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  • Toiviainen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Pereira Querol, Marco Antonio (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This study is about the challenges of learning in the creation and implementation of new sustainable technologies. The system of biogas production in the Programme of Sustainable Swine Production (3S Programme) conducted by the Sadia food processing company in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, is used as a case example for exploring the challenges, possibilities and obstacles of learning in the use of biogas production as a way to increase the environmental sustainability of swine production. The aim is to contribute to the discussion about the possibilities of developing systems of biogas production for sustainability (BPfS). In the study I develop hypotheses concerning the central challenges and possibilities for developing systems of BPfS in three phases. First, I construct a model of the network of activities involved in the BP for sustainability in the case study. Next, I construct a) an idealised model of the historically evolved concepts of BPfS through an analysis of the development of forms of BP and b) a hypothesis of the current central contradictions within and between the activity systems involved in BP for sustainability in the case study. This hypothesis is further developed through two actual empirical analyses: an analysis of the actors senses in taking part in the system, and an analysis of the disturbance processes in the implementation and operation of the BP system in the 3S Programme. The historical analysis shows that BP for sustainability in the 3S Programme emerged as a feasible solution for the contradiction between environmental protection and concentration, intensification and specialisation in swine production. This contradiction created a threat to the supply of swine to the food processing company. In the food production activity, the contradiction was expressed as a contradiction between the desire of the company to become a sustainable company and the situation in the outsourced farms. For the swine producers the contradiction was expressed between the contradictory rules in which the market exerted pressure which pushed for continual increases in scale, specialisation and concentration to keep the production economically viable, while the environmental rules imposed a limit to this expansion. Although the observed disturbances in the biogas system seemed to be merely technical and localised within the farms, the analysis proposed that these disturbances were formed in and between the activity systems involved in the network of BPfS during the implementation. The disturbances observed could be explained by four contradictions: a) contradictions between the new, more expanded activity of sustainable swine production and the old activity, b) a contradiction between the concept of BP for carbon credits and BP for local use in the BPfS that was implemented, c) contradictions between the new UNFCCC1 methodology for applying for carbon credits and the small size of the farms, and d) between the technologies of biogas use and burning available in the market and the small size of the farms. The main finding of this study relates to the zone of proximal development (ZPD) of the BPfS in Sadia food production chain. The model is first developed as a general model of concepts of BPfS and further developed here to the specific case of the BPfS in the 3S Programme. The model is composed of two developmental dimensions: societal and functional integration. The dimension of societal integration refers to the level of integration with other activities outside the farm. At one extreme, biogas production is self-sufficient and highly independent and the products of BP are consumed within the farm, while at the other extreme BP is highly integrated in markets and networks of collaboration, and BP products are exchanged within the markets. The dimension of functional integration refers to the level of integration between products and production processes so that economies of scope can be achieved by combining several functions using the same utility. At one extreme, BP is specialised in only one product, which allows achieving economies of scale, while at the other extreme there is an integrated production in which several biogas products are produced in order to maximise the outcomes from the BP system. The analysis suggests that BP is moving towards a societal integration, towards the market and towards a functional integration in which several biogas products are combined. The model is a hypothesis to be further tested through interventions by collectively constructing the new proposed concept of BPfS. Another important contribution of this study refers to the concept of the learning challenge. Three central learning challenges for developing a sustainable system of BP in the 3S Programme were identified: 1) the development of cheaper and more practical technologies of burning and measuring the gas, as well as the reduction of costs of the process of certification, 2) the development of new ways of using biogas within farms, and 3) the creation of new local markets and networks for selling BP products. One general learning challenge is to find more varied and synergic ways of using BP products than solely for the production of carbon credits. Both the model of the ZPD of BPfS and the identified learning challenges could be used as learning tools to facilitate the development of biogas production systems. The proposed model of the ZPD could be used to analyse different types of agricultural activities that face a similar contradiction. The findings could be used in interventions to help actors to find their own expansive actions and developmental projects for change. Rather than proposing a standardised best concept of BPfS, the idea of these learning tools is to facilitate the analysis of local situations and to help actors to make their activities more sustainable.
