Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Tiihonen, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    University of Helsinki, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Helsinki Studies in Education, number 56 In this study, leadership is studied through relationship-based and shared phenomenon in early childhood education. The purpose of the research is to describe, interpret and create an understanding of leadership implementation. The focus is on working community relationships and how leadership is shared in the Early Childhood Unit. Leadership is approached through relationship modeling both as a supervisor relationship and as a relationship between employees. Theoretical starting points are relational leadership and shared leadership in a pedagogical context in early childhood education. In relational leadership, leadership is seen to be a phenomenon that arises in interaction. Shared leadership is defined as an activity that employees can participate in. The study was conducted in the Early Childhood Unit in Helsinki, which included a day care center manager and 29 employees. The leader of the Kindergarten and all the employees participated in the study. The study did not target children. This Early Childhood Unit consisted of two physically working kindergartens. The research is based on qualitative data. The collection of research material was carried out using a thematic focus group interviews and a method of empathy-based stories. The analysis was based on content analysis. According to the study, leadership takes place in different forms of interaction and these relationships allow for the sharing of leadership. As the major outcome of the study a leadership relationship model was developed. It consisted of the following leadership relationships: empowering interaction relationship, leadership in confidence, leadership in partnership and leadership as an authority relationship. In the study, relationships are described as separate in order to allow a detailed examination of them. In reality, relationships are interrelated and implemented holistically. Keywords: distributed leadership, shared leadership, leadership, leadership relationships, qualitative research, narrative perspective, pedagogical leadership, relationship leadership, early childhood education
  • Ruutu, Piia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Supporting the schooling of children and adolescents in psychiatric care and the perceived effects of a hospital school period The aim of this study is to describe the schooling of students who have psychiatric disorders, to evaluate what kind of impact a hospital school pedagogy has on the students’ schooling and to identify both supportive and exclusionary practices in the Finnish school system. This study has both quantitative and qualitative components. The Finnish National Follow-Up Study 2009-2014 (SOS survey) contains students’ (n=251) and teachers’ (n = 247) survey as-sessments of schooling before a hospital school period, at the end of the period and at follow-up 3-6- months later. Interviews of former hospital school students (n=22) and their parent´s (n=17) were conducted between 2013 and 2016. Hospital school as part of a child’s overall rehabilitation had a positive impact on their school-ing but the effect decreased slightly at the follow-up 3-6 months later. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors that could explain the student’s low or high assessment in the follow-up phase. Research interviews made it possible to understand the results in a deeper way and gave a more personal perspective on the results. Participants identified both supportive and harmful practices in the Finnish school system. These results can be used to develop schooling practices in Finland. It is important to find out what kinds of factors support the inclusion of students and their families and to identify exclusionary and harmful practices. The study identifies key devel-opment needs and suggests solutions to them. The interviews showed that participants had received support in schools, but there was varia-tion in the availability of support. Help and support was not available until the school situation had become very problematic and there was a lack of early interventions. In addition, there were variations in the number and quality of school interventions. Externalizing students had a lot of school-based interventions on their school path, but the interventions often suffered from a lack of planning and control. The support and interventions of internalizing students in school were minimal or absent. Based on the SOS survey and interviews, students who had psychiatric disorders had a higher risk of school refusal and of being excluded from school. In this research the participants were asked to identify the factors behind school refusal and exclusion. As a result of this, a student typology was developed that can help to design better interventions and support for these stu-dents. A supportive school atmosphere, good relationships between students and adults in school, at least one schoolmate, co-operation with parents and tailor-made, flexible solutions support the schooling of students who have psychiatric disorders. In addition, the school personnel’s ability to regulate the child’s stress levels with the parents and other caregivers is important. Developing school-based interventions to support these children will be essential in the future. Schools and basic education require practices that help identify and implement school-based interventions. This dissertation gives voice to children, adolescents and their parents. With their views, it is possible to develop hospital school pedagogy and basic education practices as well as services for families more generally. Keywords: perceived effects, experiences, school refusal, hospital school pedagogy, follow-up study
  • Hietajärvi, Lauri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis examined how adolescents’ engagement with digital media is associated with academic and emotional functioning and the continuities and discontinuities between these two contexts. Towards that end, the gap hypothesis, that is, the hypothesis that students who prefer learning with digital media outside of school are less engaged in traditional school, was examined both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The first aim was to determine the multidimensional structure of socio-digital participation orientations that students’ different digital activities reflect. The second aim was to examine the extent to which the orientations of socio-digital participation are related to academic and emotional functioning cross-sectionally and in different educational levels. The third aim was to examine the longitudinal relations of socio-digital engagement with academic well-being and achievement, especially focusing on the direction of the effects. This thesis consists of five original studies, which relied on interview data and larger scale questionnaire data. The first main finding was that the variation in digital activities can be explained with a complex structure of socio-digital participation orientations, which appear to be consistent across different age groups. Of all forms of digital participation, youths reported spending the majority of their screen time engaging in friendship-driven digital social networking. However, some adolescents reported socio-digital engagement that reached out to a wider audience, building an extended network of developing expertise in the process. The second main finding was that there truly appeared to be a gap between adolescents’ digital and academic engagement. The results revealed that motivationally indifferent students were more likely to engage in social media and gaming. Students who preferred digital learning but did not have the chance to digitally engage at school experienced a decrease in school engagement over time. Moreover, cynicism towards school and feelings of inadequacy predicted increased engagement with social media and action gaming. The third main finding was that digital participation yields both demands and resources and that these are tied together via multiple processes. Social media engagement was cross-sectionally related to lower study engagement and/or to higher symptoms of burnout, especially exhaustion. Longitudinally, social media engagement and emotional exhaustion were reciprocally related at the within-person level; exhaustion predicted an increase in social media engagement and vice versa. In turn, knowledge-oriented digital engagement was cross-sectionally related to higher study engagement, and digital learning preference predicted higher schoolwork engagement over time. To conclude, adolescents’ socio-digital engagement is fundamentally multidimensional and should be treated as such. The results showed support to the gap hypothesis, but the results also suggest that the manifestation of this gap is dependent on multiple factors, both individual and contextual. The gap might emerge because of out-of-school digital engagement that is not recognized in school or the gap might emerge due to problems in school leading to increased time spent with digital media. Intensive socio-digital engagement may also increase the daily psychological demands to such an extent that it hinders schoolwork, leading to symptoms of school burnout, but it can also increase the psychological resources supporting schoolwork given that congruence with academic practices is achieved.
