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  • Korkiakangas, Timo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The object of this study is the case marking of the subject in early medieval charter Latin. The work explores whether and how the nominative/accusative-type morphosyntactic alignment changed into a semantically motivated (active/inactive) alignment in Late Latin before the disappearance of the case system. It is known that the accusative originally the case of the direct object extended in Late Latin to the subject function in which Classical Latin allowed only the nominative. On this basis, it has been postulated that in Late Latin the nominative/accusative contrast was (re)semanticized so that the nominative came to encode all the Agent-like arguments and the accusative all the Patient-like arguments. The study examines which semantic and syntactic factors determine the selection of the subject case in each subject/finite verb combination in the Late Latin Charter Treebank (LLCT). The LLCT is an annotated corpus of Latin charter texts (c. 200,000 words) written in Tuscany between AD 714 and 869. The central result of the study is that the Latin of the LLCT shows a semantically based morphosyntactic alignment in those parts of nominal declension where the morphological contrast between nominative- and accusative-based forms is morphophonologically intact. The following picture of intransitivity split turns up: the low-animacy subjects of the LLCT occur more often in the accusative than do the agentive high-animacy subjects. Likewise, the accusative percentage of SO subject constructions is higher than that of A/SA subject constructions. The common denominator of the examined semantic variables is likely to be the control exercised by the subject over the verbal process. Syntactic factors seem to influence the case distribution pattern as well. For example, the immediate preverbal position of the subject implies a high retention of the nominative. The immediate preverbal position of SV(O) language is a canonical subject position where the syntactic complexity measured as dependency lengths is at its lowest and the cohesion of the verbal nucleus at its highest. Thus, a by then already marked nominative form results. The control of the subject over the verbal process (semantic variable) and the cohesion of the verbal nucleus (syntactic variable) may be partly conflated, i.e., both may affect the subject case selection in certain conditions.
  • Kauppinen, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study discusses the language, especially the communicative structures, of Greek dialogue epigrams. The central research questions include: Who are the speakers? How are they identified? How does the recipient know when the speaker changes? How is the turn-division implied? What are the functions of the speakers? In the study, all the dialogue verse inscriptions are collected and divided according to typology that was created for this study and which is based on the pair structure. The most common adjacency pair of dialogue epigrams is a question answer pair, and many of the elements studied here are features of question structures, but other pairs, such as greeting pairs, are also taken into account. The dialogues contain either one adjacency pair (type 1), several of them (type 2) or longer, often narrative units that form pair-like structures (type 3). The types, their variants and features of the language characteristic of each are discussed using examples. Elements such as addresses, imperatives and particles are central to my argument, and speaker roles and pair structure variants are also discussed. Non-inscriptional epigrams are given as parallels for each type, and the mutual influence between them and the verse inscriptions is discussed using examples. The reception situation and possible performance of the epigrams is also discussed, and on the basis of various examples, it is stated that the representation of the speakers often implies the complex reception situation, part of which was most probably reading the epigram aloud. Epigraphic methods are used and combined, and the linguistic aspect brings a new perspective to epigraphic studies. The comparison of the verse inscriptions and the literary ones contributes to ongoing discussions on the epigram genre and its inscriptional counterparts. The material discussed is mainly from the Roman period, a phase less well discussed in recent epigram studies, and the study thus adds to our knowledge of the genre and the mutual influence between the post-Hellenistic verse inscriptions and non-inscriptional epigrams.
  • Vogt, Robert (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Theory and Typology of Narrative Unreliability (Theorie und Typologie narrativer Unzuverlässigkeit) „The theory of unreliable narration is obviously one of the current boom-sectors of what Manfred Jahn and Ansgar Nünning have called the ‘narratological industry’“, Tom Kindt (2008: 129) writes. In a similar vein, D’hoker and Martens (2008: 2) detect „an almost uncanny centrality and importance“of the concept in the field of narratology. Indeed, debates concerning the categorization of different forms of unreliable narration, the scope of the concept and explanation models based on different approaches enjoy wide currency. In the study, I aim to develop a theory and typology of narrative unreliability. Following McHale (1981: 185) that “[b]efore a phenomenon can be explained it must first exist for those who would explain it, which means that it must be constituted as a category with boundaries and a name“, chapter II establishes a typology of narrative unreliability. Claiming that the concept of unreliability is used in different ways in narratology, I distinguish three basic forms. First, unreliability can be understood as a trait of a homodiegetic narrator or a focalizer which manifests as a questionable account or interpretation of the events in the narrative world (ironic unreliability). Second, unreliability can be regarded as a feature of the narrative discourse which leaves open whether or not a narrator or a focalizer depicts or evaluates the narrative world in an adequate way (ambiguous unreliability). Third, unreliability can designate a feature of the narrative discourse which leads the reader astray about the actual events in the fictional world (alterated unreliability). Having defined the field of inquiry, chapter III sets out to develop a model to describe and explain these different forms of narrative unreliability. After addressing some of the theoretical stumbling blocks narratologists face when theorizing narrative unreliability in fictional works, chapters IV and V I outline how insights from literary possible-worlds and cognitive narratology might help to develop a better understanding of how readers construct fictional universes in texts featuring ironic, ambiguous, and alterated unreliability. According to literary possible-worlds theory, fictional works create their own modal system of reality which consists of a multitude of worlds. In the center of each fictional universe is the so-called ‘textual actual world’ (TAW) which is surrounded by the different characters’, focalizer’s or narrator’s mental worlds. Within this theoretical framework, narrative unreliability occurs in literary works when the narrator’s or focalizer’s mental world is in conflict with TAW. As the relations between different worlds within a fictional universe are the result