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  • Nenonen, Olga (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Phonetic development in Russian-Finnish bilinguals of pre-primary age The doctoral dissertation addresses the phonetic development in Russian-Finnish bilingual children of pre-primary age. The study combines qualitative and quantitative methods in the framework of child language development studies, and contrastive and contact linguistics. It also takes into account language therapy approaches. The data were collected through an articulation test specially designed for Russian and Finnish. The research is based on the results of both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. The longitudinal study observes the evidence from 6 normally developing bilingual children in a 2.5-year time period. The sample of the cross-sectional study consists of 126 children divided into three groups: (1) 46 typically developing Russian-Finnish bilinguals; (2) 40 typically developing Russian monolinguals and 20 typically developing Finnish monolinguals; and (3) 20 Russian-Finnish bilinguals with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). The participant s production of target words in the articulation test was transcribed and phonetic errors were analysed. Despite considerable individual variation in phonetic production, the findings suggest that bilinguals acquire Russian and Finnish phonetic inventories later than their monolingual pairs. The difference is visible both in the speed of acquisition and in the number and nature of errors. With regard to the nature of mispronunciation, four types of bilingual mistakes were distinguished: (1) common developmental mistakes made by bilinguals and monolinguals; (2) language-specific mistakes made by monolinguals and bilinguals, however the latter group makes considerably more mistakes, especially at an older age; (3) cross-linguistic interference mistakes caused by the differences in Russian and Finnish phonetic systems, made only by bilinguals, resembling the mistakes of second language learners; and (4) unpredictable mistakes common in bilingual normally developing and bilingual SLI children. The analysis reveals that from a longitudinal perspective, phonetic development is faster and easier for bilinguals in Finnish than in Russian. However, relatively simple Russian vocalism is acquired faster than Finnish vocalism, whereas the complex system of Russian consonants takes longer to develop than the Finnish consonant system. Furthermore, language-specific features appear to be the most problematic for acquisition. The research shows the evidence of language interaction in bilingual phonetic development, e.g. in the form of cross-language phonetic interference. As a result, some bilingual children may have either a Russian or a Finnish accent. However, this accent tends to gradually disappear.
  • Hyvärinen, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    "Return, Word, where music begins." Music in the World View of Osip Mandelstam's Poetry This study examines the role of music and the interrelationship between poetic word and music in Osip Mandelstam's (1891-1938) poetry. By analysing Mandelstam's poems written in 1908-1925, the study creates a coherent view of the significance of word and music in his world view. The method used in the study is close analytic reading of poetic text. Instead of analysing the musicality of poetry from the point of view of metrics, phonetics or rhythm, the study focuses on the mythology of music in Mandelstam's poetry. Primarily, the poems are analysed as independent texts, and secondly, in the context of Russian cultural history and Mandelstam's own cultural philosophy as their background. The study consists of four parts. In the first section (chapter 2), the study examines the role of music in Mandelstam's early poems, which he wrote under the strong influence of Russian Symbolism. One of the main themes of Mandelstam's earliest poems is listening to the music of nature; this music reflects a higher reality that cannot be reached by human consciousness. The main problem treated in Mandelstam's early poems is the compatibility of a human being's own inner music with the harmony of the universe. The second part of the study (chapter 3) focuses on the role of music in Mandelstam' s version of the Russian poetic school, Acmeism. In his Acmeist poems, Mandelstam emphasises the verbal and logical characteristics of music, which can be seen as polemics adhering to the Romantic and partly Symbolist view of music as a metaphysical force. According to Mandelstam, the ideal of logical art is manifest in Johann Sebastian Bach's music. The third part (chapter 4) focuses on the significance of Christianity in Mandelstam's world view and the role of music in his religious poems. A close relationship between poetry, theology and religious philosophy was characteristic of the tradition of Russian Modernism. This is also visible in Mandelstam's poetry and in his conception of Christian music , which unites the Apollonian and Dionysian forces of culture into a harmonic whole. Finally, in the fourth section (chapter 5), I describe Mandelstam's idea of Russian Hellenism and how music is reflected in his poems in the context of ancient Greek mythology. All these elements of Mandelstam's world view reflect a profound tension between word and music, which is closely associated with ideological and philosophical problems that are manifest in his poetry. Subjects: Russian Literature; Music; Acmeism; Mandelstam, Osip
  • Möttönen, Tapani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This doctoral dissertation is a metatheoretical survey into the central semantic concepts of Cognitive Grammar (CG), a semantics-driven theoretical grammar developed by Ronald W. Langacker. CG approaches language as a semiotic system inherently structured by certain cognition-general capacities, and it defends a usage-based conception of language, therefore denying the strict dichotomy between language and other realms of conceptualization and human experience. For CG, linguistic meaning is thus defined relative to our general cognitive and bodily disposition, as well as to the contents of experience the former structure. The cognitive and experiential aspects of meaning are described relative to so-called dimensions of construal. In this study, I will provide a systematic critical account of the theoretical explanation Cognitive Grammar provides for the dimensions of construal. The point of departure will be in social ontology of linguistic meaning developed and defended by Esa Itkonen, who has accordingly criticized Cognitive Grammar for inconsistent psychologism. According to Itkonen, linguistic meaning is an object of common knowledge and cannot be reduced into an individual s conceptualization; the dimensions of construal capture experiential meaning that is part of language as a social semiotic resource. This entails that linguistic semantics assume as its object of description non-objective, perspectival meanings that are commonly known. It will be argued that the usage-based nature of CG provides a way to release this tension between objective and non-objective aspects of meaning by explaining how perspectivity of semantics results from the acquisition and adjustment of meanings in actual discourse. This, however, necessitates an ontological revision of Cognitive Grammar and rehabilitation of the sociality of a linguistic meaning, which is the topic of this study. In addition to the work by Itkonen, prominent socially oriented cognitive linguists, such as Jordan Zlatev, have emphasized the necessary intersubjective basis of experiential meaning. Within the Fennistic studies, on the other hand, the intersubjective approach to CG and Cognitive Linguistics in general has taken the form of combining cognitive linguistic methodologies with Conversation Analysis. This study combines elements from both of these approaches in order to provide a comprehensive assessment of the notion of construal in CG. In so being, the main task of this study is to critically evaluate the cognition-based explanation for the dimensions of construal, provide a socially grounded alternative, and apply the alternative into analysis of construal in (written discourse). The thesis demonstrates that the dimensions of construal are not dependent on the aspects of cognitive theory on the basis of which they are argued for. Instead, the notion of construal is shown to be inherently intersubjective and context-sensitive. Construal captures aspects of semantic organization that are correlates of intersubjective alignment between conceptualizing subjects in a given discursive context.
