Browsing by Organization "Helsingin yliopisto, humanistinen tiedekunta, suomen kielen, suomalais-ugrilaisten ja pohjoismaisten kielten ja kirjallisuuksien laitos"

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  • Sikorski, Filip (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis reconstructs the genesis of Miklós Szentkuthy s (1908-1988) novel Prae (1934). The thesis examines previously unknown documents, discovered in the archives of the Petőfi Literary Museum in Budapest, which include the manuscript of Prae, drafts of Prae, diary notes, marginal notes in Szentkuthy s books, and letters and postcards. Although this material has been available to scholars, it has never been studied or commented upon. Drawing on the concepts and methodological tools of genetic criticism, this thesis presents the archival material, establishes a writing process chronology, and distinguishes three principal techniques in Szentkuthy s writing method. Szentkuthy wrote Prae between the years 1928-34 by a gradual accumulation of portions of text. His writing process can be divided into five stages: First (autumn 1928-October 1931), he wrote the core of part 1, then (late 1931-March 1932) the core of part 2. Next (April 1932-late 1932), he completed part 1 with three lengthy additions and finished part 2. In the following stage (December 1932-May 1933), Szentkuthy wrote the core of part 3. In the final stage (May 1933-April 1934), he also corrected the entire manuscript and attached more than one hundred additions to it. The additions introduced new thematic material to the manuscript. As a result, the seemingly uniform text of Prae actually consists of two thematically different layers: the main text and the additions. Other characteristics of Szentkuthy s writing include obscuring suppression and immediate absorption. The technique of obscuring suppression consists of the deletion of portions of material due to which the final text (the published novel) becomes more concise but also less understandable than its draft. The principle of immediate absorption is spontaneous and immediate incorporation of readerly and personal experiences into the text that a writer is working on. As the first doctoral dissertation devoted to Prae, this thesis also demonstrates how knowledge of the novel s genesis can be utilized in future research on Szentkuthy s novel. Firstly, researchers will be able to take into account the thematic distinction between the main text and the additions. Secondly, the thesis shows that it is worth studying drafts as they might provide much richer and more informative material than the printed text. Thirdly, comparing parts of the novel to books that Szentkuthy read simultaneously to the writing of the given fragments may lead to the discovery of new unknown sources of Prae.
  • Zamyatin, Konstantin (Vammalan Kirjapaino OY, 2014)
    This study focuses on the phenomenon of the granting of official status for minority languages. The concepts of official language and minority language do not seem to be completely compatible and their linking requires further specification. In theory, an official language has both symbolic and practical communicative functions. An official language that is also a minority language functions primarily as a national symbol and potentially may also possess the practical function as a language of the public authority. In the latter case, minority language is more often used as the language of communication between authorities and citizens rather than being the working language. Why are some minority languages nominated as official languages? The aim of this research is to explore the formation of the official status and its configurations for the state languages in the Finno-Ugric Republics of the Russian Federation in order to understand the reasons for their designation and to shed light on the specifics of the official status in the case of minority languages. This dissertation is an interdisciplinary study and its toolkit is not limited to theories of language policy but includes the wider perspectives of studies in ethnicity and nationalism. Common perspectives for both interdisciplinary fields are symbolist, revivalist, instrumentalist and institutionalist approaches. These theoretical approaches are employed to interpret the results of an empirical study. The case of Russia is particularly interesting as an empirical study because, alongside China and India, it possesses the world's greatest number of official languages. The case studies concerning Russia’s Republics demonstrated that one should distinguish at least three reasons for the designation of their state languages that were parts of parallel processes with different goals, meanings and consequences. The reasons for the officialization reveal different aspects of the official status and correspond to the three types of recognition: symbolic, political and legal. In the case of minority languages their official status functions foremost, and often exclusively, as a symbol of identity. Unless the minority language is the sole official language of the region, official status proves to offer only a limited language revival tool. However, this status also has an important function as a social institution that structures social relations.
  • Mickwitz, Åsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The study investigates the formal integration of English loanwords into the Swedish language system. The aim has been to analyse and describe the morphological/morphosyntactic and the orthographical integration of the loanwords. I have studied how the foreign language elements get accommodated to Swedish and which factors are relevant in the integration. The material for the study consists of Swedish newspapers published in Sweden and Finland in paper format (with a focus on the years 1975 and 2000) and newspapers in digital format on the net. The theoretical frame for the study is contact linguistics. The study is based on a sociolinguistic, structural and language political perspective on what language is, and what language contact is. The method used is usage-based linguistic analysis. In the morphological study of the loanwords, I have made both a quantitative and a qualitative study. I have analysed the extent to which loanwords show some indication of integration in Swedish, and to what extent they show no signs of integration at all. I have also analysed integration in relation to word classes i.e., how nouns, adjectives and verbs integrate and which factors are relevant for the result of the integration. The result shows that most loanwords (36 %) do not show any signs of being formally integrated in Swedish. They undergo neither inflectional, nor derivational changes. One fifth of the loanwords are inflected according to the rules of Swedish grammar. Nouns are generally more often than verbs placed in positions in the sentence where no formal adaption is needed. Almost all of the verbs in the material are inflected according to Swedish rules of grammar. Only 3 % of the loanwords are inflected according to English rules or are placed in an ungrammatical position in the sentence. The orthographical study shows that English loanwords very seldom get adapted to Swedish orthography. Some English vowel and consonant graphemes are replaced with Swedish ones, for example a, ay and ai are replaced with aj or ej (mail → mejl). The study also indicates that morphological integration is related to orthographical integration: loanwords that are inflected according to Swedish grammar are more likely to be orthographical integrated than loanwords that are inflected according to English grammar. The results also shows that the integration of loanwords are affected by mostly language structural factors and language political factors.