of interpretative processes, I argue that the main difference between the three forms of narrative unreliability lies in the way a reader makes sense of world conflicts: how he distinguishes different worlds, how he detects conflicting worlds and how he puts conflicting worlds in a hierarchical order to determine what is fact in the fictional universe. Since „possible-world approaches do not ultimately treat fictional worlds as cognitive products and do not deal with cognitive processing“ (Semino 2003: 89), chapter V addresses the question of how a reader constructs fictional universes in unreliable narratives. By recourse to insights from cognitive science – including approaches belonging to the “information processing paradigm” as well as those belonging to the mental “disposition paradigm” – I explain how readers distinguish different worlds, detect conflicting worlds and put these into a hierarchical order. In order to illustrate the scope and variety of narrative unreliability, I discuss six British and American literary works in chapters VI to VIII. Chapter VI focuses on ironic unreliability in Charles Dickens’ David Copperfield and in Kazuo Ishiguro’s The Remains of the Day. Chapter VII analyses ambiguous unreliability in Ford Madox Ford’s The Good Soldier and in Bret Easton Ellis’ American Psycho. Ambrose Bierce’s “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” and Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club serve as examples of alterated unreliable narration (chapter VIII). In chapter IX, I discuss the metacognitive dimension of narrative unreliability. Assuming that „[narratives] operat[e] as an instrument of mind in the construction of reality“ (Bruner 1991: 6), I claim that narrative unreliability highlights and reflects cognitive processing of a narrator, of a focalizer, or of a reader in different ways. While ironic unreliability puts the emphasis on the idiosyncratic ways of world-making of a cognitive center (either of a homodiegetic narrator or of a focalizer), alterated unreliability with its surprising plot twist stimulates readers to go backwards and monitor how he or she was led down a garden path. I analyse Ian McEwan’s Atonement to demonstrate that the characters’ (mistaken) attempts to construct reality (ironic-unreliable focalization) is mirrored by the reader’s mistaken reconstruction of the facts and events in the fictional world (alterated-unreliable narration). The study concludes with a summary of the most important insights and a brief reflection on how the theory can be applied to other media such as film, comics or video games (chapter X).
  • Klein, Ottilie ([according to German regulations a publication prior to the public examination is not permitted], 2015)
    The doctoral thesis investigates the cultural function of dramatic narratives of female murder. For this purpose, the study offers textual analyses of plays that feature female murder as a central event. Paying close attention to each play s plot, form, and dramaturgy, the study seeks to attach meaning to the dramatic function of women s homicidal action. The survey of women who kill in modern American drama that is at the heart of the study covers a seventy-year span (1910s - 1980s) that allows a mapping out of continuities and transitions in dramatizations of female murder. Given the politically charged nature of the figure of the female murderer, the study argues that there are two types of narratives of female murder in modern American drama (and beyond): one that uses women s homicidal action as a mechanism to create disorder at the level of plot to ultimately contain women s lethal threat by re-establishing order and thereby reinforcing dominant ideology, so-called narratives of containment; and one that exploits the ideologically disruptive potential of the female murderer to comment on social ills or to dismantle ideological contradictions, so-called lethal performances. The study concludes that the cultural function of narratives of female murder is intricately connected with the cultural and historical moment from which they emerge and the type of narrative they respond to.
  • Ylivuori, Soile (2015)
    My doctoral dissertation examines the complex relationship of gender construction and politeness in eighteenth-century England. It contributes to a vibrant field of historical research, examining politeness as an intellectual and cultural construct that was used to create individual and group identity. The study combines intellectual and cultural-historical methods with poststructuralist gender studies; through this interdisciplinary methodology, my goal is to introduce a novel approach to the historical research of politeness traditionally reluctant to utilise theoretical apparatuses as an aid of analysis and to suggest that such methods provide fruitful new readings of politeness and its intersection with gender, thus opening up new areas of research. The dissertation is divided into two parts. In the first part, I analyse politeness as a disciplinary practice that produced polite femininity defined in terms of softness, gracefulness, and modesty by regulating the movements and appearances of individuals bodies. This analysis is based on a wide selection of printed source material, such as conduct books, periodicals, sermons, and novels. My main argument is that the female body had a central role in the construction of normative polite femininity, both on a discursive and an individual level. Women of the social elite were urged to internalise a gendered polite identity by exercising and disciplining their bodies to meet the norms of polite femininity deemed natural despite the fact that within the heterogeneous politeness discourse, there was no consensus on what these natural norms exactly were. Moreover, I want to suggest that the ambiguous position of the body as both the means through which an identity is produced and worked on, as well as the allegedly truthful and unerring indicator of an individual s level of polite ideality created a fundamental conflict within the culture of politeness, forcing women into hypocritical positions in practice while simultaneously advocating honesty as the essential emblem of femininity. However, seeing politeness solely as a disciplinary regime provides a one-sided understanding of politeness, since it ignores individual subjectivity. Therefore, the second part of my dissertation examines the journals and letters of four eighteenth-century elite women Catherine Talbot, Mary Delany, Elizabeth Montagu, and Fanny Burney and looks at how these women dealt with the discursive ideals and demands imposed upon them. I argue that individuals had a complex relationship with discursive ideality, and that politeness was not solely a disciplinary regime that lorded over women s behaviour and identity. The profound heterogeneity of the culture of politeness gave, in itself, individuals some freedom of movement within it. More importantly, individuals engaged in specific strategies, or techniques of the self, in order to gain freedom from and within the restrictive norms of polite femininity. These strategies can be seen as clever utilisations of some of the central aspects of politeness with a subversive intent. They concentrate on challenging and redefining the naturalised formulations regarding authenticity, identity, femininity, and politeness, and include such practices as self-discipline, multiplicity of identity, play between exterior and interior, and hypocrisy.