  • Junttila, Santeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The accumulation of information and tendencies in the study of loanwords The research history of Baltic loans in Proto-Finnic Abstract The old layer of vocabulary of Baltic origin in Finnic, or the Baltic loans in Proto-Finnic, was described by Vilhelm Thomsen in his monographs from 1869 and 1890. Altogether over one thousand Finnic words have been associated with this layer of loans in various sources. My research material consists of the etymologies correct or rejected posited for these words and the discussion thereof in printed sources between 1869 and 2009. I define the concept of Baltic loan etymologies in Proto-Finnic via their hypernyms. The definition of an etymology draws borders with other etymologies of the same word and etymologies of other similar words. A loan etymology must consist of two parts, equation and claim of origin. The definition of these loans as Baltic distinguishes them from Pre-Baltic loans, while their definition as Proto-Finnic distinguishes them from later loans of Baltic origin. The work includes an appendix consisting of a broad research-historical table in which the rows contain the posited origin of each word considered in the literature to be of Baltic origin. The columns consist of etymologies and the claims made to support them, grouped based on their argument types. I categorize the posited origins based on the novelty and Baltic-ness of the etymologies they contain. The posited origins make up the reception history of each etymology: based on them, an etymology can be defined as generally accepted, questionable, generally rejected or unresearched at each moment of its reception history. The reception history of Baltic etymologies and their various alternative explanations demonstrates that loan explanations increased in popularity in the beginning of the period under consideration, decreased after the 1920s and have been on the increase once again since the 1970s. I list all Baltic loan etymologies in groups according to their conceptualization as of 2009. The arguments used in loan etymologies are related to form, meaning, source language, distribution and the existence of layers of loans. By examining the historical development and usage context of each argument type, I bring to light very well founded research data and the accumulation thereof. The largest number of sustainable arguments has come from the Neogrammarian school of the 1890s and from structuralism beginning in the 1970s. By applying these paradigms, I identify dozens of generally accepted and questionable Baltic etymologies that should be rejected, as well as several rejected ones that should be accepted.
  • Kaljundi, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This article-based dissertation tackles the role of cultural representations and practices in the medieval expansion of Latin Christendom, analysing the historiography concerning the conversion and conquest of the Baltic Sea area. Four of the articles examine Latin missionary historiography from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, concentrating on the chronicles related to the archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen (with a particular focus on the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia). These founding narratives of the frontier settlements and institutions allow insight into the function of literary representations in legitimising the new rule, but they also highlight the importance of performative practices in the Christianisation of the borderlands. The dissertation also has a more generally theoretical dimension, addressing the oft-debated problem that we can analyse medieval rituals only indirectly, through textual or visual mediations. It argues that because it is impossible to know whether the described rituals actually took place, we should instead focus on the ways in which their historiographical representations enable to analyse the meaning and significance of the rituals. In addition to that the thesis demonstrates that there are fruitful perspectives for analysing the appropriation of rituals in the medieval history writing offered by the studies of cultural memory. These studies have emphasised that the formation of effective memorial figures is based on their remediation in various cultural media. In the frontier chronicles, authority is first and foremost based on the connections with the Christian past. Yet these texts also reveal an understanding that these contacts with the sacred past should be manifested through various media: through textual quotations, but also through rituals and other performances. The dissertation also considers the cultural memory of the Christianisation period in a longer historical perspective, two of the articles discussing its afterlives during later periods: the early modern, the Enlightenment and the modern eras. The rivalry for hegemony in the Eastern Baltic has kept the legacy of the conquest and conversion a topical as well as a political issue. The active appropriations have secured a constant remediation of the medieval narratives in different cultural media, while also resulting in their considerable transformations.
  • Honkasalo, Julian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Hannah Arendt (1906-1975) did not theorize gender as a political question. None of her major works deal with women s liberation, women s rights, or with gendered aspects of power. In her public life, she neither participated nor spoke up in favor of any feminist group. Yet, her works have generated a rich and polyphonic tradition of feminist scholarship. This dissertation provides the first monograph length, systematic examination of four decades of feminist responses to Arendt s political thought. In this study I ask how and for what purposes have feminist interpreters of Arendt singled out concepts and topics for scrutiny and debate in their efforts to understand the absence of a theory of gender in Arendt s oeuvre. Why has precisely Hannah Arendt been so widely and passionately read by feminist theorists, despite the fact that she did not engage in this field of inquiry at all? By analyzing and contextualizing how each text in feminist secondary literature on Arendt constitutes a distinct response to her silence on gender, and by then grouping these responses, this study finds that feminist efforts to make sense of the absence of a theory of gender in Arendt s political thinking can best be understood through a threefold categorization. First, Anglophone, early second wave sisterhood-interpretations approach Arendt through the conceptual pairs of the public and the private , and the social and the political , arriving at the conclusion that Arendt is a masculine anti-feminist. Second, Continental, French and Italian interpretations operate with Arendt s concept of natality and regard Arendt as a female genius. Finally, postmodern and queer readings highlight concepts such as unique distinctness , speech and action and pariahdom , establishing Arendt as a precursor to feminist elaborations on performativity as well as critiques of identity politics. I contend that taken together, these three feminist perspectives form a prism through which Arendt s enigmatic silence on gender becomes meaningful. At the same time, the history of contemporary feminist political theorizing emerges as a highly polyphonic tradition. Hence, there is no single, univocal feminist theory or feminism that can be applied to Arendt s texts in order to answer the question of how and why she left questions related to gender and sexuality unanswered. Instead, Arendt s account on gender and sexuality can only be grasped through multiple perspectives and multiple feminist voices.
