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  • Munck, Pirjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    From Enlighteners to Professionals. Finnish Journalists Long Road from 1771 to 1921 The From Enlighteners to Professionals research presents a new interpretation of the professionalization process of the Finnish journalists from the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. According to the research, the journalist occupation was professionalised much earlier than has been presented in previous studies. This interpretation of Finnish journalists professionalization is based on exploring professional co-operation, the structural changes of the profession and the development of journalistic culture. The evaluation is made in the economic, political and social contexts. The important part of the research is a socio-economic examination of Finnish journalism between 1771 and 1921. The development of newspaper work into a profession began in Finland in the second half of the 19th century. The professionalization process followed in the footsteps of Nordic colleagues, especially Swedish journalists. The research focuses on the changes in the social position of journalists and the different defensive strategies the profession used to improve its position. The most effective strategy to improve the occupation s social status was the foundation of professional organisations. The Finnish journalists organized six national congresses between 1876-1900 and founded their first professional organisation, the Finnish Association of Journalists. Between 1905 and 1920, professional co-operation developed into political journalist associations and in 1921 the journalists established a national trade association, the Union of Journalists in Finland. Participating in journalists international co-operation was also an important part of the Finnish journalists professionalization process. The number of Finnish journalists increased rapidly from the second half of the 19th century. There were over 2,000 people who worked at Finnish newspapers as journalists or contributors between 1771 and 1921. The increase in the number of professional journalists escalated the professionalization and affected the organisation of professional co-operation. The relationship between journalists and political parties was very close in Finland at the beginning of the 20th century. This connection was highly accepted and political commitment was not considered an obstacle to execute the public duty of journalists. Keywords: journalists, journalistic profession, professionalization, journalist organisation, journalism, Finnish Association of Journalists, Union of Journalists in Finland, International Union of Press Associations.
  • Lintonen, Kati (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Photographized nature I. K. Inha s work as a signification of nature The dissertation examines, through the work of the Finnish photographer and writer I. K. Inha (formerly Konrad Into Nyström) (1865 1930), the different ways in which the signification of nature is achieved. The principal material consists of Inha s work from 1890 to 1925, from which a number of photographs and texts are considered and upon which the photographization of nature is contemplated. The dissertation addresses the issue of how nature is conceived and how the act of photographizing it can be defined. The methodical context of the study is composed of three thematic baskets that structure the material and which consist of narrations on Finnish national perception, nature conservation and understanding the world. In the first case nature is seen as the natural environment encompassing lakes, seashores, forests, and hills, which at the time were often perceived from a utilitarian viewpoint. By the photographization they generated a pictorial narrative that could be shared. The natural environment was thus turned into landscape by means of photography, following the global pictorial concepts picturesque and sublime, as well as the national canons that had been developed in literature and the visual arts. In the narrations concerning nature conservation, the photographization did not merely occur within the limits of presuppositions, but rather nature was given the opportunity to unfold itself. While the photograph was being established as a basis for supporting nature conservation or to highlight the destruction of nature at the hand of Man, an attempt was made to represent subjects that were difficult to convey in photographs, such as nature s power or the miracle of growth. The thesis suggests, that in the third case the concept of nature broke away from its strict interconnection with the natural environment and led to a contemplation of nature that is perceivable in a person. In this context the photograph and the photographization are interpreted as an attempt to understand a person and his or her very existence in the world, while this same existential wonder is seen as being embodied in Inha s portrait of a rune singer and in his photographs of forest interior and water. Further, the thesis asks whether photographing nature could be interpreted as an action similar to the idea of the phenomenological reduction as a means of bypassing the photographer s prevailing way of being.