  • Donner, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines the formation of the domestic garden in Finland 1870-1930. The purpose is to open new perspectives into how gardens, especially domestic gardens, served as a tool in building of the new nation and at the same time to explore the role of women in the process. The study is based on biographical material concerning Aino Sibelius (1871-1969) and her garden in Ainola, Järvenpää and the garden writing of Jenny Elfving (1870-1950), a teacher and prominent actor in the field of horticulture. Contemporary garden literature and articles in newspapers and magazines also served as material for this inquiry. Popular enlightenment was an essential part of the project of nation building. The notion of gardening as a tool for improving the people became one of its topics and spread widely in Finland in the last decades of the 19th century. A new type of garden for the people took shape in the popular garden literature that was published by the end of the century. This discussion links homes, gardens and women together. The analysis of Jenny Elfving´s and Aino Sibelius´s agency shows that women played vital role in the formation of the domestic garden. By hoeing and weeding, planting and tending, writing and teaching these two women defined the garden´s physical and intellectual boundaries. Their work in and for the gardens formed and reflected meanings that society assigned to gardens. Through this process the vegetable patch intended as the place for women, grew into a domestic garden, which became associated with the tools of craft and design, utility and beauty and feelings as well as the work done in the garden.
  • Savtschenko, Ritva (omakustanne, 2015)
    Summary The study takes a look at the factors that influenced the operating culture of the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK) during the first decade of incomes policy from the point of view of corporatism. The effects of the corporatist system are studied from the perspective of co-operation, resistance and democracy. The theoretical part looks at the relationship between the theory of corporatism and the trade union movement. The empirical part looks at the effect of the corporatist system on the collective labor agreement negotiations over the decades. From business, the study looks at the actions of Elinkeinoelämän valtuuskunta (EVA) and the Central Organization of Finnish Employers (STK), and from the political parties, of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) and the Communist Party of Finland / Finnish People s Democratic League (SKP/SKDL), whose goals were tangential to those of SAK. Factors that have been highlighted as having internally affected the unified SAK are the problems with the operating cultures of two different political groups. Conflicts were caused particularly by the countless unauthorized strikes of the early 1970 s, whose causes may be studied as consequences of structural change, heavy inflation or resistance to incomes policy. In terms of SAK s basic program of 1971, the corporatist system caused problems in the implementation of member democracy. Politically, SAK was divided in two. Trade union Social Democrats were oriented towards social policy reforms like their Nordic counterparts. The People s Democrats were effectively shut out of the negotiation system, and their operation had syndicalist characteristics. The change in the internal relations developed during the latter half of the decade through the labor parties collaboration in the national government. SAK was considered to be a strong player in society, and labor market solutions were considered to have bypassed the authority of the parliament. The recession at the end of the 1970 s revealed that SAK s solutions were dictated by government policy. The view that the operation of labor parties was directed by the trade union movement proved to be wrong.
  • Reenkola, Kaarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    I WANT TO ACT FOR MY COUNTRY Heikki Renvall as a mediator of transnational cultural phenomena and ideas in early 20th century Europe This dissertation focuses on Heikki Renvall s (1872-1955) role as a mediator of transnational cultural and political phenomena in early 20th-century Europe. As a national economist, he was paying attention to the factors of social reform. As one of the leaders of the political group called the Young Finns, he was able to carry out his political as well as his cultural ambitions. The aim of the dissertation is to explore which nation-building social and cultural elements Renvall was involved in and influenced by in terms of the more advanced cultures he was connected with. By examining the similarity of the ideologically based functions in Europe and in Renvall s home country Finland, his activity as a mediator shows, as well as the reception of his apparently too modern ideas. The framework for this study draws from history of ideologies and more specifically from the research on cultural transfer focused on the comparison between apparently parallel concepts. In this study, a microhistorical approach is used in examining Renvall s letters to his spouse, the opera singer Aino Ackté, as a biographical source material. As a scientist Renvall published up-to-date articles and lectures covering his field, discussing the studies at universities abroad, mainly in Berlin, Munich, Paris and London. His world of ideas appears in this material. Despite his propagandist activity, which did not go unnoticed in Finland and where the Russian government was forcing its national tendences, he was nominated as the first managing editor-in-chief of the daily newspaper Helsingin Sanomat in 1904. He was selected for this role because of his leading position among the Young Finns. He grounded yet another newspaper Suomalainen Kansa in 1907 to support his constitutional political mission. Renvall was fascinated by the publicity that French newspapers offered as a role model for the Finnish situation defending its threatened autonomy in 1903. He was elected as a member of the new parliament and was then able to carry through his political ambitions. In this study I bring out cultural phenomena, ideas and mode of action that were developed and modified in forcefully industrializing centrals of early 20th century Europe which Renvall seek to integrate for the benefit of his own national building country. The main argument of this study is that, as a mediator, Renvall suggested reforms that were way ahead of his time in Finland. He could be called as an intellectual cosmopolitan because he managed to create an international network while studying and travelling in Europe.
