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  • Ito, Sanae (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Assurbanipal, the last great king of the Assyrian Empire (934-609 BC), ruled from 668 BC until at least 630 BC. He had to spend four years suppressing a revolt by ama - umu-ukīn, his older brother and the king of Babylon (667-648 BC), but his reign was much longer than his predecessors and he controlled almost all the area of the Ancient Near East. One of the essential bodies of research material on his reign is his correspondence, which has never before been studied in detail because much of it has been published in cuneiform copies only. His extant correspondence consists of 359 letters: 72 letters from him (the so-called royal letters) and 287 letters to him. Royal letters are particularly rare in the Assyrian correspondence and Assurbanipal s royal letters outnumber those of his predecessors, hence this dissertation focuses on them. The letters deal with political, military, and diplomatic matters through the king s point of view and in his words. The aim of this research has been to find out what image of himself Assurbanipal tried to convey in his letters and how he utilized the image in order to further Assyrian policies. The dissertation uses philological method and also takes advantage of the electronic database of the Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project (Helsinki), which contains the majority of texts of the Neo-Assyrian period in transliteration. Most of Assurbanipal s royal letters were written during the revolt and its aftermath, and sent to Babylonia, Elam, and the Sealand, which were deeply involved in the revolt. Since the most common recipients of the missives were citizens, Assurbanipal clearly considered it particularly important to address the population at large when the revolt shook the foundation of the empire. As the royal letters originate in the state archives in the capital of Assyria, Nineveh, most of them are archival copies or drafts. Two languages and two scripts (Neo-Assyrian, Neo-Babylonian) were used in them, but the drafts would have first been drawn up in Neo-Assyrian, and later translated into Neo-Babylonian, perhaps first in Assyrian script and only later in Babylonian script. Assurbanipal had dialogue with both adversaries and adherents, emphasized the favours he had done, and described himself as a benevolent and merciful king who was capable of establishing justice, peace, and equality in the realm. He involved Nippur and Uruk in Assyrian military activities against rebels and settled a sibling rivalry between the governor of Ur and his predecessor. He continued a conciliatory policy towards Babylon even during the revolt in order to resolve the conflict peacefully. He tried to incorporate foreign countries into Assyrian control by treaties and sometimes exerted direct pressure on them with thinly veiled threats. Some countries came under Assyrian rule at their own initiative in order to acquire military and political gains from Assyria. Throughout the royal letters, he stressed his devotion to the gods and their support for his rule. Especially A ur, supreme god of Assyria, was an important figure in the letters.
  • Toivakka, Svetlana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Suomalainen koloratuurisopraano Alma Fohström (1856-1936) oli yksi 1800-luvun lopun ja 1900-luvun alun tunnetuimpia oopperalaulajattaria, varsinainen primadonna. Hänen musiikkikoulutuksensa pohjautui italialaiseen bel canto -traditioon; hänelle koloratuurilaulu oli helppoa. Laulajattaren ääniala ulottui matalasta a:sta korkeaan f-säveleen (a f3). Alma Fohströmin ohjelmistoon kuului 40 oopperaroolia, joista menestyksekkäimpiä olivat Donizettin Lucia sekä Verdin Violetta ja Gilda. Kosmopoliittisen uransa aikana Alma Fohström loi nimeä neljässä maanosassa: Euroopassa, Aasiassa sekä Pohjois- ja Etelä-Amerikassa. Hän vieraili mm. Milanon La Scalassa, Lontoon Covent Gardenissa, Wienin Hovioopperassa, Rio de Janeiron Teatro Imperialissa sekä Buenos Airesin Colón-teatterissa. Alma Fohström teki kaksi Yhdysvaltain-matkaa ja esiintyi Washingtonin Valkoisessa talossa sekä eri osavaltioiden pääkaupungeissa. Hän oli ensimmäinen suomalainen primadonna, joka lauloi New Yorkin Metropolitanissa, näytäntökaudella 1888-1889. Hänet kiinnitettiin Moskovan keisarillisen oopperan, nykyisen Bol oi-teatterin solistiksi vuosiksi 1890-1899. Laulajataruran jälkeen hän toimi opettajana Pietarin, Berliinin ja Helsingin konservatorioissa. Vanhaa oopperatraditiota ei ole vaalittu ja uutta luotu pelkästään suurissa ja kuuluisissa oopperataloissa. Onneksi on säilynyt kuvauksia niinikään paikoista, jotka ovat jääneet nimekkäämpien varjoon. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan Alma Fohströmin toimintaa suurelta osin juuri niissä. Primadonnalla tarkoitetaan Alma Fohströmin kohdalla hänen toimintaansa solistina oopperaseurueissa sekä juhlitun laulajattaren erikoisasemaa omana aikanaan. Työ keskittyy erityisesti Alma Fohströmin ammatilliseen profiiliin; se jäsentyy kolmeen osa-alueeseen: laulajattaren varsinaisiin taitoihin, tukiverkostoon sekä yhteiskunnalliseen statukseen. Analyysiluvuissa häntä verrataan muihin hänen aikakautensa kuuluisiin kansainvälisiin primadonniin, kuten Adelina Pattiin, Marchella Sembrichiin ja Félia Litvinneen sekä kotimaassa Emmy Achtéhen. Tämä työ pyrkii olemaan kontribuutio esittävän säveltaiteen historian tutkimukseen ja erityisesti primadonna-traditioon. Väitöskirjassa rekonstruoidaan Alma Fohströmin elämäntyötä tarkastelemalla sen mikro- ja makrotasojen vuorovaikutussuhteita erilaisista perspektiiveistä. Näitä perspektiivejä kutsutaan mikrohistorialliseksi katseeksi, joka kohdistuu Helsingin yliopiston juhlasaliin, oopperatalojen katsomoihin ja kulissien taa.