  • Biström, Anna Elisabeth (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Doing Authenticity. The Making of Eva Dahlgren in the Press and in Dahlgren's lyrics 1980-2000. The study analyses the "construction" - the produced images - of the popular Swedish singer-songwriter Eva Dahlgren (born 1960). A selection of Dahlgren's performed lyrics as well as press material from the beginning of her career (1980) to the year 2000 is examined. In this process, images are revealed not only of Eva Dahlgren, but also of authenticity, often through the image of Dahlgren as an authentic and unique author of her artistic work. Therefore the study not only offers new insight into Dahlgren's lyrics and musical career, but also contributes to scholarly discussions concerning authenticity and authorship, especially in rock culture. With female artists traditionally often excluded from the notions of authenticity and 'real' rock music, the study also discusses the place of women in rock culture. With contextualizing and thematic textual analysis as its main method, the study confirms that Dahlgren's career has been a constant quest for authenticity. The most interesting result, however, is that "the authentic" reveals itself in different, even contradictory ways. Dahlgren's variants of the authentic are not unique and can be interpreted in the context of traditional notions of authenticity in rock culture. What is more extraordinary, is that her versions of authenticity are mostly accepted and celebrated by rock journalists, despite the challenges she has encountered as a female artist trying to convince the audience of her genuineness. Although her artistic input is sometimes negotiated, for instance in relation to her former producer Anders Glenmark, she is often celebrated as a unique author, in control of her own work. Sometimes she is even pictured in ways that bring to mind the notion of the romantic genius. The fascination with authenticity can be interpreted in the light of issues concerning the "self " or "identity" in late modern culture of which Dahlgren and her listeners are a part. Although Dahlgren's work and the presentations of her in the press momentarily reveal the constructedness of the authentic and the (true) "self" , they strongly rely upon the notion of the self having a true essence.
  • Lassus, Jannika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This thesis concerns Swedish and Finland-Swedish brochures to families with children, presenting family allowances from the social insurance institutions in the two countries. The aim of the study is to analyse what meanings are conveyed with reference to the conceivable reader and the institution in the brochures. The material consists of information brochures in Swedish from Kela, the social insurance institution of Finland, and Försäkringskassan, the Swedish social insurance agency, issued during 2003–2006. The general theoretical framework is systemic-functional linguistics (SFL) as presented by Halliday & Matthiessen (2004) and Holmberg & Karlsson (2006). The study consists of a quantitative study of the lexical choices of the social insurance brochures. Furthermore, a qualitative process and participant analysis is annotated with the UAM Corpus tool and the results are quantified. Speech functions and modal auxiliaries are analysed qualitatively. The analysis shows that material and relational processes are most common. The relational and verbal processes are used more in the Sweden-Swedish brochures, while the material processes are more common in the Finland-Swedish brochures. The participants in the brochures are the institution, mentioned by its name, and the conceivable reader, directly addressed with “you” (du). In addition, the referent “child” is often mentioned. The participants assigned for the reader are Actor, Receiver, Carrier and Speaker. In the Finland-Swedish texts, the reader is often an Actor, while the reader in the Sweden-Swedish texts is a Carrier. Thus, the conceivable reader is an active participant who takes care of his or her own matters using the internet, communicates actively to the institution and has legal rights and obligations. The institution is visible in the texts but does not have an active role as the name of the institution is mostly used in circumstances. The institution is not often a participant, but when it is, it is Actor, Receiver, Listener and Carrier, expecting the clients to address it. Speech functions are performed in different ways. For instance, questions structure the reading process and commands are realised by modal auxiliaries, not by imperatives. The most common modal auxiliary is kan (can, may), and another common auxiliary is ska (shall, must). Statements are surrounded by subordinate clauses and adverbs that describe situations and criteria. The results of the study suggest that the brochures in the two countries are similar, in particular when produced in similar ways, that is, when the Finland-Swedish texts are not translated. Existing differences reflect the differences in the institutions, the social insurance systems and the cultural contexts. KEYWORDS: Finland-Swedish, Swedish, comparative analysis, SFL, discourse analysis, administrative language, institutional discourse, institutional communication
  • Jalava, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The dissertation consists of four academic articles and an introductory chapter explaining the objectives, background and results of the study. It concentrates on the variation and change in predicate structures in Tundra Nenets, a Samoyedic (Uralic) language spoken in Siberia. The focus of the study is on the finite and non-finite forms and the concept of finiteness in grammatical change. The study investigates those grammatical categories that show variation in verbal and non-verbal predication or that are results of grammaticalization processes that include changes in non-finite verb forms. The topics of the articles are adjectival words, modal and evidential categories, and the essive-translative constructions in Tundra Nenets. The data consists of published texts in Tundra Nenets from different periods of time representing different genres, as well as fieldwork material recorded on the Taimyr Peninsula in 2011. The approach is functional typological, and the methodology combines synchronic linguistic description and diachronic explanation of the grammatical phenomena. The linguistic processes are analysed with relation to language use and context, and their development is explained with relation to the synchronic variation in the language and similar structural and functional paths of change in other languages. The findings of this study complement earlier research by suggesting mechanisms and paths of change for categories whose origin has been hypothesized in earlier studies. The results suggest that non-finite verb forms often serve as a basis for modal and evidential verb forms in Tundra Nenets, but they can also take part in grammaticalization processes that produce nominal categories, such as the essive-translative suffix. At the same time, the study provides syntactic analyses of lesser studied grammatical categories in Tundra Nenets. It also contributes to the more general discussion on finiteness and infiniteness as well as the division of main word classes in grammatical change.
