rate of POWs, Finland was closer to totalitarian regimes Germany, Soviet Union and Japan than to other democratic countries such as the UK or USA. Finns captured most of its POWs in the autumn of 1941, and most of the POWs who died perished in the winter of 1941 1942. In most cases, the cause of death was malnutrition. POWs suffered undernourishement mainly because the Finns overworked them and provided them too little food. In addition the poor hygiene and crowding in POW camps exacerbated the spread of infectious diseases. In the exceptionally cold winter the infectious diseases proved fatal to the poorly clothed and underfed POWs. Despite the mass deaths of POWs, memories persist of POWs in Finland who worked on Finnish farms and received reasonably good treatment. This memory knowledge also endures because POWs working in farmhouses were more likely to survive than those working in other workplaces or camps. The basic research questions of this study are: Why did so many Soviet prisoners of war die in Finnish custody during the Continuation war? Why did Finland depart so far from other Western democracies in its treatment of POWs? Why was the treatment of POWs at the hands of Finns so ambivalent? The National Archives of Finland s database of the death POWs is the most important source of the number of Soviet POW deaths during the Continuation war. In addition, I use as a source material the administrative correspondence between departements who were in charge of POW administration, the personal archives of persons in touch with the handling of the POW affairs, and the reports of the inspectors of the POW camps. I argue that to fully understand the reasons for the treatment of POWs, we must observe the phenomenon as an interaction of the psychology of the human species and the culture of wartime Finland. Thus, the theoretical framework of this study is based on evolutionary psychology and social psychology. The main concepts relating to human psychological predispositions are self-deception, the diffusion of responsibility, the bystander effect, categorization tendency, dehumanization, xenophobia, ethnocentrism, empathy, sympathy and reciprocity. This study shows that the psychological predispositions of the human mind especially the predisposition to self-deception and dehumanization make understandable the development of the mass deaths of Soviet POWs and the fact that the Finns took so long to respond to the appalling situation. In addition, I identify the restraints required to render the circumstances of POWs humane, the most important of which were those which motivated the Finns to keep the POWs alive. The main motivating factors were Finland s reputation as a civilized nation, the prolongation of the war together with the weakened belief that Germany would win the war, and the labor needs of local employers. The study also finds that those Finns who were in personal contact with POWs usually treated them fairly well due to the human capacity for empathy and the sympathetic need to help others that stems from either moral anger or reciprocity.
  • Nakari, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This dissertation is an onomastic study of variation in women s name phrases in official documents in Finland during the period 1780−1930. The aim is to discuss from a socio-onomastic perspective both the changeover from patronymics to inherited family names and the use of surnames after marriage (i.e. whether women adopted their husbands family names or retained their maiden names), before new laws in this area entered into force in Finland in the early 20th century. In 1920, a law on family names that required fixed names put an end to the use of the patronymic as a person s only surname. After 1929, it was no longer possible for a married woman to retain her maiden name. Methodologically, to explain this development from a socio-onomastic perspective, I have based my study on a syntactic-semantic analysis of the actual name phrases. To be able to demonstrate the extensive material, I have elaborated a scheme to divide the 115 different types of name phrases into 13 main categories. The analysis of the material for Helsinki is based on frequency calculations of the different types of name phrases every thirtieth year, as well as on describing variation in the structure and semantic content of the name phrases, e.g. social variation in the use of titles and epithets. In addition to this, by applying a biographic-genealogical method, I have conducted two case studies of the usage of women s name phrases in the two chosen families. The study is based on parish registers from the period 1780−1929, estate inventory documents from the period 1780−1928, registration forms for liberty of trade from the period 1880−1908, family announcements on newspapers from the period 1829−1888, gravestones from the period 1796−1929 and diaries from the periods 1799−1801 and 1818−1820 providing a corpus of 5 950 name phrases. The syntactic-semantic analysis has revealed the overall picture of various ways of denoting women in official documents. In Helsinki, towards the end of the 19th century, the use of inherited family names seems to be almost fully developed in official contexts. At the late 19th century, a patronymic still appears as the only surname of some working-class women whereas in the early 20th century patronymics were only entered in the parish register as a kind of middle name. In the beginning of the 19th century, most married women were still registered under their maiden names, with a few exceptions among the bourgeoisie and upper class. The comparative analysis of name phrases in diaries, however, indicates that the use of the husband s family name by married women was a much earlier phenomenon in private contexts than in official documents. Keywords: socio-onomastics, syntactic-semantic analysis, name phrase, patronymic, maiden name, husband s family name