  • Niemi, Jarkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines conceding as a social practice in Finnish conversation as well as the linguistic structures that are used to implement it, such as "voihan se olla" it may (well) be . The four case studies that are analysed are connected by a concessive sequence of turns at talk. In this sequence, the concessor concedes the prior speaker s point of view as (potentially) correct and either implies reserve or subsequently asserts a contrastive point of view. The data consist of telephone calls and video-recorded conversations between acquaintances and family members, as well as conversations from internet forums and a chat room. This study applies the method of Conversation Analysis and adopts the orientation of Construction Grammar on linguistic structures as holistic combinations of form and function. The central research questions of this analysis are 1) what gets done with the linguistic structures that the study examines, 2) what are the social, interactional, and sequential factors involved in the choice of a specific format, and 3) what is the relationship between linguistic constructions and social interaction. The functions of the linguistic structures analysed in this study differ in several ways. The concessor may comment on the truthfulness of the prior speaker s statement or its implied consequences. He or she may modify the prior speaker s statement or assert agreement without modification. In addition, concession can imply either independent knowledge about the subject at hand, or a lack of that knowledge. In the data, the more minimal concessive structures (such as "voi olla" may be and "se voi olla" it may be ) are crystallized so that even a small difference in form results in a difference in function. By contrast, more elaborated clausal concessions allow for variation in their lexical form while retaining their function. This study reveals the two faces of conceding in interaction. While conceding may advance the speakers agreement and mutual understanding, it also may serve as a resource to express disagreement and to represent the other speaker s point of view as rather foolish. In addition, this study demonstrates that concessive structures carry a frame semantic meaning of a larger concessive sequence. The recipients of a concession can therefore anticipate disagreement on the basis of the concessive move. As a result, constructions are to be understood as established practices through which speakers perform and interpret social actions as well as projections of upcoming actions.
  • Viitamäki, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study discusses poetic communication in the context of maḥfil-i samāʿ (an assembly of listening to sung poetry) among South Asian Sufis. Drawing from both textual and ethnographic materials, the study explores the relationship between Sufi practice, poetic expression, and musical performance. It presents a context-sensitive reading of a multilingual (Persian, Hindi, Urdu) poetic corpus that takes into account its literary characteristics, the framework of Sufi practice, as well as the various techniques the qawwali musicians utilize in delivering the meaning of a poetic text. The study comprises three parts that are distinguished by their sources and methodological approaches. The first part discusses the dynamics of samāʿ as a meditative and ecstatic Sufi practice, and it is based on close reading of textual sources in Arabic, Persian and Urdu, written between the fourteenth and twentieth centuries. Throughout these texts, the authors have characterized samāʿ as a spiritual practice whose transformative effect is sudden, even violent. The second part examines twentieth-century anthologies of qawwali poetry and shows the extreme fluidity of the poetic repertoires; the performers are fairly free to choose the texts they sing as long as they bring about the desired effect in the listeners. The study of poetry in samāʿ, however, is bound to remain suggestive, if it is solely based on textual sources. Each performance of a poetic text is uniquely shaped in the interaction between the listeners and singers. For this reason, the third part of the study covers an ethnographic analysis of four samāʿ assemblies that took place in Delhi and Hyderabad. While the focus is on the poetic text, the analysis takes into account the physical settings of the occasions, the hierarchies that regulate the interaction of the participants, as well as the economics involved. The analysis reveals how the qawwals intertwine musical and poetic conventions in order to continuously alternate between tension and release during maḥfil-i samāʿ. In this manner, they intensify the listenersʼ feelings and emotions which are then ideally integrated into their spiritual practice. The impassioned poetic expression that addresses god as the beloved also constitutes a significant religious discourse that complements the more systematic approach found in Islamic theological and legal prose writings.
  • Virtanen, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The dissertation consists of four articles published in peer-reviewed linguistic journals and an introduction. The aim of the study is to provide a description of the formal means of expressing semantic transitivity in the Eastern dialects of the Mansi language (EM), as well as of the variation between the different means. The study is connected to Uralic studies and functional-linguistic typology. Mansi is a Uralic language spoken in Western Siberia. Unfortunately, its Eastern dialects died out some decades ago, but there are still approximately 2700 speakers of Northern Mansi. Because it is no longer possible to access any live data on EM, the study is based on written folkloric materials gathered by Artturi Kannisto about 100 years ago. From the typological point of view, Mansi is an agglutinative language with many inflectional and derivational suffixes. The study is based on information structural analysis, particularly the terminology and definitions proposed by Lambrecht (1994). The approach is based on three main pragmatic functions, primary topic, secondary topic and focus, and on how they correlate with syntactic functions and how their morphological markedness or unmarkedness is due to information structural factors. Further, the notion of topicality is connected to the concept of Differential Object Marking (DOM) and the observations of Iemmolo (2010/2011). According to the data of this study, DOM is based on topicality in EM. Finally, the analysis is expanded to include variation between the active voice and the passive voice and variation in three-participant constructions. The topic of the study can be divided into three different sub-topics: 1) marking of the DO, 2) variation in three-participant constructions and 3) variation between the active voice and the passive voice. The main result of the study is a complex description of how the whole system of expressing semantic transitivity in EM is based on the same principles. Among others, the results of the study also show some new aspects that differ from the recent studies: for example, possessive marked direct objects do not always trigger the objective verb conjugation.