  • Pursi, Annukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study examines playful encounters in early childhood education between adults and children under the age of three. The role of the adult in facilitating and sustaining playful encounters in a multi-party context is of particular interest. The study consists of a summary and four original articles. The research material consists of video observations (150 h) of naturally occurring interaction between adults and children in one municipal toddler classroom. Taking a conversation analysis (CA) approach, the research addresses three questions: (1) How are multiparty playful encounters observable and recognizable from the flow of interaction? (2) How are multi-party playful encounters organized between adults and children in a toddler classroom? (3) What is the adult’s role in facilitating and sustaining multi-party playful encounters? Methodologically, the research develops analytical terminology and a systematic framework which Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) researchers can use to study multi-party playful encounters in natural group-care settings. Theoretically, the research produces new scientific knowledge about the organization of playful and emotional stance taking during adult-child playful encounters. The pedagogical contribution of the research is to explain how adult conduct can shape opportunities for multi-party playful encounters in toddler classrooms. The results contribute to theoretical and pedagogical discussion about adults’ roles in children’s play. Overall, the findings can enhance the understanding of ECEC as ECEPC (Early Childhood Education, Play and Care). The study shows how CA can encourage dialogue with ECEC theory and practice by providing a more detailed picture of practices that are described in stocks of interactional knowledge such as the Finnish National Curriculum guidelines on Early Childhood Education and Care.
  • Yliverronen, Virpi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation examines the handicrafts of young children during their preschool education. The perspective expands towards the technology education of young children and investigative activities as a pursuit to notice the close connection of these learning areas in terms of the nature of the contents and activities. The dissertation’s empirical section orients children’s work on handicraft tasks via three sub-studies. The study represents a qualitative case study where the objective was to produce the most accurate description of the entirety of the subject being examined. The research was strongly contextual by nature. Video material captured during real-action circumstances and analyses based on this material formed this dissertation’s most extensive, and at the same time, the most important research material of all sub-studies. In the first sub-study, the intention was to determine how preschoolers perceived, verbalised and interpreted the craft-making process and how they used nonverbal expressions when explaining a learned skill. The aim of the second sub-study was to clarify the ability of preschoolers’ to execute a personal and plan-following handicraft process in a holistic context. The focus of the third sub-study was the appearance of preschoolers´ verbal and embodied collaboration during co-operative design situations and what kinds of roles were formed during peer-group work. The results of the sub-studies indicate that handicrafts’ conventional, cyclically repeating steps of perceiving, making and interpreting can be found in preschoolers’ processes. Children learn through experience and interpret what they have learned using gestures, especially when verbal expression feels difficult. According to this, gestures are closely linked to the children’s thinking and reveal the understanding associated with the task. Preschoolers are capable of designing individual products, and during the making phase, they consider different material and colour choices, as well as product details. During collaboration, they can organize their own group actions and are able to work co-operatively with a verbal design task. As a result, they can produce feasible drawing plans for the given task. With minimal help from adults, preschoolers are able to follow a logical, holistic handicraft process suited to their capabilities. A handicraft design and making process includes many natural possibilities for collaboration and co-operative practise. Since preschoolers are only practising collaboration skills, setting up chances for co-operative learning during handicraft activities is recommended.
  • Lintuvuori, Meri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The fundamental idea of the Finnish education system is that everyone has the right to basic education. According to the Basic Education Act, pupils are entitled to sufficient support for learning and schooling whenever the need arises. The Finnish 'Education for All' reform was completed in the late 1990s when the responsibility for the education of children with the most severe intellectual disabilities and children in reformatory school was moved to the education system. Equality and justice have been the cornerstones of basic education from the beginning of the comprehensive school in the 1970s. One of the aims of education is “to secure adequate equity in education throughout the country”. The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning and schooling support system in Finnish basic education as well as the municipal level differences in the provision of this support. The study had two main aims. The first was to analyse the support system and its development, and the second was to analyse the official statistics on special education. This thesis consists of three sub-studies. Study I describes the current support system and the related statistics at the national level. Study II analyses the regional and municipal level differences in learning and schooling support. Study III analyses the evolution of the support system from the late 1970s to the present. The data used in this dissertation were mainly secondary data. The main data consisted of time series compiled by Statistics Finland in 1979–2016. In addition, the basic education legislation was used as the basis for analyses and descriptions. Further, three empirical data sets were used to analyse the system: principal survey data (N = 1 113) and two pupil level data sets collected in 2012 (N = 8 875) (Hautamäki et al. 2013) and 2014 (N = 11 601) (Hotulainen et al. 2016). These data and methods were used in order to understand and describe the phenomenon formulated in the research tasks. Document analysis that utilises both quantitative (official statistics) and qualitative (legislation, educational policy documents, previous studies) data is typical of research conducted in the framework of educational policy and comparative education. The results showed that the provision of learning and schooling support differed between the municipalities, as the realisation of support provisions are based on local support system traditions developed over time. Firstly, according to the results, the municipalities varied in terms of how and where they organised their support. The shares of pupils with an individualised curriculum also differed. From the equality perspective, the provision of support varied considerably and for this reason, I propose that it needs further analysis. Secondly, from the normative perspective, intensified support (Tier 2) ought to be provided along with mainstream education using flexible teaching arrangements. Thus, the placement of students in Tier 2 is not recorded in statistics. Survey data indicated that in some schools students receiving intensified support studied in small group settings, in which they were all either Tier 2 or Tier 2 and 3 students. These arrangements should be further examined because, in contrast to the decision regarding special support (Tier 3), the decision regarding intensified support (Tier 2) is not made in accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act. Thirdly, the findings suggest that the variation between municipalities in the shares of pupils with an individualised curriculum is so great that, in terms of equality and equity, the need to regulate this individualisation should be further examined. The findings of this study indicate that the official statistics on special education are important as a dataset that describes the support system. However, statistical time series have some limitations as they do not, for example, cover the whole support system. In the future, the official statistics on special education will utilise the KOSKI register as a source of information and according to the results, it is important that these official statistics are compiled with at least the same accuracy as today.