  • Reimann, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In Estonian jazz history, the period from 1944 to 1953 was dynamic and contradictory, when the official status of jazz changed from a highly prized musical form during the postwar era to musica non grata by 1950. While jazz symbolised victory and friendship with the Allies in the immediate postwar period, subsequent Soviet ideological campaigns targeted jazz as the focus of Soviet ideological attacks against the entire Western world and its values. Despite Soviet power s attempts to obliterate jazz from cultural life, rather than disappear, jazz music moved into more secret private spaces. Known as Sovietisation in Estonian history and as Late-Stalinism in Soviet history, this period witnessed extensive social changes in Estonia. On the one hand, throughout this era, the Soviet occupying regime aimed consolidate its power base. On the other hand, Late-Stalinism is known for its intense ideological pressure, which for creative intelligence meant a tightening of creative freedom established through the ideological doctrine of Zhdanovshchina. This article-based dissertation on Soviet Estonian jazz history offers new insights into the meaning of this popular cultural form of Western origin and how it functions in the Soviet society. I argue that the meaning of jazz culture in Soviet Estonia emerges from the dynamic interaction between Soviet socio-political forces, the actions of cultural agents and the traditions of jazz culture. As the study demonstrates, the Great Friendship decree of 1948 led to the rupture of the music and the disappearance of the word jazz from the public space. However, cultural actors who selected their strategies of action from the available cultural repertoire played the crucial role in shaping jazz culture. The study s focus on the everyday life of jazz musicians reveals that self-actualisation was the driving force feeding their motivation. The musicians everyday strategies for self-actualisation include touring, musical learning and listening, ritualising, humour, inventiveness, curiosity, dedication, and intellectualising jazz. Our current understanding of jazz tradition is related to what can be called the jazz-as-a-tradition paradigm. This paradigm refers to a relatively recently constructed overarching American-centred narrative which historians, critics and musicians have consistently drawn around jazz. The example of Estonian jazz tries to reconstruct the jazz-as-a-tradition paradigm and to create its own array of cultural and historical meanings. The important schemata identifying jazz in Estonia are classical/light, professional/amateur, bourgeois/proletarian, swing/bebop, and dance/concert. In addition, I aim to provide theoretical schemata for investigating and interpreting jazz culture under the Soviet regime. I expect these schemata to facilitate our understaning of the particularities of the Soviet cultural model and the translation of the essence of jazz culture in Soviet Estonia to a broader international readership. As a primary conceptual outcome of my dissertation, I propose a holistic framework called cultural spaces of action . This framework advances the sociological model of private/public distinction, which is of crucial importance in understanding Soviet society. Instead of a simplistic dualistic model, I provide a four-dimensional framework which highlights (1) the interaction of jazz culture and state power, and (2) the distinction of forms within jazz culture. According to this model, jazz culture existed as journalistic discourse, as professional concert music, as amateur dance music, and as an intellectualised formal educational practice. The benefit of the model is its ability to avoid the common strategies of confrontation between Soviet power and culture , where power is perceived to supress creative people, and to disclose the paradoxical nature of jazz in the Soviet Union, where jazz was concurrently forbidden, but never silent. This interdisciplinary study benefits from multiple research traditions; it subscribes to the principles of New Cultural History in its emphasis on meaning and interpretations. These interpretations are guided by the central ideas of constructionist history, which states that history stems from the dialogue between the historian and the past, born of the historian s imaginative and constructive engagement with the evidence. As a study of a global musical form in a national historical context and under regional socio-political conditions, it deploys the ideas of transnational history: the study decentralises the idea of the national and amalgamates perspectives and contexts of Estonian, Soviet and jazz historiographical traditions. The methodological approach also includes microhistory the intensive historical investigation of a relatively well-defined smaller object. I refer to source pluralism as the main research method, as it combines fragments from various sources including archival materials (radio broadcasts, newspapers), and interviews, as well as the recorded memories and the private documents of the people who experienced Soviet life.
  • Stang, Alexandra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This doctoral thesis analyses both the proceedings that have produced apparent silences within Finnish publishing in terms of queer topics that focus on female non-heterosexuality, and the possibilities for these topics within the domain of published literature. By surveying the power relations within the Finnish and Finland-Swedish literary fields, this study examines ruling social discourses (e.g. nationalist and heteronormative) in Finland from the beginning of the 20th century to the mid-1930s, and the influence of these discourses on the eventual rejection of works with queer topics. Yet, through a queer reading i.e. one that focuses on the heteronormativities that a text communicates, as well as on a text s ability to question and undermine them the study also highlights literary methods that still enabled a positive attitude towards queer topics within published literature. The material analysed consists of 13 literary works by ten different authors writing in Finnish, Swedish, English or French. The literary works analysed are: Ain Elisabet Pennanen s Voimaihmisiä ( Strong People , 1906) and Ja se laiva lähti kuitenkin ( And the Ship Left Nonetheless , 1919), Elsa Soini s Jumalten ja ihmisten suosikit ( The Favourites of the Gods and Men , 1926) and Uni ( Uni / Dream , 1930), Mika Waltari s Suuri illusioni ( The Great Illusion , 1928) and Yksinäisen miehen juna ( A Lonely Man s Train , 1929), Rosamond Lehmann s Dusty answer (1927/ Elämänhurman häipyessä, 1928), Alma Söderhjelm s Kärlekens väninna ( Love s Girlfriend , 1922), Hagar Olsson s På Kanaanexpressen ( On The Express Train to Canaan , 1929), Helvi Hämäläinen s Kaunis sielu ( Beautiful Soul , 1928/ 2001), Margareta Suber s Charlie (1932), Radclyffe Hall s The Well of Loneliness (1928, Swedish 1932, Finnish 2010), and Émile Zola s Nana (1880/ 1930/ 1952). The methods used are based on (literary-sociological) discourse analysis and queer theory, especially works by Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu and Judith Butler. Archival research also plays an essential role. While many so-called queer classics were either not published in Finnish (e.g. Margareta Suber s Charlie) or were published only much later (e.g. Helvi Hämäläinen s Kaunis sielu) or in a censored version (e.g. Émile Zola s Nana), the queer reading of published works (e.g. works by Ain Elisabet Pennanen, Elsa Soini or Rosamond Lehmann) demonstrates that queerness was not absent from Finnish literature; rather, it had to be introduced in a subtle way, for instance through the use of irony. There were also voices with a clear deprecatory attitude towards queer topics, as demonstrated both by literary works (e.g. by Mika Waltari) and reviews. Within the Finland-Swedish literary field, published works by Alma Söderhjelm or Hagar Olsson demonstrate a rather tolerant attitude towards openly queer topics, although the attitude of Finland-Swedish reviews was not necessarily positive, either. This thesis thus also examines the differences between the Finnish and the Finland-Swedish literary fields, especially with regard to publication practice. Since the distribution of power between the different parties authors, translators, publishers, and reviewers struggling over the monopoly of legitimacy (i.e. about what was published and what deemed acceptable, since it is always the pursuit of power that dominates actions) was never equal, introducing queerness between the lines remained the most effective way to undermine heteronormative values.