  • Rastenberger, Anna-Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The dissertation deals with the internationalisation of contemporary Finnish photographic art over the past three decades. The study is composed of five research articles (2006 - 2013) framed by a theory-oriented introduction. It examines the discourses and definitions related to the internationalisation of Finnish photographic art. The material informing the research consists of public documents, text, and images, along with 20 thematic interviews with actors in the field of photography. Each of the four chapters making up the theoretical introduction takes the perspective of distinct research tradition. The first considers photographic art research as a part of cultural studies, while the second considers it in connection with discourse-oriented visual studies. The third chapter deals with field research in the art realm, and the fourth adopts the perspective of contemporary interview-based research. Each of the five articles focuses on the construction of a distinct international or internationalisation project, along with the motives and goals behind it and that case project s impact on the field of domestic Finnish photography. In the articles, the cases for study of the photographic field are reconstructed for study in light of diverse concepts. The research examines, for instance, how the concepts national , modern , and post-modern were used in the early 1990s to describe the way in which photographic art should be approached. In the same era, photographic art education played a central role in setting the boundaries honoured by the photography field and establishing the relationship to internationalisation. The article highlights the notion of generation as a concept of struggle. It often appears in the context of the education system. Later, in the early 2000s, the increased international acclaim of Finnish photographic art drew attention to definitions of photographic artist , photographic work of art , and curator . With the new millennium, an economic logic spread in the art world and came to influence art-related discourse and practices. The cultural policy debate highlighted the economic importance of culture and the arts; the economic value of art became king. Two of the articles discuss the concept of brand, thereby rounding out the analysis with consideration of the present day. They observe branding of the visual arts as a contemporary but also historical phenomenon. The dissertation highlights that, even if there have been frequent efforts to manifest consensus and unity within the Finnish photographic art scene in the context of internationalisation projects, the discussions dealing with them have encouraged the actors in the field of photography to articulate their own views and thereby bring out the polyphony of photographic art and the divergent objectives of the actors.
  • Lindfors, Anne-Marie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Abstract This study investigates the translation of anglophone West African novels in Finland. It addresses the question of what happens to the linguistic and cultural hybridity present in the source texts when these are translated into Finnish. Anglophone West African novels often contain words borrowed from local African languages as well as unfamiliar cultural features and nonstandard language varieties, which can be called africanised English. The writers of these texts bend the language of the ex-colonisers to add local colour to their texts and to make the language better express local life. In addition, the use of africanised English may aim at weakening the hegemonic position of English, dismantling the colonial structures in the former colonies and changing the old stereotypes about Africa, i.e. it may have political and ideological functions. Thus far, fifteen anglophone West African novels have been translated into Finnish. The material of the study consists of twelve of these, nine from Nigeria and three from Ghana, and their translations into Finnish. The selected novels were written by nine authors, translated by nine different translators and published in Finland between 1963 and 2010. My hypothesis was that africanised English in hybrid West African novels has been normalised at least to a certain extent in the target texts, as there are no corresponding language varieties in Finnish, and also because the normalisation of linguistic and cultural difference is a general trend in translation practice. The linguistic and cultural details of African source texts and the translation of these features into Finnish have not received much attention in Finland before this study. The method of analysis was descriptive and comparative. I first studied what authorial techniques anglophone West African writers used to africanise their texts, after which pairs of target-text solutions and source-text problems were extracted and the translation relationships between them described. The texts were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively, with a view to discovering general patterns in the relationships which would make it possible to establish the concepts of translation and to speculate on the nature of the norms that have governed the translating of the texts. The period of 47 years covered by my material was expected to make it possible to detect changes that may have taken place in Finnish translation practice and norms. Contrary to my expectation, the results of the analysis show that the translators of the twelve texts were inclined to retain the hybridity present in the source texts (foreignisation), but it was also observed that more recent target texts showed a trend towards less marked renderings (domestication). Both translation approaches have their problems: foreignised target texts may be considered uninteresting and even incomprehensible by target readers, while domesticated translations may affect the functions of the postcolonial source texts by maintaining the prevailing attitudes towards Africa that circulate in the target culture.