  • Saraste, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Danielsbacka, Mirkka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Captors of Prisoners of War. The Psychology of the Human Species, Soviet Prisoners of War and Finland, 1941 1944. This study explores the treatment of Soviet prisoners of war during the Continuation war (1941 1944) fought between Finland and the Soviet Union. The study focuses especially on the mass deaths of Soviet POWs at the hands of Finns and the Finnish POW administration s handling of this crisis. During the Continuation war, Finland captured at least 67,000 Soviet POWs, of which at least 19,000 and probably over 22,000 (i.e. about one third) died. In terms of the death rate of POWs, Finland was closer to totalitarian regimes Germany, Soviet Union and Japan than to other democratic countries such as the UK or USA. Finns captured most of its POWs in the autumn of 1941, and most of the POWs who died perished in the winter of 1941 1942. In most cases, the cause of death was malnutrition. POWs suffered undernourishement mainly because the Finns overworked them and provided them too little food. In addition the poor hygiene and crowding in POW camps exacerbated the spread of infectious diseases. In the exceptionally cold winter the infectious diseases proved fatal to the poorly clothed and underfed POWs. Despite the mass deaths of POWs, memories persist of POWs in Finland who worked on Finnish farms and received reasonably good treatment. This memory knowledge also endures because POWs working in farmhouses were more likely to survive than those working in other workplaces or camps. The basic research questions of this study are: Why did so many Soviet prisoners of war die in Finnish custody during the Continuation war? Why did Finland depart so far from other Western democracies in its treatment of POWs? Why was the treatment of POWs at the hands of Finns so ambivalent? The National Archives of Finland s database of the death POWs is the most important source of the number of Soviet POW deaths during the Continuation war. In addition, I use as a source material the administrative correspondence between departements who were in charge of POW administration, the personal archives of persons in touch with the handling of the POW affairs, and the reports of the inspectors of the POW camps. I argue that to fully understand the reasons for the treatment of POWs, we must observe the phenomenon as an interaction of the psychology of the human species and the culture of wartime Finland. Thus, the theoretical framework of this study is based on evolutionary psychology and social psychology. The main concepts relating to human psychological predispositions are self-deception, the diffusion of responsibility, the bystander effect, categorization tendency, dehumanization, xenophobia, ethnocentrism, empathy, sympathy and reciprocity. This study shows that the psychological predispositions of the human mind especially the predisposition to self-deception and dehumanization make understandable the development of the mass deaths of Soviet POWs and the fact that the Finns took so long to respond to the appalling situation. In addition, I identify the restraints required to render the circumstances of POWs humane, the most important of which were those which motivated the Finns to keep the POWs alive. The main motivating factors were Finland s reputation as a civilized nation, the prolongation of the war together with the weakened belief that Germany would win the war, and the labor needs of local employers. The study also finds that those Finns who were in personal contact with POWs usually treated them fairly well due to the human capacity for empathy and the sympathetic need to help others that stems from either moral anger or reciprocity.
  • Rennicke, Iiris (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The main objective of this dissertation is to describe the current state and classhood of rhotics in the Minas Gerais variety of Brazilian Portuguese (BP), explore the factors behind sound change, and discuss the direction of change. The hypothesis is that changes in various subsystems of the language contribute to a general sound change trajectory, which takes place mostly through articulatory reduction and retiming in frequently used words and constructions (as predicted by Exemplar Models). Language is seen as a Complex Adaptive System that consists of several subsystems, all of which undergo change and can contribute simultaneously to gradual changes in the overall system. Semi-structured interviews and a sentence completion task with 14 speakers from southwestern Minas Gerais yielded a total of 7,765 contexts for rhotics. The rhotics of BP were found to include trills, taps, fricatives, approximants and aspirated approximants in alveolar, palatal, retroflex/bunched, uvular, and glottal places of articulation. Deletions also form a considerable part of the data. BP rhotics have followed two diverging lenition trajectories: one anterior (alveo-palatal) and one posterior (uvular and glottal). Both trajectories can ultimately lead to deletion. Factors that promote lenition include post-tonic position, adjacency to the voiceless fricative [s] and/or the high vowels [i u], and coda position which involves more lenited r-variants and deletion than any other context. Once sound change begins to generalize in these attractors, it can also spread to other r-contexts. BP rhotics are best modelled as a network of language-specific family relationships, in which chains of articulatory reductions and retimings establish diachronic connections between synchronically distant variants. As a class, rhotics are featurally, articulatorily, and phonetically unspecified, and phonetic overlap between contexts makes the contrast between r-variants incomplete. For this reason, the phonological representation of rhotics consists of fuzzy positional categories that encompass a variety of phonetic forms and that are constantly updated through language use.
