Humanistinen tiedekunta

 

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  • Kaislaniemi, Samuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation investigates the multilingual practices of 17th-century English East India Company merchants, as revealed by the vocabulary they used in the texts they produced while stationed in the East Indies. The English East India Company (EIC) was founded in 1600. At first it was a moderately successful trading company, but in the 18th and 19th centuries the EIC rose to dominate the European trade in Indian goods, and then in Chinese tea and porcelain. During this period, it also came to control large territories in India, paving the way for the British Empire to take over the entire subcontinent. Despite the immense economic, social and cultural impact of the EIC on world history, its records have not previously been studied for their language. This thesis breaks fresh ground in this respect, by investigating letters written by early EIC employees stationed at a trading post in Japan, 1613–1623. The five studies forming the nucleus of this dissertation focus on lexis in these letters. Through a study of foreign words – of lexical borrowings from and code-switches into languages like Japanese, Spanish, Malay and Portuguese – it is shown that by charting the use of foreign words in correspondence, we can identify discourse communities of writers with shared practices. Moreover, foreign words can also be used to reveal the linguistic competence of the writers. Two of the studies use methods of historical lexicography and lexicology to look at native English vocabulary. They show that EIC records can be used to trace change over time in lexical fields, which in turn reveals that the EIC had direct influence on the development of the English lexicon. They also show that investigations of hapax legomena can yield insights into the intimate connections between early modern English merchants and contemporary literature on the one hand, and lexical ecologies of early dictionaries on the other. A central finding of this dissertation is that historical linguistics in general, and lexical studies in specific, not only can benefit from multidisciplinary methodologies, but should adopt them as a matter of course. This dissertation shows that a blend of quantitative and qualitative methods is not only convenient, but in fact necessary if we want to draw reliable conclusions about historical multilingualism.
  • Heinonen, Pilvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Evaluation as a teacher’s interactional practice: dimensions of classroom participation This thesis examines evaluation as an interactional practice adopted by teachers in classroom settings at comprehensive and upper secondary schools. The main objective of this study is to analyse teacher interactional activity in terms of evaluation and appraisal from three points of view: 1) the types of linguistic resources and structures teachers use to construct evaluative actions, 2) the role the evaluative activity has in the interactional organisation of classrooms and 3) the types of pedagogical functions teachers accomplish by evaluating pupils in classroom interaction. The theoretical and methodological framework of the study is Conversation Analysis. Teachers’ evaluative actions are analysed as situated interactional practices, which are based on the participants’ orientations and therefore constructed by the participants during classroom interaction. The data consist of 15 videotaped classroom lessons at a Finnish comprehensive school and an upper secondary school. The data were collected in 2003 and 2011 and consist of lessons on Finnish language and literature and history and civics. The analysed situations occur during teacher-led pedagogical interaction. The main objective of the study is to analyse teachers’ evaluative activity as a response to pupil initiations and unprompted participation in classrooms. The study illustrates how teachers construct evaluative actions to respond to and to deal with pupils’ initiations. A majority of past studies have examined teacher evaluations in teacher-initiated sequences, whereas this study offers an analysis of evaluative activity from a new perspective. The detailed analysis focuses on three evaluative types that have specific pedagogical functions: praise evaluation, agent-oriented evaluation and echoing evaluation. The analysis demonstrates how the teachers use evaluative actions as a pedagogical practice to reveal the relevance of the pupils’ actions and to negotiate the limits of appropriate actions in classroom situations. The evaluative action is co-constructed with the action by the pupils. This is evident in sequences where the teacher either relates pupil initiations to the pedagogical agenda or uses pupils’ voice as a resource for evaluation. The results of the study reveal that evaluative activity is reflexively tailored to the evaluated objects as well as to the interactional context that it occurs in, particularly the ongoing pedagogical activity and its goals. Evaluative activity is not only a resource that teachers use to guide pupils’ actions and participation, but it is also used to communicate the limits and dimensions of appropriate activity to pupils during classroom interaction.