  • Kontinen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have gained an important role in development co-operation during the last two decades. The development funding channelled through NGOs has increased and the number of NGOs engaged in development activities, both North and South, has been growing. Supporting NGOs has been seen as one way to strengthen civil society in the South and to provide potential for enhancing more effective development than the state, and to exercise participatory development and partnership in their North-South relationships. This study focuses on learning in the co-operation practices of small Finnish NGOs in Morogoro, Tanzania. Drawing on the cultural-historical activity theory and the theory of expansive learning, in this study I understand learning as a qualitative change in the actual co-operation practices. The qualitative change, for its part, emerges out of attempts to deal with the contradictions in the present activity. I use the concept of developmental contradiction in exploring the co-operation of the small Finnish NGOs with their Tanzanian counterparts. Developmental contradiction connects learning to actual practice and its historical development. By history, in this study I refer to multiple developmental trajectories, such as trajectories of individual participants, organisations, co-operation practices and the institutional system in which the NGO-development co-operation is embedded. In the empirical chapters I explore the co-operation both in the development co-operation projects and in micro-level interaction between partners taking place within the projects. I analyse the perceptions of the Finnish participants about the different developmental trajectories, the tensions, inclusions and exclusions in the evolving object of co-operation in one project, the construction of power relations in project meetings in three projects, and the collision of explicated partnership with the emerging practice of trusteeship in one project. On the basis of the empirical analyses I elaborate four developmental contradictions and learning challenges for the co-operation. The developmental contradictions include: 1) implementing a ready-made Finnish project idea vs. taking the current activities of Tanzanian NGO as a starting point; 2) gaining experiences and cultural interaction vs. access to outside funding; 3) promoting the official tools of development co-operation in training vs. use of tools and procedures taken from the prior activities of both partners in actual practice; and 4) asymmetric relations between the partners vs. rhetoric of equal partnership. Consequently, on the basis of developmental contradictions four learning challenges are suggested: a shift from legitimation of Finnish ideas to negotiation, transcending the separate objects and finding a partly joint object, developing locally shared tools for the co-operation, and identification and reflection of the power relations in the practice of co-operation. Keywords: activity theory; expansive learning; NGO development co-operation; partnership; power
  • Isei-Jaakkola, Toshiko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Hakulinen, Christian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Previous studies have suggested that hostility and anger are associated with serotonergic function, that they are relatively stable personality characteristics, and that their development is affected by early family factors. Hostile and angry individuals have also been suggested to be at risk for social problems. However, there is a limited number of studies that have examined these issues from a life course perspective, which is the aim of the present thesis. The participants for the current study were from the ongoing, nationally representative, longitudinal, population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS), which began in 1980. The present thesis had two aims: 1) to investigate how serotonin receptor 1B, family factors, and early antecedents of hostility and anger are related to the life course development and stability of hostility and anger, and 2) how hostility over the life course is related to unemployment in adulthood. The results indicate that low parental socioeconomic status, a hostile child-rearing style and aggressive behavior in childhood predicted high levels of hostility and anger in adulthood, but the association between aggressive behavior and hostility was moderated by the serotonin receptor 1B. Both hostility and anger seemed to be moderately stable characteristics over the life course. Hostility and unemployment were found to have a bidirectional relationship, but hostility was a stronger predictor of unemployment than vice versa. The current study provides new information on unemployment as an outcome of hostility and emphasizes the role of early antecedents and family factors in the development of hostility and anger over the life course. Based on these findings, the prevention of hostility and anger should be targeted at the early stages of life. This could greatly lower the costs of high levels of hostility and anger to the individual as well as to society.