  • Nakari, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This dissertation is an onomastic study of variation in women s name phrases in official documents in Finland during the period 1780−1930. The aim is to discuss from a socio-onomastic perspective both the changeover from patronymics to inherited family names and the use of surnames after marriage (i.e. whether women adopted their husbands family names or retained their maiden names), before new laws in this area entered into force in Finland in the early 20th century. In 1920, a law on family names that required fixed names put an end to the use of the patronymic as a person s only surname. After 1929, it was no longer possible for a married woman to retain her maiden name. Methodologically, to explain this development from a socio-onomastic perspective, I have based my study on a syntactic-semantic analysis of the actual name phrases. To be able to demonstrate the extensive material, I have elaborated a scheme to divide the 115 different types of name phrases into 13 main categories. The analysis of the material for Helsinki is based on frequency calculations of the different types of name phrases every thirtieth year, as well as on describing variation in the structure and semantic content of the name phrases, e.g. social variation in the use of titles and epithets. In addition to this, by applying a biographic-genealogical method, I have conducted two case studies of the usage of women s name phrases in the two chosen families. The study is based on parish registers from the period 1780−1929, estate inventory documents from the period 1780−1928, registration forms for liberty of trade from the period 1880−1908, family announcements on newspapers from the period 1829−1888, gravestones from the period 1796−1929 and diaries from the periods 1799−1801 and 1818−1820 providing a corpus of 5 950 name phrases. The syntactic-semantic analysis has revealed the overall picture of various ways of denoting women in official documents. In Helsinki, towards the end of the 19th century, the use of inherited family names seems to be almost fully developed in official contexts. At the late 19th century, a patronymic still appears as the only surname of some working-class women whereas in the early 20th century patronymics were only entered in the parish register as a kind of middle name. In the beginning of the 19th century, most married women were still registered under their maiden names, with a few exceptions among the bourgeoisie and upper class. The comparative analysis of name phrases in diaries, however, indicates that the use of the husband s family name by married women was a much earlier phenomenon in private contexts than in official documents. Keywords: socio-onomastics, syntactic-semantic analysis, name phrase, patronymic, maiden name, husband s family name
  • Kuzmin, Denis (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The dissertation investigates the settlement history of Russian Northern Karelia, i.e. White Sea Karelia (Vienan Karjala), in the light of onomastics. It consists of six articles based on linguistic material, most notably toponyms, anthroponyms, dialectal vocabulary and oral history. A considerable part of the research materials have been collected by the author in the course of field expeditions. The main methodology employed in the articles is the investigation of the spread of toponymic types in the Finnic languages. They bear witness to early population movements that cannot be investigated in the light of archaeology or historical documents. Particular toponymic models can be connected with the spread of the Karelian population from the Lake Ladoga region to the north. Other types provide evidence of a population that entered Northern Karelia from present-day Finland. Most notably, parallels in the toponymy of the Savo and Häme provinces and the area of White Sea Karelia can be found. The other main methodology used in the articles is the investigation of the substrate toponyms, i.e. analysis of toponyms that bear witness to language forms spoken earlier in a particular area. For instance, in White Sea Karelia, a notable amount of toponyms from Saami languages can be found. In the Russian-speaking White Sea coast area, in turn, a notable Finnic substrate from Karelian is discernable. Thus, there are grounds to suggest that the present linguistic areas of the investigated region have come to being relatively late and that as late as in the Middle Ages, the linguistic map of the region was considerably different. There is evidence to suggest that the Saami population in the area survived up to the 17th century. A further source of information in the dissertation is the oral history, i.e. stories and remembrances of the history of the Karelian settlements. Most of this material has never before been collected or investigated in the historical literature. Additionally, an analysis of the Karelian family names and some elements of dialectal vocabulary has been carried out in the investigation. As a result of the investigation, a large amount of new information has surfaced regarding the settlement history of the White Sea Karelia area. Most notably, the character of the Saami languages spoken in the area, the influences from the Western Finnic areas and the directions of population movements between individual settlements has been documented in greater detail than in the earlier research. The results of the investigation are thus of importance not only for Finnic linguistics, toponymic and substrate studies but also to the historical sciences.