  • Tallberg-Nygård, Manuela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Med utgångspunkt i det kultursemiotiska begreppet semiosfär (Lotman) och begreppet kronotop (Bachtin) behandlar min studie intrakulturell översättning till finska och interkulturell översättning till tyska av ett urval kultur- och platsbunden finlandssvensk skönlitteratur. Materialet består av den finlandssvenska författaren Kjell Westös romankvartett Drakarna över Helsingfors (1996), Vådan av att vara Skrake (2000), Där vi en gång gått (2006) och Gå inte ensam ut i natten (2009). Alla fyra romaner har översatts till finska, Leijat Helsingin yllä (1996), Isän nimeen (2000), Missä kuljimme kerran (2006) och Älä käy yöhön yksin (2009), medan tre av dem översatts till tyska, Vom Risiko, ein Skrake zu sein (2005), Wo wir einst gingen (2008) och Geh nicht einsam in die Nacht (2013). Romanerna skildrar fiktiva personers mikrohistoria parallellt med det autentiska samhällets makrohistoria. Westö är känd för att förankra sin produktion i den finländska miljön, framför allt med betoning på det tvåspråkiga samhället, den helsingforsiska miljön och den finlandssvenska dimensionen samt mötet med det finska. Genom översättning kan minoritetslitteraturen spridas vidare till en bredare läsekrets och öka förståelsen för minoriteten. Det säregna är att det kan ske såväl intrakulturellt som interkulturellt. Undersökningen är interdisciplinär och bygger på ett kultursemiotiskt, översättningsvetenskapligt, språkvetenskapligt och litteraturvetenskapligt perspektiv. Min studie utgår från tre forskningsfrågor, varav den första är att granska med vilka inom- och utomspråkliga företeelser Westö bygger upp den fiktiva finlandssvenska semiosfären i de fyra Helsingforsromanerna. Dessa benämner jag semiosfärspecifika företeelser, som omfattar såväl fakta som fiktion och kan sorteras under fyra helheter, nämligen samhället, platsen, personerna och kulturen, som utgör de byggstenar som skapar grunden för semiosfären. Följande steg är att analysera vilka lösningar som återfinns i de finska och tyska översättningarna när det gäller dessa företeelser för att därefter kunna dra slutsatser om hurdana skillnader som kan skönjas mellan intra- och interkulturell översättning i mitt material. Den översättningsvetenskapliga analysen har styrts av frågan om vad som har bevarats och vad som har ändrats i översättningarna. På global nivå handlar det om att återge implicita och explicita hänvisningar till det finländska samhället, den tvåspråkiga miljön och den finlandssvenska dimensionen, medan lösningarna på lokal nivå fokuserar på hur de globala valen genomförs. Resultatet visar att de lokala lösningar som tillämpats vid översättning till finska problemfritt, som väntat, följer ett systematiskt mönster som ger upphov till samma illusion av samhället, platsen, personerna och kulturen som källtexten. I och med det icke-gemensamma sociokulturella rummet utgör vissa företeelser som bygger upp illusionen däremot översättningsproblem vid interkulturell översättning. De tyska översättningarna uppvisar större variation i de lokala lösningarna, vilket fjärmar måltexten från källtexten och påverkar stilnivån.