  • Pitkänen, Hannele (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The study examines the fabrication and mobilization of the local and school level evaluation in the field of comprehensive schooling within the Finnish quality evaluation discourse. Drawing on genealogy, the study runs out of the current notion and understanding in which the evaluation is reasoned as a necessary, natural and normal part of the workings of schools and municipalities as education provider. Finally, the evaluation is considered inevitable in constant improvement, development and governing of education in the context of global economy. The study analyses the descent, fabrication and mobilization of this understanding. It asks: 1) how is the present understanding on local quality evaluation in comprehensive school mobilized and construed within the Finnish discourse, and 2) which kind of discursive principles and rules can be identified as conditions for the construction and fabrication of a present discourse when examined in the dimensions of the knowledge, power and subject. The research data consists of a set of Finnish policy documents, legislation and texts on quality evaluation written by the experts of the evaluation in the field of comprehensive education in the period of 1970–2010. The aim of the study is to bring back forth and uncover the hidden historical horizon of the quality evaluation in education. In answering the first research question, the study provides a dense descriptive analysis on the formation and construction of the field of the statements where the school and municipal self-evaluation becomes fabricated as self-evident. Study identifies three discursive practices – systems of reasoning and doing – within the field of statements mobilizing the present understanding on evaluation. Those are the discursive practices of the 1) school based development, 2) performativity and educational outcomes and 3) customer oriented quality. The second research question is approached by setting the descriptive analysis of discursive practices and layers under examination in the genealogical dimensions of the knowledge, power and subject. First, in the dimension of knowledge, the study identifies an increasing and overarching will to know about education; will to know the all-embracing performance and the quality in all areas of schooling. In the dimension of power, the study identifies the process of normalization of evaluation in education practices during the re-search period. The evaluation becomes construed as a normal daily practice of education inseparable from teaching, schooling and education governance. In the dimension of subjectivity, the study identifies the fabrication of the ethics of inevitability of self-evaluation. Within the discourse, there is no decent place for actors those are unwilling to evaluate or to be evaluated. Finally, the evaluation discourse can be described as a discourse based on evolutionary hope towards the better future – with higher performativity and excellent quality. The discourse wraps and embeds the desire towards the better. However, at the same time, by the discourse itself, it appears evident that the education in its variedness will stay immeasurable by its nature. It also appears that the ethics of inevitability of self-evaluation will necessarily be bounded by the vagueness and subjective nature of the evaluation. Finally, in aspiring towards the normalization of the evaluation and quality work in the direction of universal organization, the school context and specific school knowledge appears to be fading out.
  • Sahi, Sinikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Kun uudet aineenopettajat astuvat vastavalmistuneina opettajina heille tuntemattomiin opettajanhuoneisiin, he tarvitsevat tukea. Heidän tulee osata toimia toimia koulun muiden opettajien ja koulun henkilökunnan kanssa. Myös vanhempien kohtaamiseen tarvitaan taitoja. Vahvistaakseen aineenopettajaharjoittelijoiden valmiutta yhteisölliseen opettajuuteen tutkija kehitti virtuaalisen simulaation VIRESIMUn, jonka tavoitteena oli 1) kouluttaa opetusharjoittelijoita kouluyhteisön jäseniksi, 2) jakaa yhteisöissä tarvittavaa sosiaalista, psykologista ja eettistä pääomaa osallistujien kesken 3) edistää kollegiaalista professionaalista reflektiota, 4) kehittää aineenopettajan kouluyhteisössä selviytymiseen tarvitsemia mikropoliittisia strategioita ja 5) auttaa opiskelijoita ymmärtämään kouluyhteisön yhteisöllistä luonnetta. Virtuaalisten keskusteluiden kohteet olivat luonteeltaan kouluyhteisön arjen keskeisiä ongelmatilanteita eli dilemmoja, joihin verkkosimulaatioon osallistuvat opiskelijat mentorinsa kanssa etsivät ammatillisesti kestäviä ja realistisia ratkaisuja ja samalla yrittivät ymmärtää opettajayhteisön ilmapiiriä. Ratkaisujen piti perustua alan relevantin teorian yhdistämiseen käytäntöön. Päätavoite oli kuitenkin se, että opetusharjoittelijat kartuttaisivat yhteisöllistä sosiaalieettistä pääomaansa, jota he tarvitsevat tulevaisuudessa aineenopettajina, kollegoina ja erilaisissa verkostoissa sekä kumppanuuksissa. Verkkokeskusteluprosessin instrumentti VIRESIMU oli pedagoginen innovaatio, jossa yhdistettiin opettajayhteisön luontainen mikropoliittinen pelillisyys simulaatioksi. Tutkija kirjoitti osallistujille simuloidut opettajaroolit. Opetusharjoittelijat ratkaisivat rooliopettajina virtuaalisessa opiskeluympäristössä (MOODLE) dilemmoja eli tapausongelmia yleensä kerran viikossa lukukauden ajan. Rooliopettajat olivat kuvitteellisen Suutarinmäen yläkoulun opettajia roolien habituksina dialogisuus, formaattisuus, autonomisuus ja opettajuus ilman tunnistettavaa pedagogista käsikirjoitusta. Simulaatioon osallistuvalla virtuaalimentorilla oli kaksi roolia: rehtorin ja kuvitteellisen luokan 8f luokanohjaajan roolit. Vuorovaikutusprosessien aikana virtuaalimentori pyrki vahvistamaan opettajien