  • Kivirinta, Marja-Terttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Eliminating the Other Helene Schjerfbeck and Juho Rissanen Constructing the field of art in the Finland of 1910 s and 1920 s The focus of this PhD thesis is on the discourses of the foreign influence and the other, and the connections with the field of modern national art in the Finland of 1910s and 1920s. I examine their discourses in connection with two artists, situated at the centre of the national art history, Helene Schjerfbeck and Juho Rissanen. This study uses the categories of gender and class to define the representations of the artist, and through that also the effects on the meaning making processes in the field of art. The main tools employed by the study are the applications of the methods to analyse art historical narratives of the monographs of the genre art and life , the ideas of the myth presented by Roland Barthes and, especially, feminist readings of art history, biographies, nationalism and modernism, as the theoretical ideas of Michel Foucault that frames the discourse analysis. The frame of the study is the field of art the 1910s and 1920s, which I analyse with the sociological model of Pierre Bourdieu. The basic materials of the study are the art and life monographs by Einar Reiter (H. Ahtela) on Helene Schjerfbeck, and Onni Okkonen on Juho Rissanen. These were published respectively in 1917 and 1927. Additionally the material consists of manuscripts, correspondence, reviews in newspapers and journals, photographs as well as art works. The result is that discourses on the foreign influences and the other are variously linked to the meaning making process and (anti)modernism in the field of art of the period that defined both art and art history and representations of the artist through the norms of (trans)nationalism. This the study demonstrates through analysing the discourses and representations of the biographies of Schjerfbeck and Rissanen as well as those of art reviews. The artist is connected with his or hers gender, class, age, body, cultural or ethnical group and language. As both of the artists are still central figures of the Finnish national Art history, some elements present them as belonging to the other. Schjerfbeck was regarded as a genius, but was always gendered with the understatement of female artist as a quite old Swedish speaking and modest living middle-class woman. Nevertheless, the subtle colour and the light in her paintings were regarded as Finnish. Representations of Juho Rissanen never failed to include his poor working class upbringing. He was presented as a Finnish-speaking man but was consigned to the role of a comical anti-hero artist dwelling in a wild rural paradise. Because Rissanen worked mainly in France within French classist and antimodernist circles some of the critics have observed foreign influences in the lightness of his paintings though he was also evaluated as the most original Finnish Artist.
  • Piippo, Irina (2012)
    Viewing norms dialogically: an action-oriented approach to sociolinguistic metatheory is a theoretically oriented sociolinguistic study of language norms. Language use, along with other forms of social life, is structured by social norms representations of appropriate and expected conduct. Norms make effective and meaningful conduct possible, and they enable us to make sense of the world around us. In other words, they are the fundamentals of the social reality of language. Despite their fundamental nature, relatively little attention has been paid to language norms within sociolinguistic theorizing. They are a ubiquitous but superficially known concept in sociolinguistics. The aim of the study is to strengthen the theoretical basis of sociolinguistics, to reinforce its theoretical self-understanding and to provide conceptual clarity to discussions about language norms. As a theoretical notion, norm is challenging because of its intimate connection with fundamental metatheoretical questions. In order to get hold of normativity, it is necessary to simultaneously take a stance on the nature of language and linguistic knowledge. In an empirically oriented field like sociolinguistics, this interconnectedness is not often acknowledged, yet there are hopes that the notion would help to account for language use. The current work builds bridges between theoretical discussions and empirical work by focusing on the metatheory of social norms. The study consists of two parts: the first part provides an analysis of various (meta)theoretical approaches to normativity, and the second part develops a dialogically oriented approach to language norms. The key message of the study is the importance of an evaluative dimension in theorizing about language norms. Evaluations are an inevitable part of normativity, but often theoretical conceptualizations of norms either downplay the evaluative dimension or do not account for the diversity of perspectives in any given real-life community. The work elaborates on the evaluative dimensions by discussing attitudes, language ideologies and indexicality. As a theoretical notion, norm is helpful for empirical research only if it can assist in perceiving the social reality of language in its complexity. In order to do this, the current study considers language as a flexible resource instead of a rigid system and speakers as reflexive actors instead of talking heads. The outcome is an outline of a theory about language norms where norms are dialogical and language is embodied and socioculturally embedded.
