Browsing by Subject "käsityötiede"

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  • Räisänen, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This study is based on the multidiciplinary approach of using natural colorants as textile dyes. The author was interested in both the historical and traditional aspects of natural dyeing as well as the modern industrial applications of the pure natural compounds. In the study, the anthraquinone compounds were isolated as aglycones from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Dermocybe sanguinea. The endogenous beta-glucosidase of the fungus was used to catalyse the hydrolysis of the O-glycosyl linkage in emodin- and dermocybin-1-beta-D-glucopyranosides. The method, in which 10.45 kg of fresh fungi was starting material, yielded two fractions: 56.0 g of Fraction 1 (94% of the total amount of pigment,) consisting almost exclusively of the main pigments emodin and dermocybin, and 3.3 g of Fraction 2 (6%) consisting mainly of the anthraquinone carboxylic acids. The anthraquinone compounds in Fractions 1 and 2 were separated by one- and two-dimensional thin-layer-chromatography (TLC) using silica plates. 1D TLC showed that neither an acidic nor a basic solvent system alone separated completely all the anthraquinones isolated from D. sanguinea, in spite of the variation of the rations of the solvent components in the systems. Thus, a new 2D TLC technique was developed, applying n-pentanol-pyridine-methanol (6:4:3, v/v/v) and toluene-ethyl acetate-ethanol-formic acid (10:8:1:2, v/v/v/v) as eluents. Fifteen different anthraquinone derivatives were completely separated from one another. Emodin, physcion, endocrocin, dermolutein, dermorubin, 5-chlorodermorubin, emodin-1-beta-D-glucopyranoside, dermocybin-1-beta-D-glucopyranoside and dermocybin, and five new compounds, not earlier identified in D. sanguinea, 7-chloroemodin, 5,7-dichloroemodin, 5,7-dichloroendocrocin, 4-hydroxyaustrocorticone and austrocorticone, were separated and identified on the basis of their Rf-values, UV/Vis spectra and mass spectra. One substance remained unidentified, because of its very low concentration. The anthraquinones in Fractions 1 and 2 were preparatively separeted by liquid-liquid partition, with isopropylmethyl ketone and aqueous phosphate buffer as the solvent system. Advantage was taken of the principle of stepwise pH-gradient elution. The multiple liquid-liquid partition (MLLP) offered an excellent method for the preparative separation of compounds, which contain acidic groups such as the phenolic OH and COOH groups. Due to their strong aggregation properties, these compounds are, without derivatization, very difficult to separate on a preparative scale by chromatographic methods. By the MLLP method remarkable separations were achieved for the components in each mixture. Emodin and dermocybin were both obtained from Fraction 1 in a purity of at least 99%. Pure emodin and dermocybin were applied as mordant dyes to wool and polyamide and as disperse dyes to polyester and polyamide, using the high temperature (HT) technique. A mixture of dermorubin and 5-chlorodermorubin was applied as an acid dye to wool. In these experiments, synthetic dyes were used as references. Experiments were also performed using water extract of the air-dried fungi as dye liquor for wool and silk. The main colouring compounds in the crude water extract were emodin and dermocybin, which indicated that the O-glycosyl linkages in emodin- and dermocybin-1-beta-D-glucopyranosides were broken by the beta-glucosidase enzyme. Apparently, the hydrolysis occurred during the drying of the fungi and during the soaking of the dried fruit bodies overnight when preparing the dyebath. The colour of each dyed material was investigated in terms of the CIELAB L*, a* and b* values, and the colour fastness to light, washing and rubbing was tested according to the ISO standards. In the mordant dyeing experiments, emodin dyed wool and polyamide yellow and red, depending on the pH of the dyebath. Dermocybin gave purple and violet colours. The colour fastness of the mordant-dyed fabrics varied from good to moderate. The fastness properties of the natural anthraquinone carboxylic acids on wool were good, indicating the strength of the ionic bonds between the COO- groups of the dyes and the NH3+ groups of the fibres. In the disperse dyeing experiments, emodin dyed polyester bright yellow and dermocybin bright reddish-orange, and the fabrics showed excellent colour fastness. In contrast, emodin and dermocybin successfully dyed polyamide brownish-orange and wine-red, respectively, but with only moderate fastness. In industrial dyeing processes, natural anthraquinone aglycone mixtures dyed wool and silk well even at low concentrations of mordants, i.e. with 10% of the weight of the fibre (owf) of KAl(SO4)2 and 1 or 0.5% owf of other mordants. This study showed that purified natural anthraquinone compounds can produce bright hues with good colour-fastness properties in different textile materials. Natural anthraquinones have a significant potential for new dyeing techniques and will provide useful alternatives to synthetic dyes.