  • Virkkunen, Arto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This research will be aimed at five hold office fysical teachers´, three men and two women teacher, pedagogical thinking and how the realization of physical teaching will be determined the teacher`s action and thinking and how the pedagogy task will be carried out in the connection of teaching. The central goal of the research is the examining of pedagogical action climate from the point of view of the pupil and his own experience. The pedagogical climate is seen in the research as the matter of the motivating, communal and the mutual confidence. The research represents the hermeneutic approaching way, where with the help of interpretation of the study material is tried to get to understand the study target. I shall call my work the dialogic hermeneutic study. The study material includes the interview and observation material. During the examining material have been picked up the essential of the questions. By means of the contain analysis has been raised the essential connected closely to study questions. With the method of contain analysis it had been shaped the description of every teacher. After this it had been searched from the material the centered meanings, which were connected closely to the study job and their unities. To understand the connections between meanings were based on by means of the investigator´s own intuitive experience developed meaning understanding. The research strengthened the beginning understanding right. The physical teachers did not plan their teaching to think their education, but to think the pupils` activity. In the teachers` thinking and action pupils` situation was emphasized different. The other teachers` perspective was opened more from pupils, the othes` more from action. Pupils had more state to take part together and the teachers noticed the pupils` differences. The teachers descriped their own growth as teachers as interaction skills to develop. It seems that when teachers get more age and more experience they get prerequisities to look at their work more from pupils.
  • Saalasti, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Asperger Syndrome (AS) belongs to autism spectrum disorders where both verbal and non-verbal communication difficulties are at the core of the impairment. Social communication requires a complex use of affective, linguistic-cognitive and perceptual processes. In the four studies included in the current thesis, some of the linguistic and perceptual factors that are important for face-to-face communication were studied using behavioural methods. In all four studies the results obtained from individuals with AS were compared with typically developed age, gender and IQ matched controls. First, the language skills of school-aged children were characterized in detail with standardized tests that measured different aspects of receptive and expressive language (Study I). The children with AS were found to be worse than the controls in following complex verbal instructions. Next, the visual perception of facial expressions of emotion with varying degrees of visual detail was examined (Study II). Adults with AS were found to have impaired recognition of facial expressions on the basis of very low spatial frequencies which are important for processing global information. Following that, multisensory perception was investigated by looking at audiovisual speech perception (Studies III and IV). Adults with AS were found to perceive audiovisual speech qualitatively differently from typically developed adults, although both groups were equally accurate in recognizing auditory and visual speech presented alone. Finally, the effect of attention on audiovisual speech perception was studied by registering eye gaze behaviour (Study III) and by studying the voluntary control of visual attention (Study IV). The groups did not differ in eye gaze behaviour or in the voluntary control of visual attention. The results of the study series demonstrate that many factors underpinning face-to-face social communication are atypical in AS. In contrast with previous assumptions about intact language abilities, the current results show that children with AS have difficulties in understanding complex verbal instructions. Furthermore, the study makes clear that deviations in the perception of global features in faces expressing emotions as well as in the multisensory perception of speech are likely to harm face-to-face social communication.
  • Rainio, Anna Pauliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This is an ethnographic case study of the creation and emergence of a playworld – a pedagogical approach aimed at promoting children’s development and learning in early education settings through the use of play and drama. The data was collected in a Finnish experimental mixed-age elementary school classroom in the school year 2003-2004. In the playworld students and teachers explore different social and cultural phenomena through taking on the roles of characters from a story or a piece of literature and acting inside the frames of an improvised plot. The thesis takes under scrutiny the notion of agency in education. It produces theoretically grounded empirical knowledge of the ways in which children struggle to become recognized and agentive actors in early education settings and how their agency develops in their interaction with adults. The study builds on the activity theoretical and sociocultural tradition and develops a methodological framework called video-based narrative interaction analysis for studying student agency as developing over time but manifesting through the situational material and discursive local interactions. The research questions are: 1. What are the children’s ways of enacting their agency in the playworld? 2. How do the children’s agentive actions change and develop over the spring? 3. What are the potentials and challenges of the playworld for promoting student agency? 