  • Juntunen, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This dissertation surveys from an intertextual point of view the prose of Juha Seppälä (born in 1956). The aim is to demonstrate that Seppälä s realistic depictions of contemporary Finnish life are full of allusions to earlier literature and mythological stories. The thesis interprets Seppälä s work in its intertextual context and shows how intertextuality makes it dialogical, even ambivalent. Theoretically and methodologically, the thesis connects modern allusion studies with a structuralism-based analysis of the textual frames of reference. Intertextual allusions are treated as meaningful references which form an essential part of the significance of Seppälä s texts. With the help of the concept of frame of reference, numerous intertexts can be studied at the same time to determine their common themes and various meanings in the context of the alluding text. The study focuses on two short stories, Taivaanranta (1987) and Pääsiäinen (1989), as well as two novels, "Hyppynaru" (1990) and "Yhtiökumppanit" (2002). All four works depict a protagonist proceeding up a blind alley. Different kinds of misfortunes and failures lead each protagonist into a desperate situation, for which radical actions are necessary. The outcome is usually tragic, but also puzzling in one way or another. The reader is left wondering what really happened and why. The texts allow room for alternative interpretations with regard to the motives of the protagonists. Different interpretations usually imply opposing moral stances towards the action. The hypothesis is that the two central characteristics of Seppälä s texts, intertextuality and sense of enigma, are connected. The analyses show that missing answers to the enigmas posed by the texts are to be found in intertexts dealing with reminiscent themes. Even so, the intertexts and therefore also the answers are always numerous, and the ambivalence cannot be explained away. The dialogue between the texts is open-ended.
  • Tuomela, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The aim of this intellectual historical study is to examine the views of the later Stoics Seneca the Younger, Musonius Rufus, Epictetus, Hierocles and Marcus Aurelius on the sameness of the virtues of man and woman, a question which gives a very non-anachronistic perspective on sameness, otherness, equality and inequality in Greek and Roman thinking. Other authors and material discussing women s virtues are used as an ideological background and context. The basis of the study consists of two thoughts found in Stoicism since its beginning: that the individual virtues are common to all human beings and that virtue as such is natural and possible to all. It is obvious that these two thoughts can be found also in the later Stoics, discussed most intentionally and consistently by Musonius who also most unambiguously equates woman with human being . Thus, even bravery is not a masculine but a human virtue, and the sameness of man and woman does not mean that a woman becomes "masculine", but their sameness is based on their common (rational) humanhood. Equality resulting from sameness is especially in Musonius not only theoretical but also practical in a wider sense and on a larger scale than usual, above all in the division of tasks, whereas Seneca, advocating many traditional ideals, constructs the gender of women mostly very conservatively and even reacts negatively to contemporary changes in women s social/societal roles and spheres. He also refers to women s emotional "weakness", but does not see it as specific only to women and seems to be convinced that women, too, can overcome it and be (at least in principle) equal in virtue - emphasising thus, after all, the fundamental sameness rather than otherness of women. The views of the later Stoics provide a rather exceptional and ungendered perspective on individual virtues, capacity for virtue and philosophical education, as well as on sameness, otherness, equality and inequality, and what is "masculine", "feminine" or "human". Thus, their views are also an important contribution to discussions of who a "full" human being is, in an era when a "human being" was in the first place a (free) man.