  • Suolahti, Ida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This study explores the handing-over and exchange of Soviet prisoners of war between Finland and Germany during the Continuation War (1941 – 1944) fought between Finland and the Soviet Union. The Finnish military authorities handed over 2,900 POWs to the German authorities and received around 2,800 prisoners of war. Co-belligerency in a common war against a common enemy resulted in co-operation in prisoner-of-war matters. There were several motives for handing over POWs. First, POWs were handed over to the German troops in Finland as a work force. Second, POWs captured in Finland were exchanged for Finnish prisoners of war captured on the German fronts. They were meant as settlers in occupied Eastern Karelia. Third, ethnic Germans and Baltic POWs were to be resettled in their ethnic areas. Fourth, POWs were handed over for intelligence and counterintelligence reasons. A POW s consent for being handed over was seldom requested, but there were occasions when some of them had the possibility to either apply for being handed over, or for refusing it. It was not automatically assumed that handing over POWs would deteriorate their status or existential conditions. The international treaties did not stipulate the handing over of POWs. According to the Hague Convention, the Finnish authorities were responsible for the prisoners of war captured by the Finns. However, the Finnish surveillance authorities knew that POWs handed over to the German Security Service were being treated like criminals, rather than POWs, according to the German orders. The surveillance unit of the Finnish Headquarters (Päämajan valvontaosasto) handed over several hundred POWs to the special task force (Einsatzkommando Finnland) of the German Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst und SD). Altogether there were 520 POWs handed over for ideological reasons, for which there was no compensation given in return. This fifth category of handing over was a part of the joint ideological war. Jews in this category were handed over as suspected communists. The surveillance unit of the Finnish Headquarters did not receive orders or authorization for the handing over from any higher authorities. This study shows that the main motive for handing over POWs was the expected profit for their exchange. The party on the giving end was keen to receive compensation, where POWs were seen as a resource. The receiving party was interested in contributing to the work force and collecting intelligence information. The Germans had their own criteria for the appraisal of the POWs. Thus, on the basis of motives for handing them over, it was not possible to foresee the fate of the POWs in German hands.
  • Kallio, Pasi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This thesis examines the nature–origin, character, and temporal change–of the difference that educated and mostly male white southerners had about history at the level of historiography and other texts among themselves and in relation to “modern history” mostly in the states of Virginia and South Carolina in the early–1800s. The study compares and contrasts the postulate with two other areas of cultural discussion: New England, with some support from the Mid–Atlantic States New York and Pennsylvania, and Europe with its dominant change about culture roughly after the 1750s the thesis refers to as “modern history.” History was transformed into a major area of interest and cultural component. The method is mainly a scanning of digitalized online contemporary printed sources–leading books about history, leading contemporary journals, letter collections, and historical novels mostly produced in the U.S.–for word “history” and a variant “histor” that yields for example “historical” and “histories.” The findings have then been subjected to the study’s theoretical and methodological framework. Instead of a scientific undertaking, linguistically neutral, or grounded in material reality as usually treated in the U.S., written history overlaps with other text production and communication such as literary writing, poetics, and cultural discourse. The philosophy of modernity and scientific truth history became associated with in its modern guise can be read as a metaphysical problem and crisis of especial severity in the southern areas: modern history entailed an experiential and communicative renovation that extended to individuals and their relationship to society. Through partly deductive, partly poetic readings, the study charts the course of this change that spans from syntax to discourse, philosophy, semiotics and poetics. The concerns help reveal the tensions in modern association of reality with history that has obscured competing claims and experiences. The New England–led “bloc” departed from European skepticism. Virginia and South Carolina seldom rejected it. Modern history increased only in the 1840s, comparatively more in South Carolina. Previously, it was rare to see history as romantic, evangelical or scientific like in New England. Especially until the late–1830s, history was met with skeptical and ironic views about the history–reality relationship. Unlike often portrayed, these learned white southerners were rarely sentimentalists. Equally rare was to conflate reality and science with history for nationalist and utilitarian ends. Forgotten perspectives and agencies can be re–examined by taking into account more recent theories about history and language.
  • Vajanto, Krista (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation is about Late Iron Age (AD 800 – 1055/1300) woollen, visually colourful textile fragments. The aim is to identify the dyeing methods used in Finland during the Late Iron Age and to find the locally used dyestuffs. This dissertation focuses on the archaeological samples from inhumation burials and shipwrecks, which were analysed with visual analysis and microscopy observation. The reference material includes woollen yarns dyed with Finnish traditionally known dye sources. The archaeological samples and the dyed references were analysed chromatographically at the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands (RCE) and at the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (KIK-IRPA) in Belgium by HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography) and UHPLC (Ultra High performance liquid chromatography). Mordants were analysed at the Nanomicroscopy Center of Aalto University in Finland by SEM-EDX (Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Experimental archaeology was used to reconstruct the actual dyeing methods of red tannins, lichen orchil and plant mordants as well as to test the sustainability of these dyes and the effect of dyeing methods on wool yarns. The results suggest that three different dyeing methods were used in Late Iron Age Finland: vat dyeing, mordant dyeing and fermentation of tannins. Red tannins were obtained from tree barks such as alder buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula) and roots of common tormentil (Potentilla erecta). Red anthraquinones were obtained from local bedstraws (Galium boreale, Galium album and Galium verum). Mordants for dyes were prepared by fermenting clubmosses (Lycopodium species) and horsetails (Equisetum silvaticum and Equisetum arvense). Eagles fern (Pteridium aquilinum), common chickweed (Stellaria media) and red sorrel (Rumex acetosella) were also used in mordanting. Woad (Isatis tinctoria) was used for blue dyeing. Purple was obtained from orchil producing lichens such as rock tripe (Lasallia pustulata). Dyer s madder (Rubia tinctorum) and the yellow flavonoid dyes such as weld (Reseda luteola) were interpreted to indicate textile import. The Middle Ages offered new meanings for life and textile making, new handicraft methods and new dyestuffs, which ended the local prehistoric dyeing tradition. As a result of new cultural influences, red tannins were no longer used to strengthen yarns for warp-weighted loom nor were the blackish-blue and purple textiles dyed in vats in the Late Iron Age manner. The medieval culture provided a faster textile making process and offered horizontal looms and spinning wheels, the boiling method, alum and new dyestuffs.