4. How do the teachers and the children deal with the contradiction between control and agency in the playworld? The study consists of a summary part and four empirical articles which each have a particular viewpoint. Articles I and II deal with individual students’ paths to agency. In Article I the focus is on the role of resistance and questioning in enabling important spaces for agency. Article II takes a critical gender perspective and analyzes how two girls struggled towards recognition in the playworld. It also illuminates the role of imagination in developing a sense of agency. Article III examines how the open-ended and improvisational nature of the playworld interaction provided experiences and a sense of ‘shared agency’ for the students and teachers in the class. Article IV turns the focus on the teachers and analyzes how their role actions in the playworld helped the children to enact agency. It also discusses the challenges that the teachers faced in this work and asks what makes the playworld activity sustainable in the class. The summary part provides a critical literature review on the concept of agency and argues that the inherently contradictory nature of the phenomenon of agency has not been sufficiently theorized. The summary part also locates the playworld intervention in a historical frame by discussing the changing conceptions of adulthood and childhood in the West. By focusing on the changing role of play and art in both adults’ and children’s contemporary lives, the thesis opens up an important but often neglected perspective on the problem of promoting student agency in education. The results illustrate how engaging in a collectively imagined and dramatized pretend play space together with the children enabled the teachers to momentarily put aside their “knower” positions in the classroom. The fictive roles and the narrative plot helped them to create a necessary incompleteness and open-endedness in the activity that stimulated the children’s initiatives. This meant that the children too could momentarily step out of their traditional classroom positions as pupils and initiate action to further the collective play. Engaging in this kind of unconventional activity and taking up and enacting agency was, however, very challenging for the participating children and teachers. It often contradicted the need to sustain control and order in the classroom. The study concludes that play- and drama-based pedagogies offer a unique but undeveloped potential for developing educational spaces that help teachers and children deal with the often contradictory requirements of schooling.
  • Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Remediation of Reading Difficulties in Grade 1. Three Pedagogical Interventions Keywords: initial teaching, learning to read, reading difficulties, intervention, dyslexia, remediation of dyslexia, home reading, computerized training In this study three different reading interventions were tested for first-graders at risk of reading difficulties at school commencement. The intervention groups were compared together and with a control group receiving special education provided by the school. First intervention was a new approach called syllable rhythmics in which syllabic rhythm, phonological knowledge and letter-phoneme correspondence are emphasized. Syllable rhythmics is based on multi-sensory training elements aimed at finding the most functional modality for every child. The second intervention was computerized training of letter-sound correspondence with the Ekapeli learning game. The third intervention was home-based shared book reading, where every family was given a story book, and dialogic reading style reading and writing exercises were prepared for each chapter of the book. The participants were 80 first-graders in 19 classes in nine schools. The children were matched in four groups according to pre-test results: three intervention and one control. The interventions took ten weeks starting from September in grade 1. The first post-test including several measures of reading abilities was administered in December. The first delayed post-test was administered in March, the second in September in grade 2, and the third, “ALLU” test (reading test for primary school) was administered in March in grade 2. The intervention and control groups differed only slightly from each other in grade 1. However, girls progressed significantly more than boys in both word reading and reading comprehension in December and this difference remained in March. The children who had been cited as inattentive by their teachers also lagged behind the others in the post-tests in December and March. When participants were divided into two groups according to their initial letter knowledge at school entry, the weaker group (maximum 17 correctly named letters in pre-test) progressed more slowly in both word reading and reading comprehension in grade 1. Intervention group and gender had no interaction effect in grade 1. Instead, intervention group and attentiveness had an interaction effect on most test measures the inattentive students in the syllable rhythmic group doing worst and attentive students in the control group doing best in grade 1. The smallest difference between results of attentive and inattentive students was in the Ekapeli group. In grade 2 still only minor differences were found between the intervention groups and control group. The only significant difference was in non-word reading, with the syllable rhythmics group outperforming the other groups in the fall. The difference between girls’ and boys’ performances in both technical reading and text comprehension disappeared in grade 2. The difference between the inattentive and attentive students cold no longer be found in technical reading, and the difference became smaller in text comprehension as well. The difference between two groups divided according to their initial letter knowledge disappeared in technical reading but remained significant in text comprehension measures in the ALLU test in the spring of grade 2. In all, the children in the study did better in the ALLU test than expected according to ALLU test norms. Being the weakest readers in their classes in the pre-test, 52.3 % reached the normal reading ability level. In the norm group 72.3 % of all students attained normal reading ability. The results of this study indicate that different types of remediation programs can be effective, and that special education has been apparently useful. The results suggest careful consideration of first-graders’ initial reading abilities (especially letter knowledge) and possible failure of attention; remediation should be individually targeted while flexibly using different methods.