  • Kirvesmäki, Arja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Expressing generalized-personal meaning in Russian Based on data from Russian, this doctoral dissertation examines generalized-personal meaning that is, generic expressions referring to all human beings, people in general, each or any person (e.g. S vozrastom načinae cenit prostye ve či With age you start to appreciate simple things ). The study shares its basic theoretical orientation with functional approaches going from meaning to form . The objective of the thesis is to determine and describe the various linguistic means which can be used by the speaker to express generalized-personal meaning. The main material of the study consists of 2,000 examples collected from modern Russian literature, newspapers, and magazines. The linguistic means of expressing generalized-personal meaning are divided into three main classes. Morphological and lexico-grammatical means (22% of the material) include the use of personal pronouns and personal verbal endings. In Russian, all personal forms except the 3rd person singular can be used in a generalized-personal meaning. Lexical means (14% of the material) involve, above all, pronouns like vse all , ka dyj everyone , nikto no one , as well as the nouns čelovek man and ljudi people . In emotional speech, generalized-personal meaning can also be conveyed lexically by using utterances like da e idiot znaet even an idiot knows . In rhetorical questions the pronoun kto who can appear in this meaning (cf. Kto ne ljubit moro enoe?! Who doesn t like ice cream?! ). The third main class, syntactic means (64% of the material), consists of constructions in which the generic person is not expressed at the surface level. This class mainly includes two-component structures in which the infinitive relates to a modal predicative adverb (e.g. mo no can, be allowed to , nado must ), modal verb (e.g. stoit be worth(while) , sleduet must, be obliged to ), or predicative adverb ending in -о (e.g. trudno it is hard to , neprilično is not appropriate ). Other syntactic means are: one-component infinitive structures, so-called embedded structures, structures with a processual noun, passive constructions, and gerund constructions. The different forms of expression available in Russian are not interchangeable in all contexts. Even if a given context tolerates the substitution of one construction for another, the two expressions are never entirely synonymous. In addition to determining the range of forms which can express generalized-personal meaning, the study aims to compare these forms and to specify the conditions and possible restrictions (contextual, semantic, syntactic, stylistic, etc.) associated with the use of each construction. In Russian linguistics, the generalized-personal meaning has not been extensively studied from a functional perspective. The advantage of a meaning-based functional approach is that it gives a comprehensive picture of the diversity and distribution of the phenomenon.
  • Broemer, Marlene (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Important modernists in their own countries, Anna Akhmatova and Edith Södergran are compared in this dissertation as poets whose poetry reflects the climactic events of the early twentieth century in Finland and Russia. A comparatist, biographical and historical approach is used to uncover the circumstances surrounding these events. First the poets’ early works are reviewed and their contemporaries are mentioned to provide a poetic context. Then a brief review of Finnish and Russian history situates them historically. Next, the rich literary diversity of St. Petersburg’s Silver Age is presented and the work of the poets is viewed in context before their poetry is compared, as the First World War, October Revolution and subsequent Finnish Civil War impact their writing. While biography is not the primary focus, it becomes important as inevitably the writers’ lives are changed by cataclysmic events and the textual analysis of the poems in Swedish, Russian and English shows the impact of war on their poetry. These two poets have not been compared before in a critical review in English and this work contributes to needed work in English. They share certain common modernist traits: attention to the word, an intimate, unconventional voice, and a concern with audience. In addition, they both reject formal traditions while they adopt new forms and use modern, outside influences such as art, architecture and philosophy as subject matter and a lens through which to focus their poetry. While it may seem that Anna Akhmatova was the most socially aware poet, because of the censorship she endured under Stalin, my research has revealed that actually Edith Södergran showed the most social consciousness. Thus, a contrast of the poets’ themes reveals these differences in their approaches. Both poets articulated a vibrant response to war and revolution becoming modernists in the process. In their final works created in the years before their deaths, they reveal the solace they found in nature as well as final mentions of the violent events of their youth. Keywords: St. Petersburg, Modernism, Symbolism, Acmeism, Silver Age, Finland-Swedish literature
  • Pirinen, Tommi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation is a large-scale study of spell-checking and correction using finite-state technology. Finite-state spell-checking is a key method for handling morphologically complex languages in a computationally efficient manner. This dissertation discusses the technological and practical considerations that are required for finite-state spell-checkers to be at the same level as state-of-the-art non-finite-state spell-checkers. Three aspects of spell-checking are considered in the thesis: modelling of correctly written words and word-forms with finite-state language models, applying statistical information to finite-state language models with a specific focus on morphologically complex languages, and modelling misspellings and typing errors using finite-state automata-based error models. The usability of finite-state spell-checkers as a viable alternative to traditional non-finite-state solutions is demonstrated in a large-scale evaluation of spell-checking speed and the quality using languages with morphologically different natures. The selected languages display a full range of typological complexity, from isolating English to polysynthetic Greenlandic with agglutinative Finnish and the Saami languages somewhere in between.
