Humanistinen tiedekunta

 

Nyligen publicerat

  • Päivärinne, Meri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Jean Barbeyrac, traducteur et homme de lettres presents a micro-historical case study of an influential translator, with special reference to the concepts of visibility, agency and norms. The relations between these three sociological concepts are also analysed. The research combines sociology and history in studying the life and works of Jean Barbeyrac (1674-1744). The basic material consists of the works of this translator, who was also a university teacher and a central figure of the République des lettres. Most important are his two French translations from Latin: Samuel Pufendorf’s Droit de la nature et des gens (1706) and Hugo Grotius’ Droit de la guerre et de la paix (1725), together with other published writings by him and critiques of his translations. An important source alongside the published works is the translator’s correspondence, which has been collected for this study from different archives and transcribed from manuscripts. The correspondence has been published as part of the University of Lausanne project “lumières.lausanne” (see http://lumieres.unil.ch). The corpus gives a comprehensive picture of both the professional profile of the translator and his personal life, his career and the various connections he maintained in his international network. The research extends the material basis for translation history studies in that the translated works are academic non-fiction forming the theoretical basis of modern international law. It can be seen that, in the case of these works, this is a matter of intracultural translation, since the original Latin works were mainly aimed at the same scholarly audience as the translations themselves, so the intercultural dimension often highlighted in translation studies is not so relevant in this case. The study emphasizes the role of paratexts as a source of sociological and historical knowledge; both the prefaces and footnotes of the works (peritexts), as well as paratexts outside the translations (epitexts) such as criticism and correspondence, are essential. One of the conclusions of this study is that, in the case of Barbeyrac, it was not the translation strategy that was a decisive factor in his high visibility, but rather the rich use of paratexts. This visibility was partly created by reforming the paratextual practices of academic writing, in this case via unusually strong agency and partial norm-breaking. As for the norms of translation, one of the results of the research is that, in the early modern times in Barbeyrac’s most important cultural field, the République des Lettres, there was a relatively broad spectrum of different accepted ways of translating academic writings. Translation was seen as a worthwhile act to make knowledge and literature available to wider audiences. The commentary translation, represented in the way Barbeyrac used his own voice as part of his works (in prefaces, notes), as well as his extensive agency in various roles in his field, brought him a great deal of visibility and appreciation as a translator.
  • Sosa, Takemi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The Finnish composer Magnus Lindberg (b. 1958) is one of the leading figures in the field of contemporary classical music. Curiously, despite the fascinating characteristics of Lindberg’s works and the several interesting subjects his music brings up, his works have not been widely researched. This study, "Magnus Lindberg: Musical Gesture and Dramaturgy in Aura and the Symphonic Triptych," examines Lindberg’s technical and aesthetic thinking by analyzing his significant works of the 1990s: Aura (1994) and the Symphonic Triptych, which includes Feria (1997), Cantigas (1997–99), and Parada (2001). The main purpose of the study is to demonstrate the composer’s construction of gesture and dramaturgy from the viewpoint of musical dramaturgy. The analyses focus on Lindberg’s strategic design, which is called dramaturgical cohesion in narrative. The main theoretical framework is musical narrative (see, for example, Tarasti 1994, Almén 2008, Grabócz 2008). Methodologically, the research is based on an approach that combines musical narrative with “traditional analysis,” by which I mean examining the form and structure of a work. Musical narrative in turn draws ideas from the study of theater and literature. My idea of musical gesture and dramaturgy is based on this combined analytical method. An essential concept here is dramaturgy, which is anchored to the theory of drama, especially the model of tragedy based on Aristotle’s Poetics. This model consists of five parts of drama (exposition, rising action, peripeteia, falling action, and dénoument) and the climax. The precise examination of a climax refers to the idea of telos. Telos, meaning the goal of a linear process, is a central aspect of a syntagmatic relationship. And as a culmination that unifies structural levels, telos is also central to paradigmatic relationships. Musical gesture refers to a musical event that plays the main role in a composition’s functional units. Musical gestures are subordinate to dramaturgical cohesion or hierarchical structure. In order to focus on telos and its function in a dramaturgical structure as a whole, it is important to examine the relationship between telos and gestures. For this analysis, I use the orchestral scores of four Lindberg works together with sound materials (CDs) and the composer’s drafts of compositions in order to find and identify gestures, telos, and elements of narrativity. In addition, the interviews that I conducted with Lindberg and selections from his writings reflect the composer’s aesthetic-technical and dramaturgical thinking. The most significant finding is that a certain dramaturgical structure, which I call “the Lindberg dramaturgy,” is found in all four works analyzed here. This structure is associated with Aristotelian dramaturgy. Lindberg’s music opens with an exposition (the opening gesture), in which the basic material is presented. The musical process develops toward chaos, which must somehow be resolved. Music is now in a state of saturation; the musical motion slows down and musical tension heightens. As a result of the saturation, an explosion occurs. Finally, a unison, a tonality, or some kind of ending gesture with a long note or fadeout follows the explosion – Lindberg’s catharsis (=cleansing). I claim that the musical narrative of Aura and the Symphonic Triptych are based on this formula. The process to the telos is indicated by the vision of narrativity moving from chaos to clarity, a concept on which the dramaturgy of these four works is based.