  • Kuzmin, Denis (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The dissertation investigates the settlement history of Russian Northern Karelia, i.e. White Sea Karelia (Vienan Karjala), in the light of onomastics. It consists of six articles based on linguistic material, most notably toponyms, anthroponyms, dialectal vocabulary and oral history. A considerable part of the research materials have been collected by the author in the course of field expeditions. The main methodology employed in the articles is the investigation of the spread of toponymic types in the Finnic languages. They bear witness to early population movements that cannot be investigated in the light of archaeology or historical documents. Particular toponymic models can be connected with the spread of the Karelian population from the Lake Ladoga region to the north. Other types provide evidence of a population that entered Northern Karelia from present-day Finland. Most notably, parallels in the toponymy of the Savo and Häme provinces and the area of White Sea Karelia can be found. The other main methodology used in the articles is the investigation of the substrate toponyms, i.e. analysis of toponyms that bear witness to language forms spoken earlier in a particular area. For instance, in White Sea Karelia, a notable amount of toponyms from Saami languages can be found. In the Russian-speaking White Sea coast area, in turn, a notable Finnic substrate from Karelian is discernable. Thus, there are grounds to suggest that the present linguistic areas of the investigated region have come to being relatively late and that as late as in the Middle Ages, the linguistic map of the region was considerably different. There is evidence to suggest that the Saami population in the area survived up to the 17th century. A further source of information in the dissertation is the oral history, i.e. stories and remembrances of the history of the Karelian settlements. Most of this material has never before been collected or investigated in the historical literature. Additionally, an analysis of the Karelian family names and some elements of dialectal vocabulary has been carried out in the investigation. As a result of the investigation, a large amount of new information has surfaced regarding the settlement history of the White Sea Karelia area. Most notably, the character of the Saami languages spoken in the area, the influences from the Western Finnic areas and the directions of population movements between individual settlements has been documented in greater detail than in the earlier research. The results of the investigation are thus of importance not only for Finnic linguistics, toponymic and substrate studies but also to the historical sciences.
  • Kivirinta, Marja-Terttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Eliminating the Other Helene Schjerfbeck and Juho Rissanen Constructing the field of art in the Finland of 1910 s and 1920 s The focus of this PhD thesis is on the discourses of the foreign influence and the other, and the connections with the field of modern national art in the Finland of 1910s and 1920s. I examine their discourses in connection with two artists, situated at the centre of the national art history, Helene Schjerfbeck and Juho Rissanen. This study uses the categories of gender and class to define the representations of the artist, and through that also the effects on the meaning making processes in the field of art. The main tools employed by the study are the applications of the methods to analyse art historical narratives of the monographs of the genre art and life , the ideas of the myth presented by Roland Barthes and, especially, feminist readings of art history, biographies, nationalism and modernism, as the theoretical ideas of Michel Foucault that frames the discourse analysis. The frame of the study is the field of art the 1910s and 1920s, which I analyse with the sociological model of Pierre Bourdieu. The basic materials of the study are the art and life monographs by Einar Reiter (H. Ahtela) on Helene Schjerfbeck, and Onni Okkonen on Juho Rissanen. These were published respectively in 1917 and 1927. Additionally the material consists of manuscripts, correspondence, reviews in newspapers and journals, photographs as well as art works. The result is that discourses on the foreign influences and the other are variously linked to the meaning making process and (anti)modernism in the field of art of the period that defined both art and art history and representations of the artist through the norms of (trans)nationalism. This the study demonstrates through analysing the discourses and representations of the biographies of Schjerfbeck and Rissanen as well as those of art reviews. The artist is connected with his or hers gender, class, age, body, cultural or ethnical group and language. As both of the artists are still central figures of the Finnish national Art history, some elements present them as belonging to the other. Schjerfbeck was regarded as a genius, but was always gendered with the understatement of female artist as a quite old Swedish speaking and modest living middle-class woman. Nevertheless, the subtle colour and the light in her paintings were regarded as Finnish. Representations of Juho Rissanen never failed to include his poor working class upbringing. He was presented as a Finnish-speaking man but was consigned to the role of a comical anti-hero artist dwelling in a wild rural paradise. Because Rissanen worked mainly in France within French classist and antimodernist circles some of the critics have observed foreign influences in the lightness of his paintings though he was also evaluated as the most original Finnish Artist.