  • Belyaev, Ramil (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This research aims to study the integration experience and preservation of the ethnical identity of the Tatar ethnic diaspora in Finland. The relatively small diaspora of the Tatars from Nizhny Novgorod Province which appeared at the turn of the XIX–XX centuries, during its existence and activity has gone from consolidation and protection of religious and cultural traditions, preservation of the native language to full integration into the Finnish society. To preserve its identity the Diaspora took consistent steps on building of constructive inner policy and activity with taking into account of environmental conditions and time. The processes of integration and counteracting to assimilation proceeded within the framework of building the positive relations with the state power, the Finnish community, as well as diplomatic missions of Muslim countries. The research is based on studied sources, as well as on unpublished materials, archival data from private collections, and on interviews with fellows of the Tatar Community. The scientific value of this research is in the relevance of the chosen topic. In recent decades there are the active processes of large masses of people migration in global scale. As a rule the most part of the migrants find themselves in a new environment which different from the mother culture. In these conditions, the following tasks are topical: preserving the cultural heritage of a single ethnic group which forced to stay as a minority and opposition to the assimilation process, as well as the formation of ethnic ghettos. The experience of the Tatar Diaspora in Finland as the positive examples of identity preserving deserves the scientific attention.
  • Breier, Dorothea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Our world has always been shaped by mobility: moving animals and people are crucial for life on earth. Despite this, the overall scale of people moving has changed significantly in the past centuries and decades. The field of migration studies has adapted to this and is no longer only about actual migrants and their seemingly permanent one-way movements. Instead, the perspective has widened and now includes various shades of mobility, both different movements as well as groups of people affected by it. The study at hand provides an innovative approach and a still rather uncommon research setting. It focusses on Germans and their descendants in contemporary Helsinki and asks about the way they (de-)construct boundaries between German- and Finnish-ness, where they position themselves within such frameworks and what personal consequences could emerge from their background and a particular self-positioning. What makes this study novel, especially in contrast to most migration-related research, is that due to the long and intense connection between Finland and Germany the group in question is not regarded as problematic by the majority society. Therefore, their way of positing and feeling of belonging must be seen and interpreted in this specific light. Such a perspective complements the majority of migration studies that often emphasise questions concerning integration of and discrimination against perceived "exotic" and thus "problematic" migrants. With the help of 32 qualitative, semi-structured interviews, the author shows how people with a German-Finnish horizon express their often rather vague feeling of (not-)belonging. Taking the interviewees’ accounts as a point of departure, it became apparent that belongingness depends on many factors including time, place and social surrounding and that it could change several times in a person’s life. The study examines when and how people draw on national categories, only to deconstruct and question them moments later, and furthermore, what impact on a person’s life his/her self-identification could have. By connecting the findings to the relevant literature and to topical issues and discussions, the aim of the study is to emphasise how important it is to see phenomena as part of the big picture, in this case, an intergenerational, societal and historic context. As people’s experiences, emotions and behaviour are heavily influenced by such factors, their understanding becomes only possible when all dots are connected and seen as the inter-connected unit they in fact form.
  • Pietikäinen, Kaisa Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation investigates English as a lingua franca (ELF) in intercultural romantic relationships. The study attempts to unveil how ELF couples succeed in lingua franca communication: What do their interactions reveal about their pragmatic strategies concerning multilingualism, understanding, and silence, and how do they view their language identity? The data consists of 9h 9min of semi-structured interviews from six couples and 24h 15min of naturally occurring conversations recorded by seven couples. I use conversation analysis (CA) throughout, although the interview data has also undergone content analysis. The results concerning multilingual practices indicate that ELF couples utilise their multilingual repertoires frequently and for a range of interactional purposes, but also for no apparent reason. This implies that translanguaging within the speakers’ shared range diminishes in interactional value over time and becomes a habituated part of the “couple tongue”. The frequency of misunderstanding in ELF couple talk is generally in line with previous findings in ELF, but the closeness of the partners is a factor which both helps them understand each other, yet also causes misunderstandings because they expect to understand each other so easily. ELF couples use a vast array of understanding-enhancing practices similarly to ELF speakers in other contexts, but they also resort to extra-linguistic means such as drawing and onomatopoeia. The ELF couple identity is negotiated and shaped by their shared experiences over time. In this shaping process, the languages the couples use, including but not limited to English, become meaningful as the core around which the shared practice is built. ELF couples identify as English-speaking couples, but multilingualism is also present in their everyday life in their language practices at home and with the surrounding community. In their conflict interactions, ELF couples orient to noticeable silences as indicating troubles extending beyond disagreements. In addition to indicating a strong disagreement, withholding a response at a transition-relevance place is treated as marking avoidance of self-incrimination, resisting an inappropriate change-of-footing, taking offence, or unsuccessful persuasion. Applying CA to investigating turns that follow noticeable silences is found to be an effective methodology for examining the local inferences of noticeable silences. In sum, the findings imply that contextual factors such as the intimacy of ELF speakers and their shared history affects their pragmatic strategies; e.g., speakers in family contexts translanguage more freely and use more varied pre-emptive practices to avoid problems of understanding than ELF speakers in more transient contexts. Also, ELF partners identify as English speakers in their own right, and their naturally occurring talk is found to be valid for conversation analytic inquiry of interaction proper. The dissertation attempts to stimulate mutual understanding between ELF research, multilingualism, and CA.