  • Portaankorva, Jari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    "Faith-based diplomacy and conflict resolution: Muslims and Christians building reconciliation." This dissertation examines how faith-based diplomacy and Muslim-Christian cooperation supports reconciliation. The portrayal of religions in the media is often linked with violence, and less attention is given to religious peace-building efforts to resolve conflicts. In this study the results of three articles (I, II, III) are analysed through John Paul Lederach's conflict transformation theory. The first article (I), "Reaching for peace between faiths. ‘A Common Word’ letter and ‘Yale Response’ building reconciliation between Christians and Muslims", deals Muslim leaders in an effort to begin a new dialogue between religions. Both letters affirmed the common ground of beliefs that can be found in Abrahamic religions: believing in God, loving your neighbour and building reconciliation. The second article (II) "Muslim and Christian leaders working together: Building reconciliation in the Sierra Leone conflict" examines the work of the Inter-Religious Council of Sierra Leone (IRCSL) from an interreligious peace-building perspective. The results of the study argue that Muslims and Christians have common values and common ground that they can use in the midst of conflict to mediate peace. The third article (III) "Between religions. Baptist converts in Sierra Leone and their Islamic and African traditional religious past" discusses Baptist converts who have broken with the past and left their former religious communities. Christian converts from Islam have been working together with Muslim leaders to resolve local conflicts at the grassroots level. This research argues that faith-based diplomacy supports conflict resolution in three stages: global interreligious dialogue, national religious leaders´ interaction, and grassroots-level daily life. The results of the study show the process of horizon fusion between faiths, as Hans-Georg Gadamer argues. In the midst of conflicts, the Muslim-Christian dialogue and interaction can lead to a new understanding of reconciliation and peace. The focus of the empirical research was Sierra Leone’s civil war of 1991–2002. The results of the study support John Paul Lederach’s conflict transformation argument that multitrack peace-building at the top level, middle level and grassroots level of a society help in conflict resolution. The religious leaders of Sierra Leone condemned the violence and were ready to apply restorative justice that gave them a special role as peace brokers. The cooperation between religious leaders and the role of religious rituals in the process of reconciliation brought a sense of safety amidst the chaos as well as hope for a better future. When a political system is fragile, people rely on religious institutions where religious actors show moral integrity. Faith-based diplomacy helps to resolve conflicts in divided societies by nonviolent means.