yhteisöllisyyden tunnetta. Rehtorina virtuaalimentori oli opettajien kokouskeskustelujen moderaattori. Keskustelut tapahtuivat asynkronisena tekstin kirjoittamisena MOODLE-opiskelualustalla. Jokaisen opiskelijan piti osallistua dilemmojen käsittelyyn ja argumentoida ratkaisunsa avatakseen omaa ammatillista reflektiotaan muille osallistujille. Virtuaalimentori tarjosi prosessin tueksi kunkin dilemman alaan liittyvää teoreettista ja käytännöllistä tietoa nettiaineistoina, joiden informaatiota osallistujien oletettiin tutkivan, arvioivan ja käyttävän tekstiensä argumentoinnin tukena. Koulun sosiaalinen konteksti luotiin pääkertomukseksi, jonka kirjoitti Helsingin normaalilyseon tämän aiheen asiantuntijakollega. Osallistujien roolikortit habituskuvauksineen olivat pääkertomuksen osia. Tutkittavat dilemmat esitettiin osallistujille tapauskertomuksina. Jokaista dilemmakeskustelua seurasi jälkipuinti, jonka aikana tapausta ja sen ratkaisua analysoitiin aineenopettajina ilman simulaatiorooleja. Siten dilemmojen ratkaiseminen voitiin nostaa professionaalisen yleistämisen tasolle. VIRESIMun päätteeksi lukukauden lopussa jokainen harjoittelijaosallistuja täytti e-kyselylomakkeen. Se perustui Community of Inquiry -verkkokeskustelumallin evaluaation mukaiseen 34 väittämän evaluaatioinstrumenttiin. Sen avulla mitattiin, miten osallistujat kokevat verkkokeskustelun vuorovaikutusprosesseissa sosiaalisen läsnäolon, ammatillisen tiedonrakentelun läsnäolon ja mentoriuden läsnäolon. Tutkijan itsensä kehittämien väittämien avulla mitattiin, miten eettisesti kypsä opettajayhteisö toteutui VIRESIMUssa. Kysely osoittaa, että tutkija onnistui operationalisoimaan yhteisöllisyys-, verkkokeskustelu- ja simulaatiotutkimusten pohjalta aineenopettajakoulutuksen mentoroituihin ja simuloituihin verkkokeskusteluihin yhteistyöyhteisöllisen sosiaalieettisen yhteisön piirteitä. Aineenopettajaharjoittelijat tunsivat voimautuneensa kollegiaalisesti ratkaisemaan tulevaisuuden yhteisöllisiä sosiaalieettisiä dilemmoja heittäytyessään verkkosimulaation leikkimaailmaan esittämänsä roolin habituksen mukaisesti. Tutkimus rohkaisee opettajankouluttajaa suunnittelemaan sekä toteuttamaan tutkivana ohjaajana alansa innovaatioita. Avainsanat: aineenopettajankoulutus, verkkokeskustelu, verkkosimulaatio, virtuaalimentori, sosiaalieettinen yhteisöllisyys, yhteistyöyhteisöllinen ongelmanratkaisu, leikkimielisyyteen heittäytyminen, tutkiva ohjaus
  • Manninen, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to examine the life purposes of Finnish social services students. In particular, the students’ life purposes and their experiences of purpose are examined from the viewpoint of how helping unknown others and advocating for social improvements are integrated into personal meaning and how a focus on benefiting others appears in the students’ perspectives. Life purposes are personally meaningful, but also intended to benefit others (Damon, Menon, & Bronk, 2003). The thesis is based on research presented in three articles. Article I addresses the content of students’ life goals and how the students’ justify their goals through focus on self and on others. Article II presents students’ purpose profiles, their perceptions of the role of purpose, and why these students want to help unknown others. In Article III the focus is on students’ most influential field education experiences and how learning in service influenced their experience of purpose, especially from the standpoint of helping and social advocacy. The context of this case study is the Metropolia University of Applied Sciences and its social services degree whose framework is social pedagogy. The analysis is based on survey data, which included both fixed and open ended questions. A mixed-methods approach is operationalized by using both qualitative and quantitative data analyses. The results presented in Articles I and II are based on a semester start survey (N=151) during the fall of 2015. Article III (N=113) presents the responses of pre- and post-field education surveys during the same semester. Validated instruments are used as are both deductive and inductive content analyses. The analysis shows that the most important life goals for the students were close relationships and hedonistic goals, such as leading an exciting life. Helping was rated as the third-most important life goal on a Likert scale, yet other-focused, value based justifications for it are somewhat lacking in the open answers. Primarily, the students mostly provided self-focused justifications for their long-term life goals, and perceived the role of purpose as leading to a happy and pleasurable life rather than to a value-driven life. Overall, it appeared that the students perhaps aimed at finding purpose in familial matters and, to some extent, in the pursuit of happiness and helping others. Most of the students could be described as representing a Dabbler profile. They had already experienced a sense of purpose in their lives, but were still seeking new purposes. They felt confident and skillful in actualizing their life goals, yet they did not seem to be aware of the values that steer their lives. Approximately one-fourth of the students represented the profile of the Purposeful and approximately onefifth fit the profile of a Dreamer. Purposeful students define the values that direct their lives and their helping activities more often than other students. Through field education, the students’ sense of purpose developed, but the importance of helping goals remained the same, albeit on a relatively high level. The students’ confidence in helping and in social advocacy as lifetime pursuits increased during field education. It appears that the increased sense of purpose after field education is in some ways related to the experiences of a sense of community, learning professional competencies, and increased self-awareness.