  • Korkiakangas, Timo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The object of this study is the case marking of the subject in early medieval charter Latin. The work explores whether and how the nominative/accusative-type morphosyntactic alignment changed into a semantically motivated (active/inactive) alignment in Late Latin before the disappearance of the case system. It is known that the accusative originally the case of the direct object extended in Late Latin to the subject function in which Classical Latin allowed only the nominative. On this basis, it has been postulated that in Late Latin the nominative/accusative contrast was (re)semanticized so that the nominative came to encode all the Agent-like arguments and the accusative all the Patient-like arguments. The study examines which semantic and syntactic factors determine the selection of the subject case in each subject/finite verb combination in the Late Latin Charter Treebank (LLCT). The LLCT is an annotated corpus of Latin charter texts (c. 200,000 words) written in Tuscany between AD 714 and 869. The central result of the study is that the Latin of the LLCT shows a semantically based morphosyntactic alignment in those parts of nominal declension where the morphological contrast between nominative- and accusative-based forms is morphophonologically intact. The following picture of intransitivity split turns up: the low-animacy subjects of the LLCT occur more often in the accusative than do the agentive high-animacy subjects. Likewise, the accusative percentage of SO subject constructions is higher than that of A/SA subject constructions. The common denominator of the examined semantic variables is likely to be the control exercised by the subject over the verbal process. Syntactic factors seem to influence the case distribution pattern as well. For example, the immediate preverbal position of the subject implies a high retention of the nominative. The immediate preverbal position of SV(O) language is a canonical subject position where the syntactic complexity measured as dependency lengths is at its lowest and the cohesion of the verbal nucleus at its highest. Thus, a by then already marked nominative form results. The control of the subject over the verbal process (semantic variable) and the cohesion of the verbal nucleus (syntactic variable) may be partly conflated, i.e., both may affect the subject case selection in certain conditions.
  • Kannas, Vappu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    When the journals of L.M. (Lucy Maud) Montgomery (1874-1942) were first published in the 1980s, they became instantly widely read, just as her best-seller novel Anne of Green Gables had done in 1908. This can partly be explained by the literary quality and readability of the journals themselves. Not much, however, has been written about these aspects of the journals. Since our understanding of Montgomery s life is largely based on her journals, it is crucial that we take a closer look at what happens in the text. This dissertation is the first extensive study of the literary facets of Montgomery s life-writing mainly her journals, but also her letters and scrapbooks. With the focus on romance, both as a rhetorical device and subject matter, I explore the way Montgomery writes about her male and female love interests with what I term fictionalisation. By analysing the ten unpublished journal manuscripts as well as the published versions of them, The Selected Journals of L.M. Montgomery (1985- 2004) and The Complete Journals of L.M. Montgomery (2012-2013), I approach diary as a literary genre. I explore questions such as how editing affects diary writing and its analysis and how literary conventions are employed in diaries. I demonstrate that for Montgomery the conventional romance is often a façade, one that is undercut by more subversive nuances, as presented for instance in the discourse of female intimacy. Intimate relationships with women come out as a more satisfying alternative to the conventional romance plot. Nevertheless, when this material is transferred to Montgomery s fiction it turns into the expected conventional romance between a man and a woman. Montgomery s self-conscious way of using romance must therefore be seen as one of the main features of her journals and one that may also influence our readings of her novels. Familiar literary conventions found in the diary, from the two suitors motif to the suicidal lesbian, show how aware Montgomery was of the literary and social customs of her time, whether of the 1890s or the 1930s. The use of the motif of the fallen woman, the tragedy of Hamlet, the fairy tale, especially Cinderella, the gothic novel and the satirical diary novel showcase the diversity of Montgomery s art as she recreates the story of her own romances in her life-writing. Although Montgomery s journal portrays a rather traditional romantic heroine, the forlorn heroine of a terribly sad life story , in Montgomery s own words, I maintain that analysing her journals in the same detailed way we analyse her fiction expands on our understanding both of her life and her writing. What is more, our understanding of diary as a genre can benefit from what is found in Montgomery s highly elaborate journals.