  • Österberg, Ira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This dissertation examines the role of rock songs as film music in Russian cinema and how one important film, Aleksej Balabanov’s Brother (Brat, 1997), reshaped film music conventions in the 1990s. The study is divided into two sections: the first is a historical examination of more than twenty films made between the late 1920s and the early 1990s, the second focuses on Brother and its use of music. The research questions are 1) How is music used in Brother? 2) How were rock songs used in Russian cinema prior to Brother? 3) What are the similarities and the differences between the two uses? The methodology of the research is based on film music narratology combined with traditional Russian formalist and structural-semiotic views of art-texts as structures. Central concepts are Claudia Gorbman’s (1987) diegetic and non-diegetic music and Guido Heldt’s (2013) theoretization on film music, authorship and subjectivity. The study shows that the use of rock songs in Soviet-era Russian films goes through three stages. First they are used as exceptions to the main musical idiom and presented as diegetic performances connected with youth, nowness, dance and humor. Then, in the youth films of Dinara Asanova, rock songs gradually become a more dominant part of the musical strategies. Finally, during perestroika underground rock songs are used as the main idiom and rock gains new connotations of the intelligentsia and the avant-garde, but the songs are still mainly connected to realistic motivation. Brother differs from its predecessors as it combines a rock compilation score with gangster action instead of focusing only on youth or high art thematics. The analysis uncovers that the rock songs represent the voice of the author, but they are ambivalent in their relationship to the diegesis. A struggle emerges between the author-narrator and the main character over the music and this can be read as a self-reflective commentary on the development of the use of rock in Russian cinema. The overall path of rock songs in Russian films can be seen as the evolution of a device, in Jurij Tyn’janov’s (1977 [1927]) terms, in which the element (rock) changes its function and other elements move in to fulfill its previous functions. Brother’s music track acts as a link in the evolutionary chain of Russian film music’s development toward post-classical compilation and composite scores.
  • Murmann, Maximilian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The present thesis investigates the syntagmatic relations of certain Finnish emotion verbs that are formed by the derivational suffix -ua/-yä (e.g. suuttua ‘get angry’, pelästyä ‘get frightened). Prototypically, the suffix expresses reflexivity, but in the case of the “inchoative” emotion verbs, it indicates a change of state on behalf of the experiencer, from a non-emotional state to an emotional state. The starting point of the investigation is a discussion of different psychological theories of emotion. The discussion shows that constructivist theories particularly emphasize the role of language and offer several links to the cognitive, usage-based model of language that constitutes the theoretical framework guiding the thesis. With regard to the usage-based model, special focus will be put on the status of argument structures and the categorization of words. Furthermore, the work draws on theoretical and methodological insights from corpus linguistics, which is concerned with the description of linguistic data on the basis of large text collections. The methodology chapter will present some of the most central corpus linguistic concepts, as well as several forms of co-occurrence analysis adapted in order to investigate the syntagmatic relations of the verbs in question. The empirical part of the study makes use of the Suomi24 corpus, which is based on the eponymous Finnish discussion forum. Prior to the analyses, the corpus was queried for the twenty most frequent inchoative emotion verbs. The results of the first analysis, where the focus has been put on argument realization (e.g. suuttua jostakin ‘get angry about something’ vs. pelästyä jotakin ‘get frightened by something’), suggests that the distribution of the different argument realization patterns only partially reflects semantic similarities among the verbs. In the second analysis, the main interest was the causes or stimuli provoking particular emotional states (e.g. suuttua kritiikistä ‘get angry about criticism’ vs. pelästyä ääntä ‘get frightened by noise’). The collexeme analysis used in this context leads to the conclusion that emotion verbs with similar semantics also co-occur with similar stimulus nouns. These semantic preferences can be related to different aspects of the stimuli, such as their ontology (e.g. rakastua ‘fall in love’ + human beings), particular topics (e.g. huolestua ‘get worried’ + health) or other semantic characteristics related to them (e.g. yllättyä ‘get surprised’ + expectations). Thus, the quantitative methods used in the present work lead to results that cannot be obtained by exclusively relying on a qualitative analysis.