  • Lahti, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The aim of the study was to analyze and facilitate collaborative design in a virtual learning environment (VLE). Discussions of virtual design in design education have typically focused on technological or communication issues, not on pedagogical issues. Yet in order to facilitate collaborative design, it is also necessary to address the pedagogical issues related to the virtual design process. In this study, the progressive inquiry model of collaborative designing was used to give a structural level of facilitation to students working in the VLE. According to this model, all aspects of inquiry, such as creating the design context, constructing a design idea, evaluating the idea, and searching for new information, can be shared in a design community. The study consists of three design projects: 1) designing clothes for premature babies, 2) designing conference bags for an international conference, and 3) designing tactile books for visually impaired children. These design projects constituted a continuum of design experiments, each of which highlighted certain perspectives on collaborative designing. The design experiments were organized so that the participants worked in design teams, both face-to-face and virtually. The first design experiment focused on peer collaboration among textile teacher students in the VLE. The second design experiment took into consideration end-users needs by using a participatory design approach. The third design experiment intensified computer-supported collaboration between students and domain experts. The virtual learning environments, in these design experiments, were designed to support knowledge-building pedagogy and progressive inquiry learning. These environments enabled a detailed recording of all computer-mediated interactions and data related to virtual designing. The data analysis was based on qualitative content analysis of design statements in the VLE. This study indicated four crucial issues concerning collaborative design in the VLE in craft and design education. Firstly, using the collaborative design process in craft and design education gives rise to special challenges of building learning communities, creating appropriate design tasks for them, and providing tools for collaborative activities. Secondly, the progressive inquiry model of collaborative designing can be used as a scaffold support for design thinking and for reflection on the design process. Thirdly, participation and distributed expertise can be facilitated by considering the key stakeholders who are related to the design task or design context, and getting them to participate in virtual designing. Fourthly, in the collaborative design process, it is important that team members create and improve visual and technical ideas together, not just agree or disagree about proposed ideas. Therefore, viewing the VLE as a medium for collaborative construction of the design objects appears crucial in order to understand and facilitate the complex processes in collaborative designing.
  • Fernström, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    THE TRADITION AND INNOVATION OF DAMASK The work of textile artist Dora Jung with a focus on her damask textiles Abstract The focus of the study is the artisanal and industrial activity of textile artist Dora Jung, 1906 1980, and the developmental cycle of her damask textiles. Dora Jung has been described by her contemporaries as the reformer of damask and her weaving as the renaissance of the damask art. Her method of damask weaving has been called the Dora Jung technique. The study discusses the gradual migration of the tradition of damask weaving from southern Europe to the Nordic countries and presents the influences on damask in Finland. In the work of Dora Jung I focus on the factors that have contributed to the changes in and the significance of hand weaving in the national context while contrasting this against the continuum of European damask art. Dora Jung studied at the textile department of the Helsinki Central School of Art (Taideteollisuuskeskuskoulu) in the years 1929 1932. Prior to her studies of textile art, she trained at the weaving school of the association Finnish Friends of Handicraft. In 1932, the year of her graduation, she set up her own weaving atelier under the name Dora Jung Textil. The weaving shop produced interior textiles, church textiles and, from the 1950s onwards, unique works of textile art for public spaces and some other art textiles. Jung had already been designing industrially fabricated damask textiles for Oy Tampella Ab in the 1930s, but she made a formal design contract with Tampella as late as the 1950s. The research strategy is the case study. The research focuses on Dora Jung within the historical context of European damask. Within the field of craft science, the research focuses on the type of handicraft where the designer and the fabricators are different actors. The source material of the research includes original documented material from the Dora Jung weaving atelier: weaving cards, sample folders, sketches, scrap books, concrete textile works as well as the memories of the informants. In addition, the inheritance of the sister of Dora Jung, Kristiina Jung, revealed new material in 2007, which shed more light on Jung´s work. The study also includes previously unpublished photographic material. The research opens a multifaceted picture of the damask and works of Dora Jung as a textile artist. Dora Jung examined the art of damask weaving and developed her own methods through developing the working methods, tools and the surface structure of the damask. Jung s artistic innovation focused especially on art textiles, but she used a new kind of damask also in some of her interior textiles. The study of industrial textiles reveals that domestic artists were used as designers and arbiters of taste in the design of Finnish damask already in the 19th century. Dora Jung transferred part of the damask designs of her atelier in an almost unaltered form to industrial production. Keywords: damask, craft, design, textile art, Dora Jung, case study