  • Panula, Anne-Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The purpose of this follow-up study was to explore the occurrence and persistence of reading difficulties and their relation to school achievement as well as the reception of part time special education. The progress of literacy and the changes in school achievement among the students who had received part time special education were also examined in this study. The target group was one age cohort in a small community in southern Finland. A total of 461 students participated the study (boys 49.9% and girls 50.1%). The analysis of the results was mainly done using the data from 3rd to 9th grades of the entire cohort (N=287; boys 53% and girls 47%). The external loss of data was 18.5%. The research questions were also analysed with follow-up data collected after different lengths of time. The longest period started from preschool and continued to the end of the 9th grade (N=137; the external loss of participants over the nine years was 25.5%). Cross data was created for every measuring point (preschool, 3rd, 6th and 9th grades). Eight different reading paths were created for primary school. The preschool screening of reading abilities was done using the individual phonological test Diagnostic Tests I (Diagnostiset testit I; Poskiparta, Niemi and Lepola 1994). In primary school reading abilities were charted using the Primary School Reading Test (Ala-asteen Lukutesti; Lindeman 1998). Screening reading abilities in the secondary school was done with the Niilo Mäki Institute s Screening Test for Adolescents and Adults (Lukivaikeuksien seulontamenetelmä nuorille ja aikuisille; Holopainen, Kairaluoma, Nevala, Ahonen and Aro 2004). School reports for the 6th and 9th grades were used as indicators of school achievement. Comprehensive, dynamic and developmental aspects of reading skills formed the conceptual framework of the study. The classic Simple view of reading model (SVR-malli; Gough and Tunmer 1986; Hoover and Gough 1990) was used as a starting point for the study. The SVR model was developed into a comprehensive literacy model when it was formed using the Convergent Skills Model of Reading Development (Vellutino, Tunmer, Jaccard and Chen 2007) and Component Model of Reading (Aaron, Joshi, Gooden and Bentum 2008) models. The Finnish point of view, the orthographic characteristics of the Finnish language (high transparency of the language, or the regularity of mapping between orthography and phonology) as well as the relations between reading development, reading difficulties, Finnish culture and the education system were emphasized in the resulting reading model. The results suggest that tests in preschool can predict reading comprehension difficulties in primary school fairly well. The most used reading path among the students in primary school was the strong reading path, and the second was the so called weak reading path. Reading difficulties turned out to be quite stable through out primary education. When analysing gender differences, it was discovered that boys have more reading difficulties and that these difficulties are more stable. The average grades in theoretical subjects were statistically highly significantly weaker for students with reading difficulties compared to other students in all examinations. The reading comprehension test in 3rd grade predicted quite well (72% accuracy) whether a student would be in the group with the lowest grades at the end of the 9th grade (an average of theoretical subjects of 7.00 or less). For the boys, weak reading skills were especially related to poor school achievement. The study also brought out the joint effect of word recognition and reading comprehension with 6th and 9th grade school achievement. A positive relation between the amount of part time special education received during primary school and the changes in school achievement between 6th and 9th grade was shown in the study. In addition to individual variations, the school and individual classrooms affected the general variation in reading ability and school achievement. In the study this was demonstrated using multilevel modeling. The class level proved to be a significant factor for 3rd and 6th grade word recognition skills. Keywords: Literacy, follow-up study, reading difficulties, dyslexia, reading comprehension, school achievement, part time special education
  • Patrikainen, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The purpose of this research was to describe and understand class teacher s pedagogical thinking and action in mathematics education. At first we investigated how teachers taught mathematics as well as their reasons for their pedagogical decisions. Based on these empirical findings, the second essential aim was to consider the quality of mathematics education relative to socio-constructivistic curriculum thinking and to model it with theoretical conceptions. The conceptualizing of mathematics education was based on the didactical relation included in the didactical triangle. The research is qualitative by nature and can be characterized as a qualitative collective multiple-case study. The participants, three class teachers, were followed up during one mathematical teaching-studying-learning process. The research material was gathered by two different methods: first the teachers pedagogical action was observed using video recordings, and then the pedagogical thinking connected to this action was depicted with the help of stimulated recall interview. The video data was analysed using a theory based set of concepts which described the mathematics teaching-studying-learning process. The purpose of the theory-bounded interview data analysis was to deepen the tentative understanding of mathematics education gained through the video analysis. The results describe the teachers pedagogical thinking and action in the context of mathematics education. All three teachers shared a constructivistic conception of mathematics teaching and learning, but each emphasized different viewpoints. These personal conceptions of teaching were defined as humanistic-constructive, cognitive-constructive and contextual-constructive. Finally, a model of mathematics education consisting of four factors was constructed. This model also included the didactical relation which was defined as the teacher s relation to the student, the content and the life-world. The research results and methodological inventions can be used in the context of school teaching, teacher education and research on teaching. Teachers and teacher students can utilize the results when reflecting on their own pedagogical thinking and action. In addition the research provides topical information concerning Finnish mathematics education as well as new perspectives for national and international research, development and curriculum work.