  • Ungro, Ave (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The heart of this dissertation consists of texts that represent crónicas, a contemporary form of Mexican literary journalism. The dissertation’s original contribution is its concentration on crónicas from a unique angle – through the value positions they reveal. The theme of the illicit drug trade is used as a methodological and contextual tool with which to filter out valid texts about controversies and representations of societal frictions. The aim of the study is to answer three main questions. Firstly, what value positions can be discerned in discourses in the contemporary Mexican crónicas that deal with the illicit drug trade? Secondly, how are these value positions composed? The third and final question consists of two parts, and its answers are valid only within the scope of the current textual corpus: taking into consideration the answers to the first two questions, what is the form of a crónica and what is its function in Mexico’s literary, journalistic, and social scene? To answer these questions, ten crónicas have been selected for analysis. The theoretical framing revolves around three main concepts: values, discourses, and the crónica as a genre. Values are theorized from axiological viewpoints of value theory, and ‘value’ is defined as something considered as either good or important (or negatively, not good or not important). For discourse, I apply the narrative approach (Todorov), the action-based approach (Potter & Wetherell), and the Foucauldian approach, which looks at discourse as a generator of social and collective meaning(s). With regard to the crónica, defining the genre is one of the secondary aims of this monograph. In the process of framing the crónica, both previous scholarly work and current research results are considered. To answer my research questions, I employ narrative discourse analysis. The model for the analysis is derived from the semiotic square and actantial model, developed by semiotician Algirdas Greimas. Based on Greimas, I have formed a compatible model that helps to systemize the accounts of values, and this model points to corresponding narrative structures in the texts. The Greimas-inspired axiological model for narrative analysis figuratively presents the relations between the actantial value positions in the narrative and makes it possible to reflect results in reference to the reality the actants depict. The results of this study demonstrate three main aspects of the value positions in contemporary Mexican crónicas dealing with the illicit drug trade: variety, inconsistency, and contradiction. In composing the value positions, mostly abstract and allusive modalities are employed. In order to heighten emotion in readers, authors of the crónicas mainly use four types of literary mood: irony, suspense, worry, and melodrama. In terms of form, the crónica, according to this study, could be defined as a genre that mediates the author’s value positions vis-à-vis circumstantial value positions. The function of the crónica can be described as giving a description, analysis, explanation, or criticism of different value positions. All in all, it could be said that the crónicas have powerful evaluative potential.
  • Lehtonen, Lasse (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Japan in the 1930s was a culturally complex land combining various syntheses and juxtapositions of Western and Japanese culture and thought. One phenomenon that exemplifies this is Japanese-style composition—here defined as music based on Western principles of composition but adopting elements from Japanese music and culture—which became a notable and debated new trend among Japanese composers in the late 1930s. The main objective of this thesis is to understand Japanese-style composition as a phenomenon in the 1930s: what it was musically, why it emerged, and how it related to the social developments of the time. To accomplish this, the present study discusses the musical work and thought of the founding members of the composer group Shinkō sakkyokuka renmei (Federation of Emerging Composers). By adopting Carl Dahlhaus’s structural study of history and the examination of musical works in their socio-cultural context, this thesis discusses the works of Shinkō sakkyokuka renmei as discourses that convey the ideas and values of their time. The approach is linked with studies emphasizing the “imaginary” and constantly changing nature of culture and nations: the thesis does not claim to recognize that which is, but which has been thought of as being Japanese. Identifying these musical elements—a procedure for which the thesis proposes a methodology—is considered to be the first step in enabling more contextualized analysis. The results of this thesis suggest that Japanese-style composition in the 1930s was not a monolith, but followed various viewpoints and approaches. The motivations to adopt them ranged from the defense of the traditional Japanese way of life to the pursuit of the modernist aim of developing and renewing expression in Western-style music. These results suggest that prewar Japanese music introduced significantly more versatile viewpoints into Japanese-style composition than has been recognized to date—including even the use of relatively modern compositional techniques such as microtonality as a “Japanese element.” The musical approaches of each composer also merge with the discourses of the time related to traditionalism, modernism, and nationalism, and reflect the confusion between Japanese and Western culture apparent in Japan of the time. From this perspective, they end up constituting the social and cultural issues of their time.