  • Hyrsky, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The aim of my study on goldsmithing and entrepreneurship has two goals: to de-scribe the profession of goldsmiths and small business entrepreneurship as well as analyzing the meanings of these experiences in narrative ways. Studying the lives and work of carftartists is studying the dynamics between business and professional development. The subject is socially important because there are lot of educated people in art and craft industry, lack of employers and only few started own business. Methodologically my thesis tries to develop narrative methodology. I started my thesis by describing the profession s historical development, and formed a historical view about what has happened and both how and what kind of connection is made between business and craft in the historical context. Historical mapping is also a narrative about goldsmithing and a context for contemporary goldsmiths. The research question is: How is entrepreneurship constructed in the profession of goldsmiths by telling the story? In two separate interviews conducted at different times, I interviewed five goldsmith-entrepreneurs who have extensive experience in goldsmithing and entrepreneurship. The theses explored a concept of the goldsmith s entrepreneurship in which they prefer their experience, because the meanings of their experiences emerge from the interviews, firstly in what they tell and, secondly, how they make spoken issues meaningful (Bruner 1987; Bruner 1990; Mishler 1999; Riessman 2008). I analyze collected data using different methodologies, especially, in this study where I developed the narrative thick description analysis. The goldsmith s education unites the informants, but how they put their artistic and entrepreneurial skills into practice differ. Goldsmiths direct their interest in craft, art and design and understand the entrepreneur aspect as a part of the work and personal good life (Hadot 1995). Craft skills are embedded in innovative, risk-taking, and entrepreneurial behavior in personal ways. The main point is that although the informants have different life stories, and different orientation to entrepreneurship, they constructed their relations to art, craft and design, meaningfully similar as a part of their personal ways of live. Thus they have solved contradictions between artistic passion and entrepreneurial praxis using their ways of live as survival strategy and adhesive cement to glue tensions together. My thesis casts some light on entrepreneurship in the arts and craft industry and suggests some solutions or ways of solving some problems, especially the contradiction between an unwillingness to participate in entrepreneurship and the lack of jobs. Keywords: goldsmiths, arts and crafts, design, entrepreneurship, narrative inquiry
  • Soini-Salomaa, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The field of Arts and Crafts is undergoing a transformation that parallels the change in the so-called creative economy. The role of culture professionals is being reshaped from the perspectives of future work, production, and well-being. Arts and Crafts professionals, designers, and craftsmen are largely self-employed as entrepreneurs, yet simultaneously they handle many tasks such as designing, manufacturing, marketing, teaching, and jobs in other fields. Their professional identities are built on multi-skilled competence and specialized expertise in various combinations. This study focuses on future professional images in the field of craft and design. Alter-native images are approached from four viewpoints: the operational environment, key professional competencies, the operational model, and professional identity. The operational environment refers to working environments and conditions. Key professional competencies include the skills and knowledge needed for the work. The operational model refers to practical working habits (activities), and professional identity is defined as consist-ing of working attitudes and personal characteristics. First, the interdisciplinary research phenomenon and related core concepts are described along with previous research in the field. Key informant interviews, future work-shops, future storytelling, and the Delphi Expert Panel are used as research methods. The object of the data collecting has been to determine future orientations in the field of Arts and Crafts from different perspectives. The research combines the results of changes in direction and the impact on future professional images. Alternative images of professional futures based on the research data and the results are also presented. The research results