  • Piippo, Irina (2012)
    Viewing norms dialogically: an action-oriented approach to sociolinguistic metatheory is a theoretically oriented sociolinguistic study of language norms. Language use, along with other forms of social life, is structured by social norms representations of appropriate and expected conduct. Norms make effective and meaningful conduct possible, and they enable us to make sense of the world around us. In other words, they are the fundamentals of the social reality of language. Despite their fundamental nature, relatively little attention has been paid to language norms within sociolinguistic theorizing. They are a ubiquitous but superficially known concept in sociolinguistics. The aim of the study is to strengthen the theoretical basis of sociolinguistics, to reinforce its theoretical self-understanding and to provide conceptual clarity to discussions about language norms. As a theoretical notion, norm is challenging because of its intimate connection with fundamental metatheoretical questions. In order to get hold of normativity, it is necessary to simultaneously take a stance on the nature of language and linguistic knowledge. In an empirically oriented field like sociolinguistics, this interconnectedness is not often acknowledged, yet there are hopes that the notion would help to account for language use. The current work builds bridges between theoretical discussions and empirical work by focusing on the metatheory of social norms. The study consists of two parts: the first part provides an analysis of various (meta)theoretical approaches to normativity, and the second part develops a dialogically oriented approach to language norms. The key message of the study is the importance of an evaluative dimension in theorizing about language norms. Evaluations are an inevitable part of normativity, but often theoretical conceptualizations of norms either downplay the evaluative dimension or do not account for the diversity of perspectives in any given real-life community. The work elaborates on the evaluative dimensions by discussing attitudes, language ideologies and indexicality. As a theoretical notion, norm is helpful for empirical research only if it can assist in perceiving the social reality of language in its complexity. In order to do this, the current study considers language as a flexible resource instead of a rigid system and speakers as reflexive actors instead of talking heads. The outcome is an outline of a theory about language norms where norms are dialogical and language is embodied and socioculturally embedded.
  • Juntunen, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This dissertation surveys from an intertextual point of view the prose of Juha Seppälä (born in 1956). The aim is to demonstrate that Seppälä s realistic depictions of contemporary Finnish life are full of allusions to earlier literature and mythological stories. The thesis interprets Seppälä s work in its intertextual context and shows how intertextuality makes it dialogical, even ambivalent. Theoretically and methodologically, the thesis connects modern allusion studies with a structuralism-based analysis of the textual frames of reference. Intertextual allusions are treated as meaningful references which form an essential part of the significance of Seppälä s texts. With the help of the concept of frame of reference, numerous intertexts can be studied at the same time to determine their common themes and various meanings in the context of the alluding text. The study focuses on two short stories, Taivaanranta (1987) and Pääsiäinen (1989), as well as two novels, "Hyppynaru" (1990) and "Yhtiökumppanit" (2002). All four works depict a protagonist proceeding up a blind alley. Different kinds of misfortunes and failures lead each protagonist into a desperate situation, for which radical actions are necessary. The outcome is usually tragic, but also puzzling in one way or another. The reader is left wondering what really happened and why. The texts allow room for alternative interpretations with regard to the motives of the protagonists. Different interpretations usually imply opposing moral stances towards the action. The hypothesis is that the two central characteristics of Seppälä s texts, intertextuality and sense of enigma, are connected. The analyses show that missing answers to the enigmas posed by the texts are to be found in intertexts dealing with reminiscent themes. Even so, the intertexts and therefore also the answers are always numerous, and the ambivalence cannot be explained away. The dialogue between the texts is open-ended.
