Browsing by Organization "Helsingfors universitet, humanistiska fakulteten, tyska institutionen"

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  • Richter-Vapaatalo, Ulrike (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Da hatte das Pferd die Nüstern voll. Gebrauch und Funktion von Phraseologie im Kinderbuch. Untersuchungen zu Erich Kästner und anderen Autoren. [Da hatte das Pferd die Nüstern voll. Use and Function of Phraseology in Children’s Literature. Studies in the Works of Erich Kästner and Other Authors.] Idioms are widely believed to be difficult for children to understand. Nevertheless, children’s literature shows abundant use of phraseological units in a wide variety of different functions. This study investigates the use and functions of idiomatic phraseology in German children’s literature starting with Erich Kästner (1899-1976) up until the present. On the basis of three different corpora (905 instances of idiom use from six Kästner children’s books, 333 examples of the use of idioms from two of Kästner’s novels for adults, and 580 idioms extracted from six German children’s books by different authors), and using the methodology and concepts of text linguistics, this study attempts to answer the following questions: How many and what kind of phraseological units are used in the texts? By what means are they embedded into the context, what kind of contextual relations do they form? What are the differences in the use of idioms between the different children’s books by one author (Kästner), between the children’s books and the adult novels by Kästner and between the different authors of children’s books? The analysis indicates that the use of phraseology in children’s literature is primarily a feature of the individual authors – different ‘phraseological profiles’ can be constructed. For example, Kästner not only uses idioms frequently, but also conspicuously, in plays on words, modifications, and contextual relations of all kinds. It can be stated that the extensive use of paraphrases to the idioms is common to more or less all of the children’s books that were analyzed for this study. For Kästner a noticeable difference between the use of paraphrases in the children’s books and in the novels can be discerned. Thus a consideration of the children’s (phraseological) competence seems to be an inherent constituent of children’s literature.
  • Kolehmainen, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Liimatainen, Annikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The work integrates research in the language and terminology of various fields with lexicography, etymology, semantics, word formation, and pragmatics. Additionally, examination of German and Finnish provides the work with perspective of contrastive linguistics and the translation of texts in specialized fields. The work is an attempt to chart the language, vocabulary, different textual types, and essential communication-connected features of this special field. The study is primary concerned with internal communication within the field of ecology, but it also provides a comparison of the public discussion of environmental issues in Germany and Finland. The work attempts to use textual signs to provide a picture of the literary communication used on the different vertical levels in the central text types within the field. The dictionaries in the fields of environmental issues and ecology for the individual text types are examined primarily from the perspective of their quantity and diversity. One central point of the work is to clarify and collect all of the dictionaries in the field that have been compiled thus far in which German and/or Finnish ware included. Ecology and environmental protection are closely linked not only to each other but also to many other scientific fields. Consequently, the language of the environmental field has acquired an abundance of influences and vocabulary from the language of the special fields close to it as well as from that of politics and various areas of public administration. The work also demonstrates how the popularization of environmental terminology often leads to semantic distortion. Traditionally, scientific texts have used the smallest number of expressions, the purpose of which is to appeal to or influence the behavior of the text recipient. Particularly in Germany, those who support or oppose measures to protect the environment have long been making concerted efforts to represent their own views in the language that they use. When discussing controversial issues competing designations for the same referent or concept are used in accordance with the interest group to which the speaker belongs. One of the objectives of the study is to sensitize recipients of texts to notice the euphemistic expressions that occur in German and Finnish texts dealing with issues that are sensitive from the standpoint of environmental policy. One particular feature of the field is the wealth and large number of variants designating the same entry or concept. The terminological doublets formed by words of foreign origin and their German or Finnish language equivalents are quite typical of the field. Methods of corpus linguistics are used to determine the reasons for the large number of variant designations as well as their functionality.
  • Majorin, Mariikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Valency Realization in Short Excerpts of News Text. A Pragmatics-funded analysis This dissertation is a study of the so-called pragmatic valency. The aim of the study is to examine the phenomenon both theoretically by discussing the research literature and empirically based on evidence from a text corpus consisting of 218 short excerpts of news text from the German newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. In the theoretical part of the study, the central concepts of the valency and the pragmatic valency are discussed. In the research literature, the valency denotes the relation among the verb and its obligatory and optional complements. The pragmatic valency can be defined as modification of the so-called system valency in the parole, including non-realization of an obligatory complement, non- realization of an optional complement and realization of an optional complement. Furthermore, the investigation of the pragmatic valency includes the role of the adjuncts, elements that are not defined by the valency, in the concrete valency realization. The corpus study investigates the valency behaviour of German verbs in a corpus of about 1500 sentences combining the methodology and concepts of valency theory, semantics and text linguistics. The analysis is focused on the about 600 sentences which show deviations from the system valency, providing over 800 examples for the modification of the system valency as codified in the (valency) dictionaries. The study attempts to answer the following primary question: Why is the system valency modified in the parole? To answer the question, the concept of modification types is entered. The modification types are recognized using distinctive feature bundles in which each feature with a negative or a positive value refers to one reason for the modification treated in the research literature. For example, the features of irrelevance and relevance, focus, world and text type knowledge, text theme, theme-rheme structure and cohesive chains are applied. The valency approach appears in a new light when explored through corpus-based investigation; both the optionality of complements and the distinction between complements and adjuncts as defined in the present valency approach seem in some respects defective. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that the adjuncts outside the valency domain play a central role in the concrete realization of the valency. Finally, the study suggests a definition of pragmatic valency, based on the modification types introduced in the study and tested in the corpus analysis.