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  • Laakso, Seija-Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Earlier studies have shown that the speed of information transmission developed radically during the 19th century. The fast development was mainly due to the change from sailing ships and horse-driven coaches to steamers and railways, as well as the telegraph. Speed of information transmission has normally been measured by calculating the duration between writing and receiving a letter, or between an important event and the time when the news was published elsewhere. As overseas mail was generally carried by ships, the history of communications and maritime history are closely related. This study also brings a postal historical aspect to the academic discussion. Additionally, there is another new aspect included. In business enterprises, information flows generally consisted of multiple transactions. Although fast one-way information was often crucial, e.g. news of a changing market situation, at least equally important was that there was a possibility to react rapidly. To examine the development of business information transmission, the duration of mail transport has been measured by a systematic and commensurable method, using consecutive information circles per year as the principal tool for measurement. The study covers a period of six decades, several of the world's most important trade routes and different mail-carrying systems operated by merchant ships, sailing packets and several nations' steamship services. The main sources have been the sailing data of mail-carrying ships and correspondence of several merchant houses in England. As the world's main trade routes had their specific historical backgrounds with different businesses, interests and needs, the systems for information transmission did not develop similarly or simultaneously. It was a process lasting several decades, initiated by the idea of organizing sailings in a regular line system. The evolution proceeded generally as follows: originally there was a more or less irregular system, then a regular system and finally a more frequent regular system of mail services. The trend was from sail to steam, but both these means of communication improved following the same scheme. Faster sailings alone did not radically improve the number of consecutive information circles per year, if the communication was not frequent enough. Neither did improved frequency advance the information circulation if the trip was very long or if the sailings were overlapping instead of complementing each other. The speed of information transmission could be improved by speeding up the voyage itself (technological improvements, minimizing the waiting time at ports of call, etc.) but especially by organizing sailings so that the recipients had the possibility to reply to arriving mails without unnecessary delay. It took two to three decades before the mail-carrying shipping companies were able to organize their sailings in an optimal way. Strategic shortcuts over isthmuses (e.g. Panama, Suez) together with the cooperation between steamships and railways enabled the most effective improvements in global communications before the introduction of the telegraph.
  • Rueter, Jack (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This dissertation is a synchronic description of adnominal person in the highly synthetic morphological system of Erzya as attested in extensive Erzya-language written-text corpora consisting of nearly 140 publications with over 4.5 million words and over 285,000 unique lexical items. Insight for this description have been obtained from several source grammars in German, Russian, Erzya, Finnish, Estonian and Hungarian, as well as bounteous discussions in the understanding of the language with native speakers and grammarians 1993 2010. Introductory information includes the discussion of the status of Erzya as a lan- guage, the enumeration of phonemes generally used in the transliteration of texts and an in-depth description of adnominal morphology. The reader is then made aware of typological and Erzya-specifc work in the study of adnominal-type person. Methods of description draw upon the prerequisite information required in the development of a two-level morphological analyzer, as can be obtained in the typological description of allomorphic variation in the target language. Indication of original author or dialect background is considered important in the attestation of linguistic phenomena, such that variation might be plotted for a synchronic description of the language. The phonological description includes the establishment of a 6-vowel, 29-consonant phoneme system for use in the transliteration of annotated texts, i.e. two phonemes more than are generally recognized, and numerous rules governing allophonic variation in the language. Erzya adnominal morphology is demonstrated to have a three-way split in stem types and a three-layer system of non-derivative affixation. The adnominal-affixation layers are broken into (a) declension (the categories of case, number and deictic marking); (b) nominal conjugation (non-verb grammatical and oblique-case items can be conjugated), and (c) clitic marking. Each layer is given statistical detail with regard to concatenability. Finally, individual subsections are dedicated to the matters of: possessive declension compatibility in the distinction of sublexica; genitive and dative-case paradigmatic defectivity in the possessive declension, where it is demonstrated to be parametrically diverse, and secondary declension, a proposed typology modifiers without nouns , as compatible with adnominal person.