  • Harinen, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The present thesis investigates the sensitivity of the human auditory cortex (AC) to the contrast between prototype and nonprototype vowels as well as between phonemic and nonphonemic vowels. Activations to vowels were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which was also used to analyze the effect of categorical processing on modulations in AC and adjacent inferior parietal lobule (IPL) observed during active listening tasks. A prominent theoretical view suggests that native phonemic vowels (i.e., phonemes) are represented in the human brain as categories organized around a best representative of the category (i.e., phoneme prototype). This view predicts systematic differences in the neural representations and processing of phoneme prototypes, nonprototypes and nonphonemic vowels. In three separate studies, subjects were presented with vowel pairs and visual stimuli during demanding auditory and visual tasks. Study I compared activations to prototypical and nonprototypical vowels, whereas Study II focused on the contrast between phonemic and nonphonemic vowels. Study II also tested whether activations in IPL during a categorical vowel memory task depend on whether the task is performed on phonemic (easy to categorize) or nonphonemic (harder to categorize) vowels. Study III was designed to replicate the key findings of Studies I and II. Further, Study III compared activations to identical vowels presented during a number of different task conditions requiring analysis of the acoustical or categorical differences between the vowels. The results of this thesis are in line with the general theoretical view that phonemic vowels are represented in a categorical manner in the human brain. Studies I–III showed that information about categorical vowel representations is present in human AC during active listening tasks. Areas of IPL, in turn, were implicated in general operations on categorical representations rather than in categorization of speech sounds as such. Further, the present results demonstrate that task-dependent activations in AC and adjacent IPL strongly depend on whether the task requires analysis of the acoustical or categorical features of the vowels. It is important to note that, in the present studies, surprisingly small differences in the characteristics of the vowel stimuli or the tasks performed on these vowels resulted in significant and widespread activation differences in AC and adjacent regions. As the key findings of Studies I and II were also quite successfully replicated in Study III, these results highlight the importance of carefully controlled experiments and replications in fMRI research.