  • Tuomela, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The aim of this intellectual historical study is to examine the views of the later Stoics Seneca the Younger, Musonius Rufus, Epictetus, Hierocles and Marcus Aurelius on the sameness of the virtues of man and woman, a question which gives a very non-anachronistic perspective on sameness, otherness, equality and inequality in Greek and Roman thinking. Other authors and material discussing women s virtues are used as an ideological background and context. The basis of the study consists of two thoughts found in Stoicism since its beginning: that the individual virtues are common to all human beings and that virtue as such is natural and possible to all. It is obvious that these two thoughts can be found also in the later Stoics, discussed most intentionally and consistently by Musonius who also most unambiguously equates woman with human being . Thus, even bravery is not a masculine but a human virtue, and the sameness of man and woman does not mean that a woman becomes "masculine", but their sameness is based on their common (rational) humanhood. Equality resulting from sameness is especially in Musonius not only theoretical but also practical in a wider sense and on a larger scale than usual, above all in the division of tasks, whereas Seneca, advocating many traditional ideals, constructs the gender of women mostly very conservatively and even reacts negatively to contemporary changes in women s social/societal roles and spheres. He also refers to women s emotional "weakness", but does not see it as specific only to women and seems to be convinced that women, too, can overcome it and be (at least in principle) equal in virtue - emphasising thus, after all, the fundamental sameness rather than otherness of women. The views of the later Stoics provide a rather exceptional and ungendered perspective on individual virtues, capacity for virtue and philosophical education, as well as on sameness, otherness, equality and inequality, and what is "masculine", "feminine" or "human". Thus, their views are also an important contribution to discussions of who a "full" human being is, in an era when a "human being" was in the first place a (free) man.
  • Kirvesmäki, Arja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Expressing generalized-personal meaning in Russian Based on data from Russian, this doctoral dissertation examines generalized-personal meaning that is, generic expressions referring to all human beings, people in general, each or any person (e.g. S vozrastom načinae cenit prostye ve či With age you start to appreciate simple things ). The study shares its basic theoretical orientation with functional approaches going from meaning to form . The objective of the thesis is to determine and describe the various linguistic means which can be used by the speaker to express generalized-personal meaning. The main material of the study consists of 2,000 examples collected from modern Russian literature, newspapers, and magazines. The linguistic means of expressing generalized-personal meaning are divided into three main classes. Morphological and lexico-grammatical means (22% of the material) include the use of personal pronouns and personal verbal endings. In Russian, all personal forms except the 3rd person singular can be used in a generalized-personal meaning. Lexical means (14% of the material) involve, above all, pronouns like vse all , ka dyj everyone , nikto no one , as well as the nouns čelovek man and ljudi people . In emotional speech, generalized-personal meaning can also be conveyed lexically by using utterances like da e idiot znaet even an idiot knows . In rhetorical questions the pronoun kto who can appear in this meaning (cf. Kto ne ljubit moro enoe?! Who doesn t like ice cream?! ). The third main class, syntactic means (64% of the material), consists of constructions in which the generic person is not expressed at the surface level. This class mainly includes two-component structures in which the infinitive relates to a modal predicative adverb (e.g. mo no can, be allowed to , nado must ), modal verb (e.g. stoit be worth(while) , sleduet must, be obliged to ), or predicative adverb ending in -о (e.g. trudno it is hard to , neprilično is not appropriate ). Other syntactic means are: one-component infinitive structures, so-called embedded structures, structures with a processual noun, passive constructions, and gerund constructions. The different forms of expression available in Russian are not interchangeable in all contexts. Even if a given context tolerates the substitution of one construction for another, the two expressions are never entirely synonymous. In addition to determining the range of forms which can express generalized-personal meaning, the study aims to compare these forms and to specify the conditions and possible restrictions (contextual, semantic, syntactic, stylistic, etc.) associated with the use of each construction. In Russian linguistics, the generalized-personal meaning has not been extensively studied from a functional perspective. The advantage of a meaning-based functional approach is that it gives a comprehensive picture of the diversity and distribution of the phenomenon.