  • Peltola, Rea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Modal cohesion and subordination. The Finnish conditional and jussive moods in comparison to the French subjunctive This study examines verb moods in subordinate clauses in French and Finnish. The first part of the analysis deals with the syntax and semantics of the French subjunctive, mood occurring mostly in subordinate positions. The second part investigates Finnish verb moods. Although subordinate positions in Finnish grammar have no special finite verb form, certain uses of Finnish verb moods have been compared to those of subjunctives and conjunctives in other languages. The present study focuses on the subordinate uses of the Finnish conditional and jussive (i.e. the third person singular and plural of the imperative mood). The third part of the analysis discusses the functions of subordinate moods in contexts beyond complex sentences. The data used for the analysis include 1834 complex sentences gathered from newspapers, online discussion groups and blog texts, as well as audio-recorded interviews and conversations. The data thus consist of both written and oral texts as well as standard and non-standard variants. The analysis shows that the French subjunctive codes theoretical modality. The subjunctive does not determine the temporal and modal meaning of the event, but displays the event as virtual. In a complex sentence, the main clause determines the temporal and modal space within which the event coded by the subjunctive clause is interpreted. The subjunctive explicitly indicates that the space constructed in the main clause extends its scope over the subordinate clause. The subjunctive can therefore serve as a means for creating modal cohesion in the discourse. The Finnish conditional shares the function of making explicit the modal link between the components of a complex construction with the French subjunctive, but the two moods differ in their semantics. The conditional codes future time and can therefore occur only in non-factual or counterfactual contexts, whereas the event expressed by French subjunctive clauses can also be interpreted as realized. Such is the case when, for instance, generic and habitual meaning is involved. The Finnish jussive mood is used in a relatively limited number of subordinate clause types, but in these contexts its modal meaning is strikingly close to that of the French subjunctive. The permissive meaning, typical of the jussive in main clause positions, is modified in complex sentences so that it entails inter-clausal relation, namely concession. Like the French subjunctive, the jussive codes theoretical modal meaning with no implication of the truth value of the proposition. Finally, the analysis shows that verb moods mark modal cohesion, not only on the syntagmatic level (namely in complexe sentences), but also on the paradigmatic axis of discourse in order to create semantic links over entire segments of talk. In this study, the subjunctive thus appears, not as an empty category without function, as it is sometimes described, but as an open form that conveys the temporal and modal meanings emerging from the context.
  • Lauranto, Yrjö (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines directivity and imperative clauses (henceforth i-clauses) in Finnish. It consists of 3 publications (P1, P2 and P3). While the theoretical basis of the study is systemic-functional linguistics, use is also made of other approaches. P1 concentrates on the description of the imperative, and, thus, the data consist mainly of intuited examples. Firstly, the Finnish imperative can be regarded as a paradigm consisting of the personal forms of the present. This is reflected in traditional descriptions of the Finnish verb, which treat the imperative as one of the moods. This is referred to as the synchronic-morphological perspective. Secondly, the imperative can be examined from the perspective of interaction and interactional constructions. This is called the diachronic-interactive perspective. P2 investigates the canonical i-clause in everyday conversations between friends and family members. The data consist of approx. 140 conversations or excerpts of conversation. 70 % of the data are telephone conversations. One of the characteristics of the i-clause is that it is employed as a response to what has been said before or as a response to the non-linguistic action that is going on during the conversation. Approx. 63 % of the i-clauses in the data (n = 243) can be considered strongly responsive. Another significant finding is that only 10 % of the i-clauses of the data are interpreted by the participants in the conversations as commands. P2 suggests two ways of defining the notion of a directive. From a wider perspective, directives include not only exhortations to action but also offers and permissions. From a narrow perspective, offers and permissions are excluded because they are used to provide addressees with commodities or to enable them to act in the way they themselves wish. P3 discusses two clause constructions that begin with a finite verb conjugated in the 2nd person of the conditional mood but which do not allow a pronoun functioning as the subject. The data consist of everyday interaction and electronically mediated conversations from the Internet. One of the constructions is clearly an optative structure, whereas the other tends to be used as a persuasive expression. It can thus be seen as a grammaticalization of directivity. The study sheds light on the Finnish i-clause and its use, but also on directivity in general. The results are also of relevance to the teaching of Finnish as a second language. Key words: interactional syntax, interpersonal, imperative clause, morphological imperative, everyday conversations, directives, directivity, grammatical metaphor, optative, persuasion, grammaticalization, systemic-functional linguistics