  • Patronen, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how the Orthodox population in Border Karelia, who did not previously have surnames, adopted or were given surnames primarily over the decades from the 1890s to the 1920s. Border Karelia refers to the six municipalities located northeast of Lake Ladoga that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II: Suojärvi, Korpiselkä, Soanlahti, Suistamo, Impilahti, and Salmi. Border Karelia was a stronghold of the Finnish Orthodox church, and it had a population of 50 000 inhabitants in 1939. The adoption of surnames is studied as a part of the Fennification of the culture in Border Karelia, and the Fennification of the Orthodox Karelian population is contrasted with the history of other language minorities in Finland and in neighboring areas. The research material, consisting of 2 357 surnames of the Orthodox population in Border Karelia, was collected from the 1818 and 1820–1925 tax registers of the Salmi region in the Vyborg province. The population of Border Karelia became a target of Fennification due to the rise of Karelianism. The aim was to tie the Karelian-speaking Orthodox population of the borderlands into the central areas of Finland as much as possible. The Fennification began with the founding of the Sortavala seminar (1880) and the newspaper Laatokka (1882). The inhabitants of Border Karelia had always faced East, to Olonets Karelia, but the Western influence increased due to the independence of Finland and the closing of the eastern border. The changes in the Karelian language and culture were observed already in the 1920s. The theoretic part of the thesis examines the status of the Karelian language of Border Karelia by investigating the domains of spoken language and the writers of Karelian articles published in the newspaper Laatokka. The main hindrance to the development of Karelian as a written standard language was the fact that it was not recognized as a distinct language due to political reasons: the languages spoken in Border Karelia and in East Karelia were both considered dialects of the Finnish language due to the aim of the Fennification of East Karelia. Karelian was also not accepted as a suitable language for education. The status and issues of the Karelian-speaking population of Border Karelia, a linguistic and religious minority, can be easily compared to Skolt Sámi: both populations have been targets of Fennification and have not received support, for example, for the development of written standard languages from the mainland. Before 1880 most of the population in Border Karelia were registered in Swedish tax registers and in Russian Orthodox parish registers with only their Russian given names and patronymics; only a few had inherited surnames. The surnames in Border Karelia are divided into ten groups. The largest group is surnames based on hypocorisms of given names that were originally estate names (Reittu) and surnames based on bynames (Löllö). Other name groups include surnames evolved from Russian patronymics (Kononoff), surnames from Orthodox clergymen (Solntsev), various Russian surnames (Komaroff) and randomly assigned or adopted surnames that are similar to surnames in Savonia or Finnish North Karelia. The Finnish elementary school has been recognized as the main factor for the Fennification of the Karelian Orthodox minority in several studies in various research fields. Additional reasons for assigning surnames to the population in Border Karelia were the enclosure carried out in Border Karelia and the independence of peasants in Border Karelia.
  • Karhu, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In this doctoral dissertation, I provide a systematic analysis of the role of social norms in the thought of philosopher and feminist theorist, Judith Butler. More specifically, I investigate the way in which Butler theorizes the relationship between norms and violence in light of her notions of critique and resistance. The key argument of the study is that in order to understand the wide range of topics that Butler addresses in her work—such as gender normalization, the critique of violence, ethical responsiveness, and the biopolitical regulation of life—we need to pay close attention to her account of norms. Although Butler’s theorization of norms has begun to attract increasing scholarly interest, a thorough analysis of the topic has not yet been written. In order to fill this gap in previous research, my dissertation offers the first monograph-length study that explicates the problematic of norms in Butler’s thought. My study seeks to answer the following questions: What is the role of norms in Butler’s work? How does Butler conceptualize the relationship between norms, violence, and nonviolence? How should we understand critique, transformation, and resistance in the midst of norms? What are the ethical and political implications of Butler’s notion of norms? I respond to these questions by examining Butler’s theorization of norms through what I call her twofold understanding of norms. I argue that on the one hand Butler theorizes norms as mechanisms of social power that violently regulate the field of recognizable subjects, bodies, and lives, but on the other hand she conceptualizes norms in terms of the possibility of critical change and resistance. I illustrate Butler’s twofold notion of norms through four key topics, which I have organized into four main chapters. First, by examining Butler’s often-neglected feminist theoretical background in the thought of Monique Wittig, I argue that her conception of the relationship between norms and violence critically builds on Wittig’s argument that normative heterosexuality can be understood as a form of discursive violence. Second, through explicating Butler’s conception of gender normalization vis-à-vis her generally overlooked discussions of transgender embodiment and livability, I challenge recent arguments that feminists should get rid of the concept of gender. By introducing the concept of “trans livability” I highlight Butler’s work as a contribution to trans-affirmative feminist theory. Third, by challenging the general tendency to interpret Butler as a critical humanist, I demonstrate that she puts forward a critique of anthropocentrism that offers insights into problematizing the speciesist norms that uphold not only the human-animal binary but also differentiates between livable and killable nonhuman animals. Finally, by foregrounding Butler’s psychoanalytic account of grief in terms of her critique of norms, I argue that her discussion of the normative separation between grievable and ungrievable lives does not represent a turn away from politics as many critics have argued. I contend that her account of grievability must instead be understood as a theorization of resistance. Taken together, all the four chapters of my dissertation highlight Butler’s theorization of norms as a practice of feminist critique. By elucidating the relationship between norms, violence, and social change, my study emphasizes the close relationship between feminist and queer practices of political resistance and the critique of norms.