  • Biström, Anna Elisabeth (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Doing Authenticity. The Making of Eva Dahlgren in the Press and in Dahlgren's lyrics 1980-2000. The study analyses the "construction" - the produced images - of the popular Swedish singer-songwriter Eva Dahlgren (born 1960). A selection of Dahlgren's performed lyrics as well as press material from the beginning of her career (1980) to the year 2000 is examined. In this process, images are revealed not only of Eva Dahlgren, but also of authenticity, often through the image of Dahlgren as an authentic and unique author of her artistic work. Therefore the study not only offers new insight into Dahlgren's lyrics and musical career, but also contributes to scholarly discussions concerning authenticity and authorship, especially in rock culture. With female artists traditionally often excluded from the notions of authenticity and 'real' rock music, the study also discusses the place of women in rock culture. With contextualizing and thematic textual analysis as its main method, the study confirms that Dahlgren's career has been a constant quest for authenticity. The most interesting result, however, is that "the authentic" reveals itself in different, even contradictory ways. Dahlgren's variants of the authentic are not unique and can be interpreted in the context of traditional notions of authenticity in rock culture. What is more extraordinary, is that her versions of authenticity are mostly accepted and celebrated by rock journalists, despite the challenges she has encountered as a female artist trying to convince the audience of her genuineness. Although her artistic input is sometimes negotiated, for instance in relation to her former producer Anders Glenmark, she is often celebrated as a unique author, in control of her own work. Sometimes she is even pictured in ways that bring to mind the notion of the romantic genius. The fascination with authenticity can be interpreted in the light of issues concerning the "self " or "identity" in late modern culture of which Dahlgren and her listeners are a part. Although Dahlgren's work and the presentations of her in the press momentarily reveal the constructedness of the authentic and the (true) "self" , they strongly rely upon the notion of the self having a true essence.
  • Kornak, Jacek (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The subject of this study is the term: queer which I analyse as a political concept. In many English-speaking countries queer has been a common abusive term for homosexuals and other sexually non-normative individuals. From around the end of the 1980s the term was picked up by many activists and academics as a tool for political engagement. Initially queer was politicized in the context of the AIDS crisis but soon afterwards, the term was used to address political, social and cultural marginalization of sexual minorities. Queer has ever since remained one of the most significant concepts in contemporary sexual minority politics. I examine how queer became a powerful political signifier and I study political messages that the term carried. My study focuses on multiple uses of queer , rising from various forms of direct political activism to numerous academic publications. I argue that the term often functioned as a type of alternative identity, a basis of community, an incitement for political action and even a philosophical category. Rather than trying to establish common elements between the uses of queer , I present the multiplicity of routes by which queer was mobilized politically. The research here described investigates an underexplored topic in the academic literature, as most publications to this day offer analyses of queer theories or activism, while the very concept queer has often been overlooked. By discussing the political uses of the term, my study therefore goes beyond the scope of so-called queer theory. Instead, I analyse these theories from a novel standpoint, reflecting on the conceptual politics that queer performs in various texts. This thesis traces the conceptual change that queer underwent to become an umbrella term for various political claims. At the end of the 1980s, queer was used by ACT UP activists and, subsequently, by other groups and individuals to express disagreement with mainstream U.S. sexual politics. From about 1991 queer enters academia. I study texts by Teresa de Lauretis, Michael Warner, Judith Butler, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Lee Edelman and several others. I offer conceptual analyses of their use of queer as a political concept. I also engage in discussion about the consequences of certain political claims for sexual minorities. My findings indicate that queer was one of the central concepts used in academic debates concerning sexual minorities in the 1990s. For instance, Teresa de Lauretis used the term to criticize the previous lesbian and gay discourse and to incite development of a new language that would accommodate the multiplicity of experiences of lesbian and gay people. Judith Butler used the term to address intersections of sex, class and race. For Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick queer is a specific deconstructive term, whereas for Jack (Judith) Halberstam it is an anarchic term that opens a horizon of an alternative politics. Over the past recent decades there have been countless uses of queer as a political concept. My thesis analyses the most influential ones. I present a variety of political purposes the concept serves and point out the importance of this concept within contemporary sexual minority movement and thought.
  • Pikkarainen, Merja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study analyses the language use of non-native speakers of Finnish and non-native speakers of Russian by exploring the joint activity by two or more participants in authentic conversations. More specifically, the present focus is on word searches, collaborative productions and candidate understandings. Although these structures have been claimed to be similar phenomena, they also have different characteristics. The data of this study consist of approximately 11 hours of naturally occurring conversations in a range of everyday and institutional situations in Finnish and Russian. The methodological framework adopted for this analysis is interactional linguistics, which focusses on analysing the language use in naturally occurring interaction. Interactional linguistics can be defined as a part of linguistics that originates from different types of functional orientations (conversation analysis, functional linguistics, and anthropological linguistics). However, the main analytical tools for this study are provided by the methodology of conversation analysis. A typical collaborative production consists of a preliminary component that is produced without any specific hesitations or perturbations, and of a final component that fits syntactically, prosodically and semantically with the preliminary component. For example, a preliminary component can consist of a subject and verb combination and a final component contains a complement (in a broad sense). A typical word search can be initiated with pauses or hesitations, or with specific questions. In these cases, the co-participant is considered to be a knowledgeable partner. When comparing collaborative productions and word searches, the candidate understandings fall somewhere in the middle. Interactionally, candidate understandings are used to check the recipient s interpretation of the prior and to maintain mutual understanding. All three types of joint activity emphasize the willingness of the participants to cooperate and the fact that although the language used is foreign to all of the participants, the interaction need not be problematic. On the contrary, it would seem that since no native speakers are present, the conversations become relaxed. The data shows that the resources of these two lingua francas are utilised somewhat differently. The Finnish data consist of proportionally more searches that concentrate on grammatical issues than the Russian data. On the other hand, candidate understandings are more common in the Russian data. These differences can be due to the participants different linguistic backgrounds. The lingua franca speakers of Russian may have a more native-speaker relation to the Russian language in that they do not consider the grammatical appropriateness to be as important as the lingua franca users of Finnish.