  • Frick, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This study investigates codeswitching by Finns who live in Estonia. It draws from spoken and written interactional data where mainly Finnish is used, but where the participants also employ their Estonian resources. The articles in the study focus on a selection of grammatical and discourse-related phenomena, namely the formation of compound nouns, codeswitching in reported speech, conversational sequence closings, and the functions of codeswitching in social media. The introductory article provides a general overview of codeswitching in the data: patterns of forming bilingual constructions, their emergence in the flow of conversation and their consequences in interaction. The theoretical framework of the study comes from the field of interactional linguistics. The data consist of ca. 900 cases of Finnish-Estonian codeswitching in audio- and videorecorded conversations, email messages, and writings in social media, which were all collected in 2002-2012 from Finns who had lived in Estonia for up to 17 years at the time of recording. An internet-based survey and the researcher s field notes gave additional sociolinguistic background data. The data show that Estonian lexical forms and meanings are employed in Finnish contexts, that the case assignment of phrasal and clausal constructions may be mixed, and that the speakers sometimes use Estonian-like word order. Two shapes are described that often attract codeswitching in one- or multi-word constructions. The first one (named ravioli in the study) are bilingual homophones whose form is similar, although not necessarily identical, in the two languages, but whose meaning differs. These constructions attract semantic borrowing so that they are used in their Finnish form but Estonian meaning. The second shape (named farfalle) are bipartite constructions such as noun-noun compounds, existential and subject complement clauses and voicing constructions, where one of the parts specifies, modifies, characterises or demonstrates that which is identified in the other part. In them, the switch happens in between the parts, typically so that the part doing specification, characterisation, modification or demonstration is in Estonian. Interactional linguists understand grammar to be emergent in interaction, for the needs of the on-going situation. This view is supported by findings of sequentially motivated codeswitching in the data. Codeswitching is a heteroglossic device that speakers use for indirect evaluation, social indexing, and distancing themselves from what is said. Codeswitching is also used for tying utterances to previous ones, and for the modification of an utterance that is repeated. Usually codeswitching helps further the participants interactional projects, but in some cases it becomes an obstacle that results in side sequences and disalignment, disaffiliation or even teasing.
  • af Hällström-Reijonen, Charlotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The aim of the study is to investigate the use of finlandisms in an historical perspective, how they have been viewed from the mid-19th century to this day, and the effect of language planning on their use. A finlandism is a word, a phrase, or a structure that is used only in the Swedish varieties used in Finland (i.e. in Finland Swedish), or used in these varieties in a different meaning than in the Swedish used in Sweden. Various aspects of Finland-Swedish language planning are discussed in relation to language planning generally; in addition, the relation of Finland Swedish to Standard Swedish and standard regional varieties is discussed, and various types of finlandisms are analysed in detail. A comprehensive picture is provided of the emergence and evolution of the ideology of language planning from the mid-19th century up until today. A theoretical model of corpus planning is presented and its effect on linguistic praxis described. One result of the study is that the belief among Finland-Swedish language planners that the Swedish language in Finland must not be allowed to become distanced from Standard Swedish, has been widely adopted by the average Finland Swede, particularly during the interwar period, following the publication of Hugo Bergroth s work Finlandssvenska in 1917. Criticism of this language-planning ideology started to appear in the 1950s, and intensified in the 1970s. However, language planning and the basis for this conception of language continue to enjoy strong support among Swedish-speaking Finns. I show that the editing of Finnish literary texts written in Swedish has often been somewhat amateurish and the results not always linguistically appropriate, and that Swedish publishers have in fact adopted a rather liberal attitude towards finlandisms. My conclusion is that language planning has achieved rather modest results in its resistance to finlandisms. Most of the finlandisms used in 1915 were still in use in 2005. Finlandisms occur among speakers of all ages, and even among academically educated people despite their more elevated style. The most common finlandisms were used by informants of all ages. The ones that are firmly rooted are the most established, in other words those that are stylistically neutral, seemingly genuinely Swedish, but which are nevertheless strongly supported by Finnish, and display a shift in meaning as compared with Standard Swedish.