  • Tallavaara, Miikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Knowledge of prehistoric human population dynamics and its drivers is important for the understanding of cultural and biological evolution. Working within the human ecological framework, this study aims to contribute to that knowledge, by reconstructing hunter-gatherer population dynamics in Europe 30,000 4000 years ago and by exploring the role of climate change in population size fluctuations. Archaeological reconstructions of population dynamics in Pleistocene Europe and Holocene Finland are based on spatio-temporal distributions of archaeological radiocarbon dates, which are taken as a proxy of human activity in time and place. The reliability and validity of the population history reconstructions are evaluated by studying potentially biasing effects of research history, taphonomic loss of archaeological material, and radiocarbon calibration. In addition to making use of these archaeological methods, this study aims to develop and evaluate systematic means to use ethnographic data and palaeoclimate model simulations to reconstruct prehistoric hunter-gatherer population dynamics. This climate envelope modelling approach is used to simulate changes in population size and range in Europe between 30,000 and 13,000 years ago, and also to a lesser extent in Holocene Finland. The results suggest that archaeological reconstructions based on the distribution of radiocarbon dates are not determined or strongly affected by biases related to research history. Instead, the reconstructions appear to reflect a true demographic signal from the past. However, radiocarbon calibration introduces high-frequency variation in the reconstructions, which has to be taken into account before any demographic interpretations are made. Due to this non-demographic variation, the method may not be able to reliably detect short-term variation in past population size and it is thus currently better suited to tracking long-term trends in population history. The taphonomic loss of archaeological material can potentially have a strong impact on the distribution of archaeological radiocarbon dates, but the current methods of taphonomic correction may not sufficiently take into account the geographical variability in taphonomic factors. In the future, it is therefore important to further develop taphonomic correction methods. The ability of the climate envelope model simulation of human population to replicate archaeological patterns indicates that this novel approach is suitable for studying long-term hunter-gatherer population dynamics. The method allows not only the exploration of relative changes in population size, but also the estimation of absolute population density and size. It may also be able to detect potential inadequacies in the geographical distribution of archaeological data. In the Finnish data, the correlation between the archaeological population size reconstruction and palaeoclimatic data suggests that the climate was an important driver of long-term hunter-gatherer population dynamics, and that population appears to have changed in equilibrium with climate. The impact of the climate on human population was mostly indirect, mediated by its impacts on environmental production and consequently on food availability. The important role of climate is also supported by the correspondence between archaeological population reconstruction and the climate envelope model simulation of past human population size, which assumes long-term population dynamics to be in equilibrium with the climate. This correspondence also suggests that the impact of the climate on terrestrially adapted hunter-gatherer population dynamics has remained relatively constant from the Late Pleistocene to the present.
  • Virtanen, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The academic book review genre as polyvocal interaction This thesis investigates three linguistic resources used for creating an impression of polyvocality (multivoicedness) in Finnish texts representing the genre of academic book review. The polyvocal functionality of the resources is analyzed in relation to the core actions, action sequences and macro-level activity phases characteristic of the genre. The core actions consist of discourse representation ( speech reporting ), evaluation, questioning and improvement suggestion. The linguistic resources examined are 1) structures governed by the verb "jäädä" to remain (e.g. "luku jää irralliseksi" the chapter remains disjointed ); 2) structures in the conditional perfect tense (e.g. "luvun olisi voinut sitoa paremmin kokonaisuuteen" the chapter could have been more integrated with the whole ); and 3) structures containing a subordinate interrogative clause (e.g. "voi kysyä, toimiiko luku kokonaisuuden osana" one can ask whether the chapter works as part of the whole) . Polyvocality is defined as the inclusion of at least two voices or perspectives individual or generic in discourse. The study investigates, first of all, the lexico-grammatical characteristics of these structures in relation to the actions they perform in their sequential contexts. The second goal is to analyse what kinds of impressions of polyvocality the resources (and their subtypes) evoke in the data and how the textual voices are positioned in relation to each other. The general theoretical and methodological framework of the study is dialogistically-oriented linguistic discourse analysis. The data consist of 123 Finnish book reviews published in four journals in the human sciences in 2006 2009. The polyvocal functionality of the linguistic resources is examined from the viewpoint of double dialogicality: written texts like all forms of discourse are simultaneously seen as manifestations of global (i.e. communal, cultural) as well as local (i.e. situational) dialogue. Analytical tools for exploring the social actions and activities performed in the data are drawn from genre studies focusing on macro- and meso-level activities and from discourse studies focusing on micro-level patterns such as QUESTION - ANSWER, CLAIM - JUSTIFICATION and PROBLEM - SOLUTION. The study shows that the book review genre is a three-way dialogue between the book reviewer, the book author and the scientific community. The subordinate interrogative structures bring to the fore the voice of the author. The interrogative structures used in discourse representation are typical of the data, and they reflect the general question answer scheme in scientific studies. In addition, the study shows how certain interrogative structures resemble declarative that -structures and highlight the voice of the reviewer as a summarizer of the study (e.g. "tutkimus osoittaa, kuinka vs että - -" the study shows that/how ). Yet another subtype of the interrogative structure is used for questioning the truthfulness or intelligibility of the book and, thus, for construing disalignment between the reviewer and the author. The "jäädä" to remain and conditional structures are shown to be, above all, resources for reviewing the study against a backdrop of shared communal norms, values and expectations. Both structures express disalignment between two viewpoints, usually between reviewer, who acts as a representative of the scientific community, and the book s author. Sometimes, however, the reviewer s and the community s viewpoints may also be disaligned in which case it is not the features of the book but the communal practices that are criticized. A further commonality between these two structures is the meaning of retrospectiveness: the book is treated as finalized (i.e. published) so that it cannot be revised anymore. From the viewpoint of the activity phases in the book review genre, the study shows that the typical uses and sequential contexts of the linguistic resources investigated vary according to the activity phase. The study also argues that the way in which actions are linguistically formulated is dependent not only on the genre context but also on the micro-level sequential context. For example, the way in which an improvement is linguistically realized (e.g. conditional clause with deontic vs optative verb) varies according to the type and formation of the adjacent action (e.g. approval vs criticism; mild vs harsh criticism). Furthermore, the study demonstrates that the order of the adjacent actions may affect the interpretation of the functional relationship between them. For example, the sequence criticism improvement realizes the more general PROBLEM - SOLUTION pattern, whereas the opposite sequence (improvement criticism) realizes a CLAIM - JUSTIFICATION pattern.