  • Ahti, Jonna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Jonna Ahti: Konventioner, kommunikation och konflikter i ett finlandssvenskt chattrum Studien behandlar konventioner, kommunikativa särdrag och konflikter som förekommer i ett finlandssvenskt chattrum. Materialet består av chattsamtal i chattrummet X3M Chat som administrerades av Radio X3M från slutet av 1990-talet fram till 2011 då chattrummet lades ner. Sammanlagt består materialet av allt samtal i chattrummet under 8 dygn i slutet av 2003 varav 38 konfliktepisoder valdes för närmare analys. Avhandlingen har tre huvudsyften. Det första syftet är att beskriva kommunikativa särdrag och konventioner i chattsamtal. Syftet är att visa hur dessa kan förstås utifrån materialet och i förhållande till tidigare forskning om konflikter i muntliga samtal. Det första ledet i konfliktepisoder fungerar som utlösare som sedan motargumenteras i andra ledet. De två första leden förebådar alltså om en kommande konflikt medan det sista, tredje ledet avgör om samtalet evolverar mot en fullt utvecklad konflikt (en treledad konflikt) eller om situationen neutraliseras (en tvåledad konflikt). Det andra syftet är att studera konflikters interaktionella utveckling, dvs. hur de börjar, hur de utvecklas och hur de avslutas. Detta syfte är strukturellt med betoning på vilka delar konfliktepisoderna består av och hur deltagarna förhåller sig till dem. Det är således inte enbart fråga om yttrande- eller meningsstruktur utan också om strukturen i chattdeltagarnas sociala beteende. Det tredje, metodiska, syftet är att pröva hur metoder från interaktionsforskning och samtalsanalys kan tillämpas på kommunikation som sker genom ett skriftligt medium som samtidigt präglas av interaktion i realtid. Studien visar att samtalsanalys och interaktionsforskning i viss mån kan tillämpas på kommunikation som får sitt uttryck i skriven form. Chattsamtal har drag från både talat och skrivet språk men det är ändå en egen kommunikationsform som ska studeras som en sådan. Min studie visar att det i materialet finns tre huvudsakliga orsaker som kan leda till en konflikt: samtalsämnet, hemort och dialekt samt provokativa inlägg. Också olika sätt att avsluta konfliktepisoden studerades och det visade sig att det allra vanligaste sättet är topikbyte, dvs. att byta samtalsämne. Min analys täcker både den sociala och den strukturella nivån av konflikter i chattsamtal. Konflikterna är inte bara språkliga handlingar utan bär ofta betydelser som först kommer fram i en viss situation eller omgivning. De tre leden är ett kännetecken för en konflikt men analysen visar att chattsamtal innehåller vissa egenskaper som leder till att konflikter uppstår, och att det således också finns olika sätt att hantera den problematiska situationen och avsluta den.
  • Weßel, Merle (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The interest of first-wave feminists into eugenics was widespread internationally but the Nordic countries showed an especially keen engagement with these ideals. This link between eugenics and feminism is a controversial one, since eugenics is often thought to restrict women's reproductive choices, whereas feminism empowers women's reproductive choices. This dissertation examines the engagement of Nordic feminists with eugenic ideals between 1890 and 1940. It investigates prominent feminists and feminist organizations from Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland. I analyse if, and to what extent, Nordic feminists believed eugenics to be an appealing ideology to support their goal of female empowerment This study draws upon theories of the body, intersectionality and biopower to illustrate how eugenic feminists defined, middle class women as valuable, who contributed positively society with their reproductive function as opposed to questionable women from the working class and under class who were unable to contribute to the nation. Using content analysis, this dissertation examines the public writings of eugenic feminists and feminist organizations, such as medical and sexual health advice books, articles, pamphlets, lectures, and magazines. In order to demonstrate the widespread use of eugenic rhetoric by Nordic feminists. The dissertation's main findings are that the Nordic eugenic feminists supported the notion of women as mothers in society and as such defined female civil rights around the concept of motherhood. They argued that women were not only mothers to their own children but were foremost mothers of the nation. As such, the appropriate women needed to contribute their own reproductive function responsibly, preventing degeneration, to the success and survival of the nation, understood in the context of the race struggle and nationalism. This study paves the way for further research on eugenics and its connection to other social movements, as well as the impact of eugenic ideologies on women and welfare policy after the Second World War.