  • Nykänen, Elise (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Abstract This study examines the narrative tools, techniques, and structures that Marja-Liisa Vartio, a classic of Finnish post-war modernism, used in presenting fictional minds in her narrative prose. The study contributes to the academic discussion on formal and thematic conventions of modernism by addressing the ways in which fictional minds work in interaction, and in relation to the enfolding fictional world. The epistemic problem of how accurately the world, the self, and the other can be known is approached by analyzing two co-operating ways of portraying fictional minds, both from external and internal perspectives. The external perspective relies on detachment and emotional restraint dominating in Vartio’s early novels Se on sitten kevät and Mies kuin mies, tyttö kuin tyttö. The internal perspective pertains to the mental processes of self-reflection, speculation, and excessive imagining that gain more importance in her later novels Kaikki naiset näkevät unia, Tunteet and Hänen olivat linnut. In the theoretical chapter of this study, fictional minds are discussed in the context of the acclaimed inward turn of modernist fiction, by suggesting alternative methods for reading modernist minds as embodied, emotional, and social entities. In respect to fictional minds’ interaction, this study elaborates on the ideas of “mind-reading,” “intersubjectivity,” and the “social mind” established within post-classical cognitive narratology. Furthermore, it employs possible world poetics when addressing the complexity, incompleteness, and (in)accessibility of characters’ private worlds of knowledge, beliefs, emotions, hallucinations, and dreams. In regards to the emotional emplotment of fictional worlds, this study also benefits from affective narratology as well as the cognitive plot theory. As the five analysis chapters of this study show, fictional minds in Vartio’s fiction are not only introspective, solipsist, and streaming, but also embodied and social entities. Fictional minds’ (inter)actions are demonstrated as evolving from local experientiality to long-term calculations that turn emotional incidents into episodes, and episodes into stories. The trajectories of female self-discovery in Vartio’s novels are analyzed through the emotional responses of characters: their experiences of randomness, their ways of counterfactualizing their traumatic past, their procrastinatory or akratic reactions or indecisiveness. The gradual move away from the percepts of the external world to the excessive imaginings and (mis)readings of other minds (triggered by the interaction of worlds and minds), challenges the contemporary and more recent accounts of modernism both in Finnish and international contexts.
  • Juvonen, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The study examines framing (or projecting) clause complexes in Finnish-language matriculation essays from the point of view of the intersubjective positioning of the writer. The clause complexes investigated comprise of a matrix clause and its complement, mainly an että that or a kuinka/miten how clause. The starting point for the analysis is the assumption that the matrix clause expresses a stance towards the complement and also the potential source of the stance (e.g. Luulen, että / on selvää, että / en tiedä, miksi kissat tarvitsevat paljon unta I think / it s clear that / I don t know why cats need a lot of sleep ). The analysis focuses on how students use these complexes to position themselves in respect to prior texts and to the putative reader: allowing for alternative positions (dialogic expansion) or restricting the dialogic space (dialogic contraction). The study also looks at the relation between the use of dialogic expansion and contraction in clause complexes and a) the communicative task required in the assignment and b) the grade given to the essay. Theoretically and methodologically the study draws on linguistically oriented discourse analysis, especially the study of evaluative language (in particular, the appraisal theory), textual interaction and text type (developed on the basis of e.g. Werlich s typology of textual strategies). The study is based on a corpus of 301 Finnish (mother tongue) matriculation essays given either high or low grades. The study consists of a summary and four published articles. The study shows how framing clause complexes can form rhetorical patterns involving dialogic expansion or contraction within the text. The rhetorical function of the clause complex derives both from the type of the clause complex and its co-text, particularly its text type (e.g. narration, description or exposition). The most clear-cut patterns relate to concession, juxtaposing competing claims, explicating reasoning processes and topic shifting. The patterns consist of sequential actions that stretch over clause boundaries and are accompanied with several cohesive elements. A key finding is that the cohesive function of a pattern is related to intersubjective positioning: to the ways the reader is expected to respond to the claims that are being made and to their relations as presented in the text. However, the study also shows that some of the analyzed clause complexes have only a localized scope, without a clear connection to a rhetorical pattern in the text.