  • Mattfolk, Leila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The study describes and analyzes Finland Swedes attitudes to modern-day linguistic influence, the relationship between informants explicitly reported views and the implicit attitudes they express towards language influence. The methods are primarily sociolinguistic. For the analysis of opinions and attitudes I have further developed and tested a new tool in attitude research. With statistical correlation analysis of data collected through a quantitative survey I describe the views that Swedish-language Finns (N=500) report on the influence of English, on imports, and on domain loss. With experimental matchedguise techniques, I study Finland-Swedes (N=600) subconscious reactions to English imports in spoken text. My results show that the subconscious reactions in some respects differ markedly from the views informants explicitly report that they have: informants respond that they would like English words that come into Swedish to be replaced by Swedish replacement words, but in a matched-guise test on their subconscious attitudes, the informants consider English words in a Swedish context to have a positive effect. The topic is further dealt with in interviews where I examine 36 informants implicit attitudes through interactional sociolinguistic analyses. This study comes close to pragmatic discourse analysis in its focus on pragmatic particles and modality. The study makes a rather strict distinction between explicitly expressed opinions and implicit, subconscious attitudes. The quantitative analyses suggest that the opinions we express can be tied to the explicit in language. The outcome of the matched-guise test shows that it is furthermore possible to find subconscious, implicit attitudes that people in actual situations rely on when they make decisions. The discourse analysis finds many subconscious signals, but it also shows that the signals arise in interaction with one s interlocutor, the situation, and the norms in the society. To account for this I have introduced the concept of socioconscious attitude. Socioconscious attitudes reflect not only the traditions and values the utterer grew up with, but also the speaker s relation to the social situation (s)he takes part in.
  • Sandström, Caroline (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Gender in eastern Nyland – from dialect levelling to identity marking The study of dialect leveling in eastern Nyland focuses on variation and change in the Swedish dialects of Nyland (Fi. Uusimaa) on the south coast of Finland. During the last century the grammatical gender system of the dialects in the area has been reduced from a three-gender system to a two-gender system (cf. Corbett 1991). The present study is based on five linguistic variables in the gender system: the anaphoric pronouns (han, hon, den) when used for inanimates; the neuter pronouns he(t) and de(t) – when used anaphorically or as expletives; and three different types of morphological postposed definite articles. For all these variables, both dialect variants and standard variants are used in the dialects. Within the study of processes of variation and change, the work focuses on the mechanisms of leveling, simplification and reallocation; cf. Trudgill (1986) and Hinskens, Auer Kerswill (2005). With regard to the reductions of the gender system, the possibility that some of these variables might have turned into becoming dialect markers (Labov 1972) in the modern varieties of eastern Nyland is given special attention. The primary data consist of tape recordings with 25 informants done in the 1960s and 1970s. The informants were born in 1881–1913. In addition, recent changes were investigated in detail in tape recordings from 2005–2008 with 15 informants, who were born in the period 1927–1947 or 1976–1988. The study combines quantitative and qualitative methods in the systematic analysis of the data. Theoretically and methodologically the study relies on methods and results from variation studies and socio-dialectology, as well as on methods and results from traditional dialectology; cf. Ahlbäck (1946) and the dictionary of Swedish dialects, Ordbok över Finlands svenska folkmål, (1976–). The results show that there are different strategies among the informants in their use of the features studied. In the modern varieties of the dialects, most of the informants use only two genders, uter and neuter. Of the variables, the masculine pronoun for inanimates, the traditional neuter pronoun he(t) and some variants of the traditional definite articles have received a new function as dialect markers in my data. These changes first affect the gender distinctions, and the function of marking gender is lost; gradually the features then get new functions as dialect markers through processes of dialect leveling and reallocation. These processes are connected to changes taking place in the communities in eastern Nyland because of urbanization. When the dialect speakers experience that the traditional values of both the dialects and the culture are threatened, they begin to mark their dialectal identity by using dialect markers in their speech.
  • Welander, Martin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Gray Reality, Golden Fantasy. The Problem of Creating in the Aphoristic Works of R.R. Eklund is the first major study of the Finland-Swedish writer R.R. Eklund s (1895 1946) aphoristic works. A point of departure for the study is the assumption that most of the major themes found in Eklund s works can be related to his struggle with the creative process. An aesthetic-idealistic philosophical context, including the philosophical thought of Kant, Schiller, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche and above all, Schopenhauer forms the backdrop to the study. Eklund s personal, reflective aphorism is seen as a part of a general evolution of the 20th century aphorism, as it has been outlined by Philippe Moret, where the aphorism and the literary diary approach each other and even morph into each other. This trend in Eklund s aphorisms is in stark contrast with the general evolution of his poetics, where he distances himself from modernistic ideals, and from the contemporary Finland-Swedish modernism. The presentation of nature in the works of Eklund is also studied, within the context of the regressive fantasy that nature triggers. The relation to nature is also studied in the context of two dichotomies tied to the aesthetic idealism: outside inside and nature culture. The concept of the sublime, as it is presented by Kant and Schopenhauer, is related to nature in general and to the Ostrobothnian plains, an important landscape in Eklund's aphorisms, in particular. Eklund s worship of geniuses and great historical figures is tied both to Schiller s aesthetics and to the sublime, and is studied as an aesthetic-idealistic strategy for easing the (self-inflicted) demand for literary production. The problem of anti-productivity is found to be an all-encompassing theme in Eklund s works, through which all other themes can be understood. The aesthetic idealism, which often takes the form of a struggle between a euphoric-nietzschean and a schopenhauerian world view, can best be understood as Eklund s strategy for overcoming the writer s block he is facing. The strategy is successful at least in the sense that his struggle with the writer s block becomes the most important subject in his works.