  • Broemer, Marlene (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Important modernists in their own countries, Anna Akhmatova and Edith Södergran are compared in this dissertation as poets whose poetry reflects the climactic events of the early twentieth century in Finland and Russia. A comparatist, biographical and historical approach is used to uncover the circumstances surrounding these events. First the poets’ early works are reviewed and their contemporaries are mentioned to provide a poetic context. Then a brief review of Finnish and Russian history situates them historically. Next, the rich literary diversity of St. Petersburg’s Silver Age is presented and the work of the poets is viewed in context before their poetry is compared, as the First World War, October Revolution and subsequent Finnish Civil War impact their writing. While biography is not the primary focus, it becomes important as inevitably the writers’ lives are changed by cataclysmic events and the textual analysis of the poems in Swedish, Russian and English shows the impact of war on their poetry. These two poets have not been compared before in a critical review in English and this work contributes to needed work in English. They share certain common modernist traits: attention to the word, an intimate, unconventional voice, and a concern with audience. In addition, they both reject formal traditions while they adopt new forms and use modern, outside influences such as art, architecture and philosophy as subject matter and a lens through which to focus their poetry. While it may seem that Anna Akhmatova was the most socially aware poet, because of the censorship she endured under Stalin, my research has revealed that actually Edith Södergran showed the most social consciousness. Thus, a contrast of the poets’ themes reveals these differences in their approaches. Both poets articulated a vibrant response to war and revolution becoming modernists in the process. In their final works created in the years before their deaths, they reveal the solace they found in nature as well as final mentions of the violent events of their youth. Keywords: St. Petersburg, Modernism, Symbolism, Acmeism, Silver Age, Finland-Swedish literature
  • Pirinen, Tommi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation is a large-scale study of spell-checking and correction using finite-state technology. Finite-state spell-checking is a key method for handling morphologically complex languages in a computationally efficient manner. This dissertation discusses the technological and practical considerations that are required for finite-state spell-checkers to be at the same level as state-of-the-art non-finite-state spell-checkers. Three aspects of spell-checking are considered in the thesis: modelling of correctly written words and word-forms with finite-state language models, applying statistical information to finite-state language models with a specific focus on morphologically complex languages, and modelling misspellings and typing errors using finite-state automata-based error models. The usability of finite-state spell-checkers as a viable alternative to traditional non-finite-state solutions is demonstrated in a large-scale evaluation of spell-checking speed and the quality using languages with morphologically different natures. The selected languages display a full range of typological complexity, from isolating English to polysynthetic Greenlandic with agglutinative Finnish and the Saami languages somewhere in between.