  • Huhtamäki, Martina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This thesis explores the prosodic features of questions in conversations among speakers of Helsinki Swedish. The aim is to find out how the participants used such features to design and ascribe utterances as questions, as well as to signal turn endings in them. The research contributes to the current understanding on how prosodic and other features are used in combination to create meanings in conversation. This work is a compilation thesis comprising four papers and a summarizing report. The data consist of six recordings of everyday conversations among Swedish speakers from the capital region of Finland. The conversations are multi-person conversations. The participants comprise 29 females and males between the ages of nine and approximately 60. Utterances in the data are defined as questions in line with the following criteria: 1) they belong to the epistemic domain of the recipient, and 2) they form the first pair-part of an adjacency pair consisting of a question and the response. This definition includes declarative clauses that are used to request information when the topic is in the epistemic domain of the recipient. However, it excludes rhetorical questions (because the questioner then has more knowledge than the recipient), as well as questions that are used to request action. The questions are all one-unit, syntactically complete utterances. The focus varies in each of the four studies: in the first one it is on 240 questions with varying syntax; in the second it is on 110 questions with non-interrogative syntax; in the third it is on 191 questions with a non-falling final intonation; and in the fourth it is on 52 questions consisting of the free-standing va, what . The theoretical and methodological framework is interactional linguistics, and the methods used are both conversation analysis and phonetic analysis. The research is qualitative. The data are transcribed according to the traditions of conversation analysis, with some added signs indicating prosodic features. The phonetic analysis, for which the Praat program was used, includes both auditory and acoustic elements. The identity of the participants is protected through the anonymization of all recognizable information in the transcripts. The participants were aware that their conversations were being recorded, and gave their permission for the recording to be used in research. The results show the many functions for which questions are used, and that prosodic features are employed for various purposes. Most questions have a final falling intonation in these conversations in Helsinki Swedish, but there are also instances of final rising and level intonation. Final intonation has several functions, and is used together with other features to distinguish between utterances inside the question category. For example, a rising final intonation can be used in a question that paves the way for another action, and a wide pitch span can be used to signal an affective stance. The syntax, the lexical choices and the relation of the question to the conversational context are also indicative of its function, as are the epistemic relations between the participants. However, prosodic features are not used to signal questions as a sentence type that is separate from assertions, for example. In sum, final intonation is just one of several prosodic features projecting a possible point of completion. The other features include a slower rate of speech and diminished loudness, possibly a focal accent and a changed voice quality. Key words: questions, prosody, intonation, Helsinki Swedish, interactional linguistics, conversations
  • Lehto, Anu (Uusfilologinen yhdistys, 2015)
    The study assesses the diachronic development of complexity in Early Modern English parliamentary acts and proclamations between 1491 and 1707. Unlike previous research that focuses on syntactic complexity, my thesis forms an inclusive view by defining complexity as the number, variety and organisation of linguistic elements. Further, the study incorporates new linguistic features for the investigation of complexity and employs corpus linguistic methods to explore in more detail how these features develop in historical legal writing. The analysis is carried out in a self-compiled corpus, the Corpus of Early Modern English Statutes (1491 1707), containing parliamentary acts and proclamations. The survey also relies on genre analysis and historical pragmatics, emphasising the communicative context and socio-historical setting. The study forms a framework for analysing complexity in legal language that extends to the textual, syntactic and lexical level. The examined elements on the textual level are text structure, layout and text types. On the syntactic level, the study surveys sentence length and punctuation, coordination, binomials and multinomials and subordination. Finally, on the phrasal level lexical bundles are scrutinised in order to form a corpus-driven view of repeated patterns in the data. The analysis shows that the historical legal texts are systematic in their structure and syntax. The documents use a three-part structure including a preamble, an enactment clause and the actual orders with possible provisions. The structure is related to syntax and layout, as new subsections are signalled, for instance, by "and that"-clauses preceded by paragraph marks. Additionally, sentence length increases diachronically in the data, but punctuation and layout become more specific and develop to organise the texts into smaller units. Coordinated clauses with "and" decline in the material, reflecting a shift from orality to literacy. Subordination increases in proclamations and declines in acts, but the coordinating and subordinating clauses are repeated and display distinct functions in both subgenres. Additionally, binomials become more common, and the grammatical assessment of lexical bundles shows that noun and prepositional phrase fragments prevail in the data. All in all, the legal documents are packed with complexity features, illustrating elements of informational and formal writing. The subgenres, however, employ formulaic structures and textual, syntactic and lexical repetition that make the texts more predictable. Further, reflecting developments in the socio-historical context, many diachronic changes in the acts occur at the turn of the sixteenth century, when the texts are printed and distributed to wider audiences outside the government.
