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Now showing items 427-431 of 431
  • Majorin, Mariikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Valency Realization in Short Excerpts of News Text. A Pragmatics-funded analysis This dissertation is a study of the so-called pragmatic valency. The aim of the study is to examine the phenomenon both theoretically by discussing the research literature and empirically based on evidence from a text corpus consisting of 218 short excerpts of news text from the German newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. In the theoretical part of the study, the central concepts of the valency and the pragmatic valency are discussed. In the research literature, the valency denotes the relation among the verb and its obligatory and optional complements. The pragmatic valency can be defined as modification of the so-called system valency in the parole, including non-realization of an obligatory complement, non- realization of an optional complement and realization of an optional complement. Furthermore, the investigation of the pragmatic valency includes the role of the adjuncts, elements that are not defined by the valency, in the concrete valency realization. The corpus study investigates the valency behaviour of German verbs in a corpus of about 1500 sentences combining the methodology and concepts of valency theory, semantics and text linguistics. The analysis is focused on the about 600 sentences which show deviations from the system valency, providing over 800 examples for the modification of the system valency as codified in the (valency) dictionaries. The study attempts to answer the following primary question: Why is the system valency modified in the parole? To answer the question, the concept of modification types is entered. The modification types are recognized using distinctive feature bundles in which each feature with a negative or a positive value refers to one reason for the modification treated in the research literature. For example, the features of irrelevance and relevance, focus, world and text type knowledge, text theme, theme-rheme structure and cohesive chains are applied. The valency approach appears in a new light when explored through corpus-based investigation; both the optionality of complements and the distinction between complements and adjuncts as defined in the present valency approach seem in some respects defective. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that the adjuncts outside the valency domain play a central role in the concrete realization of the valency. Finally, the study suggests a definition of pragmatic valency, based on the modification types introduced in the study and tested in the corpus analysis.
  • Survo, Vera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The work is devoted to the traditional embroidery of peoples of Karelia (Olonets province),primarily of the Russians, in the context of the way of life in peasant culture. The subject of the research is the traditional embroidered textile of the peoples of Karelia as a cultural and historical phenomenon. This study is based on my fieldwork trips carried out from 1986 to 2011 in the regions of the Russian North, in addition to accessing museum collections preserved in Russia and Finland. The theoretical basis was developed by the researchers, considering the ornament as a special language of culture, a symbolic way of communication, and a thing, a rite as coded ways of expressing of myth. These codes (code of objects, code of actions), along with the verbal (verbal code) express a common meaning and are in a complex relationship. Therefore, to understand the symbolism and the features of traditional existence of embroidery and ornament, the semantics of which is capable for decoding, the author uses people's knowledge, ritual practices, folklore, etc. The use of the comparative-historical method in chronological and local-regional aspect makes it possible to compare the local Russian population groups, their relationship with the Finno-Ugric peoples, as well as to reveal the regional specificity of the embroidery of Russian population of Karelia against the all-Russian ethnic group. With consideration for local features, the author considers the material, coloration, embroidery techniques and gives the classification of ornament and semantics of traditional images. The research deals with symbolic and utilitarian functions of the technological process for the preparation of decorated canvas (from flax cultivation to finished embroidery), the use of textiles in traditional ritual practices, i.e. the historical background, at the time when the embroideries existed, is presented in detail. The manufacture of embroideries is a synthesis of practical and symbolic actions, wherein the following factors are visible: the ideas of fertility, the spinning of life's yarn, visions of the afterworld, and ability to influence the general world order. The function of the handicraft was to introduce the traditional norms and values; it contains archaic traces of transitional rituals, a form of preparation for marriage. Embroidery served as means of sacralizing space, it was a kind of incantation. The canvas personified the idea of the road and transition to other world. In the changed conditions of life the symbols of folk art are able to be actualized and to recode again. Now the traditional symbols of embroidery as part of the cultural heritage of the peoples of Karelia are subject to yet another actualization and recoding, acquiring new configurations, meanings and means for their execution. Although ritual gift exchange figures prominently in Karelian traditions, certain ancestral objects (icons, cloths, etc), which would be categorized as inalienable because of their distinct sacred significance, are kept out of the giving process. Nowadays, traditions as such have a corresponding significance in the transmission of cultural memory.