  • Lindfors, Anne-Marie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Abstract This study investigates the translation of anglophone West African novels in Finland. It addresses the question of what happens to the linguistic and cultural hybridity present in the source texts when these are translated into Finnish. Anglophone West African novels often contain words borrowed from local African languages as well as unfamiliar cultural features and nonstandard language varieties, which can be called africanised English. The writers of these texts bend the language of the ex-colonisers to add local colour to their texts and to make the language better express local life. In addition, the use of africanised English may aim at weakening the hegemonic position of English, dismantling the colonial structures in the former colonies and changing the old stereotypes about Africa, i.e. it may have political and ideological functions. Thus far, fifteen anglophone West African novels have been translated into Finnish. The material of the study consists of twelve of these, nine from Nigeria and three from Ghana, and their translations into Finnish. The selected novels were written by nine authors, translated by nine different translators and published in Finland between 1963 and 2010. My hypothesis was that africanised English in hybrid West African novels has been normalised at least to a certain extent in the target texts, as there are no corresponding language varieties in Finnish, and also because the normalisation of linguistic and cultural difference is a general trend in translation practice. The linguistic and cultural details of African source texts and the translation of these features into Finnish have not received much attention in Finland before this study. The method of analysis was descriptive and comparative. I first studied what authorial techniques anglophone West African writers used to africanise their texts, after which pairs of target-text solutions and source-text problems were extracted and the translation relationships between them described. The texts were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively, with a view to discovering general patterns in the relationships which would make it possible to establish the concepts of translation and to speculate on the nature of the norms that have governed the translating of the texts. The period of 47 years covered by my material was expected to make it possible to detect changes that may have taken place in Finnish translation practice and norms. Contrary to my expectation, the results of the analysis show that the translators of the twelve texts were inclined to retain the hybridity present in the source texts (foreignisation), but it was also observed that more recent target texts showed a trend towards less marked renderings (domestication). Both translation approaches have their problems: foreignised target texts may be considered uninteresting and even incomprehensible by target readers, while domesticated translations may affect the functions of the postcolonial source texts by maintaining the prevailing attitudes towards Africa that circulate in the target culture.
  • Sykäri, Venla (Finnish Literary Society, 2011)
    Words as Events introduces the tradition of short, communicative rhyming couplets, the mantinádes, which are still sung and recited in a variety of performance situations on the island of Crete. The local focus on communicative economy and artistry is further examined in an in-depth analysis of the processes and ideals of composition. Short genres of oral poetry have been widely neglected in folklore research; however, their demand for structural and semantic coherence as well as their dialogic nature appeals to very different human needs from those of the longer poems. In contemporary Crete, poems also appear in written contexts, they are submitted to modern mass media, and people widely exchange them as text messages. By striving to understand the tradition during a period of change, this study analyzes the larger principles that ground the communication, self-expression and creativity in the genre. The aim of this research is thus twofold: to present this specific register of dialogic oral poetry as well as to create a theoretical approach sensitive to the creativity of such short registers. The study is based on long-term ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Crete between the years 1997 2009. An important aspect of the methodology was to create long-term ties with a number of key-informants who composed mantinádes. The interdisciplinary theoretical and methodological basis for this analysis is in the contemporary Finnish and international research on oral poetry and on anthropological research on communicative speech genres. These theoretical insights are extended by addressing questions of spontaneity and individual agency. Since mantinádes are at the same time a model for composition and a reserve of poems in fixed form, the aesthetics and objectives of performance and composition are also plural. In a traditional singing event, the basic motivation for the singers is to provide a meaningful contribution to a selected theme, which is the shared topic of the poetic dialogue. Consequently, similar topics giving rise to poetic associations can be encountered during various moments of everyday life: the dialogic nature is embodied in the tradition to such degree that it also arises in the performances and composition of single poems and outside of any institutionalized performance arenas. Therefore, as this study discusses in detail, even the apparently non-contextualized poems recited between locals or occurring in the contemporary mass media arenas, are understood and evaluated as utterances that provide an individual perspective within a certain dialogue.