  • Rennicke, Iiris (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The main objective of this dissertation is to describe the current state and classhood of rhotics in the Minas Gerais variety of Brazilian Portuguese (BP), explore the factors behind sound change, and discuss the direction of change. The hypothesis is that changes in various subsystems of the language contribute to a general sound change trajectory, which takes place mostly through articulatory reduction and retiming in frequently used words and constructions (as predicted by Exemplar Models). Language is seen as a Complex Adaptive System that consists of several subsystems, all of which undergo change and can contribute simultaneously to gradual changes in the overall system. Semi-structured interviews and a sentence completion task with 14 speakers from southwestern Minas Gerais yielded a total of 7,765 contexts for rhotics. The rhotics of BP were found to include trills, taps, fricatives, approximants and aspirated approximants in alveolar, palatal, retroflex/bunched, uvular, and glottal places of articulation. Deletions also form a considerable part of the data. BP rhotics have followed two diverging lenition trajectories: one anterior (alveo-palatal) and one posterior (uvular and glottal). Both trajectories can ultimately lead to deletion. Factors that promote lenition include post-tonic position, adjacency to the voiceless fricative [s] and/or the high vowels [i u], and coda position which involves more lenited r-variants and deletion than any other context. Once sound change begins to generalize in these attractors, it can also spread to other r-contexts. BP rhotics are best modelled as a network of language-specific family relationships, in which chains of articulatory reductions and retimings establish diachronic connections between synchronically distant variants. As a class, rhotics are featurally, articulatorily, and phonetically unspecified, and phonetic overlap between contexts makes the contrast between r-variants incomplete. For this reason, the phonological representation of rhotics consists of fuzzy positional categories that encompass a variety of phonetic forms and that are constantly updated through language use.
  • Wichmann, Irene (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The present study focuses on the translation of Hungarian literature into Finnish between 1850 and 1899. The aim of the dissertation is to produce an overview on how the Hungarian literature was introduced in the 19th century Finland. The Finnish-Hungarian literature contacts are examined in their early stages from the Finnish viewpoint, during the so-called translation period of the Finnish literature. The Finnish literature was at that time still young and developing. Therefore, translations from other languages into Finnish had a crucial role in this development. The study explores two of the most well-known Hungarian authors of that period, the poet Sándor Petőfi and the prosaist Mór Jókai. The most important research questions are the following: Which literary works were translated into Finnish during the period investigated? Who were the translators, and from which source language did they translate? What were the aims of the translations, and how were the translated works chosen? The reception of the Hungarian works has also been investigated. The main theoretical framework of the present study is that of Descriptive Translation Studies. The research questions are reflected against their historical and social backgrounds. The analysis combines several theories and methods used in the field of Translations Studies the Polysystem theory introduced by Itamar Even-Zohar, the method in translation history of Anthony Pym, with particular attention to the so-called translation archeology, the analysis of paratexts of Gérard Genette, and the reception theory of literary texts introduced originally by Hans Robert Jauss, applied to the 19th century Finnish literature by Leeni Tiirakari. In addition, the agency of two most well-known Finnish translators of Hungarian literature during the period investigated, Antti Jalava and Niilo E. Wainio, is outlined e. g. by means of introducing their use of footnotes in the translations. The aim of the study is, hence, to produce a wide overview of the period examined. The data, collected for this study, consist of literary translations and, on the other hand, of paratexts, connected to the translations. The findings of the study indicate that Hungarian literature had a special position in the investigated period s literary translations in Finland. Hungarian works were translated mainly by linguistic or literature experts and the translations were made directly from Hungarian to Finnish, not usual in the case with other European languages. The translated works were chosen, based on the expertise of Hungarian scholars. The translation of Hungarian works was strongly influenced by non-literary factors, most important of them being the theory of the common origin of the Finno-Ugric languages.
  • Peake, Rose-Marie (2015)
    The PhD thesis studies the value system of the French Catholic community the Filles de la Charité, or the Daughters of Charity, in the first half of the seventeenth century. The Company was founded by Louise de Marillac (1591-1660, canonised 1934) and Vincent de Paul (1581-1660, canonised 1737) in Paris in 1633. It was intended for lower class women and consisted of charity work performed outside the enclosure of a monastery. Despite its position as one of the most influential Catholic communities in France, the Company has received little secular academic attention, the most important reason being that the community s archives were inaccessible until the twenty-first century. The focus of the study is on the activities of the Company aiming at moulding and promoting Catholic morality, mainly amongst women. These activities are referred to as moral management, a term borrowed from the historians of emotions. The study analyses the activities on a broad scale incorporating not only an analysis of the measures among the poor but also of the internal moulding of images of the members of the Company. The aim of the study is to answer the following questions: what kinds of ideals of a good Catholic life and morality did the Company of the Daughters of Charity aim to create through moral management and what purposes did they serve? What was the role of gender and social status in the process of defining and creating, executing and performing these ideas of a good Catholic life? Moreover, do these ideas present continuity or discontinuity in Christian anthropology, that is, in the idea of the human being? The study, qualitative in nature, approaches the subject by employing methodology borrowed particularly from medieval studies on the interplay of gender, body, power and performance in the context of religion. The methods of the study likewise include the critical close reading of the sources (comprising most importantly the correspondence and other writings of the founders, found largely as editions, and hagiography) in an effort to move from the particular, the Daughters of Charity, toward the general, that is, mentalities and values in seventeenth-century Catholicism and French society. The most important finding of the study is that the overall aim of the Company was to create conservative Catholic subjects. This means that the value system the Company promoted was a reformulation of mentalities already present in Christian anthropology before the early modern period. Moreover, the thesis puts forward the hypothesis that the molding of traditional images and behaviour was a survival strategy for the Company itself: first of all, it faced criticism from the part of ecclesiastical authorities, as the non-cloistered lifestyle of its members had been made unlawful in the Council of Trent (1545-1563). Secondly, the Company also had to deal with internal pressures and, as a result, reassure also the Daughters who would have preferred a more nun-like vocation. On the other hand, the moral management activities also ensured the flowing of financial and intellectual resources from the Parisian elite, on whom the Company was fully dependent, in addition to a labour force provided by the lower class women. The study also reassesses the image and role of the elite widow Louise de Marillac in the organising of the moral management activities and discusses the ways she was a crucial figure.