  • Lahti, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The experience of working within a school community not only fosters the de-velopment of key knowledge-related skills, but it also develops important social and emotional skills, which are in turn important for, and when, working within other communities. When studying to become a teacher, students have the op-portunity to reflect on the nature and significance of socioemotional interaction skills and their own understandings in respect of these skills, as well as the chance to explore the co-regulation of collective activity when studying in a long-term communal small group. Contemporary society and the perspectives, values and current concerns of science also challenge the students to reflect not only the collaborative insights they achieve but also the flexible and creative application of them. As teachers they will also need skills that will help to secure pupils’ psychological well-being. Ethics, values and morality are concretized and consolidated in collaborative reflection. Such reflection shows the morality of behaviour as a reality that reflects the theoretical, tense principles of ethical views. Furthermore, teacher identity work challenges the students' ability to know, attend to, and negotiate conflicts and contradictions such that the emotional blocking and insecurity that can slow down effective reflection may be reduced. This study examines both challenging and supportive perspectives in the context of a long-term student teacher community-based small group. At the theoretical core of the study is an attentiveness to: the socioconstructivist notion that one of the benefits collaboration affords is the potential for reflection; the need for pedagogical support, scaffolding, and the elements of co-regulation. This is a case study. The data were collected through interviews and also by utilizing the students' reflection on video and audio materials, as well as their readings and a stimulated recall questionnaire. The material has been analysed through qualita-tive content analysis. The results show that the realization of a space for a meaningful negotiation of identity in a group requires both confidence and agency and a capacity to listen to others, especially in conflictual situations, including those situations where there is the threat of a suppressive or reductive consensus. In this study, the contextual supports that enabled student teachers to benefit from conflicts when reflecting were: emotional safety, the lengthy duration of the group process and time for reflection. The processes implicated in the development of a positive communication culture, one that encourages and supports reflection and interthinking, became a central focus for the study. Where there was not evidence of a positive culture of communication, there was evidence of an emotionally disruptive atmosphere and a threatened sense of security. With respect to the scaffolding of the group, an emotionally safe atmosphere was seen to be a pre-requisite for fostering a sense of creativity in within the collaborative community was implicated in the quality of collaboration. In this case, the fading of fear and insecurity made solidarity and mutual recognition of each other's often divergent views possible to accept. Pedagogical conclusions were drawn from the results of the study: intentionality as a space of free will that under-stands the well-being of psychic activity arises as a telos of pedagogical support. Scaffolding metacognitive and metacompetences may open up onward possibilities for supporting group reflection and co-regulation.
  • Tuononen, Tarja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of this doctoral thesis was to explore university graduates’ employability and transition to working life. The main aim was to explore graduates’ evaluations of their academic competences and how these evaluations are related to their learning. In addition, the aim was to investigate the relation between work experience, approaches to learning and study success. Follow-up study aimed to explore how graduates’ evaluate their academic competences and career success after three years of graduation, and what kinds of challenges graduates have encountered in working life. This thesis consists of four sub-studies. Study was a longitudinal study and applied a mixed-methods approach. Data included 1023 survey answers and 83 interviews at the time of graduation and 57 follow-up survey answers three years after graduation. The results of Study I showed that graduates varied in evaluations of their academic competences. Most graduates were able to extensively describe their competences, including those that are more demanding such as critical thinking and applying knowledge, as well as more practical competences. However, some graduates described their academic competences quite narrowly, emphasising only practical competences such as communications skills and information technology skills. Moreover, others had difficulties in describing and evaluating their competences at all. The results of Study II revealed that a deep approach to learning, organised studying, and especially putting effort into learn competences, was related to the richness of the evaluations of competences. The results of Study III showed that academic work was related to a deep approach to learning and non-academic work was related to a surface approach to learning and unorganised studying. In addition, own academic work had a direct negative relation to study pace when working more than 20 hours per week as well as doing more 20 hours of non-academic work per week had a negative relation to the thesis grade. Study IV showed that graduates with rich descriptions of their competences at the time of graduation had more often academic work that was related to their study field and had experienced less difficulties related to employment after graduation compared to the graduates with more limited descriptions of their competences. The results showed that significant changes in graduates’ evaluations of academic competences had occurred. After three years of graduation, collaboration and communication competences were evaluated as being less developed than they evaluated at the time of graduation. The results of Study IV also revealed that most of the challenges that graduates reported having encountered in working life were related to a need for more academic competences, especially presentation and social competences. In conclusion, this doctoral thesis provides new information on the factors that are related to employability and it extended previous employability models by adding aspect of learning as a single dimension. This doctoral thesis indicates that the ability to evaluate and describe one’s own competences at the time of graduation is an important factor for employability and career success. This doctoral thesis indicates that a mixed methods approach is needed to explore graduates’ employability and especially competences more profoundly.