  • Kauppinen, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study discusses the language, especially the communicative structures, of Greek dialogue epigrams. The central research questions include: Who are the speakers? How are they identified? How does the recipient know when the speaker changes? How is the turn-division implied? What are the functions of the speakers? In the study, all the dialogue verse inscriptions are collected and divided according to typology that was created for this study and which is based on the pair structure. The most common adjacency pair of dialogue epigrams is a question answer pair, and many of the elements studied here are features of question structures, but other pairs, such as greeting pairs, are also taken into account. The dialogues contain either one adjacency pair (type 1), several of them (type 2) or longer, often narrative units that form pair-like structures (type 3). The types, their variants and features of the language characteristic of each are discussed using examples. Elements such as addresses, imperatives and particles are central to my argument, and speaker roles and pair structure variants are also discussed. Non-inscriptional epigrams are given as parallels for each type, and the mutual influence between them and the verse inscriptions is discussed using examples. The reception situation and possible performance of the epigrams is also discussed, and on the basis of various examples, it is stated that the representation of the speakers often implies the complex reception situation, part of which was most probably reading the epigram aloud. Epigraphic methods are used and combined, and the linguistic aspect brings a new perspective to epigraphic studies. The comparison of the verse inscriptions and the literary ones contributes to ongoing discussions on the epigram genre and its inscriptional counterparts. The material discussed is mainly from the Roman period, a phase less well discussed in recent epigram studies, and the study thus adds to our knowledge of the genre and the mutual influence between the post-Hellenistic verse inscriptions and non-inscriptional epigrams.
  • Vogt, Robert (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Theory and Typology of Narrative Unreliability (Theorie und Typologie narrativer Unzuverlässigkeit) „The theory of unreliable narration is obviously one of the current boom-sectors of what Manfred Jahn and Ansgar Nünning have called the ‘narratological industry’“, Tom Kindt (2008: 129) writes. In a similar vein, D’hoker and Martens (2008: 2) detect „an almost uncanny centrality and importance“of the concept in the field of narratology. Indeed, debates concerning the categorization of different forms of unreliable narration, the scope of the concept and explanation models based on different approaches enjoy wide currency. In the study, I aim to develop a theory and typology of narrative unreliability. Following McHale (1981: 185) that “[b]efore a phenomenon can be explained it must first exist for those who would explain it, which means that it must be constituted as a category with boundaries and a name“, chapter II establishes a typology of narrative unreliability. Claiming that the concept of unreliability is used in different ways in narratology, I distinguish three basic forms. First, unreliability can be understood as a trait of a homodiegetic narrator or a focalizer which manifests as a questionable account or interpretation of the events in the narrative world (ironic unreliability). Second, unreliability can be regarded as a feature of the narrative discourse which leaves open whether or not a narrator or a focalizer depicts or evaluates the narrative world in an adequate way (ambiguous unreliability). Third, unreliability can designate a feature of the narrative discourse which leads the reader astray about the actual events in the fictional world (alterated unreliability). Having defined the field of inquiry, chapter III sets out to develop a model to describe and explain these different forms of narrative unreliability. After addressing some of the theoretical stumbling blocks narratologists face when theorizing narrative unreliability in fictional works, chapters IV and V I outline how insights from literary possible-worlds and cognitive narratology might help to develop a better understanding of how readers construct fictional universes in texts featuring ironic, ambiguous, and alterated unreliability. According to literary possible-worlds theory, fictional works create their own modal system of reality which consists of a multitude of worlds. In the center of each fictional universe is the so-called ‘textual actual world’ (TAW) which is surrounded by the different characters’, focalizer’s or narrator’s mental worlds. Within this theoretical framework, narrative unreliability occurs in literary works when the narrator’s or focalizer’s mental world is in conflict with TAW. As the relations between different worlds within a fictional universe are the result of interpretative processes, I argue that the main difference between the three forms of narrative unreliability lies in the way a reader makes sense of world conflicts: how he distinguishes different worlds, how he detects conflicting worlds and how he puts conflicting worlds in a hierarchical order to determine what is fact in the fictional universe. Since „possible-world approaches do not ultimately treat fictional worlds as cognitive products and do not deal with cognitive processing“ (Semino 2003: 89), chapter V addresses the question of how a reader constructs fictional universes in unreliable narratives. By recourse to insights from cognitive science – including approaches belonging to the “information processing paradigm” as well as those belonging to the mental “disposition paradigm” – I explain how readers distinguish different worlds, detect conflicting worlds and put these into a hierarchical order. In order to illustrate the scope and variety of narrative unreliability, I discuss six British and American literary works in chapters VI to VIII. Chapter VI focuses on ironic unreliability in Charles Dickens’ David Copperfield and in Kazuo Ishiguro’s The Remains of the Day. Chapter VII analyses ambiguous unreliability in Ford Madox Ford’s The Good Soldier and in Bret Easton Ellis’ American Psycho. Ambrose Bierce’s “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” and Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club serve as examples of alterated unreliable narration (chapter VIII). In chapter IX, I discuss the metacognitive dimension of narrative unreliability. Assuming that „[narratives] operat[e] as an instrument of mind in the construction of reality“ (Bruner 1991: 6), I claim that narrative unreliability highlights and reflects cognitive processing of a narrator, of a focalizer, or of a reader in different ways. While ironic unreliability puts the emphasis on the idiosyncratic ways of world-making of a cognitive center (either of a homodiegetic narrator or of a focalizer), alterated unreliability with its surprising plot twist stimulates readers to go backwards and monitor how he or she was led down a garden path. I analyse Ian McEwan’s Atonement to demonstrate that the characters’ (mistaken) attempts to construct reality (ironic-unreliable focalization) is mirrored by the reader’s mistaken reconstruction of the facts and events in the fictional world (alterated-unreliable narration). The study concludes with a summary of the most important insights and a brief reflection on how the theory can be applied to other media such as film, comics or video games (chapter X).