  • Hongisto, Lasse (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The premise of this doctoral dissertation is practical. It aims to develop the teaching of the history of science. There is, on the whole, plenty of research literature and teaching material pertaining to the history of science available for the upper secondary school level. This material has not, however, been made with the needs of the teaching of history in mind; instead it is geared towards the teaching of science. Research within the framework of the teaching of the history of science has been conducted primarily by researchers interested in the teaching of science, not history. These people claim that ever more knowledge about the general nature of science is needed in modern education. The English term for the general nature of science is the Nature of Science (NOS). This concept is closely linked to projects aiming to reform the teaching of science that by introducing the philosophy of science, the history of science and the sociology of science in to the teaching of science. Pedagogical experiments conducted within the framework of the teaching of the history of science represent two different branches of pedagogical research: Science, Technology and Society (STS) and the History and Philosophy of Science (HPS). These branches examine the history of science from slightly different viewpoints: HPS emphasises the bond between the history of science and research into changes in scientifical theories, and it is closely linked to the philosophy of science. STS, on the other hand, stresses the societal nature of science and is linked to the sociology of science. One aim of this doctoral dissertation is to examine how well the pedagogical experiments conducted within these two branches of research are transferable to the teaching of history. The history of science has been employed in pedagogical experiments within the HPS and STS traditions. A third teaching method frequently used is narratives about the history of science. However, how can we avoid mythical interpretations of the history of science and opt for pedagogically acceptable themes and narratives? This requires that those devising pedagogical experiments or writing teaching materials for the teaching of science more carefully examined the big picture of nature. As a model of our research we use Design Based Research. In this type of research, the problems posed by the study of teaching are approached from a pragmatic standpoint, in an effort to come up with concrete answers applicable to teaching. One such research problem is the theme of this doctoral dissertation: the opportunities for the teaching of the history of science at Finnish upper secondary school. The teaching of the history of science is a pedagogically important topic, and it is included in syllabuses and course books. Consequently, its practical applications are worth studying.