  • Lindén, Krister (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
    The work is based on the assumption that words with similar syntactic usage have similar meaning, which was proposed by Zellig S. Harris (1954,1968). We study his assumption from two aspects: Firstly, different meanings (word senses) of a word should manifest themselves in different usages (contexts), and secondly, similar usages (contexts) should lead to similar meanings (word senses). If we start with the different meanings of a word, we should be able to find distinct contexts for the meanings in text corpora. We separate the meanings by grouping and labeling contexts in an unsupervised or weakly supervised manner (Publication 1, 2 and 3). We are confronted with the question of how best to represent contexts in order to induce effective classifiers of contexts, because differences in context are the only means we have to separate word senses. If we start with words in similar contexts, we should be able to discover similarities in meaning. We can do this monolingually or multilingually. In the monolingual material, we find synonyms and other related words in an unsupervised way (Publication 4). In the multilingual material, we ?nd translations by supervised learning of transliterations (Publication 5). In both the monolingual and multilingual case, we first discover words with similar contexts, i.e., synonym or translation lists. In the monolingual case we also aim at finding structure in the lists by discovering groups of similar words, e.g., synonym sets. In this introduction to the publications of the thesis, we consider the larger background issues of how meaning arises, how it is quantized into word senses, and how it is modeled. We also consider how to define, collect and represent contexts. We discuss how to evaluate the trained context classi?ers and discovered word sense classifications, and ?nally we present the word sense discovery and disambiguation methods of the publications. This work supports Harris' hypothesis by implementing three new methods modeled on his hypothesis. The methods have practical consequences for creating thesauruses and translation dictionaries, e.g., for information retrieval and machine translation purposes. Keywords: Word senses, Context, Evaluation, Word sense disambiguation, Word sense discovery.
  • Nykänen, Elise (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Abstract This study examines the narrative tools, techniques, and structures that Marja-Liisa Vartio, a classic of Finnish post-war modernism, used in presenting fictional minds in her narrative prose. The study contributes to the academic discussion on formal and thematic conventions of modernism by addressing the ways in which fictional minds work in interaction, and in relation to the enfolding fictional world. The epistemic problem of how accurately the world, the self, and the other can be known is approached by analyzing two co-operating ways of portraying fictional minds, both from external and internal perspectives. The external perspective relies on detachment and emotional restraint dominating in Vartio’s early novels Se on sitten kevät and Mies kuin mies, tyttö kuin tyttö. The internal perspective pertains to the mental processes of self-reflection, speculation, and excessive imagining that gain more importance in her later novels Kaikki naiset näkevät unia, Tunteet and Hänen olivat linnut. In the theoretical chapter of this study, fictional minds are discussed in the context of the acclaimed inward turn of modernist fiction, by suggesting alternative methods for reading modernist minds as embodied, emotional, and social entities. In respect to fictional minds’ interaction, this study elaborates on the ideas of “mind-reading,” “intersubjectivity,” and the “social mind” established within post-classical cognitive narratology. Furthermore, it employs possible world poetics when addressing the complexity, incompleteness, and (in)accessibility of characters’ private worlds of knowledge, beliefs, emotions, hallucinations, and dreams. In regards to the emotional emplotment of fictional worlds, this study also benefits from affective narratology as well as the cognitive plot theory. As the five analysis chapters of this study show, fictional minds in Vartio’s fiction are not only introspective, solipsist, and streaming, but also embodied and social entities. Fictional minds’ (inter)actions are demonstrated as evolving from local experientiality to long-term calculations that turn emotional incidents into episodes, and episodes into stories. The trajectories of female self-discovery in Vartio’s novels are analyzed through the emotional responses of characters: their experiences of randomness, their ways of counterfactualizing their traumatic past, their procrastinatory or akratic reactions or indecisiveness. The gradual move away from the percepts of the external world to the excessive imaginings and (mis)readings of other minds (triggered by the interaction of worlds and minds), challenges the contemporary and more recent accounts of modernism both in Finnish and international contexts.