  • Auhtola, Nea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The aim of this doctoral thesis is to figure out how and why the caller and/or the call-taker digress from the common communicative task of an emergency call. The communicative task, which both parties engage in, is here also known as a quaestio, a text quaestion, which is to be answered through completed communicative actions. The total quaestio of an emergency call consists of two partial quaestiones: The caller provides information about the incident, whereas the call-taker asks questions to ascertain whether the appeal for help really requires resolution by the police. The materials analyzed consist of 132 German-speaking emergency calls to the national number of the German police, 110. The exact names of the emergency centres, as well as any personal names and toponyms, are anonymised in the transcribed excerpts. This study is grounded on the psycholinguistic quaestio theory. By reference to this theoretical foundation, every text, conversation and single contribution to a conversation rests on an explicit or implicit quaestio or guideline. In some cases, the participants don’t follow the socially agreed main quaestio but rather favour temporary digressive quaestiones. As a consequence, there emerge diverse subsidiary structures, which may bear a distinctive communicative relevance, since they comprise e.g. meaningful background information, personal opinions and other comments. This thesis examines the communicative functions of alternative questiones and differentiates between subsidiary structures which are initiated by the caller or the call-taker, respectively. In their subsidiary structures, callers usually provide additional information about the evidentiality of their perceptions or express their uncertainty. Call-takers in turn mainly inform the callers about the processing of the emergency call. The results of the study reveal that there do exist subsidiary structures aside from the main quaestio in the context of an emergency call. In this manner, the speakers are equipped with a simple medium to communicate essential facts about each emergency, although this further information doesn’t answer the main quaestio. The results of this thesis can be taken into consideration e.g. in the education of call-takers. Key words: quaestio, emergency call, emergency centre, police, subsidiary structure, German
  • Koivisto, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study seeks to draw attention to the lack of knowledge of and the small amount of research dealing with archaeological cultural resources in Finnish wetlands, as well as to demonstrate its huge scientific and interpretative potential. To this end, the study presents a compilation of Finnish wetland archaeological sites, contextualizes and evaluates them with the help of archaeological, environmental, and ethnographic data, and offers an assessment of areas with the highest potential for encountering new sites. The scientific and interpretative potential of Finnish wetland archaeological resources is then illustrated with the help of two case studies representing stationary wooden fishing structures associated with Stone Age fishery sites. The prehistoric fishing theme involves a detailed examination of the fishing structure types and the estuary fishing methods, as well as their contextual circumstances, which provide an analytical framework explicating and illuminating this as yet unexplored archaeological evidence. Finally, the study seeks to further our knowledge concerning the detection and prospection of archaeological sites situated in demanding wetland settings with the help of geophysical testing and trial excavations conducted within stationary wooden fishing structures. The total number of wetland sites has multiplied in the course of this study, even though it is still very low when compared to the extensive area of Finnish wetlands. The areas with the highest wetland archaeological potential in Finland are located in river estuaries, coastal areas affected by strong isostatic rebound, and terrestrialized lakes. Today, stationary wooden structures associated with fishing sites represent the most typical wetland archaeological resource in Finland. The case studies described in this work demonstrate that these wooden archaeological remains yield valuable evidence for investigating fishing methods, technological adaptations, and modes of subsistence among prehistoric populations. The lack of viable techniques for the detection and prospection of sites has been hindering wetland archaeological research in Finland. The most crucial threats to the preservation of our organic archaeological resources situated in wetland landscapes are drainage, peat extraction, acidification, and climate change.