  • Donner, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines the formation of the domestic garden in Finland 1870-1930. The purpose is to open new perspectives into how gardens, especially domestic gardens, served as a tool in building of the new nation and at the same time to explore the role of women in the process. The study is based on biographical material concerning Aino Sibelius (1871-1969) and her garden in Ainola, Järvenpää and the garden writing of Jenny Elfving (1870-1950), a teacher and prominent actor in the field of horticulture. Contemporary garden literature and articles in newspapers and magazines also served as material for this inquiry. Popular enlightenment was an essential part of the project of nation building. The notion of gardening as a tool for improving the people became one of its topics and spread widely in Finland in the last decades of the 19th century. A new type of garden for the people took shape in the popular garden literature that was published by the end of the century. This discussion links homes, gardens and women together. The analysis of Jenny Elfving´s and Aino Sibelius´s agency shows that women played vital role in the formation of the domestic garden. By hoeing and weeding, planting and tending, writing and teaching these two women defined the garden´s physical and intellectual boundaries. Their work in and for the gardens formed and reflected meanings that society assigned to gardens. Through this process the vegetable patch intended as the place for women, grew into a domestic garden, which became associated with the tools of craft and design, utility and beauty and feelings as well as the work done in the garden.
  • Reenkola, Kaarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    I WANT TO ACT FOR MY COUNTRY Heikki Renvall as a mediator of transnational cultural phenomena and ideas in early 20th century Europe This dissertation focuses on Heikki Renvall's (1872-1955) role as a mediator of transnational cultural and political phenomena in early 20th-century Europe. As a national economist, he was paying attention to the factors of social reform. As one of the leaders of the political group called the Young Finns, he was able to carry out his political as well as his cultural ambitions. The aim of the dissertation is to explore which nation-building social and cultural elements Renvall was involved in and influenced by in terms of the more advanced cultures he was connected with. By examining the similarity of the ideologically based functions in Europe and in Renvall's home country Finland, his activity as a mediator shows, as well as the reception of his apparently too modern ideas. The framework for this study draws from history of ideologies and more specifically from the research on cultural transfer focused on the comparison between apparently parallel concepts. In this study, a microhistorical approach is used in examining Renvall's letters to his spouse, the opera singer Aino Ackté, as a biographical source material. As a scientist Renvall published up-to-date articles and lectures covering his field, discussing the studies at universities abroad, mainly in Berlin, Munich, Paris and London. His world of ideas appears in this material. Despite his propagandist activity, which did not go unnoticed in Finland and where the Russian government was forcing its national tendences, he was nominated as the first managing editor-in-chief of the daily newspaper Helsingin Sanomat in 1904. He was selected for this role because of his leading position among the Young Finns. He grounded yet another newspaper Suomalainen Kansa in 1907 to support his constitutional political mission. Renvall was fascinated by the publicity that French newspapers offered as a role model for the Finnish situation defending its threatened autonomy in 1903. He was elected as a member of the new parliament and was then able to carry through his political ambitions. In this study I bring out cultural phenomena, ideas and mode of action that were developed and modified in forcefully industrializing centrals of early 20th century Europe which Renvall seek to integrate for the benefit of his own national building country. The main argument of this study is that, as a mediator, Renvall suggested reforms that were way ahead of his time in Finland. He could be called as an intellectual cosmopolitan because he managed to create an international network while studying and travelling in Europe.
  • Reimann, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In Estonian jazz history, the period from 1944 to 1953 was dynamic and contradictory, when the official status of jazz changed from a highly prized musical form during the postwar era to musica non grata by 1950. While jazz symbolised victory and friendship with the Allies in the immediate postwar period, subsequent Soviet ideological campaigns targeted jazz as the focus of Soviet ideological attacks against the entire Western world and its values. Despite Soviet power s attempts to obliterate jazz from cultural life, rather than disappear, jazz music moved into more secret private spaces. Known as Sovietisation in Estonian history and as Late-Stalinism in Soviet history, this period witnessed extensive social changes in Estonia. On the one hand, throughout this era, the Soviet occupying regime aimed consolidate its power base. On the other hand, Late-Stalinism is known for its intense ideological pressure, which for creative intelligence meant a tightening of creative freedom established through the ideological doctrine of Zhdanovshchina. This article-based dissertation on Soviet Estonian jazz history offers new insights into the meaning of this popular cultural form of Western origin and how it functions in the Soviet society. I argue that the meaning of jazz culture in Soviet Estonia emerges from the dynamic interaction between Soviet socio-political forces, the actions of cultural agents and the traditions of jazz culture. As the study demonstrates, the Great Friendship decree of 1948 led to the rupture of the music and the disappearance of the word jazz from the public space. However, cultural actors who selected their strategies of action from the available cultural repertoire played the crucial role in shaping jazz culture. The study s focus on the everyday life of jazz musicians reveals that self-actualisation was the driving force feeding their motivation. The musicians everyday strategies for self-actualisation include touring, musical learning and listening, ritualising, humour, inventiveness, curiosity, dedication, and intellectualising jazz. Our current understanding of jazz tradition is related to what can be called the jazz-as-a-tradition paradigm. This paradigm refers to a relatively recently constructed overarching American-centred narrative which historians, critics and musicians have consistently drawn around jazz. The example of Estonian jazz tries to reconstruct the jazz-as-a-tradition paradigm and to create its own array of cultural and historical meanings. The important schemata identifying jazz in Estonia are classical/light, professional/amateur, bourgeois/proletarian, swing/bebop, and dance/concert. In addition, I aim to provide theoretical schemata for investigating and interpreting jazz culture under the Soviet regime. I expect these schemata to facilitate our understaning of the particularities of the Soviet cultural model and the translation of the essence of jazz culture in Soviet Estonia to a broader international readership. As a primary conceptual outcome of my dissertation, I propose a holistic framework called cultural spaces of action . This framework advances the sociological model of private/public distinction, which is of crucial importance in understanding Soviet society. Instead of a simplistic dualistic model, I provide a four-dimensional framework which highlights (1) the interaction of jazz culture and state power, and (2) the distinction of forms within jazz culture. According to this model, jazz culture existed as journalistic discourse, as professional concert music, as amateur dance music, and as an intellectualised formal educational practice. The benefit of the model is its ability to avoid the common strategies of confrontation between Soviet power and culture , where power is perceived to supress creative people, and to disclose the paradoxical nature of jazz in the Soviet Union, where jazz was concurrently forbidden, but never silent. This interdisciplinary study benefits from multiple research traditions; it subscribes to the principles of New Cultural History in its emphasis on meaning and interpretations. These interpretations are guided by the central ideas of constructionist history, which states that history stems from the dialogue between the historian and the past, born of the historian s imaginative and constructive engagement with the evidence. As a study of a global musical form in a national historical context and under regional socio-political conditions, it deploys the ideas of transnational history: the study decentralises the idea of the national and amalgamates perspectives and contexts of Estonian, Soviet and jazz historiographical traditions. The methodological approach also includes microhistory the intensive historical investigation of a relatively well-defined smaller object. I refer to source pluralism as the main research method, as it combines fragments from various sources including archival materials (radio broadcasts, newspapers), and interviews, as well as the recorded memories and the private documents of the people who experienced Soviet life.