  • Pöntinen, Silpa Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of this dissertation is to study how cross-curricular collaboration (CCC) works, and enables new openings in subject teachers’ teaching practices. The research questions focus on the views and experiences of student teachers, supervising teachers, and principals regarding the obstacles, preconditions, and possibilities of CCC throughout teaching practice and school work in training schools. The dissertation draws on a theoretical background related to the social nature of learning, collective expertise in schools, and CCC as a promoter of the transfer of learned content. This study is a qualitative case-study in which the case is a programme to become a teacher of home economics at one Finnish university. The respondents were student teachers, supervising teachers, and principals (n=65). The data consist of group discussions, interviews, and feedback discussions, and were analyzed following the methods of inductive and qualitative content analysis. The results reveal many barriers for CCC which, in fact, is only rarely practiced during teaching practice. For the most part, the respondents had positive views of CCC, and some of the student teachers also had experiences planning for the approach. However, their plans were only rarely focused on real situations during teaching practice. The main obstacles and preconditions seem to be various administrative factors, and factors related directly to the respondents themselves, as well as the resources available to them. Factors related to the school community were seen as important preconditions of CCC. Even though CCC seems to be challenging, there are possibilities to promote pupils’ learning in a way where CCC supports the transfer of learned content. CCC can also increase the meaningfulness of learning and pupils’ motivation, and support the comprehensive understanding of learned content. CCC was found to provide new angles for teachers’ work as well as to increase well-being at work. However, some of the students comprehended that CCC is not an integral part of a teacher’s work, but is rather voluntary work. Student teachers cannot experience CCC if it is not a natural part of the culture in training schools.
  • Launikari, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This research examines the subjective dimensions of intra-EU labor mobility among staff working for decentralized EU agencies located in Greece (Cedefop), Ireland (Eurofound) and Italy (European Training Foundation), and the development of their identity, interculturality and career capitals. The qualitative data for this doctoral dissertation were gathered through thematic interviews held individually with a total of 20 interviewees at the above agencies. The results show that the participants seem to have been attracted by the intercultural aspects and career opportunities of the European Union agencies. They addressed their body of knowledge (career capital) more from person-centered than contextual perspectives. So, personal motivation, professional competences and social networks were assets discussed in more depth in relation to their global careers. In general, respondents were constructively critical about how professionalism is expressed in an international work environment, and how interculturality and Europeanness are demonstrated. They occasionally questioned what it means to be intercultural or to feel European. The respondents appeared to be aware of the complexities of identifying themselves as European, even though they feel it is an essential aspect of who they are and what they are supposed to represent in their professional roles. The common characteristic of identity, interculturality and career capitals seems to be their processual, interactional and contextual nature. The results suggest that in an international professional environment the investigated capitals are closely intertwined. They express themselves differently depending on prevailing conditions, and respond to various circumstantial factors usually in a flexible way. Perplexities and uncertainties experienced around interculturality originated usually from the need to have one’s referential frameworks modified and related identifications adapted to living abroad and working at a supranational level. The interviewees seem to have developed their sensitivities towards diversity and their ability to interact in a constantly transforming international environment, but they seem to lack tools, even knowledge for more profoundly understanding how to cope with these capitals.
  • Vaahtera, Touko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The approach of disability studies has politicized the mechanisms which prioritize able-bodiedness in culture and society. This dissertation, indebted to such perspectives, theorizes ableism as the multitude of assumptions which homogenize embodiment. The dissertation explores the cultural politics of the idea of swimming skills as civic skills and the cultural notion of human beings as part of the animal world in the articulations of swimming. Through the theory of articulation and through Foucauldian genealogy, this thesis mobilizes the cultural understandings of swimming to theorize ableism in new ways. It analyzes both historical and contemporary cultural texts about swimming, asking how the understandings available in these texts can be theorized in ways that reveal the specific cultural mechanisms of ableism and enable a conceptual critique of ableist imaginaries. From an interdisciplinary perspective which is, in particular, connected to the shared aims of disability and queer studies to politicize conventional embodiment, this dissertation offers an approach that challenges the idealization of able-bodiedness not only in culture but also in theory. It intervenes in ideas that presume that bodies which defy ableist ideals are less valuable. Furthermore, the perspective offered by this thesis enables the consideration of analytic attachments to conventional embodiment in contemporary cultural critique. By putting forward the concept of "able-bodied belonging", the analysis considers cultural mechanisms which reinforce ableism while providing ostensibly inclusive modes of belonging. The dissertation offers a biopolitical analysis of articulations of physical skills introducing an approach to thinking about how our personal relationships to the qualities of our bodies are byproducts of biopolitics/thanatopolitics. The concept of the "repressive hypothesis of the body", introduced in the thesis, enables a consideration of how the assumption of repression normalizes embodiment and prioritizes conventional able-bodiedness. Finally, the formulation of "bodies of latent potential" helps to pay attention to how notions of bodies as moldable and connected to cultural factors have emerged in the intersections of colonialist, ableist and eugenicist understandings.
  • Xing, Xin (Yliopistopaino Unigrafia, 2019)
    The research examines how Chinese educational leaders (CEL) perceive transnational educational leadership training (TNELT) programme characteristics, its impact on CEL’ understanding of the Finnish and Chinese education systems and their leadership practices. The focus of the research is people’s perceptions. The overall research problem is: How do CEL perceive TNELT programme characteristics and impact? The main research problem was examined through three research questions: (1) What are CEL’ perceptions of the characteristics of an effective TNELT programme? (Study I) (2) How do CEL perceive the impact of Sino-Finnish TNELT programme on their understanding of Finnish and Chinese education systems? (Study II & Study III) and (3) How do CEL perceive the impact of Sino-Finnish TNELT programme on their leadership practices? (Study II & Study III) The research employed multiple case studies. A qualitative approach was adopted for the research. The data was collected by means of interviews, learning reports and reflection workshops. The thesis comprises three refereed articles and a summary. The findings show that: (1) Perceived programme characteristics consists of content, methods, format and social aspects; (2) Perceived impact on CEL’ understanding of the Finnish and Chinese education systems contains equality and equity, autonomy, physical and social environment, quality and quantity of teachers, and role of decision-makers; (3) Perceived impact on CEL’ leadership practices comprised of a different form of leadership, confidence, and willingness to change. The findings help us to understand: what makes good TNELT programmes for CEL? I argue that ethical issues must be taken into consideration for sustainable Finnish education export to China. The research is relevant for those who work on other contexts of edu-business, especially between Europe and China.