  • Alanko-Kahiluoto, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Maurice Blanchot (1907-2003), the French writer and novelist, is one of the most important figures in post-war French literature and philosophy. The main intention of this study is to figure out his position and originality in the field of phenomenology. Since this thesis concentrates on the notion of vision in Blanchot s work, its primary context is the post-war discussion of the relation between seeing and thinking in France, and particularly the discussion of the conditions of non-violent vision and language. The focus will be on the philosophical conversation between Blanchot and his contemporary philosophers. The central premise is the following: Blanchot relates the criticism of vision to the criticism of the representative model of language. In this thesis, Blanchot s definition of literary language as the refusal to reveal anything is read as a reference pointing in two directions. First, to Hegel s idea of naming as negativity which reveals Being incrementally to man, and second, to Heidegger s idea of poetry as the simultaneity of revealing and withdrawal; the aim is to prove that eventually Blanchot opposes both Hegel s idea of naming as a gradual revelation of the totality of being and Heidegger s conception of poetry as a way of revealing the truth of Being. My other central hypothesis is that for Blanchot, the criticism of the privilege of vision is always related to the problematic of the exteriority. The principal intention is to trace how Blanchot s idea of language as infinity and exteriority challenges both the Hegelian idea of naming as conceptualizing things and Heidegger s concept of language as a way to truth (as aletheia). The intention is to show how Blanchot, with his concepts of fascination, resemblance and image, both affirms and challenges the central points of Heidegger s thinking on language. Blanchot s originality in, and contribution to, the discussion about the violence of vision and language is found in his answer to the question of how to approach the other by avoiding the worst violence . I claim that by criticizing the idea of language as naming both in Hegel and Heidegger, Blanchot generates an account of language which, since it neither negates nor creates Being, is beyond the metaphysical opposition between Being and non-Being.
  • Paal, Piret (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Since the second half of the 20th century, cancer has become a dominant disease in Western countries, endangering people regardless of age, gender, race or social status. Every year almost eight million people die of cancer worldwide. In Finland every fourth person is expected to fall ill with cancer at some stage of his or her life. During the 20th century, along with rapid changes in the medical system, people s awareness of cancer has increased a great deal. This has also influenced the image of cancer in popular discourse over the past decades. However, from the scientific point of view there is still much that is unclear about the disease. This thesis shows that this is a big problem for ordinary people, as, according to culture-bound illness ideology, people need an explanation about the origin of their illness in order to help them cope. The main aim of this thesis is to examine the process of being ill with cancer from the patient s point of view, in order to analyse attitudes and behaviour towards cancer and its significance and culture-bound images. This narrative-based study concentrates on patients voicings , which are important in understanding the cancer experience and when attempting to make it more open within current cultural and societal settings. The Kun sairastuin syöpään ( when I fell ill with cancer ) writing competition organised by Suomen Syöpäpotilaat ry (the Finnish Cancer Patients Association), Suomen Syöpäyhdistys ry (the Finnish Cancer Union), and Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran kansanrunousarkisto (the Finnish Literary Society Folklore Archive) was announced on the 1st of May 1994 and lasted until the 30th of September 1994. As a result, a total of 672 cancer narratives, totalling 6384 pages, were received, filled with experiences relating to cancer. Written cancer narratives form a body of empirical data that is suitable for content or textual analysis. In this thesis, content analysis is adopted in order to become familiar with the texts and to preselect the themes and analytical units for further examination. I use multiple perspectives in order to interpret cancer patients ideas and reasoning. The ethnomedical approach unites popular health beliefs that originated in Finnish folk medicine, as well as connecting alternative medicine, which patients make use of, with biomedicine, the dominant form of medicine today. In addition to this, patients narratives, which are composed of various structural segments, are approached from the folklorist s perspective. In this way they can be seen as short pathographies, reconstructions of self-negotiation and individual decision making during the illness process. Above all, cancer patients writing describe their feelings, thoughts and experiences. Factors that appear insignificant to modern medicine, overwhelmed as it is by medical technologies that concentrate on dysfunctional tissue within diseased bodies. Ethnomedical study of cancer patients writings gives access to the human side of cancer discourse, and combines both medical, and popular, knowledge of cancer. In my view, the natural world and glimpses of tradition are bound together with one general aim within cancer narratives: to tackle the illness and mediate its meanings. Furthermore, the narrative approach reveals that participants write with the hope of offering a different interpretation of the cancer experience, and thus of confronting culturally pre-defined images and ideologies.