  • Sikorski, Filip (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis reconstructs the genesis of Miklós Szentkuthy s (1908-1988) novel Prae (1934). The thesis examines previously unknown documents, discovered in the archives of the Petőfi Literary Museum in Budapest, which include the manuscript of Prae, drafts of Prae, diary notes, marginal notes in Szentkuthy s books, and letters and postcards. Although this material has been available to scholars, it has never been studied or commented upon. Drawing on the concepts and methodological tools of genetic criticism, this thesis presents the archival material, establishes a writing process chronology, and distinguishes three principal techniques in Szentkuthy s writing method. Szentkuthy wrote Prae between the years 1928-34 by a gradual accumulation of portions of text. His writing process can be divided into five stages: First (autumn 1928-October 1931), he wrote the core of part 1, then (late 1931-March 1932) the core of part 2. Next (April 1932-late 1932), he completed part 1 with three lengthy additions and finished part 2. In the following stage (December 1932-May 1933), Szentkuthy wrote the core of part 3. In the final stage (May 1933-April 1934), he also corrected the entire manuscript and attached more than one hundred additions to it. The additions introduced new thematic material to the manuscript. As a result, the seemingly uniform text of Prae actually consists of two thematically different layers: the main text and the additions. Other characteristics of Szentkuthy s writing include obscuring suppression and immediate absorption. The technique of obscuring suppression consists of the deletion of portions of material due to which the final text (the published novel) becomes more concise but also less understandable than its draft. The principle of immediate absorption is spontaneous and immediate incorporation of readerly and personal experiences into the text that a writer is working on. As the first doctoral dissertation devoted to Prae, this thesis also demonstrates how knowledge of the novel s genesis can be utilized in future research on Szentkuthy s novel. Firstly, researchers will be able to take into account the thematic distinction between the main text and the additions. Secondly, the thesis shows that it is worth studying drafts as they might provide much richer and more informative material than the printed text. Thirdly, comparing parts of the novel to books that Szentkuthy read simultaneously to the writing of the given fragments may lead to the discovery of new unknown sources of Prae.
  • Virtanen, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The academic book review genre as polyvocal interaction This thesis investigates three linguistic resources used for creating an impression of polyvocality (multivoicedness) in Finnish texts representing the genre of academic book review. The polyvocal functionality of the resources is analyzed in relation to the core actions, action sequences and macro-level activity phases characteristic of the genre. The core actions consist of discourse representation ( speech reporting ), evaluation, questioning and improvement suggestion. The linguistic resources examined are 1) structures governed by the verb "jäädä" to remain (e.g. "luku jää irralliseksi" the chapter remains disjointed ); 2) structures in the conditional perfect tense (e.g. "luvun olisi voinut sitoa paremmin kokonaisuuteen" the chapter could have been more integrated with the whole ); and 3) structures containing a subordinate interrogative clause (e.g. "voi kysyä, toimiiko luku kokonaisuuden osana" one can ask whether the chapter works as part of the whole) . Polyvocality is defined as the inclusion of at least two voices or perspectives individual or generic in discourse. The study investigates, first of all, the lexico-grammatical characteristics of these structures in relation to the actions they perform in their sequential contexts. The second goal is to analyse what kinds of impressions of polyvocality the resources (and their subtypes) evoke in the data and how the textual voices are positioned in relation to each other. The general theoretical and methodological framework of the study is dialogistically-oriented linguistic discourse analysis. The data consist of 123 Finnish book reviews published in four journals in the human sciences in 2006 2009. The polyvocal functionality of the linguistic resources is examined from the viewpoint of double dialogicality: written texts like all forms of discourse are simultaneously seen as manifestations of global (i.e. communal, cultural) as well as local (i.e. situational) dialogue. Analytical tools for exploring the social actions and activities performed in the data are drawn from genre studies focusing on macro- and meso-level activities and from discourse studies focusing on micro-level patterns such as QUESTION - ANSWER, CLAIM - JUSTIFICATION and PROBLEM - SOLUTION. The study shows that the book review genre is a three-way dialogue between the book reviewer, the book author and the scientific community. The subordinate interrogative structures bring to the fore the voice of the author. The interrogative structures used in discourse representation are typical of the data, and they reflect the general question answer scheme in scientific studies. In addition, the study shows how certain interrogative structures resemble declarative that -structures and highlight the voice of the reviewer as a summarizer of the study (e.g. "tutkimus osoittaa, kuinka vs että - -" the study shows that/how ). Yet another subtype of the interrogative structure is used for questioning the truthfulness or intelligibility of the book and, thus, for construing disalignment between the reviewer and the author. The "jäädä" to remain and conditional structures are shown to be, above all, resources for reviewing the study against a backdrop of shared communal norms, values and expectations. Both structures express disalignment between two viewpoints, usually between reviewer, who acts as a representative of the scientific community, and the book s author. Sometimes, however, the reviewer s and the community s viewpoints may also be disaligned in which case it is not the features of the book but the communal practices that are criticized. A further commonality between these two structures is the meaning of retrospectiveness: the book is treated as finalized (i.e. published) so that it cannot be revised anymore. From the viewpoint of the activity phases in the book review genre, the study shows that the typical uses and sequential contexts of the linguistic resources investigated vary according to the activity phase. The study also argues that the way in which actions are linguistically formulated is dependent not only on the genre context but also on the micro-level sequential context. For example, the way in which an improvement is linguistically realized (e.g. conditional clause with deontic vs optative verb) varies according to the type and formation of the adjacent action (e.g. approval vs criticism; mild vs harsh criticism). Furthermore, the study demonstrates that the order of the adjacent actions may affect the interpretation of the functional relationship between them. For example, the sequence criticism improvement realizes the more general PROBLEM - SOLUTION pattern, whereas the opposite sequence (improvement criticism) realizes a CLAIM - JUSTIFICATION pattern.