  • Biskupska, Anna Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Abstract Verbi verbistä A verb for a verb A comparative study of the semantic structure of derived verb lexicon in Polish and Finnish Anna Maija Biskupska, University of Helsinki, Finland This thesis compares the verb derivation systems of Polish and Finnish on the grounds of their contrastive morphosemantic analysis. As the main database I have used large monolingual dictionaries of both languages and as a theoretical background structural and conceptual semantics. In both languages derivatives form the major part of the verb lexicon.The most crucial semantic categories among the derivatives are verbs describing causative and anticausative change of state events. Nevertheless, the morphosemantic structure of the Polish and Finnish derivatives expressing change of state has essential differences. This particularly concerns deverbal causative and anticausative derivatives. In Polish they are typically created by means of polysemous prefixes of lexical (local-directional) origin or the się reflexive, while Finnish produces them by using suffixes of a generic causative ((t)tA-) or anticausative (U-) meaning. Polish prefixes add to the causative stem verbs not only the meaning of a change of state but also its specified result. Moreover, the prefixes influence the aspect of the stem changing an imperfective stem verb into a perfective derivative. In Finnish, unlike in Polish, deverbal derivatives expressing change of state are not explicitly resultative. Even if derivational suffixes may have an influence on the aspectual features of their stem verbs, there is no grammaticalized verb aspect in Finnish. In Polish it is possible to derivate from a causative verb several resultative causative derivatives by using different prefixes to express different results. This kind of explicit multiresultativeness is alien to Finnish verbs. Accordingly, for both the Polish stem verb and its prefixal derivatives stands often only one Finnish verb, the meaning of which corresponds to the meaning of the Polish multiresultative stem verb and the whole group of its prefixal derivatives. Together with their stem verbs, prefixal derivatives build hierarchical taxonomies based on hyperonym-hyponym relations. This makes the Polish change of state verb lexicon rich in synonyms and its semantic structure deep. Compared with it, the Finnish lexicon is poorer in synonyms and its semantic structure shallower. The semantic differences between Polish and Finnish change of state derivatives reflect not only on the semantic structure of the verb lexicon. They as well come out in the argument structure and lexicalization strategies (patterns). Because of the prefixation, conflation is a very characteristic strategy for Polish, while the strategy Finnish prefers is typically straight. In sum, because of the prefixation Polish derivatives expressing change of state include more semantic and pragmatic information about a situation than Finnish suffixal derivatives. Information encoded in the verbs by prefixation may concern their aspectual features (perfective aspect, lexical aktionsart meanigs), modality, resultativeness, causativeness on the one hand, and semantic roles of the arguments and selection rules on the other hand. In Finnish such information is encoded partly in verbs and partly in their arguments.
  • Hirvelä, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    En sann trosföreställning är inte nödvändigtvis kunskap. Det måste också finnas någonslags koppling mellan sanningen och trosföreställningen. En av kunskapsteorins centrala frågor är vad denna koppling består i. Den här avhandlingen undersöker idén att kunskap föruttsätter att vissa modala villkor uppfylls. Modala begrepp refererar inte till hur sakerna är, utom till hur sakerna kan vara, måste vara, inte kan vara eller borde vara. Modal kunskapsteori försöker lösa kunskapsteoretiska problem genom att utnyttja modala begrepp. Modal kunskapsteori motiveras av observationen att många centrala kunskapsteoretiska begrepp är av modalnatur. ”Reliabilitet” (eller "trovärdighet") ”risk”, ”tur” och ”förmåga” kan kanske bäst förstås med hjälp av modaa begrepp. I denna avhandling ges en ny formulering av ett modalt kunskapsvillkor, som kallas säkerhetsvillkoret. Detta villkor tillämpas i analysen av olika kunskapsteoretiska problem. Enligt säkerhetsvillkoret krävs för kunskap förutom en sann trosföreställining att man inte lätt kunde ha haft en falsk trosföreställining. I den första essän ges en ny formulering av säkerhetsvillkoret och detta tillämpas på två centrala kunskapsteoretiska problem. I den andra essän tillämpas säkerhetsvillkoret på problemet gällande meningsskiljaktighet mellan jämlika personer. I den tredje essän hävdas att dygdkunskapsteoretiska teorier förutsätter en för stark modal koppling mellan trosförställiningar och deras sannohet. Avhandlingen har också ett kapitel som introducerar den modala kunskapsteorins historia och dagens debatt och lyftar fram några problem som inte är behandlas i de andra essäerna i avhandlingen.