  • Raatikainen, Eija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The aim of this study is to explore trust at school and its meaning for 9th grade students. The intent is to investigate students views about trust and mistrust in school relationships. Three research questions are posed: 1) what meanings do students give to their experiences of trust and mistrust at school and how do they evaluate connection of these experiences to their well-being and enjoyment in the classroom? 2) what and how important, is the teacher s role according to the students writings, and 3) what might the different pedagogical and administrative structures of schools reveal about trust and mistrust in a particular school culture? The data consists of 134 writings of 9th grade students (secondary school) from three schools in one of the biggest cities in Finland. The schools differ from others in terms of their pedagogical or structural backgrounds. The study is restricted to the micro-level of, disposition of Educational Sociology, focusing on trust in schools relationships. The theoretical framework of the study is trust, as a part of social capital; however trust is also approached from the sociological, the psychological and philosophical perspective. The methodological approach is narrative research concerning school practice . Analysis of narrative consist mostly content analysis, but also some elements of holistic-content reading, thematic reading and categorical content. The analysis found three main themes: 1) individual stories of trust, 2) the teachers role in making trust possible in the classroom, and 3) school as a community of trust. According to the study trust at school (1) is a complex phenomenon consisting of people s ability to work together and to recognize the demands that different situations present. Trust at school is often taken for granted. In the students experiences trust is strongly connected to friendship, and the teacher s ability to connect with students. Students experiences of mistrust stem from bulling, school violence, lack of respect as well as teachers lacking basic professional behavior. School relationships are important for some students as source of enjoyment, but some feel that it is difficult to evaluate the connection between trust and enjoyment. The study found that students trust of teachers (2) is linked to the teacher s professional role as a teacher, a caring human being open to dialogue. In other words, the students describe teachers abilities to create a sense of trust in terms of three expectations: the teacher was better, the same or worse than expected. Better than expected, means the teacher engender a high degree of trust and has excellent communication skills. Same as expected means the teacher comes across as familiar and secure, while lower than expected means the teacher creates no trust and has poor communication skills. Finally, it was shown that trust at school (3) should not only exist between some individuals, but between (all) members of the school community. In other words, according to the study there is some evidence that trust is strongly committed to school culture. Further, trust seems to depend on (school-) cultural background, values, beliefs, expectations, norms as well as staff behaviour. The basic elements of an optimum level of trust at school are favourable school structure and pedagogical background; however, good relationships between teachers and students as well as high professional skills are also needed. Trust at school is built by good communication, working together and getting to know each other.
  • Talvenmäki, Pirkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Therman, Sebastian (National Institute for Health and Welfare, 2014)
    Psychotic diseases are a great burden to both the affected individuals and society at large. Though psychoses are severe mental disorders, similar phenomena appear outside of the diagnosable disorders as psychotic or psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). The PLEs are on a continuum of liability and symptom expression in the population, from the healthy to the pathological, and the diagnosed disorders constitute the extreme of the distribution, rather than a clearly delineated class. Studying the psychosis continuum offers a way of understanding the underlying causes shared across the entire range. The frequent presence of PLEs before the first psychotic episode also helps in identifying a trajectory towards disease. However, the specific PLEs associated with increased psychosis risk or incipient disease require further elucidation. Though experiences similar to the positive symptoms of psychosis primarily hallucinations and delusions have been nominated as the most predictive of psychosis, these are broad categories that may contain subdivisions of varying levels of shared aetiology with psychotic disease, and varying predictive value. In this thesis, the latent dimensions of self-reported PLEs were explored in one sample of 6,611 adolescents and one sample of 31,822 adults from the general population (Studies I and II), as well as in one sample of 71 and one sample of 731 adolescents in psychiatric care (Studies III and IV). Three different PLE questionnaires were employed in the separate studies: the PROD-screen, the 92-item version of the Prodromal Questionnaire, and the positive items of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. The clinical significance of the identified dimensions was studied via their associations with general mental health, cognitive performance, and their predictive value with respect to psychiatric hospitalization in general or for psychosis specifically. Overall, the results showed a general PLE structure of positive, negative, and disorganized dimensions similar to that of symptoms in non-affective psychotic disorders. The positive dimension further subdivided into dimensions of persecutory ideation, other delusions, and hallucinations and, in one study, depersonalization experiences. These dimensions were correlated with general psychiatric health, as assessed by lifetime depression and anxiety. In contrast, questionnaire items intended to address hypomanic, grandiose, or magical thinking appeared unrelated to psychiatric health. In a smaller sample of adolescents in psychiatric care, the positive, disorganized, and negative dimensions were not associated with cognitive performance, contrary to expectation. However, in a larger sample, especially functional disorganization, that is, impaired role functioning, was associated with later psychiatric hospitalization in general, while the depersonalization experiences dimension was the best predictor of hospitalization with a diagnosis of psychosis. The identified latent dimensions of psychotic-like experiences demonstrate the structural validity of the PLE questionnaires, while the concurrent clinical correlates and predictive value establish criterion validity. In particular, the finding of the empirically derived depersonalization dimension being specifically predictive of psychosis merits attempts at replication. Modern psychometric methods used in the present thesis improve the utility of PLE related rating scales. In future studies a more fine-grained approach to assessing PLEs is recommended, in order to improve the accuracy of psychosis prediction and our understanding of the psychosis continuum.