  • Palmén, Helena Maria Beatrice (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Identity in interaction. Code-switching from dialect to the standard as risk and resource in eastern Nyland The purpose of the study is to show how native dialect speakers with an advanced understanding of the standard variety utilize their double linguistic competence in conversations. The study also more generally sets out to deepen our understanding of dialect usage and of the dialects in eastern Nyland (Östra Nyland) in Finland. Language is closely related to identity. With the help of a variety of data investigated from a sociolinguistic and dialectal point of view and with primarily sociolinguistic methods, the study approaches the intersection of language and identity. ---- The material on which the analysis is based consists of colloquial conversations between members of informal groups during their in situ gatherings. The analysis was done inductively without pre-planned schedules, but with a focus on how code-switching from a non-standard dialect to the standard variety takes place. The particular method used is specified as discourse analysis inspired by conversation analytic insights. To the already abundant list of existing theoretical tools needed to analyze and understand the material gathered, I introduced an additional take on linguistic identity, a notion of silent identity. This additional dimension proved fundamental for a deeper understanding and analysis of the group conversations that made up the primary material. The analysis shows that switching codes between the non-standard and the standard varieties poses risks of ostracism in the social group at hand and a severe blow to ones self-esteem. By contrast, the capacity to code-switch also provides an important resource for the communication participants in a group, who through frequent code-switching can make use of their full linguistic knowledge and competence. The reference to a silent identity has the force to either strengthen the bonds between individuals and highlight their mutual connection, or to completely separate an individual from a group which inevitably results in a deeply felt (linguistic) shame on the part of the outsider. Keywords: identity, dialect, standard, code-switching, sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, linguistic competence, silent identity, shame.
  • Mononen, Kaarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Use of Finnish among Ingrian-Finns in St Petersburg and its surroundings This thesis examines the Finnish language use of the Ingrian-Finns in St. Petersburg and its surroundings. The rapidly altered linguistic situation in the area forms the background for the study. The St Petersburg area has had a Finnish-speaking population for many centuries as well as varying and longstanding contacts to Finland, except in the Soviet period. From the 19th century, however, a major shift from Finnish to Russian has taken place as the Finnish speaking communities have dramatically diminished. The data for the study have been collected through ethnographic fieldwork in St Petersburg and its surroundings in Russia, and the core data come from elderly people in a retirement home. The study combines methods of language sociology, study of linguistic per-ceptions and interactional sociolinguistics. The data consist of conversations and interviews and it is analysed qualitatively. In addition to actual language use, the participants personal history has been investigated. The analysis shows how sociohistorical background and political conditions and ideologies affect the participants linguistic choices. Bilingualism is a multifaceted concept. The linguistic resources of a speaker often change during one s life time. Among Ingrian-Finns this change has often been a dramatic one. Language shift from Finnish to Russian, due to strict minority politics, has caused many Ingrian-Finns to lose their first language although the data show cases where the heritage language is learned again. Exceptional individual choices are also discussed. The Ingrian Church is taken as an example of a change in the Finnish-language domain reflecting the discrepancy between past and contemporary realities. The speakers linguistic perceptions are investigated, reflecting past experiences. Concepts such as pure Finnish language and pure Finnish as well as Ingrian Finnish have specific meanings for individuals, and they are also context bound. The study also discusses the resources and interaction of the Ingrian-Finns in everyday situations with Finland-Finns. The Ingrian-Finns have different resources available to them including variants of an old Ingrian dialect, Finnish and Russian. Questions of multi-lingualism are approached analysing code switching; results show that Russian elements are used as part of the conversation, often in an unmarked way because of the heavy influence of Russian during the decades. Closer examination also shows different interactional functions of the Russian in Finnish speaking conversation: code switching is used, for example, to show distance and changed position. Attention is paid to the construction of understanding: the notion of a participant framework is used to analyse the speakers positions and contribution in a multiparty and multilingual conversation. Solving interactional problems which arise, e.g. because of using a Russian word, is discussed as well. Mutual understanding is constructed together in conversation reflecting the interactional goals of the situation. It is also studied how identity is constructed in interaction by means of a recurring narrative. Combining different approaches allows a deeper insight into the language use of Ingrian-Finns today. The Finnish language is still used in different ways and situations are multifaceted, reflecting different positions. Attitudes and values also reflect the sociohistori-cal conditions and are intertwined with the actual language use.