  • Brandt, Tatjana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This article-based dissertation is an investigation of the early poetry of Agneta Enckell and Ann Jäderlund. The guiding hypothesis is that Enckell and Jäderlund enact and probe some of the central post-modern ideas about language and the subject dominating the intellectual context of the time. In particular, both poets are heavily influenced by Julia Kristeva s theories. The basic figure of thought functioning as a backdrop for their poetry is that we live in a male-dominated language, which determines our possibilities of expression. Hence, it becomes a crucial poetic task to resist the power of tradition and to carve out a free space in which new forms of personal female expression become possible. The five articles of the thesis investigate, through detailed close readings, how this constellation manifests itself in Enckell s and Jäderlund s poems. In the first article I read Jäderlund s poetry book Som en gång varit äng (1988) as centrally occupied with metapoetical issues that are played in a Narcissus scenario. The second article focuses on Jäderlund s poetry book Snart går jag i sommaren ut (1990). I employ Mikhail Bakhtin s theory of the carnival to shed light on Jäderlund s poetic effort to unsettle and transform traditional symbolic and linguistic structures. Moreover, I use of Kristeva s concept of the chora to elucidate Jäderlund s frequent use of words signifying empty spaces and hollow objects. The third article offers an analysis of the first three poetry books by Enckell: Förvandlingar mot morgonen (1983), rum; berättelser (1987), and Falla (Eurydike) (1991). Arguing that Enckell is guided by a vision of the emancipatory possibilities of poetry similar to that of Kristeva, I focus on Enckell s consistent use of spacings and caesuras in the text as signs of the privations of language that poetry hopes to articulate. The fourth article is an extended reading of Enckell s forth poetry book åter (1994). Here I employ Kristeva s theory of the abject to clarify the book s continuous effort to articulate experiences both appalling and sublime of the unsayable void, which simultaneously transcends and constitutes our language. The fifth article focuses on Jäderlund s first poetry book Vimpelstaden (1985). Drawing on Kristeva and Slavoj i ek, I analyze the disgust and horror that the I expresses in relation to language in general and especially in relation to its own voice.
  • Rusanen, Anna-Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    One task of cognitive science is to explain the information processing capacities of cognitive systems, and to provide a scientific account of how cognitive systems produce the adaptive and systematic intelligent behavior that they do. However, there are several disputes and controversies among cognitive scientists about almost every aspect of the question of how to fulfill this task. Some of these disputes originate from the fundamental issue of how to explain cognitive phenomena. In recent years, a growing number of philosophers have proposed that explanations of cognitive phenomena could be seen as instances of mechanistic explanation. In this dissertation, my aim is to examine to what extent the mechanistic account of explanation can be applied to explanations of complex cognitive phenomena, such as conceptual change. The dissertation is composed of five related research articles, which explore different aspects of mechanistic explanations. The first two articles explore the question, whether explanations of cognitive phenomena are mechanistic in the standard sense. The third and fourth articles focus on two widely shared assumptions concerning the mechanistic account of explanatory models: that (i) explanatory models represent, describe, correspond to or are similar to mechanisms in the world and that (ii) in order to be explanatory a model must represent the relevant causal or constitutive organization of a mechanism in the world. Finally, in the fifth article a sketch of a mechanistic explanation of conceptual change is outlined. The main conclusions of this dissertation can be summarized as four distinct, but related claims: (i) I argue that the standard mechanistic account of explanation can be applied to such cognitive explanations which track dependencies at the performance level. Those explanations refer to mechanisms which sustain or perform cognitive activity. However, (ii) if mechanistic explanations are extended to cover so-called computational or competence level explanations as well, a more liberal interpretation of the term mechanism may be needed (Rusanen and Lappi 2007; Lappi abd Rusanen 2011). Moreover (iii) it is also argued that computational or competence level explanations are genuinely explanatory, and that they are more than mere descriptions of computational tasks. Rather than describing the causal basis of certain performances of the target system, or how that system can have certain capacities or competences, they explain why and how certain principles govern the possible behavior or processes of the target system. Finally, (iv) I propose that the information semantic account of representational character of scientific models can offer a naturalist account of how models depict can depict their targets, and offer also an objective account of how explanatory models can depict the relevant properties of their target systems (Rusanen and Lappi 2012; Rusanen under review).
  • Ruusila, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This work integrates the research of phraseology, lexicography, and translation. The study is primarily concerned with a specific type of phraseologisms called pragmatic phraseologisms that are first and foremost pragmatically fixed. Pragmatic phraseologisms can be divided into two groups: routine formulae and conversational formulae. Both of them have numerous functions in different communication situations and are frequently used in both written and spoken languages. Pragmatic phraseologisms and their use are in many cases language and cultural bound, which is only one of the reasons why their translation can be difficult. When translators bump into translation problems, they often resort to dictionaries in hopes of finding suitable translation equivalents and information about the use on the expression that has to be translated. This leads to the question this study aims to provide an answer for: How pragmatic phraseologisms should be described in a dictionary so that the translators could get the best possible help with regard to different kinds of translation problems? This study attempts to a) investigate how the pragmatic phraseologisms are described in various dictionaries, both printed and electronic, and b) sketch two concepts of dictionary entries, one for routine formulae, one for conversational formulae. The sketched dictionary entries are designed for an electronic dictionary, whose primary target group is translators. The corpus of the study consists of 15 German, Finnish and French dictionaries. Some of them are mono- and some bilingual; some are general and some phraseological. As a basis for the collection of the corpus data, a German dictionary for language learners (Wörterbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache 2000) was used since it is this only dictionary in which the pragmatic phraseologisms are explicitly marked as such. With the help of a list of all pragmatic phraseologisms in this dictionary the corresponding pragmatic phraseologisms were collected from the other German dictionaries. In case of the Finnish and French dictionaries all expressions that could be defined as pragmatic phraseologisms were collected. It is especially important to look into the description of pragmatic phraseologisms in the Finnish and French dictionaries as this has not been studied before. According to the results, the dictionary entries often consist of meaning, pragmatic information, lexicographic examples, and equivalents (in the bilingual dictionaries). The meaning of the pragmatic phraseologism is given as a free formulated sentence, as a pragmatic remark or as a combination of the two. The pragmatic description of these expressions in the existing dictionaries is, however, often scarce since their functions in the communication are rarely mentioned, and even if they are mentioned it often happens without a recognizable logic. This is a severe shortcoming in the description of pragmatic phraseologisms since their real meaning and use cannot be described properly without this information. Furthermore, the specifications and restrictions of their use were not always described. In addition, the pragmatic phraseologisms were in some cases situated illogically within the dictionary. In the electronic dictionaries, various types of search mechanisms were rarely used even if they could be easily built in them. In the sketched models for the dictionary entries, the main focus lies on their pragmatic description and on their equivalents. For every pragmatic phraseologism, one or more pragmatic or metacommunicative functions are given. Thanks to the electronic form of the dictionary, an onomasiological approach is also possible when searching for a suitable expression. (One can, for example, search for all routine formulae that are used to express surprise, or for all conversational formulae that are used to interrupt the partner.) Moreover, the description of the use of pragmatic phraseologisms follows a certain pattern so that a logical and reliable way of their description is secured. The order of the lexicographic information depends on the specific question the translator is trying to find a answer for (e. g. if the problem is that the translator does not know what the expression of the source language means or does not know how to translate it). Pragmatic phraseologisms of the source language are not always translated with a pragmatic phraseologism of the target language, but very variable translation solutions can be found ranging from other types of phraseologisms to completely freely formed paraphrases and one-word expressions. Therefore a wide array of possible equivalents is provided and the differences between the expressions of the source and target language are explicitly explained in order to facilitate the work of the translator.