  • Lindfors, Anne-Marie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Abstract This study investigates the translation of anglophone West African novels in Finland. It addresses the question of what happens to the linguistic and cultural hybridity present in the source texts when these are translated into Finnish. Anglophone West African novels often contain words borrowed from local African languages as well as unfamiliar cultural features and nonstandard language varieties, which can be called africanised English. The writers of these texts bend the language of the ex-colonisers to add local colour to their texts and to make the language better express local life. In addition, the use of africanised English may aim at weakening the hegemonic position of English, dismantling the colonial structures in the former colonies and changing the old stereotypes about Africa, i.e. it may have political and ideological functions. Thus far, fifteen anglophone West African novels have been translated into Finnish. The material of the study consists of twelve of these, nine from Nigeria and three from Ghana, and their translations into Finnish. The selected novels were written by nine authors, translated by nine different translators and published in Finland between 1963 and 2010. My hypothesis was that africanised English in hybrid West African novels has been normalised at least to a certain extent in the target texts, as there are no corresponding language varieties in Finnish, and also because the normalisation of linguistic and cultural difference is a general trend in translation practice. The linguistic and cultural details of African source texts and the translation of these features into Finnish have not received much attention in Finland before this study. The method of analysis was descriptive and comparative. I first studied what authorial techniques anglophone West African writers used to africanise their texts, after which pairs of target-text solutions and source-text problems were extracted and the translation relationships between them described. The texts were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively, with a view to discovering general patterns in the relationships which would make it possible to establish the concepts of translation and to speculate on the nature of the norms that have governed the translating of the texts. The period of 47 years covered by my material was expected to make it possible to detect changes that may have taken place in Finnish translation practice and norms. Contrary to my expectation, the results of the analysis show that the translators of the twelve texts were inclined to retain the hybridity present in the source texts (foreignisation), but it was also observed that more recent target texts showed a trend towards less marked renderings (domestication). Both translation approaches have their problems: foreignised target texts may be considered uninteresting and even incomprehensible by target readers, while domesticated translations may affect the functions of the postcolonial source texts by maintaining the prevailing attitudes towards Africa that circulate in the target culture.
  • Blöndal, Thorunn (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This thesis is an exploration of two interactional processes, syntactic completion and other-extension. The aim of the study is to explore what if anything triggers the use of these phenomena, to scrutinise their form and their interactional function and how they are received in the dialogue. The notion of the conversational turn and how the concept relates to the two phenomena is also discussed in the study. The thesis is based on an empirical study carried out in the framework of interactional linguistics which rests upon conversation analysis (CA) but also draws upon mainstream linguistics and has a linguistic viewpoint. The empirical data consist of 20 hours of everyday conversation from the ISTAL corpus of spoken Icelandic, recorded in the year 2000. Both completions and other-extensions show collaborative actions, which appear in the relaxed settings as found in the ISTAL data. The data analysed in the thesis consist of 53 examples of completions and 73 instances of other-extensions. In the thesis, completions fall into two categories. When the first speaker seems to be in trouble, for example searching for a name, the second speaker joins in with a candidate completion; that is what is called induced completions. The other category includes non-induced completions where no discernible trouble triggers the second speaker s action. Other-extensions also fall mainly into two categories, Supportive Actions and Checking Understanding, which show differences regarding form and interactional functions. Both in completions and in other-extensions, the second speaker only goes as far as to the next Transition Relevance Place (TRP); the two processes are never attempts to take over the conversational floor. These collaborative actions are both received in a positive way in the conversations with a few exceptions. Finally, it is argued that the conversational turn is not necessarily a production of one person. Two (or more) participants in a dialogue can produce collaborative turn sequences, which are found in completions and in one of the two main categories of other-extensions, i.e. the category of Supportive Actions. In Supporting Actions the second speaker carries on with the action initiated by the first speaker, he speaks in the same direction as the first speaker, he takes place by his side . Either his extension highlights the first speaker s words or explicates them. In the category of Checking Understanding, a different action is carried out and therefore a new turn. The second speaker faces his partner in the conversation and he directs his words to the first speaker. In this category, some obscurity is often seen in the utterance preceding the extension and by reacting as the he does, the second speaker tries to avoid that a problem will come up later in the conversation. It is therefore the directionality that separates the categories of Supporting Actions and Checking Understanding when it comes to deciding whether the first speaker s utterance and the extension should be looked at as one collaborative turn sequence or as two separate turns. When two or more speakers share their turn, they also share the conversational floor and in these instances, we can talk about a collaborative floor. The appropriate surroundings for collaboratively producing a conversational turn and sharing the floor with the other participants are in friendly conversation with people who know each other s conversational behaviour. Keywords: Icelandic conversation, interactional linguistics, conversation analysis, completion, extension, collaborative production, collaborative turn sequence, joint production.  