  • Lehecka, Tomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The study examines the use of 133 recent (1945-1999; according to Stålhammar 2003) English adjective imports in a Swedish newspaper corpus from 1965-2004 (110 million words). The aim of the study is twofold: (i) to describe the special character of adjective imports and their integration process in relation to other import words as described in earlier studies, and (ii) to inspect the connection between the lexical properties and preferences of adjective imports at different linguistic levels. In particular, the study examines the covariance between the morphological properties and syntactic and collocational preferences of adjective imports. The study utilizes cluster analyses and collocation analysis in order to compare the distributional properties of each adjective form. The results show that the integration process of adjective imports is fundamentally different from that of noun imports. The formal adaptation of adjective imports takes place on the basis of morphosyntactic requirements that apply to the class of adjectives in Swedish in general. It is shown that these requirements are most applicable to grammatical agreement in number and definiteness. The practice of adaptation co-varies with a number of the lexical properties of adjective imports: etymology, morphological form, syntactic use, collocation pattern and sociopragmatic characteristics. The lexical properties discussed in the study are shown to be closely interrelated. Using a probabilistic syntactic analysis as a starting point, the study demonstrates that the subject complement (predicative) function is preferred for adjectives which preserve a foreign morphological form and, more generally, for adjectives which belong to an informal oral register as reflected by their collocation pattern. In turn, an informal lexical context and the subject complement predicative function exert comparatively little pressure on the formal adaptation of adjective imports. Thus, each lexical property of an adjective both reflects and enforces other properties at different linguistic levels. Methodologically, it is shown that a quantitative analysis conducted simultaneously on a large number of lexical units gives valuable insight into both the relationship between units within a linguistic category and the relationship between different levels of linguistic analysis.
  • Vuorikuru, Silja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    At the Gate of the Temple of Beauty. Aino Kallas' Oeuvre and the Biblical Subtext. This study deals with the intertextual relationship between Aino Kallas oeuvre and the Bible. In this study, the Bible is understood as a general subtext of Kallas works. Aino Kallas (former Krohn, 1878-1956) was a Finnish-Estonian author, whose oeuvre nowadays is a part of the literary canons of both countries. Her role in the canon is, however, considered differently in Finland and in Estonia. The notion of intertextuality has been redefined several times in the past decades. In this study, intertextuality is, mainly, understood as a practical tool for analysing texts (e.g. K. Taranovski, H. F. Plett, W. Müller). In the previous body of research, the role of the Bible in Kallas oeuvre has been seen in a much smaller role than in this study. It has previously been suggested, that Kallas imitated a biblical style mainly in her historical stories of the 1920s. Primarily, imitation of the biblical style has been seen as a feature of her so-called archaic style. In this study, the biblical subtext is considered as one of the most significant features in Kallas works, opening up whole new interpretations of her stories. The most essential works in this study are Kallas novels, short stories and plays between the years of 1910 and 1937. In 1904, Aino Kallas published her first work set in an Estonian milieu. Soon after that, she began to search for new forms of literary expression. This period is currently known as the literary crisis of Aino Kallas (between the years of 1908 and 1912). In this study, it is argued that Kallas started to use the Bible as a general subtext in her works during the years of her literary crisis . The earliest and also the strongest indication of this is her biblical poetic play Bathseba (1910). For Aino Kallas, writing Bathseba was an ambitious project. However, at the time, the play was not considered to be of any merit and was not published. It was also believed to be totally lost, until the author of this study came across it in the archives of the Estonian Literary Museum (2008). In the 1910s and 1920s, Aino Kallas published several short stories with strong intertextual connections to biblical myths. The best-known part of Kallas oeuvre is her historical stories of the 1920s and 1930s, which also are analysed in the present study. In the 1940s, Kallas published three works of poetry, in which she returned to the traces of her early Bathseba. She, for example, uses the biblical subtext in a way characteristic only of Bathseba: by imitating the style of the poetry of the Old Testament. Aino Kallas oeuvre has been studied largely in Finland and in Estonia. However, these previous studies have had a contextual and a bibliographical orientation towards the subject. This dissertation is the first text-orientated, intertextual study of Kallas works. It is also the first monograph which deals with the intertextual relationship between the Bible and the oeuvre of a Finnish female author. Key words: Aino Kallas, intertextuality, biblical subtext, Finnish literature, Estonian literature
  • Honkanen, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This study addresses the interplay of lexico-grammatical and wider textual patterns by which directive meanings are created in an administrative genre. The data comprises 123 circular letters sent to city schools by the Helsinki City Education authority. The dialogically oriented analysis draws on the concept of genre as a dynamic nexus between an individual s actions and a socially defined context. Further tools are utilized from cognitive and systemic-functional linguistics. The study first investigates conventionalized directives as clause(-like) lexico-grammatical units, profiling the directive function of the text and the agentive role handed down to the addressee. In the data, conventionalized directives are demonstrated to have a central role in the construal of a particular functional stage, the request sequence, realized differently in the three major sub-genres recognized in the data. In the request sequence, conventionalized directives further realize two functions, distinguished by different patterns of argument structure and thematic progression. Secondly, the study focuses on co(n)textual factors influencing the use of conventionalized directives as constitutive elements of the request sequence. The analysis shows that conventionalized directives not only function as a means of formulating requests for action but also direct the addressee s attention to the requests treated as the most newsworthy by the writer. The degree of newsworthiness is reflected in the argument structure of the conventionalized directive chosen at the beginning of the request sequence. Through the argument structure, it further shapes the structure of the sequence. Finally, the study investigates the kinds of co(n)texts in which a conventionalized directive construes the addressee as the agent of the desired action in an explicit way. The analysis shows that explicit construal is sometimes used to delimit the group of desired actors. However, it is also used when the linguistic choices made indicate that the request is treated by the writer as potentially problematic. This further confirms the finding of the explicit marking of the agent as a particular kind of focusing device, allowing for the interactants to treat the request given as particularly relevant in the ongoing interaction. In conclusion, the study shows how relevant aspects of the situation are dynamically fore- and backgrounded by the participants in and through linguistic action. In this way, it advocates an approach to directive language use in written data that resembles the one advocated for spoken data by interactional linguistics. The study also adds to knowledge on municipal workplace communication, offering tools for training of administrative staff and for analyzing organizational change discourse.