  • Seitsonen, Oula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This dissertation discusses the material heritage of the German military presence in Finnish Lapland during the Second World War (WWII), as seen through archaeological and multidisciplinary studies. The Nazi German presence as brothers-in-arms in northern Finland has been a difficult and downplayed issue on multiple levels throughout the post-war decades. This study presents the first wider, problem-oriented and theoretically informed investigation about the archaeologies, materialities and heritage of the German WWII presence. However, even this work barely scratches the surface of this multifaceted subject and sets out future research directions. The experience of WWII in Lapland was different from the war experience elsewhere in Finland. The German troops had the frontal responsibility in Lapland in 1941–1944, and at the height of their military build-up there were more German troops and their multinational prisoners in the area than local inhabitants. After Finland made a cease-fire with the Soviet Union in 1944, a Finno-German Lapland War (1944–1945) broke out between the former brothers-in-arms. Due to the long nation-level downplay of the complex German presence, also the northern Finnish and Sámi war experiences have become side-lined. Accordingly, the German material remains have been treated dismissively as “war junk” littering Lapland’s nature. However, for the locals these were well-known throughout the post-war decades, as active material agents of communal and familial memories, and as part of Lapland’s cultural landscapes. This dissertation has two main focuses. Firstly, I study the Germans’ and their prisoners’ experiences in Lapland during the war through the material remains and archaeological inquiries, and secondly, the ways in which the different stakeholders have signified the traces of war in the post-war decades. The material traces illustrate and highlight in many ways the experiential aspects of the German soldiers’ and their prisoners’ wartime existence in an unfamiliar northern environment. The post-war perceptions of the German material remains underline the social value of these as part of the local long-term heritage and lived-in cultural landscape. Many locals see themselves as custodians of their “own past”, including the WWII legacy, wish to control access and engagement with the sites in their local landscape, and often feel that the authorities neglect their heritage. Thus, the traces of German presence have become one symbol of the continuing north-south confrontations, and the marginalization of the north. These issues tie in with Lapland’s long colonial history. The vast differences in engaging with the German WWII material remains appear to derive from fundamentally different mental templates with which the people perceive the subject and its importance. The people propagating the “clearing” of “war junk” appear to approach the subject, and the landscape, with a “western” gaze, and draw a division between “nature” and “culture” which labels the locals’ historical cultural landscape as a natural wilderness. Conversely, in the northern environmental awareness it is not meaningful to separate “nature” and “culture”, and instead, the landscape and its various layers form a web of relations, which tie together the past, present and future into a cognitively controlled and embodied unity. It appears that the different stakeholders should come to recognize and accept the differing standpoints from which they engage into the discussions, before a fruitful dialogue can be instigated.
  • Päiviö-Häkämies, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Abstract This dissertation focuses on the cultural development structured by the city of Kotka. The key question is, how did the local politicians influence in cultural development − particularly in cultural services and administration. Who decided, what was decided, when and why? The different periods of cultural transition can be identified in Kotka’s history using mainly the historical-qualitative methodology. This dissertation also shows how the different decision-making levels (local, regional and national) were combined in the local process during the research period 1879-1982. The city of Kotka was founded in 1879 at the estuary of Kymi River. Kotka was governed by the burghers before the renewed legislation concerning municipal elections was prescribed in 1917 and taken in action in Kotka in 1919. After that the Social Democratic Party took a leading role in Kotka for the following 90 years. The development culminated in the establishment of collective administration for cultural services, directed by the 1973 established Board of Culture. The research period completes to the year 1982 when the Municipal cultural activities act (prescribed 1980) was implemented. The institutional network has not changed dramatically after it. The local decision makers are often in an insignificant role in municipal historiography when cultural achievements are presented. One of the aims of this dissertation is to emphasize the role of local politicians in creating cultural services in Kotka: They made far-reaching decisions leading the city’s cultural development before any legislation was prescribed. Increasingly since the 1950's, the majority of local politicians started to value culture as a public good that needed to be promoted. This dissertation provides one example from the city of Kotka that gives insights to the present discussion concerning cultural policy. Finnish municipalities are self-governing entities and the promotion of general cultural activities is one of their tasks. The offering of culture should ideally be varied and diverse to be used by the townsmen. The research is useful to show what was, and may also be in the future, the importance of local decision-makers.