  • Berg, Patricia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Throughout history, people have moved between places. One approach of studying the relationship between people and the environment they live within is called a phenomenology of landscape. According to this approach, all landscapes are embedded in the social and individual times of memory and there is a right way to move around in the familiar landscape. In this dissertation I present textual references to mobility and travelling in ancient Egyptian non-literary texts from Deir el-Medina. In other words, I examine in what ways the inhabitants of Deir el-Medina wrote about functionally-bound forms of individual movement. The purpose of this study is primarily to examine mobility as expressed in the written media, rather than the practical aspects of travelling. Deir el-Medina is situated on the West Bank of Thebes (modern Luxor). It was built to house the workmen that were employed by the state to build the royal tombs during the New Kingdom (ca. 1550 1069 BCE), and their families and servants. Due to the nature of the work at least some of the villagers were literate. They thus communicated to some extent in writing, and by doing this, produced a vast textual material of which a part has been preserved until today. Of the large number of non-literary texts originating from Deir el-Medina and its surroundings ca. 4,500 non-literary texts have been made available to scholars through publications. Among these, ca 320 texts include references to mobility and travelling and were incorporated in the corpus of this study. This dissertation is the first comprehensive study of mobility among the inhabitants of Deir el-Medina. Within the corpus, references to mobility and travelling are found in a large variety of text types dating from throughout the New Kingdom. A considerable number of various expressions were used when referring to mobility. However, especially in administrative texts, standardized expressions were also used. One might thus argue that the villagers not only moved in the right way within the familiar landscape, but also wrote about moving within their close environment in a standardized manner. Additionally, in administrative texts references to mobility were in general recorded at the beginning of the text. This would indicate that events related to mobility had a high importance ranking in the documentation system of the necropolis administration.
  • Abdurehim, Esmael (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    In this corpus-based study, I have developed a comprehensive grammatical description of the Lopnor dialect of Uyghur, which is an endangered Turkic variety spoken in the northwestern part of China. This dissertation consists of a description of the phonology, morphology and syntax of the Lopnor dialect. This study is based on several field trips to the Lopnor region of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. All examples in the dissertation are taken from the texts which I am going to publish on the online corpus. My intention to work on this topic is to document this endangered regional variety of Uyghur before it disappears and to provide reliable data for the scholars who are interested in the comparative study of Turkic languages. It might also give some interesting information for linguists who are working on endangered Turkic varieties and language contact issues. The texts collected in the Lopnor region may also contribute to the historical and cultural study of the region. In chapter one, a discussion is initiated on the historical background of the region where the Lopnor dialect is spoken. Then, the previous studies on this dialect, current language situation and the reasons for further investigation are described. In the last section of this chapter, the sources of the data, and the methods employed in the fieldwork are provided. Chapter two is the description of the phonological system of this dialect. It starts with the phonetic realization of the distinctive segments and their allophones. Then, the syllable structure of the Lopnor dialect is discussed very briefly. Vowel harmony, which is an important feature of the Lopnor dialect, is discussed in a separate section. The last section provides a description of the diachronic processes in the Lopnor dialect. Chapter three presents the morphological system of the Lopnor dialect, including a discussion of some special derivative suffixes in the Lopnor dialect. Then, the different categories of inflectional suffixes and their rules for suffixation in this dialect are distinguished. Chapter four pertains to the syntactic structure of phrases, clauses and sentences in the Lopnor dialect. All examples in this chapter are glossed and translated into English. In the last chapter, the unique and the shared linguistic features of the Lopnor dialect are discussed. This chapter ends with the author s conclusions and opinions on the position of the Lopnor dialect.