  • Kivilaakso, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study explores Pirkko Saisio s novel, Kainin tytär (Cain s Daughter, 1984) published under her own name, and her later novels that were published under different pseudonyms. Kiusaaja (Tornmenter, 1986), Viettelijä (Seducer, 1987) and Kantaja (Bearer, 1991) were published under the male pseudonym Jukka Larsson, and Puolimaailman nainen (A Demimonde, 1990) and Kulkue (Procession, 1992) were published under the female pseudonym, Eva Wein. My research investigates the poetics of gender difference constructed by these works, when considered in particular from the three perspectives of authorship, intertextuality and narrative structure. The novels are contextualized within Finnish feminist-oriented research and discourse on women s literature of the 1980s. During the spring of 1985, author Pirkko Saisio took part in a seminar on research in women s literature held at the University of Turku. This seminar addressed issues of research from feminist perspectives that were typical of the period, such as the different receptions of work by male and female writers, and the possible differences between literature written by men and women respectively. Pirkko Saisio was aware of feminist literary discourse of the 1980s and, as demonstrated in the present study, she also contributed to the discourse by writing under both male and female pseudonyms. The theoretical underpinning of the present study is feminist literary research. I interpret Saisio's switching from one pseudonym to another as the author commenting on the gender debates from outside the binary logic of male and female. From her borderline position, she worked not as a female or male author, but as a bit of both, or neither. The author's struggle to create a perspective beyond women's literature is precisely what makes Pirkko Saisio a lesbian feminist writer. The novels' intertextual references need to be contextualized within the literary discourse at the time of publication, defining the relationship of Saisio s Kainin tytär and her pseudonym novels with the literary tradition. The different relationships of male and female writers to this tradition were among the key issues of feminist literary discussion in the 1980s. Saisio s novels under different pseudonyms share a number of intertexts that are important for interpreting all of them and assemble the six novels into a whole. The main intertexts addressed in this study contain explicit or implicit statements on gender difference or the meaning of gender. Therefore analyzing the intertextual references open up the thematization of the problematic of gender in the novels. The novels of Saisio, Larsson and Wein also shared certain thematically central structural elements repeated from one work to another, such as a cyclical chronological structure, embedded narratives and recurring motifs. Pirkko Saisio s, Jukka Larsson s and Eva Wein s novels did not respond to the discussion on women s literature of the 1980s in any unequivocal way. Writing as Wein and Larsson, Saisio created a unique literary output that responded polemically to the literary debate of its time of publication, testing the boundaries and definitions of not only authorship and reception but also of literary production and the literary work . Keywords: author, authorship, gender, poetics, intertextuality, feminist narratology, feminist literary research, lesbian author, lesbian
  • Juvonen, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The study examines framing (or projecting) clause complexes in Finnish-language matriculation essays from the point of view of the intersubjective positioning of the writer. The clause complexes investigated comprise of a matrix clause and its complement, mainly an että that or a kuinka/miten how clause. The starting point for the analysis is the assumption that the matrix clause expresses a stance towards the complement and also the potential source of the stance (e.g. Luulen, että / on selvää, että / en tiedä, miksi kissat tarvitsevat paljon unta I think / it s clear that / I don t know why cats need a lot of sleep ). The analysis focuses on how students use these complexes to position themselves in respect to prior texts and to the putative reader: allowing for alternative positions (dialogic expansion) or restricting the dialogic space (dialogic contraction). The study also looks at the relation between the use of dialogic expansion and contraction in clause complexes and a) the communicative task required in the assignment and b) the grade given to the essay. Theoretically and methodologically the study draws on linguistically oriented discourse analysis, especially the study of evaluative language (in particular, the appraisal theory), textual interaction and text type (developed on the basis of e.g. Werlich s typology of textual strategies). The study is based on a corpus of 301 Finnish (mother tongue) matriculation essays given either high or low grades. The study consists of a summary and four published articles. The study shows how framing clause complexes can form rhetorical patterns involving dialogic expansion or contraction within the text. The rhetorical function of the clause complex derives both from the type of the clause complex and its co-text, particularly its text type (e.g. narration, description or exposition). The most clear-cut patterns relate to concession, juxtaposing competing claims, explicating reasoning processes and topic shifting. The patterns consist of sequential actions that stretch over clause boundaries and are accompanied with several cohesive elements. A key finding is that the cohesive function of a pattern is related to intersubjective positioning: to the ways the reader is expected to respond to the claims that are being made and to their relations as presented in the text. However, the study also shows that some of the analyzed clause complexes have only a localized scope, without a clear connection to a rhetorical pattern in the text.