  • Toivakka, Svetlana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The Finnish coloratura soprano Alma Fohström (1856-1936) was one of the most famous opera singers at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries, a veritable prima donna. Her musical training was based on the Italian bel canto tradition; for her the coloratura style was easy. The singer’s range extended from a low ‘a’ to a high ‘f’ (a–f3). Alma Fohström’s repertoire included 40 opera roles of which Donizetti’s Lucia and Verdi’s Violetta and Gilda were her most successful. During her cosmopolitan career Alma Fohström established her name on four continents: Europe, Asia, North- and South America. She appeared at, amongst others, La Scala, Milan, London’s Covent Garden, the Vienna State Opera, the Kroll Opera in Berlin, the Teatro Imperial in Rio de Janeiro and the Teatro Colón in Buenos Aires. Alma Fohström visited the USA on two occasions and appeared in Washington at the White House as well as in many state capitals. During the 1888–1889 season she was the first Finnish prima donna to sing at the New York Metropolitan. The Imperial Bolshoi Opera in Moscow engaged her as a soloist from 1890 through to 1899. Following the end of her performing career she taught at the St. Petersburg, Berlin and Helsinki Conservatories. Old opera traditions are not just cherished, and new created, only in large and well-known opera houses. Fortunately impressions have remained also of those places, which have remained in their shadow. This study mainly examines Alma Fohström’s activities in these venues. In Alma Fohström’s case, by prima donna is meant her activities as a soloist in an opera company as well as her unique position as a celebrated singer in her own time. This study especially concentrates on Alma Fohström’s professional profile and comprises of three areas: the singer’s essential abilities, her supporting network and her status in society. In the analytical chapters she is compared with other well-known international prima donnas of her time such as Adelina Patti, Marchella Sembrich and Félia Litvinne and, in Finland, Emmy Achté. This study’s aim is to be a contribution to the music history of the performing arts and particularly the prima donna tradition. The thesis reconstructs Alma Fohström’s life work by examining it as an interaction on both a micro and macro level viewed from different perspectives. These perspectives are called micro-historical views, the focus of which are the Helsinki University Great Hall, and both the auditoria and behind the scenes of opera houses.
  • Kanerva, Jari (omakustanne, 2010)
    The object of study in this thesis is Finnish skiing culture and Alpine skiing in particular from the point of view of ethnology. The objective is to clarify how, when, why and by what routes Alpine skiing found its way to Finland. What other phenomena did it bring forth? The objective is essentially linked to the diffusion of modern sports culture to Finland. The introduction of Alpine skiing to Finland took place at a time when skiing culture was changing: flat terrain skiing was abandoned in favour of cross-country skiing in the early decades of the 20th century, and new techniques and equipment made skiing a much more versatile sport. The time span of the study starts from the late 19th century and ends in the mid-20th century. The spatial focus is in Finland. People and communities formed through their actions are core elements in the study of sports and physical activity. Organizations tend to raise themselves into influential actors in the field of physical culture even if active individuals work in their background. Original archive documents and publications of sports organizations are central source material for this thesis, complemented by newspapers and sports magazines as well as photographs and films on early Alpine skiing in Finland. Ever since their beginning in the late 19th century skiing races in Finland had mostly taken place on flat terrain or sea ice. Skiing in broken cross-country terrain made its breakthrough in the 1920 s, at a time when modern skiing techniques were introduced in instruction manuals. In the late 1920 s the Finnish Women s Physical Education Association (SNLL) developed unconventional forms of pedagogical skiing instruction. They abandoned traditional Finnish flat terrain skiing and boldly looked for influences abroad, which caused friction between the leaders of the women s sports movement and the (male) leaders of the central skiing organization. SNLL was instrumental in launching winter tourism in Finnish Lapland in 1933. The Finnish Tourism Society, the State Railways and sports organizations worked in close co-operation to instigate a boom in tourism, which culminated in the inauguration of a tourist hotel at Pallastunturi hill in the winter of 1938. Following a Swedish model, fell-skiing was developed as a domestic counterpart to Alpine skiing as practiced in Central Europe. The first Finnish skiing resorts were built at sites of major cross-country skiing races. Inspired by the slope at Bad Grankulla health spa, the first slalom skiing races and fell-skiing, slalom enthusiasts began to look for purpose-built sites to practice turn technique. At first they would train in natural slopes but in the late 1930 s new slopes were cleared for slalom races and recreational skiing. The building of slopes and ski lifts and the emergence of organized slalom racing competitions gradually separated Alpine skiing from the old fell-skiing. After the Second World War fell-skiing was transformed into ski trekking on marked courses. At the same time Alpine skiing also parted ways with cross-country skiing to become a sport of its own. In the 1940 s and 1950 s Finnish Alpine skiing was almost exclusively a competitive sport. The specificity of Alpine skiing was enhanced by rapid development of equipment: the new skis, bindings and shoes could only be used going downhill.