  • Huhtamäki, Martina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This thesis explores the prosodic features of questions in conversations among speakers of Helsinki Swedish. The aim is to find out how the participants used such features to design and ascribe utterances as questions, as well as to signal turn endings in them. The research contributes to the current understanding on how prosodic and other features are used in combination to create meanings in conversation. This work is a compilation thesis comprising four papers and a summarizing report. The data consist of six recordings of everyday conversations among Swedish speakers from the capital region of Finland. The conversations are multi-person conversations. The participants comprise 29 females and males between the ages of nine and approximately 60. Utterances in the data are defined as questions in line with the following criteria: 1) they belong to the epistemic domain of the recipient, and 2) they form the first pair-part of an adjacency pair consisting of a question and the response. This definition includes declarative clauses that are used to request information when the topic is in the epistemic domain of the recipient. However, it excludes rhetorical questions (because the questioner then has more knowledge than the recipient), as well as questions that are used to request action. The questions are all one-unit, syntactically complete utterances. The focus varies in each of the four studies: in the first one it is on 240 questions with varying syntax; in the second it is on 110 questions with non-interrogative syntax; in the third it is on 191 questions with a non-falling final intonation; and in the fourth it is on 52 questions consisting of the free-standing va, what . The theoretical and methodological framework is interactional linguistics, and the methods used are both conversation analysis and phonetic analysis. The research is qualitative. The data are transcribed according to the traditions of conversation analysis, with some added signs indicating prosodic features. The phonetic analysis, for which the Praat program was used, includes both auditory and acoustic elements. The identity of the participants is protected through the anonymization of all recognizable information in the transcripts. The participants were aware that their conversations were being recorded, and gave their permission for the recording to be used in research. The results show the many functions for which questions are used, and that prosodic features are employed for various purposes. Most questions have a final falling intonation in these conversations in Helsinki Swedish, but there are also instances of final rising and level intonation. Final intonation has several functions, and is used together with other features to distinguish between utterances inside the question category. For example, a rising final intonation can be used in a question that paves the way for another action, and a wide pitch span can be used to signal an affective stance. The syntax, the lexical choices and the relation of the question to the conversational context are also indicative of its function, as are the epistemic relations between the participants. However, prosodic features are not used to signal questions as a sentence type that is separate from assertions, for example. In sum, final intonation is just one of several prosodic features projecting a possible point of completion. The other features include a slower rate of speech and diminished loudness, possibly a focal accent and a changed voice quality. Key words: questions, prosody, intonation, Helsinki Swedish, interactional linguistics, conversations
  • Lehto, Anu (Uusfilologinen yhdistys, 2015)
    The study assesses the diachronic development of complexity in Early Modern English parliamentary acts and proclamations between 1491 and 1707. Unlike previous research that focuses on syntactic complexity, my thesis forms an inclusive view by defining complexity as the number, variety and organisation of linguistic elements. Further, the study incorporates new linguistic features for the investigation of complexity and employs corpus linguistic methods to explore in more detail how these features develop in historical legal writing. The analysis is carried out in a self-compiled corpus, the Corpus of Early Modern English Statutes (1491 1707), containing parliamentary acts and proclamations. The survey also relies on genre analysis and historical pragmatics, emphasising the communicative context and socio-historical setting. The study forms a framework for analysing complexity in legal language that extends to the textual, syntactic and lexical level. The examined elements on the textual level are text structure, layout and text types. On the syntactic level, the study surveys sentence length and punctuation, coordination, binomials and multinomials and subordination. Finally, on the phrasal level lexical bundles are scrutinised in order to form a corpus-driven view of repeated patterns in the data. The analysis shows that the historical legal texts are systematic in their structure and syntax. The documents use a three-part structure including a preamble, an enactment clause and the actual orders with possible provisions. The structure is related to syntax and layout, as new subsections are signalled, for instance, by "and that"-clauses preceded by paragraph marks. Additionally, sentence length increases diachronically in the data, but punctuation and layout become more specific and develop to organise the texts into smaller units. Coordinated clauses with "and" decline in the material, reflecting a shift from orality to literacy. Subordination increases in proclamations and declines in acts, but the coordinating and subordinating clauses are repeated and display distinct functions in both subgenres. Additionally, binomials become more common, and the grammatical assessment of lexical bundles shows that noun and prepositional phrase fragments prevail in the data. All in all, the legal documents are packed with complexity features, illustrating elements of informational and formal writing. The subgenres, however, employ formulaic structures and textual, syntactic and lexical repetition that make the texts more predictable. Further, reflecting developments in the socio-historical context, many diachronic changes in the acts occur at the turn of the sixteenth century, when the texts are printed and distributed to wider audiences outside the government.