  • Lehtinen, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines the complex relation between spatial experience and aesthetic experience. It is argued that spatial experience specifically in the context of everyday spaces makes it possible to experience them aesthetically as well. A wide selection of research ranging from environmental and philosophical aesthetics to architectural theory, psychology, human geography, and other relevant disciplines is employed in order to achieve a more detailed picture of how spatial experience is formed in the first place. This experience is described mainly in terms of phenomenology but is then related to other ways of understanding experiences and their prerequisites. Different notions of space and spatiality and a more comprehensive articulation of the relation of perception to spatial experience, sensory perception, and how senses contribute to spatial experience are in the focus of attention at the beginning of the study. Different experiential layers that can be distinguished within the space which is closest experienced are explored. Interaction with environment is discussed and the notion of preaesthetic is presented to clarify the relation between the two different types of experiences. Following this, the notion of preaesthetic is studied against eminent notions such as aesthetic attitude and aesthetic engagement that show elements that have traditionally been considered to either lead to or define aesthetic experiences. This study shows that the effect that spatial experience has on revealing aesthetic potentialities in everyday environments is far more complicated than has previously been understood. Due to its contingent qualities, spatial experience sometimes leads to "failed" aesthetic experiences even in situations where there is obvious aesthetic potentiality. Even though there are some overlapping qualities in spatial and aesthetic experiences, they cannot thus be equated, as has more or less been done in different branches studying the topics of art and architectural experiences, for example. In the final part of the study, some possible directions for future research are pointed out and the application possibilities of these new developments in aesthetic theory are presented by short case studies, in which a closer look is taken into a chosen set of urban everyday spaces.
  • Lahtinen, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The study is concerned with the interaction between Robert Boyle s experimentalism and medicine. Boyle made an attempt to establish his kind of experimental philosophy as the basis of of medicine. At the same time, however, medicine offered him a model of a discipline which, unlike other learned disciplines, embodied several notions of experiment and ways of writing about experiment. Boyle s involvement in medicine was a complicated exchange of ideas and practices. On the one hand, medical literature and the medical notions of experiment had an impact on his experimental philosophy. On the other hand, however, he also applied his own ideas about experiment and its function to his medical work. In this study, Boyle s medical writings of various kinds, such as recipe books, natural historical works and treatises discussing medical practice, theory and medical reform are explored. I examine these works to find out what kind of activities were called experiment on the one hand, and to explicate the functions of experimental texts in Boyle s medical writings, on the other. To do this, I approach Boyle s medical works from several viewpoints. First of all, I examine Boyle s role as a medical author and place his medical writings in the immediate context formed by contemporary medical literature. Secondly, I explore the different kinds of texts Boyle wrote on the basis of medical experiments and the functions these texts have in his published works. Finally, I examine what these texts tell us about the nature of his experimental activities. My dissertation advances an argument about Boyle s experimentalism and method. I seek to show that contrary to what has often been presumed, Boyle applied no single experimental method in his experimental activities but, instead, that his experimentalism embodied experimental methods of various kinds. His writings do not define experimentalism as a method but rather as a particular kind of approach to natural knowledge. Moreover, the manner in which Boyle s medical works describe his experimental activities shows that there hardly was much method in his manner of working. Hence, this study presents his medical experimentalism as a somewhat disorderly effort and suggests that Boyle s experimental philosophy embodied no single and consistent methodological doctrine.