  • Hardwick, Hannasofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In my doctoral dissertation I explore the narrative function of cinema in twenty-first century fiction. In this study literary representations of films are regarded as a narrative strategy through which literary texts accentuate, reflect, and give rise to their principal themes and questions. Since filmic insertions have a noticeable impact upon the narrative construction and hence turn out to be pivotal in the reader's inferential process, I also investigate this narrative phenomenon in the context of reader's meaning-making. I have chosen four novels for my study, namely The Book of Illusions (2002) by Paul Auster, Point Omega (2010) by Don DeLillo, The Understudy (2005) by David Nicholls, and The Ice Cream Man by Katri Lipson, published in Finnish in 2012 as Jäätelökauppias and translated into English in 2014. In these works the dominant meanings are closely linked to the representations of cinema, and films appear both at the discourse level and within the fictional world. Owing to the diversity of the chosen texts in terms of style and genre, my study provides a comprehensive view of the ways in which recent fiction has utilised "moving images" in narration. In this study I draw on the theoretical concepts of intersubjectivity, framing, mise en abyme, possible worlds theory, and indexicality in order to analyse the narrative function of films in the novels and the subsequent effects in the reader's hermeneutic process. I demonstrate that the literary use of cinema greatly affects narration and the reading experience: it disturbs the conventional narrative hierarchy and the subordination between the primary level and the embedded one. Simultaneously, it violates ontological stability, which separates the fictional "real" from the filmic "unreal". My case studies testify to the importance of the reader's role as an active interpreter whose knowledge of and experiences with cinema contribute to the textual processing of the novels. By pointing out the intricate interaction between audiovisual and verbal sign systems in these texts, I show how the audiovisual upsurge in contemporary society has altered how we read literature.
  • Korhonen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation is a mixed methods study of the alleged Americanisation of Australian English as it is perceived by the speakers and evinced in their language use. The study is based on sociolinguistic interview material collected in the small country town of Blayney in New South Wales, with participants from three age groups (adolescent, middle-aged and older speakers). Alongside speaker perceptions of the alleged American influence, this apparent time study investigates the variable pronunciations of a set of lexemes by the interview participants together with morphosyntactic features (subject-verb agreement with there-existentials and stative possessive have (got)) and discourse quotatives. The findings of the perceptual part of the study confirm that the speakers of all ages feel that Australian English is being influenced by American English. While the interview participants across generations confirm the existence of such influence, different language features are regarded as comprising Americanisms by different age groups. Thus, while the young speakers mainly see vocabulary as being Americanised, the older interviewees are more inclined to also include examples of spelling and pronunciation in their accounts. In terms of their actual language use, the investigation of the speakers’ pronunciation reveals that while some of the words are indeed increasingly pronounced in the perceived American style, others show hardly any variation across generations. The distributional analysis of the morphosyntactic features and discourse quotatives, on the other hand, shows generational patterning across all the variables. The findings provide support for the assumption that the younger speakers are more likely to use the more American style variants. Although these changes in the usage patterns cannot be attributed directly to American influence, the possibility of them being perceived as such by the speakers may strengthen their views of Americanisation. By taking into consideration both speakers’ perceptions and their language use the findings presented in this thesis offer significant insights into the alleged American English influence in the Australian English context.