  • Nenonen, Olga (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Phonetic development in Russian-Finnish bilinguals of pre-primary age The doctoral dissertation addresses the phonetic development in Russian-Finnish bilingual children of pre-primary age. The study combines qualitative and quantitative methods in the framework of child language development studies, and contrastive and contact linguistics. It also takes into account language therapy approaches. The data were collected through an articulation test specially designed for Russian and Finnish. The research is based on the results of both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. The longitudinal study observes the evidence from 6 normally developing bilingual children in a 2.5-year time period. The sample of the cross-sectional study consists of 126 children divided into three groups: (1) 46 typically developing Russian-Finnish bilinguals; (2) 40 typically developing Russian monolinguals and 20 typically developing Finnish monolinguals; and (3) 20 Russian-Finnish bilinguals with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). The participant s production of target words in the articulation test was transcribed and phonetic errors were analysed. Despite considerable individual variation in phonetic production, the findings suggest that bilinguals acquire Russian and Finnish phonetic inventories later than their monolingual pairs. The difference is visible both in the speed of acquisition and in the number and nature of errors. With regard to the nature of mispronunciation, four types of bilingual mistakes were distinguished: (1) common developmental mistakes made by bilinguals and monolinguals; (2) language-specific mistakes made by monolinguals and bilinguals, however the latter group makes considerably more mistakes, especially at an older age; (3) cross-linguistic interference mistakes caused by the differences in Russian and Finnish phonetic systems, made only by bilinguals, resembling the mistakes of second language learners; and (4) unpredictable mistakes common in bilingual normally developing and bilingual SLI children. The analysis reveals that from a longitudinal perspective, phonetic development is faster and easier for bilinguals in Finnish than in Russian. However, relatively simple Russian vocalism is acquired faster than Finnish vocalism, whereas the complex system of Russian consonants takes longer to develop than the Finnish consonant system. Furthermore, language-specific features appear to be the most problematic for acquisition. The research shows the evidence of language interaction in bilingual phonetic development, e.g. in the form of cross-language phonetic interference. As a result, some bilingual children may have either a Russian or a Finnish accent. However, this accent tends to gradually disappear.
  • Pussinen, Olga (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Olga Pussinen's study "Functionally limited Russian language: Contact varieties, variations in language consciousness and diverse communication types" reviews the phenomenon of functional limitations of the Russian language (FLRL). The author defines the bilingualism within an everyday communication system that comprises two types of languages: functionally dominant and functionally limited. The work represents a complex analysis of Russian language functional limitations inside Russia (in Mordovia) and outside of it (in the Russian-speaking diaspora of Finland). The research describes the different types of the acquisition of FLRL and different levels of their existence and usage: lexis-grammatical, cognitive-psychological and socio-pragmatic. The author analyses the findings with the data collected from the interviews and from free associative experiments. Part 1, The Transformation of FLRL linguistic levels , consists of the chapters Language used at home . Russian language as the second mother tongue: The strategy of its functioning in the Russian-speaking diaspora in Finland ; Features of the language situation and the Russian language in Mordovia ; and Key features defining the pronunciation of Russian vowels by Erzyan bilinguals . Part 2, The Transformation of the FLRL cognitive level: The balance and dynamics of a bilingual thesaurus , consists of the chapters Formation of an associative-verbal network in bilingualism (based on interaction materials between the Russian and Finnish languages) and The specificity of language consciousness formation for Russian-Finnish bilingual students . Part 3, The transformation of FLRL communicative-pragmatic usage , consists of the chapters Changes in etiquette communication in the Russian-speaking diaspora in Finland ; The types of communication failures occurring when Russian language is functionally not the first ; and The ratio of functionally dominant and functionally limited languages in a bilingual speech system .
  • Lafontaine, Juan Francisco (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    ABSTRACT The Healthy, Happy and Holy Organization (3HO) was founded in 1969 by the Indian Sikh and Yogi Harbhajan Singh Puri (1929-2004), AKA Yogi Bhajan , to spread his teachings and build a spiritual community. Since its foundation in Los Angeles, 3HO has reached many countries worldwide. Several ethnographical researchers have studied 3HO and most of these studies recognized 3HO as a part of the Sikh religion. Others have paid attention to 3HO as a New Religious Movement with New Age overtones. Some of these studies have focused on Yogi Bhajan s Kundalini Yoga and a small percentage have addressed all three constituent elements of the organization (Kundalini yoga, Sikhism, and New Age/Aquarian Age), but none have studied 3HO s experiential dimension. Thus, this study primarily concerned itself with the key experiential dimension of the organization, with the aim of identifying and describing the role that experience plays in 3HO s three-folded construction, and how a group of members of the movement deemed their experiences. The first data used for this study was the official manuals and books that have been published by the organization. This was complemented by the main data, which was gathered in interviews in a field research context with eleven 3HO members who were participating in the European Yoga Festival in France. All the material was approached through the perspective of Attributional Theory, which looks at how the notions of experience or experiences have been presented through a deeming making process. According to this approach, the findings achieved showed that experience plays a primary role in encompassing the three-folded parts of the movement. Also, 3HO gives their people the prescriptive aim to have an experience rather than believe or merely study the teachings of the founder. Thirdly, the study indicates that the attributions to the experiential dimension were based on the idea of its efficacy in order to experientially achieve a progress deemed spiritual . Similarly, the study was able to distinguish that a key encompassing notion attributed to the experiential perspective was that experience works. Ultimately, this dimension was more important than beliefs or theoretical discussions in opening the potential members to affiliate or assume an external as well as an internal involvement with the 3HO way of life.