  • Anttila, Henrika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of this doctoral dissertation is to provide new insights into the dynamics of academic emotions, especially in the socially embedded situations of two cohorts of learners: pupils that are learning at the school and student teachers that are learning for the school. Both invariant and contextual elements of the academic emotions in these two active groups of learners were analysed. This dissertation consists of three original studies. The focus of the first two sub-studies was on analysing the landscape of student teachers’ academic emotions during their studies in different activities provided by teacher education (Study I) and on investigating student teachers’ emotional patterns and their triggers (Study II). Pupils’ socially embedded emotions in teacher-pupil and peer interactions in different learning environments of comprehensive school were investigated in Study III. In the dissertation a mixed methods approach, has been utilised, combining both qualitative and quantitative methods. The student teacher cohort consisted of 19 students who were finishing their studies, from whom the semi-structured interview data with retrospective narration and visualisation were collected. Picture tasks and survey data were collected from146 sixth and eighth graders. The results of Study I showed that student teachers’ emotional landscape is rich and filled with a range of academic emotions. Most commonly, student teachers described positive emotions, from which activating emotions were emphasised. Negative emotions, on the other hand, were typically deactivating. Most of the positive and negative emotions were related to motivational elements. Student teachers’ emotional experiences were more commonly embedded in individual activities than in social activities. Moreover, they were situated in the key activities of student teachers’ professional development: major subject studies and practice. The results of Study II showed that student teachers’ emotional experiences during their studies were constituted from five different emotional patterns (positive, negative, ascending, descending and changing). The patterns were highly motivationally toned and focused on studying and learning. Most of the emotional patterns were positive, filled with experienced enthusiasm and interest, still a fair number of changing patterns were also detected. The patterns were experienced equally in short, medium-length and long episodes, indicating that the negatively-loaded experiences did not accumulate over longer periods of time. The triggers of the patterns were highly task-related and tightly connected to the key elements of studying to become a teacher. The results of Study III showed that the social interactions at school are significant arenas for pupils’ emotions. In particular, the informal learning environment was emphasised in peer related emotions. The results also suggested that emphasising negative emotions in teacher-pupil interaction seems to be related to pupils’ cynicism and decreased the extent of thriving at school. This dissertation contributes to the literature on academic emotions by a) providing new understanding of the dynamic nature of academic emotions, especially in the socially embedded situations; b) providing new insights on the invariant and contextual elements of the academic emotions of two cohorts of active learners; c) by proposing an extension of the concept of academic emotions and d) responding to the need for mixed methods approach.
  • Kurki, Tuuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The dissertation examines how integration policies and practices in education function and participate in the making of immigrant subjectivities. Drawing on two ethnographic studies from a lower secondary school and pre-vocational training for immigrants (MAVA programme) in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland, it asks: how does integration function in education as a form of policy and practice; how do integration policies and practices in education designed to enhance integration of immigrants serve to constitute immigrant subjectivities and with what consequences; and how do gendering and racialising dynamics intersect in integration policies and practices in education. The data produced include interviews with 20 students (named as immigrants by the education system and beyond) and 14 education professionals working with them, observation notes, over 90 policy documents related to immigration, integration and education, and other data, such as teaching and learning materials and media texts. Methodologically, the dissertation both builds on and challenges feminist ethnographic research. Theoretically, it relates to the postcolonial and poststructural theoretisations and utilises the concepts of subjectification and racialisation with intersectional frame. The dissertation arrives at four main findings. The dissertation argues that while the official, well-intentioned aim of integration is to make people named as immigrants active and equal members of Finnish society, to prevent their social exclusion, and decrease their unemployment, integration measures actually reinforce rather than redresses marginalisation and exclusion of people named as immigrants. For example, despite the investment in integration, the employment situation of immigrants remains chronic and racism is a constant part of everyday life of racialised people. Second, the dissertation argues that education officially promotes multiculturalism and tolerance, and aims to achieve equality. In practice, however, education participates in creating racial and gendered segregation both in education and in the labour market. For example, pushing immigrants in general, and young immigrant women in particular, to the care sector regardless of their personal interests, experiences and needs, simply because they are considered to be immigrants (and young and women), is interpreted in the dissertation as exploitative racism. Third, the dissertation shows that while policymakers and the majority population, including education professionals, do not consider the term “immigrant” insulting but a neutral term, simply capturing people from “other cultures”, people named as immigrants interpreted the term as stigmatising and equivalent to inferiority: in oftentimes to be named as an immigrant meant to be worth less than. This injurious naming was resisted, for example, by naming the self and others in the “inner circle” with self-chosen terms in order to escape the racialised subject position as immigrants. Fourth, the dissertation develops a concept of immigrantisation to describe how through integration policies and practices in education a group of people from various backgrounds, experiences, interests and needs become constituted and treated as one, as immigrants. The process of immigrantisation can be, however, resisted and troubled to open ways to act against the expected, “suitable”, gendered and racialised integration routes, and as such, against the racist integration policies and practices.