  • Laine, Pauli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Imperato, Ciro (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Analisi contrastiva delle modalità di traduzione in finnico dei Tempi verbali e delle perifrasi aspettuali dell italiano (Italian Philology) The topic of this research is a contrastive study of tenses and aspect in Italian and in Finnish. The study aims to develop a research method for analyzing translations and comparable texts (non-translation) written in a target language. Thus, the analysis is based on empirical data consisting of translations of novels from Italian to Finnish and vice versa. In addition to this, for the section devoted to solutions adopted in Finnish for translating the Italian tenses Perfetto Semplice and Perfetto Composto, 39 Finnish native speakers were asked to answer questions concerning the choice of Perfekti and Imperfekti in Finnish. The responses given by the Finnish informants were compared to the choices made by translators in the target language, and in this way it was possible both to benefit from the motivation provided by native speakers to explain the selection of a tense (Imperfekti/Perfekti) in a specific context compared with the Italian formal equivalents (Perfetto Composto/Perfetto Semplice), and to define the specific features of the Finnish verb tenses. The research aims to develop a qualitative method for the analysis of formal equivalents and translational changes ( shifts ). Although, as the choice of Italian and Finnish progressive forms is optional and related to speaker preferences, besides the qualitative analysis, I also considered it necessary to operate a quantitative one in order to find out whether the two items share the same degree of correspondence in frequency of use. In this study I explain translation choices in light of cognitive grammar, suggesting that particular translation relationships derive from so-called construal operations. I use the concepts of cognitive linguistics not only to analyze the convergences and divergences of the two aspectual systems, but also to redefine some general procedures related to the phenomenon of translation. For the practical analysis of the corpus were for the most part employed theoretical categories developed in a framework proposed by Pier Marco Bertinetto. Following this approach, the notions of aspect (the morphologic or morphosyntactic, subjective level) and actionality (the lexical aspect or objective level, traditionally Aktionsart) are carefully distinguished. This also allowed me to test the applicability of these distinctions to two languages typologically different from each other. The data allowed both the analysis of the semantic and pragmatic features that determine tense and aspect choices in these two languages, and to discover the correspondences between the two language systems and the strategies that translators are forced to resort to in particular situations. The research provides not only a detailed and analytically argued inventory about possible solutions for translating Italian tenses and aspectual devices in Finnish that could be of pedagogical relevance, but also new contributions about the specific uses of time-aspectual devices in the two languages in question.
  • Nurminen, Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    In the dissertation the post-Restauration English medicine and the closely related natural philosophical and theological questions are considered. Doctor Thomas Willis s (1621-75) life, research and clinical work was an excellent example of the medical and religious scene in the 17th century. Historians of medicine have noted his anatomical discoveries of the brain and nerves and established his position in the medical revolution of the era mainly in the context of modern biomedicine and neurology. He had been considered to be the rationalizer of the medicine and functions and dysfunctions of human mind. In this dissertation the above-mentioned view is expanded. Willis s theories about the nature and human soul as well as his ideas about the functional meaning of the nervous system were also suitable for the Anglican church. It was essential for the church to emphasize the importance of human capacity to reason in the politically and religiously unstable Restauration era. Willis s theories had a wider field of application than only the sphere of medicine. According to Willis, doctors would improve their professional skills by considering the human anatomy and physiology, and their relation with health and disease as comprehensively as possible in particular cases. In the 17th century medicine this idea was not self-evident. Willis s working methods marked a turning point in the nascent cooperation of theoretical and therapeutical sectors of medicine. Willis s theories about human physiology were used to explain the activities of Valentine Greatrakes (1628-83), the so-called miracle healer. Greatrakes caused a huge stir by touching the King s Evil (scrofula) and he seemed to be able to heal numerous other diseases as well. Doctors, theologians and natural philosophers followed with interest his ministrations because every possibly effective way of healing, including the workings of uneducated laymen, should be submitted to the assessment of the learned medical community and the Virtuosi of the Royal Society. In the previous studies Greatrakes had played only a supporting role in the middle of ideological and theological controversies. The background to the awakened interest in his workings according to earlier interpretation was the fear of social and religious disorder. In this dissertation it is demonstrated that the questions about the character of Protestant belief in miracles and the practical medical issues associated with miraculous healings were the most noticeable element. This case indicates that even though the relationship between theology and medicine was close, it was of primary importance to maintain the line of demarcation between religion and science.