  • Nukke, Maret (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The study of nō theatre, a 14th century traditional Japanese performing art form, has focused primarily on the classical plays, while no extensive studies of the new nō plays or shinsaku nō have been made in Western scholarship. Since all nō plays, classical and new, are theatrical scripts that adapt their themes and characters from literary or other sources, they are viewed in this study as adaptations. Nō plays are a type of adaptations that adapt their sources in a conservative manner, relying on many limits defined by the specific rules of the genre called nō theatre. In this study, nō plays are divided into two categories: genre adaptations, which adapt literary or other sources and involve the change of genre from literature to theatrical script, and kinetic adaptations, which appropriate material from existing plays. In order to clarify the concept of nō plays as adaptations ten adaptation strategies are discussed and examples provided from classical nō plays, forming a theoretical framework for the analysis of shinsaku plays. The main focus of this study is on exploring the ways in which source materials have been transformed to create the main characters and intertextuality in shinsaku plays. For creating a comprehensive basis for the analysis, the traditional elements of nō theatre are divided into four structural and six performance elements. All structural elements and three performance elements (the actors’ training, music, costumes and masks) form internal elements of nō plays the modification of which to the extremes causes serious deviance from the limits of the genre. On the other hand, remaining three performance elements as external elements of nō plays (the stage, properties and lighting) offer more freedom and creativity in adaptation. Analysis of the practical application of various adaptation strategies in five shinsaku nō plays revealed that multiple strategies and techniques similar to those in classical plays have been applied simultaneously in the new plays. Some of the structural elements such as the design of characters, use of language and creation of allusiveness were modified to some extent in the new plays, and the prominence of religion was diminished. The internal performance elements were generally adapted within the limits of the nō canon, while the external performance elements were adapted more freely.
  • Stenberg-Sirén, Jenny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Studien Språk och språkideologier i radio och tv – standardspråk och språkstandarder i finlandssvenska radio- och tv-nyheter undersöker språket och språkideologierna vid de finlandssvenska radio- och tv-nyheterna 1970–2009. Fokus ligger på uttalet i upplästa nyhetstexter och på journalisternas åsikter om och attityder till språknormerna och till olika språkvarieteter. Uttalet analyseras utgående från uttalsrekommendationerna i Svenska Yles interna handböcker och studien visar att uttalet följer rekommendationerna mycket väl. Till exempel uttalas slutljuden i bestämda substantiv i neutrum (taket, bordet), i verb i supinum (hoppat, suttit) och i korta funktionsord (vid, efter, mycket) betydligt oftare i nyhetsuppläsningarna än i vardagligt talspråk. Bortfallet av slutljuden minskar från 1970-talet till 2000-talet och uttalet blir alltså mer normnära med tiden. Undersökningen visar också förändringar i två kvantitetsdrag typiska för finlandssvenskan. Kortstavigt uttal, t.ex. /vara/ i stället för /va:ra/, visar tendenser till en ökning i de upplästa nyhetstexterna, vilket för uttalet närmare vardagligt talspråk. Det andra kvantitetsdraget, uttal med lång tonlös konsonant efter lång betonad vokal (t.ex. /ba:kka/) som framför allt förekommer i det bildade Helsingforsspråket, har minskat kraftigt i nyhetsuppläsningarna under 1990-talet och 2000-talet. Journalisterna ger tydligt uttryck för en standardspråksideologi i sina åsikter och attityder och betonar att mediespråket ska vara korrekt. De lyfter också fram en önskan om större mångfald, med fler regionala drag i etern och ett mer vardagsnära språk, men den standardspråksideologi som kan sägas ingå i public service-uppdragets kvalitetsbegrepp är ändå klart dominerande. Förändringarna i uttalet i de upplästa nyhetstexterna i kombination med journalisternas språkideologi kan tolkas som en sociolingvistisk neutralisering av standardspråket. Uttalet har blivit mer normnära gällande bortfallet av slutkonsonanter i ett flertal ordgrupper, men samtidigt mer vardagsspråkligt i och med det ökande kortstaviga uttalet. Därtill har det Helsingforstypiska särdraget med lång tonlös konsonant efter lång betonad vokal minskat kraftigt, vilket gör nyhetsspråket mer allfinlandssvenskt. Standardspråket i nyheterna har således både blivit mer normnära och regionalt och socialt mer neutralt, vilket kan leda till en större acceptans bland språkbrukarna. Förändringen kan ses som en effekt av en fortlöpande standardisering av det finlandssvenska standardspråket.