  • Tuominen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Doctoral dissertation Author: Minna Tuominen Title: The Still Lifes of Edwaert Collier (1642 1708) Among seventeenth-century Dutch still life painters Edwaert Collier is best known for his vanitas paintings. He also painted a considerable number of trompe l oeils. These paintings constitute the primary material for my thesis, along with the biographical records from Breda, Haarlem, Leiden, Amsterdam and London, all places where Collier lived. This research is an examination of the variety of and changes in Collier s production in his sub-genres and of the intriguing questions that his paintings raise. It explores how Collier succeeded in widespread art markets with his speciality in still life painting. This study offers new information on Edwaert Collier s oeuvre, his biography, the value of his still lifes among buyers and his position as an artist. I have grouped Collier s works into four different themes: the vanitas motif of the overturned crown, the world of knowledge referred to by multiple texts, different modes of self-portraiture and the medium and subjects of trompe l oeil. The complementary approaches this study applies include iconology, studies in representing artist self-awareness, research into the material culture of the seventeenth century, and research into the seventeenth-century art market and art collecting. Contextualizing the depiction of the exchange and growth of wealth in a particular socio-historical situation has been considered as well. A large number of Collier s preserved paintings (ca 180 registered) suggest continuous production and his willingness to seek out new pictorial solutions for his customers. Collier called upon a wide repertoire of themes derived from the tradition of the vanitas genre in his paintings, but he also managed to create an identifiable style of his own by using a few recognizable compositions and, over time, by including items with new connotations into his still lifes. Changes in his style reflect the trends of his time, which is best seen in his trompe l oeils and their connection to the impact of the English art market. His paintings gained fame among buyers because he merged traditional elements with contemporary sources from the society of his day in his works. In his paintings Collier included various sorts of texts, such as books, newspapers and parliamentary speeches, which together built up a system of citations and commentaries on the arts, religion and politics. Collier elevated his artistic status by representing himself as a learned man and he also signed his paintings in multiple ways. He incorporated his signature in the elements depicted, such as letters and almanacs, and he included his own portrait in his still lifes in such a way that it advertised his talents as a still life painter. Besides himself, Collier portrayed an impressive group of people, who were depicted in drawings, miniatures or prints which were placed conspicuously among the other still life objects or set illusionistically within the trompe l oeil representations. It was a conscious way of drawing attention to a certain ideology or fate which the depicted people represented, and it also positioned the painter himself as an erudite artist in an artistic continuum stretching from antiquity to the time in which he lived. This study presents Edwaert Collier as an active painter who captured various phenomena from his times in his still lifes.
  • Hirvonen, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The present dissertation analyses the representation of space in filmic audio description. The main objective of this study is to shed light on two critical challenges for audio description: (1) how the filmic space becomes audible in audio-described film through spoken language, sound effects, and music, and (2) how the visual representation of space in film can be cued by the linguistic mode in an audio description. This dissertation consists of four articles and a thesis summary. The first article focusses on the multimodal representation of space through auditory cues. The other three articles explore intermodal similarity, which involves the question of how language reflects visual representation. To explain the complex phenomenon of translating images into words, this study applies the theoretical and analytical tools from translation studies, film studies and cognitive linguistics, and also adopts a cognitive orientation to explain both the filmic and linguistic representations as being cognitive representations that are constructed through visual, auditory, and linguistic cues. This research first establishes that the auditory multimodality of an audio-described film creates a variant of the multimodality of the audiovisual film that entails dynamic constellations, perspectives and foci. Secondly, the analysis presents evidence for the varied potential of the linguistic mode in terms of representing space. Thirdly, this study defines strategies for intermodal similarity in terms of the corresponding linguistic signs for the filmic cues of representation and narration. The results of this dissertation may be valuable in justifying the consistency and standards for audio description as well as in developing other, more far-reaching usages of audio description as a mode of transforming information from one system of representation into another.
  • Navickaitė-Martinelli, Lina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    In an attempt to expand and enrich the existing trends of musical performance studies, as well as exploit the potentials of semiotic analysis, this dissertation offers the theoretical perspective that enables the unfolding of the multiple meanings generated by and communicated through the performer s art. Without denying that musical performance is inevitably associated with the opus, the semiotic approach, it is proposed here, should study performance as encompassing all the exogenic meanings that do not necessarily depend on a musical work. Thus, the focus of the present dissertation is the figure of a classical music performer as a significant part of society, as well as cultural, institutional and personal discourses that both generate the art of music performance and originate from it. The main targets here are mapping the predominant tendencies of the art of musical performance during the twentieth century and proposing a form of semiotic analysis of different representations and self-representations that musical performers, pianists in particular, put into action in their interactions with social and cultural contexts (including different types of performer-listener communication processes, scholarly analyses, the various media through which the art of music performance is disseminated, and aspects related to the marketing and ideologizing of today s performance practices). The dissertation is structured into four parts. Part 1 introduces a semiotic framework for studying musical performance. Part 2 discusses a variety of meanings communicated through the performers art as well as the media in which the art of classical piano music performance is operating. Part 3 positions the performers art within the Western musical canon by examining Beethoven interpretations as played by pianists of various cultural and historical backgrounds. The concluding Part 4 presents novel discourses on the art of musical performance by analyzing 11 personal websites of Lithuanian classical pianists as an important vehicle of contemporary performers for communicating their artistic identities. It is claimed in this dissertation that the combination of semiotic and musicological approaches is relevant and revealing in the study of musical performance art in that it strongly make a case for current musicology to elaborate increasingly interdisciplinary paradigms and modes of investigation.