  • Savitsky, Stanislav (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
    The history of the Leningrad underground is one of the key themes of late socialism. Samizdat, "black humour", religious syncretism, dissidence, apolitical bohemianism, the pathos of freedom of individuality and the mechanics of literature are closely interlinked with the cultural mythology of this passed epoch. Describing conceptions that, when taken together, form the contemporary understanding of unofficial culture, the author creates a historical portrait of this environment. Amongst the central figures here, there are well-known writers (Bitov, Brodsky, Dovlatov, Khvostenko, Krivulin) and literary activists who still await recognition. The analysis of works, many of which were only distributed in typewritten publications in the 1960s-1980s, gives a preliminary definition of the key factors that united the authors of the unofficial community. The book begins with a critique of the identification of the Soviet underground with political dissidence or with a society living in autonomous independence with regard to the state. Describing the historical development of the various names for this environment (the underground, samizdat, unofficial culture, podpolie and others), the author follows the genesis of the community from its appearance, in the years of "the Thaw", through to perestroika, when it dissolved. Taking the history of the publication of Bitov's "The Pushkin House" as an example, the concept of the unofficial is interpreted as a risky interaction with the authorities. Unofficial culture is then viewed as a late Soviet reflection of the Western underground in the 1950s-1960s. Unlike the radical-utopian-anarchistic source, it proclaimed a liberalist and democratic ideology in the context of the destruction of the socialist utopia. The historical portrait of the community is built up from the perceptions of its members regarding literature practice and rhetorical approaches, with the aid of which these perceptions are expressed. Taking typewritten publications as source material, four main representations are given: privacy, deviancy, criticism and irrationality. An understanding of literature as a private affair, neo-avant-garde deviancy in social and literary behaviour and the pathos of the critical relationship with officialdom and irrational message of literary work, comprise the basis for the worldview of unofficial authors, as well as the poetic system, genre preferences and dictums. An analysis of irrationality, based on the texts of Khvostenko and Bogdanov, leads to a review of the cultural mythologies that were crucial to the unofficial conception of the absurd. Absurd is an homonym. It contains ideas that are important for the worldview of unofficial authors and the poetics of their works. The irrationality of the Soviet order is reflected in the documentary nature of the satirical prose of Dovlatov. The existential absurd of Camus is perceived here as the pointlessness of social realities and the ontological alienation of man, while existentialist practices for consciousness in the "atmosphere of absurd" remain bracketed off. The third homonym of absurd - the conception of reality as an illusion - is a clear demonstration of religious syncretism, where neo-Christian ideas are interweaved with a modernized version of Hinduism, as taken from Rolland s books on Ramakrishna and Vivekananda. The unofficial community was influenced by the ideology of westernization. Even "the East" arrived here via French retellings and accounts. As a whole, unofficial Leningrad culture can be understood as a neo-modernist phenomenon which, unlike the western neo-modernism of the 1940s and 1950s, arose in the years of the Thaw and ended its existence in the mid-1980s.
  • Zamyatin, Konstantin (Vammalan Kirjapaino OY, 2014)
    This study focuses on the phenomenon of the granting of official status for minority languages. The concepts of official language and minority language do not seem to be completely compatible and their linking requires further specification. In theory, an official language has both symbolic and practical communicative functions. An official language that is also a minority language functions primarily as a national symbol and potentially may also possess the practical function as a language of the public authority. In the latter case, minority language is more often used as the language of communication between authorities and citizens rather than being the working language. Why are some minority languages nominated as official languages? The aim of this research is to explore the formation of the official status and its configurations for the state languages in the Finno-Ugric Republics of the Russian Federation in order to understand the reasons for their designation and to shed light on the specifics of the official status in the case of minority languages. This dissertation is an interdisciplinary study and its toolkit is not limited to theories of language policy but includes the wider perspectives of studies in ethnicity and nationalism. Common perspectives for both interdisciplinary fields are symbolist, revivalist, instrumentalist and institutionalist approaches. These theoretical approaches are employed to interpret the results of an empirical study. The case of Russia is particularly interesting as an empirical study because, alongside China and India, it possesses the world's greatest number of official languages. The case studies concerning Russia’s Republics demonstrated that one should distinguish at least three reasons for the designation of their state languages that were parts of parallel processes with different goals, meanings and consequences. The reasons for the officialization reveal different aspects of the official status and correspond to the three types of recognition: symbolic, political and legal. In the case of minority languages their official status functions foremost, and often exclusively, as a symbol of identity. Unless the minority language is the sole official language of the region, official status proves to offer only a limited language revival tool. However, this status also has an important function as a social institution that structures social relations.