  • Helkala-Koivisto, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The present study Music and autism - prosodic sign in existential semiotics belongs to the field of musicology and especially to the branch of musical and existential semiotics. The starting point of my theoretical research is music and autism. Both of them are signified as cultural and subjective phenomena in the semiotic sense, despite the fact that the object of study the prosodic sign - is first found between them. It has occurred in practice through musical dialogue with children on autism. The study has some empirical data that consists of documented narratives, in which the prosodic sign is seen as a moving subject within early musical interaction in the music therapy process. The object of study has shown its origin and realization in practice but semiotics is moreover interested to clarify the symbolic life and signification of the recognized signs. In the study it refers to the way by which a prosodic feature will constitute a symbolic character and become the prosodic sign that signifies something external outside itself. The prosodic features try to manifest themselves first by being a signal for something, doing repeated accents inside musical and linguistic expression. To become a sign the accent has to get a meaning. It has to receive a signification like a new born baby after becoming a part of communicative human consciousness. Signification and consciousness are internal system of human existence. They represent an intentional subject s whole body and mind. The sense of body-mind s action and symbolic thinking with and without prosodic signification is a developing part of my research in existential semiotics. The study is based on Eero Tarasti s theory of existential semiotics and Julia Kristeva s psychoanalytic approach to subject s early interaction in semiotic chora. Existential semiotics is a new key to study and read prosodic features as significant and interactive signs. The anthropological character of semiotics has also provided a new interpretation to autism: it is approached for the first time from the viewpoint of humanistic and cultural phenomena. It is defined in the symbolic sense as equivalent to music as a cultural sign. The two semiotic theories mentioned above and their analysis combined with the early stages in the development of the prosodic signification will reveal the prosodic sign as a new possible subject among the existing prosodic theories. As a result of the study both the cultural and the subjective proto-musical meaning will have a new broader signification. The prosodic sign may have a closely spaced sensory-affective basis between autism and non-autism in early infancy. It is a question of the sensorimotor timing and rhythmic adherence, wherein the prosodic sign is the smallest but probably the most important signifying variable in sensing the outside world and the other. Keywords: musical dialogue, autism, otherness, symbol, prosodic signification, existential semiotics, psychoanalysis, global languages
  • Vehkanen, Marjut (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    From grammar to communication: Finnish as a second and foreign language textbooks from 1866 to 1953. Marjut Vehkanen, University of Helsinki, Finland The primary sources of this study include Finnish as a second and foreign language textbooks that were published between 1866 and 1953. The corpus for the study consists of 52 Finnish as a second and foreign language textbooks targeted both at children and adult learners. The analysis focuses on the following domains: the presentation of grammar, text types, content topics and pedagogical methods. Methodologically, this study is based on close reading and content analysis of the chosen textbooks. The research questions of this dissertation are the following: - Who were the authors and the intended audience of the textbooks analysed in this dissertation, and where were these textbooks studied? - What is the role of grammar in the textbooks? How has the presentation of grammatical phenomena changed during the research period? - How are different text types used in the analysed textbooks? - What changes in the world are seen in the textual contents? - How is the development of language teaching methods reflected in the textbooks during the researched period? The study shows that the teaching of grammar occupied a very central position from 1866 to 1953; even most of the practically oriented textbooks included grammar sections. Significant differences emerged when comparing the text types among the adult textbooks. For example, the analysed corpus includes a Finnish phrasebook with phrases intended to be learnt by heart. Whereas some types of text were discontinued after the first part of the period, new types emerged, but some permanent text types were found in the books during the entire period. The study reveals how the books for adult learners offered a diverse and rich range of themes and pedagogical methods and how little the contents of the schoolbooks changed. The results of this study introduce many linguistic and historical themes for further research. For example, one topic for further study is how past authors of textbooks have approached the Finnish cases or the extent to which they have focused on combining the teaching of vocabulary and grammar in their textbooks. In addition, no research has yet been conducted to survey the pedagogical history of Finnish as a second and foreign language textbooks.
  • Blöndal, Thorunn (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This thesis is an exploration of two interactional processes, syntactic completion and other-extension. The aim of the study is to explore what if anything triggers the use of these phenomena, to scrutinise their form and their interactional function and how they are received in the dialogue. The notion of the conversational turn and how the concept relates to the two phenomena is also discussed in the study. The thesis is based on an empirical study carried out in the framework of interactional linguistics which rests upon conversation analysis (CA) but also draws upon mainstream linguistics and has a linguistic viewpoint. The empirical data consist of 20 hours of everyday conversation from the ISTAL corpus of spoken Icelandic, recorded in the year 2000. Both completions and other-extensions show collaborative actions, which appear in the relaxed settings as found in the ISTAL data. The data analysed in the thesis consist of 53 examples of completions and 73 instances of other-extensions. In the thesis, completions fall into two categories. When the first speaker seems to be in trouble, for example searching for a name, the second speaker joins in with a candidate completion; that is what is called induced completions. The other category includes non-induced completions where no discernible trouble triggers the second speaker s action. Other-extensions also fall mainly into two categories, Supportive Actions and Checking Understanding, which show differences regarding form and interactional functions. Both in completions and in other-extensions, the second speaker only goes as far as to the next Transition Relevance Place (TRP); the two processes are never attempts to take over the conversational floor. These collaborative actions are both received in a positive way in the conversations with a few exceptions. Finally, it is argued that the conversational turn is not necessarily a production of one person. Two (or more) participants in a dialogue can produce collaborative turn sequences, which are found in completions and in one of the two main categories of other-extensions, i.e. the category of Supportive Actions. In Supporting Actions the second speaker carries on with the action initiated by the first speaker, he speaks in the same direction as the first speaker, he takes place by his side . Either his extension highlights the first speaker s words or explicates them. In the category of Checking Understanding, a different action is carried out and therefore a new turn. The second speaker faces his partner in the conversation and he directs his words to the first speaker. In this category, some obscurity is often seen in the utterance preceding the extension and by reacting as the he does, the second speaker tries to avoid that a problem will come up later in the conversation. It is therefore the directionality that separates the categories of Supporting Actions and Checking Understanding when it comes to deciding whether the first speaker s utterance and the extension should be looked at as one collaborative turn sequence or as two separate turns. When two or more speakers share their turn, they also share the conversational floor and in these instances, we can talk about a collaborative floor. The appropriate surroundings for collaboratively producing a conversational turn and sharing the floor with the other participants are in friendly conversation with people who know each other s conversational behaviour. Keywords: Icelandic conversation, interactional linguistics, conversation analysis, completion, extension, collaborative production, collaborative turn sequence, joint production.