  • Sykäri, Venla (Finnish Literary Society, 2011)
    Words as Events introduces the tradition of short, communicative rhyming couplets, the mantinádes, which are still sung and recited in a variety of performance situations on the island of Crete. The local focus on communicative economy and artistry is further examined in an in-depth analysis of the processes and ideals of composition. Short genres of oral poetry have been widely neglected in folklore research; however, their demand for structural and semantic coherence as well as their dialogic nature appeals to very different human needs from those of the longer poems. In contemporary Crete, poems also appear in written contexts, they are submitted to modern mass media, and people widely exchange them as text messages. By striving to understand the tradition during a period of change, this study analyzes the larger principles that ground the communication, self-expression and creativity in the genre. The aim of this research is thus twofold: to present this specific register of dialogic oral poetry as well as to create a theoretical approach sensitive to the creativity of such short registers. The study is based on long-term ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Crete between the years 1997 2009. An important aspect of the methodology was to create long-term ties with a number of key-informants who composed mantinádes. The interdisciplinary theoretical and methodological basis for this analysis is in the contemporary Finnish and international research on oral poetry and on anthropological research on communicative speech genres. These theoretical insights are extended by addressing questions of spontaneity and individual agency. Since mantinádes are at the same time a model for composition and a reserve of poems in fixed form, the aesthetics and objectives of performance and composition are also plural. In a traditional singing event, the basic motivation for the singers is to provide a meaningful contribution to a selected theme, which is the shared topic of the poetic dialogue. Consequently, similar topics giving rise to poetic associations can be encountered during various moments of everyday life: the dialogic nature is embodied in the tradition to such degree that it also arises in the performances and composition of single poems and outside of any institutionalized performance arenas. Therefore, as this study discusses in detail, even the apparently non-contextualized poems recited between locals or occurring in the contemporary mass media arenas, are understood and evaluated as utterances that provide an individual perspective within a certain dialogue.
  • Lindén, Krister (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
    The work is based on the assumption that words with similar syntactic usage have similar meaning, which was proposed by Zellig S. Harris (1954,1968). We study his assumption from two aspects: Firstly, different meanings (word senses) of a word should manifest themselves in different usages (contexts), and secondly, similar usages (contexts) should lead to similar meanings (word senses). If we start with the different meanings of a word, we should be able to find distinct contexts for the meanings in text corpora. We separate the meanings by grouping and labeling contexts in an unsupervised or weakly supervised manner (Publication 1, 2 and 3). We are confronted with the question of how best to represent contexts in order to induce effective classifiers of contexts, because differences in context are the only means we have to separate word senses. If we start with words in similar contexts, we should be able to discover similarities in meaning. We can do this monolingually or multilingually. In the monolingual material, we find synonyms and other related words in an unsupervised way (Publication 4). In the multilingual material, we ?nd translations by supervised learning of transliterations (Publication 5). In both the monolingual and multilingual case, we first discover words with similar contexts, i.e., synonym or translation lists. In the monolingual case we also aim at finding structure in the lists by discovering groups of similar words, e.g., synonym sets. In this introduction to the publications of the thesis, we consider the larger background issues of how meaning arises, how it is quantized into word senses, and how it is modeled. We also consider how to define, collect and represent contexts. We discuss how to evaluate the trained context classi?ers and discovered word sense classifications, and ?nally we present the word sense discovery and disambiguation methods of the publications. This work supports Harris' hypothesis by implementing three new methods modeled on his hypothesis. The methods have practical consequences for creating thesauruses and translation dictionaries, e.g., for information retrieval and machine translation purposes. Keywords: Word senses, Context, Evaluation, Word sense disambiguation, Word sense discovery.