  • Mickwitz, Åsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The study investigates the formal integration of English loanwords into the Swedish language system. The aim has been to analyse and describe the morphological/morphosyntactic and the orthographical integration of the loanwords. I have studied how the foreign language elements get accommodated to Swedish and which factors are relevant in the integration. The material for the study consists of Swedish newspapers published in Sweden and Finland in paper format (with a focus on the years 1975 and 2000) and newspapers in digital format on the net. The theoretical frame for the study is contact linguistics. The study is based on a sociolinguistic, structural and language political perspective on what language is, and what language contact is. The method used is usage-based linguistic analysis. In the morphological study of the loanwords, I have made both a quantitative and a qualitative study. I have analysed the extent to which loanwords show some indication of integration in Swedish, and to what extent they show no signs of integration at all. I have also analysed integration in relation to word classes i.e., how nouns, adjectives and verbs integrate and which factors are relevant for the result of the integration. The result shows that most loanwords (36 %) do not show any signs of being formally integrated in Swedish. They undergo neither inflectional, nor derivational changes. One fifth of the loanwords are inflected according to the rules of Swedish grammar. Nouns are generally more often than verbs placed in positions in the sentence where no formal adaption is needed. Almost all of the verbs in the material are inflected according to Swedish rules of grammar. Only 3 % of the loanwords are inflected according to English rules or are placed in an ungrammatical position in the sentence. The orthographical study shows that English loanwords very seldom get adapted to Swedish orthography. Some English vowel and consonant graphemes are replaced with Swedish ones, for example a, ay and ai are replaced with aj or ej (mail → mejl). The study also indicates that morphological integration is related to orthographical integration: loanwords that are inflected according to Swedish grammar are more likely to be orthographical integrated than loanwords that are inflected according to English grammar. The results also shows that the integration of loanwords are affected by mostly language structural factors and language political factors.
  • Kanckos, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    After Gödel's incompleteness theorems and the collapse of Hilbert's programme Gerhard Gentzen continued the quest for consistency proofs of Peano arithmetic. He considered a finitistic or constructive proof still possible and necessary for the foundations of mathematics. For a proof to be meaningful, the principles relied on should be considered more reliable than the doubtful elements of the theory concerned. He worked out a total of four proofs between 1934 and 1939. This thesis examines the consistency proofs for arithmetic by Gentzen from different angles. The consistency of Heyting arithmetic is shown both in a sequent calculus notation and in natural deduction. The former proof includes a cut elimination theorem for the calculus and a syntactical study of the purely arithmetical part of the system. The latter consistency proof in standard natural deduction has been an open problem since the publication of Gentzen's proofs. The solution to this problem for an intuitionistic calculus is based on a normalization proof by Howard. The proof is performed in the manner of Gentzen, by giving a reduction procedure for derivations of falsity. In contrast to Gentzen's proof, the procedure contains a vector assignment. The reduction reduces the first component of the vector and this component can be interpreted as an ordinal less than epsilon_0, thus ordering the derivations by complexity and proving termination of the process.
  • Mannermaa, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The prominent roles of birds, often mentioned in historical sources, are not well reflected in archaeological research. Absence or scarcity of bird bones in archaeological assemblages has been often seen as indication of a minor role of birds in the prehistoric economy or ideology, or explained by taphonomic loss. Few studies exist where birds form the basis for extensive archaeological interpretation. In this doctoral dissertation bird bone material from various Stone Age sites in the Baltic Sea region is investigated. The study period is approximately 7000-3400 BP, comprising mainly Neolithic cultures. The settlement material comes from Finland, Åland, Gotland, Saaremaa and Hiiumaa. Osteological materials are used for studying the economic and cultural importance of birds, fowling methods and principal fowling seasons. The bones were identified and earlier identifications partially checked with help of a reference material of modern skeletons. Fracture analysis was used in order to study the deposition history of bones at Ajvide settlement site. Birds in burials at two large cemeteries, Ajvide on Gotland and Zvejnieki in northern Latvia were investigated in order to study the roles of birds in burial practices. My study reveals that the economic importance of birds is at least seasonally often more prominent than usually thought, and varies greatly in different areas. Fowling has been most important in coastal areas, and especially during the breeding season. Waterbirds and grouse species were generally the most important groups in Finnish Stone Age economy. The identified species composition shows much resemblance to contemporary hunting with species such as the mallard and capercaillie commonly found. Burial materials and additional archaeological evidence from Gotland, Latvia and some other parts of northern Europe indicate that birds –e.g., jay, whooper swan, ducks – have been socially and ideologically important for the studied groups (indicating a place in the belief system, e.g. clan totemism). The burial finds indicate that some common ideas about waterbirds (perhaps as messengers or spirit helpers) might have existed in the northern European Stone Age.