  • Hannukainen, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This dissertation focuses on doctoral school knowledge capitalism management, and is framed within the higher education policy discussion. Knowledge capita-lism management means more effective financial control over knowledge and science, as well as researchers and knowing. The research focuses on the consequences of knowledge capitalism management from the aspects of researcher agency, doctoral students, knowledge and knowing. The aim is to analyse how doctoral students’ agency is formed in the field of knowledge capitalism management, and what kind of knowledge production and knowledge management is possible through doctoral school. The study is framed within the structural change in national doctoral education following the new University Act. The dissertation includes four articles and a summary chapter. The research data consist of 28 interviews with doctoral students, as well as academic policy documents. The study’s methodological approach is discursive reading. The results suggest that knowledge capitalism management appears to be economical in terms of demanding efficiency and productivity in doctoral school, research and knowledge production. Especially in the field of research funding, knowledge capitalism management is particularly evident. Article I shows that research funding regulates academic projects and related dissertations, and more deeply, researchers' economy. Article II highlights the vagueness of university administration's actions in the transformation of graduate school and the consequences of knowledge capitalism management that affect the agency of researc-hers. Article III examines publishing policy as part of knowledge capitalism ma-nagement that regulates the knowledge and understanding of researchers. The article demonstrates an appreciation of the differences between a monograph and article dissertation. Article IV discusses the social impact of knowledge, in which knowledge capitalism aims to produce useful research data. This is reflected in the research choices made by researchers, the kind of information that is produced, and how research data is communicated. The study’s main finding is that a doctoral student must act according to knowledge capitalism management, maintain an economic approach and negotiate with knowledge capitalism management to achieve a doctoral degree. In researcher training, there are power relations and vague practices concerning knowledge production as well as being a researcher. The consequences of knowledge capitalism management have an influence on agency mainly in terms of management practices, such as uncertain research funding. On the other hand, knowledge capitalism management offers the researcher opportunities for 'right management' and success, as well as challenge management, which may allow for various possibilities to do things differently.
  • Veintie, Tuija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This doctoral dissertation examines how Indigenous knowledge is recognized and incorporated into a teacher education programme targeted at Amazonian Indigenous Shuar, Achuar and Kichwa students. It is based on an ethnographic field study in an intercultural bilingual teacher education (IBTE) institute in the Amazonian region of Ecuador. This study leans on theory and concepts deriving from critical studies in education, including critical pedagogy, culturally relevant pedagogy, critical race theory, and decolonizing studies on Indigenous education. Moreover, based on postcolonial and decolonial research literature, this study discusses the global epistemic power relations. The ethnographic field study at the teacher education institute involved data production through participant observation, individual and group interviews with teacher education students, teacher educators and elementary school teachers. In addition, the study employed a participatory photography method that involved teacher education students taking photographs, about which they were later interviewed. This study showed that the Shuar, Achuar and Kichwa teacher education students conceptualized knowledge and learning primarily through their everyday domestic life, and that schooling seemed to play a secondary role. Both the students and the teacher educators were concerned about the amount of theory-oriented education in schools, and believed that learning through observation and practice, hands-on activities and manipulative educational materials was culturally pertinent for the Indigenous students. The interview data show that many of the Kichwa, Shuar and non-Indigenous teacher educators were committed to reasserting and supporting the revival of Indigenous knowledge. Furthermore, these educators perceived Indigenous knowledge as an important resource in terms of confirming Indigenous identity. The interviews and observations showed that the educators promoted Indigenous knowledge in their instruction by bringing students’ knowledge into the classroom, using culturally relevant instruction methods and connecting with the Indigenous community. The non-Indigenous. The observation data also showed some examples of educators furthering dialogue between Indigenous and non-Indigenous knowledges, which offered opportunities to regenerate Indigenous knowledge by creating knowledge in between diverse epistemologies. The study indicates that more effort is needed to develop instructional practices that would better reflect Indigenous epistemologies. The data showed that the incorporation of Indigenous knowledge into instruction forms a challenge for educators because of the lack of adequate educational materials, insufficient or lacking initial or in-service education related to Indigenous students and intercultural bilingual education (IBE), and the lack of the educators’ understanding of epistemological diversity and Indigenous knowledges. Furthermore, IBE teacher educators’ cultural, linguistic and educational backgrounds vary, as does their commitment to IBE and their preparedness and willingness to break with the epistemological hierarchy and strive for epistemological justice by promoting Indigenous and alternative knowledges, ways of thinking and instruction practices.
  • Kauppinen, Eila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Eating habits are linked to the growth and development of children and young people as well as wellbeing in childhood and adulthood. The development of positive, sustainable eating habits can be promoted with the help of food education. Food education is especially important in modern society, as a wide range of food-related information is spread quickly through the social media channels. There have been hardly any studies on the subject of free-time food education and the foodscapes of young people. The objective of this research study is to understand how young people’s food-related choices and learning can be guided by food education and foodscapes and how young people learn food-related skills and knowledge during their leisure activities. In particular, the role of youth centres as food educators is examined. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative research is used to explore young people’s views on the healthiness of their own eating habits and how they cope with everyday food preparation. The quantitative data were gathered as part of the Youth Barometer 2015 survey. It was answered by 1894 people aged 15–29 years. The data were analysed with SPSS using different statistics, cross-tabulation, factor analysis and logistic regression analysis. Food education is linked to many different foodscapes. The concept of the foodscape helps us understand the diversity of food in children’s lives. The qualitative research improves the understanding of young people’s perceptions of youth centres as foodscapes and learning environments. The qualitative data were gathered at four youth centres in the city of Helsinki. 21 young people (13–17 years of age) took part in focus group discussions. The data were supplemented by observation of the activities and interviews with youth workers. The qualitative data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Peers and opportunities to have an influence are important factors affecting young people’s food preparation in their free time. The concept of food sense emphasises agency, subjectivity and social meaning. The quantitative and qualitative research results are studied in parallel in terms of food sense to understand youth centres’ opportunities to improve the food choices of young people. The findings of this research indicate that youth centres and guided leisure activities have the opportunity to support the food-related learning of young people and develop their food preparation skills alongside and in addition to what they learn at school and home. The work performed by different food educators should be made more visible and different organisations should cooperate so that young people can identify connections between what they learn in different environments and thus make better use of what they learn.

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