  • Kuha, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    ABSTRACT Jukka Kuha: Suomen musiikkioppilaitoshistoriaa – toiminta ulkomaisten esikuvien pohjalta vuoteen 1969. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Arts, Department of Musicology The topic of this doctoral study, as mentioned in the title, is the history of educational institutes of music in Finland during the years 1882–1969. In addition, a common thread throughout the study examines knowledge about European music life, especially about music education from the very early centuries up to the year 1880, and knowledge about the common music life in our country, mainly that previous to the founding of permanent educational institutes of music. The goal of this study is to review the intellectual background and identify the reasons which have enabled the establishment of institutional art schools of music (schools for sacred music, schools for orchestra musicians, schools of music, colleges of music and conservatories). Among the included initiatives are those concerning the establishment of institutes that have not been previously examined, because these initiatives can reveal common attitudes of the community concerning music education. The primary idea is to introduce the creation of educational institutes of music as a phenomenon and to describe their course of development. The aim is not to write the history of every institute but to clarify the organization of the educational institutes of schools of music. Only a few of these have been described from their beginning over some years or decades. The focuses of this study are to outline the importance of the mentioned schools of music, to describe their growth during the time of the study, to name the directors and teachers of the first institutes founded, to list the subjects and total amount of the students in each institutes, to describe political initiatives toward the law of state aid and the confirmed law, to give an account of the opinions concerning the law, and to identify two types of curriculums (developed over the long term and developed in only a few years) of educational institutions of music compared with the curriculum of Sibelius Academy in the year 1969. In fact, this study does not concern Sibelius Academy (nowadays part of an art university), but its activities under the leadership of its first director Martin Wegelius (1882–1906) have been examined because of the extensive amount of inaccurate and wrong information written in the history books on this academy. In addition, the preparations of law concerning state aid for Sibelius Academy have been clarified because these were carried out at the same time as similar initiatives for other educational institutions of music. My interest in this subject arose during my career. As I had dealings with the educational institutes of music throughout this time, I became interested in obtaining information about previous activities in these institutions in Finland, but I only found time for this research after retirement. Keywords: institutionaalinen, musiikkioppilaitos, lukkari- ja urkurikoulu, musiikkikoulu, musiikkiopisto, konservatorio, orkesterikoulu, valtionavustus
  • Bastman, Eeva-Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation examines Finnish Pietist hymn poetry from the 18th and 19th centuries. The study focuses on the hymn as a lyric genre and investigates the poetics of Pietist hymns; that is, the formal and thematic features and the ways of creating meaning that are characteristic for the hymn as a genre and for Pietist hymns in particular. The research material consists of two hymn collections: a handwritten hymnbook compiled in the 1780s in the town of Orimattila in southern Finland and a printed hymnbook, Halullisten Sieluin Hengelliset Laulut from 1790 (“Spiritual Songs for Devout Souls”), together with its extended editions published in the 19th century. The introductory chapter of the dissertation places the hymns in their historical and religious context. It is followed by the analysis part, which consists of two chapters. The first deals with questions of metre, and the second discusses forms of speech and address in hymn poetry. The chapter on hymn metrics focuses on stanza structures, metres, and rhyming. In addition to detailed textual analyses of individual hymns, it provides an overview of the poetic structures used in hymn poetry and discusses the changes in hymn metrics that took place in the 18th and 19th centuries. The analysis casts new light on the rhyming of the hymns. Here, rhyming is understood as one form of phonetic repetition together with assonance and alliteration, and emphasis is placed on the poetic functions of these phonetic devices. The second analysis chapter examines poetry as speech and lyric address. In particular, ritualistic and performative elements, which seek to involve and engage the reader or the listener, turn out to be central features of hymn poetics. These elements include, in addition to rhythm and sound, forms of speech and address, rhetorical devices that activate senses and emotion, as well as imagery used to illustrate the speaker’s innermost thoughts and feelings. The study shows that the poetics of Pietist hymns has three central features: rhetoric, oral-literary forms of expression and the recycling and reshaping of a traditional repertoire, formed in the interaction between the hymn and its neighbouring genres, such as biblical texts and devotional literature. These features have a common function: to create a sense of community and belonging in singers and listeners and to depict inner change in an engaging way.