  • Ruuska, Helena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    A Sibyl fallen into everyday life. The enfolding of the identity of modern woman in Marja- Liisa Vartio s novel Kaikki naiset näkevät unia ( All Women Have Dreams ). --- Marja-Liisa Vartio played a remarkable part in renewing Finnish literature. My thesis examines her novel Kaikki naiset näkevät unia (1960), which describes the life of a middle-aged housewife, Mrs. Pyy ( Mrs. Hazel Hen ). She has moved from country to city and lives now in a suburb, in the Helsinki of the 1950 s. In Finnish literature, the novel is the first significant description of a modern city woman accomplished by modernistic means. My research examines the identity of a woman in the Finland of the 50 s, an epoch marked by the inevitable transition into modernity. My aim is to look into the ways in which the female identity enfolds in Kaikki naiset näkevät unia, how it takes its form, how it is described and commented. The primary method is contextual close reading; the novel is seen in the social, cultural and historical context of the time it was published. Essential elements in this study are literary motifs and images in the novel, and particularly transtextual relations as defined by Gérald Genette. The focus is on hypertextuality, intertextuality and paratextuality. Kaikki naiset näkevät unia emerges as a modern version of Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert. A woman s life spent in illusive dreaming is transferred from a 1900th century bourgeois town in France to a middle class Finnish suburb in the 1950 s. Vartio s novel is a variant of an ancient Finnish ballad I, a bird without a nest , making it into a modern narration of transition. The inner, mental journey from country to city is of great length, and the liminal life in a suburb does not make the passage any easier. Like the lyrical voices in the poetry of Edith Södergran, also Mrs. Pyy finds it hard to discover any values of sisterhood or those of ideal femininity in modern times. In earlier studies of Marja-Liisa Vartio s prose, stress has been laid on the discourse of her narrators and characters, as well as on its modern literary form. In this research, however, urgent allusions to paintings, old and new, are taken into account, since Mrs. Pyy mirrors herself against art, both classical and modern. Principal images in this context are Michelangelo s Sibyls in the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and a modern painting, which remains unidentified. Mrs. Pyy turns out to be a tragicomic character, who has magnanimous illusions about herself, but is compelled to accept the fact the she is only a mediocre person. She is nothing more than a first generation city dweller; she is not a modern, aloof outsider but a mere dilettante, who desperately tries to live out modern city life. Kaikki naiset näkevät unia is a striking picture of the 1950 s, a picture that is construed in the consciousness of Mrs. Pyy. We are shown everyday life growing more and more modern after the war and woman s role growing more and more subject to increasing pressure for change.
  • Nystrand, Marko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The goal of this dissertation was to study whether it is possible and meaningful to apply Ludwig Wittgenstein s distinction between saying (Sagen) and showing (Zeigen) to ethically oriented literary criticism. The following questions were used as the primary guidelines: 1. Is it possible, in the context of literary criticism, to put in practice Wittgenstein s ethical conceptions, which are quite theoretical and metaphysical by nature? 2. If so, what practical literary devices do authors use if they want to demonstrate their ethical values within the frame of a fictional work? 3. Does philosophy offer useful ethical consepts that open us new and interesting readings in fiction? The philosophical background of Wittgenstein s distinction is clarified in chapter I. This clarification is based on his main works, Tractatus logico-philosophicus and Philosophishe Untersuchungen, the published correspondence between Wittgenstein and Paul Engelmann, and selected Wittgenstein research and papers. Analyzing ethics and it s expression in Georg Trakl s poetry further elucidates Wittgenstein s concept of showing. The concept that a literary work is an act of an author was used as a starting point. The presumption was that analyzing this act of an author will reveal how ethical values can be demonstrated in literature. Categorizing an author s act at different levels of literary expression provides the structure of this study. In chapters IV - XIII literary devices useful for demonstrating ethics are examined and explained using examples from the works of Joseph Conrad, Charles Dickens, Nikolay Leskov, Ludwig Uhland, Eino Leino, Pentti Haanpää and Maria Jotuni. The concepts and views of researchers and writers such as Mihail Bahtin, Peter Juhl, E. D. Hirsch, Peter Lamarque and Stein Haugom Olsen are used. The concepts outlined in previous chapters are then applied in three case studies: Aeschylus s Oresteia trilogy, J-L. Runeberg s poem Sven Dufva and Sofi Oksanen s novel Puhdistus (Purge). On the whole, Wittgenstein s idea that ethical values can be demonstrated (shown) by means of literature is revealed as a fruitful point of departure for a more exact ethical reading, offering a new perspective on literary works.
  • Hilmisdottir, Helga (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This thesis is an empirical study of how two words in Icelandic, "nú" and "núna", are used in contemporary Icelandic conversation. My aims in this study are, first, to explain the differences between the temporal functions of "nú" and "núna", and, second, to describe the non-temporal functions of "nú". In the analysis, a focus is placed on comparing the sequential placement of the two words, on their syntactical distribution, and on their prosodic realization. The empirical data comprise 14 hours and 11 minutes of naturally occurring conversation recorded between 1996 and 2003. The selected conversations represent a wide range of interactional contexts including informal dinner parties, institutional and non-institutional telephone conversations, radio programs for teenagers, phone-in programs, and, finally, a political debate on television. The theoretical and methodological framework is interactional linguistics, which can be described as linguistically oriented conversation analysis (CA). A comparison of "nú" and "núna" shows that the two words have different syntactic distributions. "Nú" has a clear tendency to occur in the front field, before the finite verb, while "núna" typically occurs in the end field, after the object. It is argued that this syntactic difference reflects a functional difference between "nú" and "núna". A sequential analysis of "núna" shows that the word refers to an unspecified period of time which includes the utterance time as well as some time in the past and in the future. This temporal relation is referred to as reference time. "Nú", by contrast, is mainly used in three different environments: a) in temporal comparisons, 2) in transitions, and 3) when the speaker is taking an affective stance. The non-temporal functions of "nú" are divided into three categories: a) "nú" as a tone particle, 2) "nú" as an utterance particle, and 3) "nú" as a dialogue particle. "Nú" as a tone particle is syntactically integrated and can occur in two syntactic positions: pre-verbally and post-verbally. I argue that these instances are employed in utterances in which a speaker is foregrounding information or marking it as particularly important. The study shows that, although these instances are typically prosodically non-prominent and unstressed, they are in some cases delivered with stress and with a higher pitch than the surrounding talk. "Nú" as an utterance particle occurs turn-initially and is syntactically non-integrated. By using "nú", speakers show continuity between turns and link new turns to prior ones. These instances initiate either continuations by the same speaker or new turns after speaker shifts. "Nú" as a dialogue particle occurs as a turn of its own. The study shows that these instances register informings in prior turns as unexpected or as a departure from the normal state of affairs. "Nú" as a dialogue particle is often delivered with a prolonged vowel and a recognizable intonation contour. A comparative sequential and prosodic analysis shows that in these cases there is a correlation between the function of "nú" and the intonation contour by which it is delivered. Finally, I argue that despite the many functions of "nú", all the instances can be said to have a common denominator, which is to display attention towards the present moment and the utterances which are produced prior or after the production of "nú". Instead of anchoring the utterances in external time or reference time, these instances position the utterance in discourse internal time, or discourse time.
  • Wilde, Christopher P (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This dissertation is a synchronic description of the phonology and grammar of two dialects of the Rajbanshi language (Eastern Indo-Aryan) as spoken in Jhapa, Nepal. I have primarily confined the analysis to the oral expression, since the emerging literary form is still in its infancy. The grammatical analysis is therefore based, for the most part, on a corpus of oral narrative text which was recorded and transcribed from three informants from north-east Jhapa. An informant, speaking a dialect from south-west Jhapa cross checked this text corpus and provided additional elicited material. I have described the phonology, morphology and syntax of the language, and also one aspect of its discourse structure. For the most part the phonology follows the basic Indo-Aryan pattern. Derivational morphology, compounding, reduplication, echo formation and onomatopoeic constructions are considered, as well as number, noun classes (their assignment and grammatical function), pronouns, and case and postpositions. In verbal morphology I cover causative stems, the copula, primary and secondary agreement, tense, aspect, mood, auxiliary constructions and non-finite forms. The term secondary agreement here refers to genitive agreement, dative-subject agreement and patient (and sometimes patient-agent) agreement. The breaking of default agreement rules has a range of pragmatic inferences. I argue that a distinction, based on formal, semantic and statistical grounds, should be made between conjunct verbs, derivational compound verbs and quasi-aspectual compound verbs. Rajbanshi has an open set of adjectives, and it additionally makes use of a restricted set of nouns which can function as adjectives. Various particles, and the emphatic and conjunctive clitics are also considered. The syntactic structures studied include: non-declarative speech acts, phrase-internal and clause-internal constituent order, negation, subordination, coordination and valence adjustment. I explain how the future, present and past tenses in Rajbanshi oral narratives do not seem to maintain a time reference, but rather to indicate a distinction between background and foreground information. I call this tense neutralisation .