indicated that the Arts and Crafts sector is undergoing a transformation, which, driven by strong sustainable development objectives, is changing operational models and professional identities. The role of vocational training is important in coaching future experts. Even more important is the transformation from product-oriented thinking to process-oriented and user-centered thinking. Stronger future orientation and systematic future education are needed in vocational training. New opportunities for design and arts and crafts can be found in new interfaces with other sectors, such as well-being services. The empowerment influence of making things by hand as well as professional choice as part of the well-being and experience service is emerging as a significant force. The strong rise of maker culture and the new developing 3D-technology will revolutionize design and manufacturing practices on the local as well as the global level in the near future. Key words: arts and crafts, design, craft entrepreneurship, creative industries, future stud-ies, images of the future 
  • Oksanen-Lyytikäinen, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The idea of this research was to articulate the meanings of costume and costume design through three contemporary operas Helsinkiin 2005, Le Saxophone 2011 ja Kohtaus kadulla 2013 process descriptions. The aim of this study was to research the meaning of costume and costume design in different opera contexts from the point of view of the costume design-er, but also from the viewpoint of the composer, stage director, performers and the audience. These meanings are considered in the entirety of the above-mentioned operas. Besides will be asked, how do production, performing context and the quality of the collaboration and interaction influence to the artistic pro-cesses from the viewpoint of costume design. As the basis of the multiple case study there was fenomenographic and semi-otic approach to the opera phenomena and producing and interpreting the mean-ings of the costume. The meanings of the costume were to be introduced by adapting methods of craft science, practice-led and artistic research. As main research material was used artists descriptions of their processes, diaries, notes and visual documents like sketches and photographs of the productions. Also material collected by interviewing and inquiry methods was used. As the research result I pronounce the context-based meaning of the costume. The role and meaning of the costume changes according to which phase of the process and from whose viewpoint it is considered. The meaning of the costume is different to different artists or producers and it changes during the processes. To the director costuming can give, besides visual stage picture, tools to create action with, and to the performer it for example will function as a help to create the character and as a protection during performances. To the audience costume tells of the backgrounds or the nature of the characters or something from the stories behind the artwork. When compared, the sketches produced during the artistic processes and the photographs taken from the stages, it was clearly to be seen that the costume sketches had their impact to the stage picture. Through the sketches of the com-poser it was to be noticed that the creative processes in different arts to some extent remind each other. The documentation and analyzing documents of the artistic processes opens up a great chance to create a picture of what happens during art making.
  • Kettula, Suvi-Päivikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    DEVELOPING A TEXTILE ONTOLOGY FOR THE SEMANTIC WEB AND CONNECTING IT TO MUSEUM CATALOGING DATA The goal of the Semantic Web is to share concept-based information in a versatile way on the Internet. This is achievable using formal data structures called ontologies. The goal of this re-search is to increase the usability of museum cataloging data in information retrieval. The work is interdisciplinary, involving craft science, terminology science, computer science, and museology. In the first part of the dissertation an ontology of concepts of textiles, garments, and accessories is developed for museum cataloging work. The ontology work was done with the help of thesauri, vocabularies, research reports, and standards. The basis of the ontology development was the Museoalan asiasanasto MASA, a thesaurus for museum cataloging work which has been enriched by other vocabularies. Concepts and terms concerning the research object, as well as the material names of textiles, costumes, and accessories, were focused on. The research method was terminological concept analysis complemented by an ontological view of the Semantic Web. The concept structure was based on the hierarchical generic relation. Attention was also paid to other relations between terms and concepts, and between concepts themselves. Altogether 977 concept classes were created. Issues including how to choose and name concepts for the ontology hierarchy and how deep and broad the hierarchy could be are discussed from the viewpoint of the ontology developer and museum cataloger. The second part of the dissertation analyzes why some of the cataloged terms did not match with the developed textile ontology. This problem is significant because it prevents automatic ontological content integration of the cataloged data on the Semantic Web. The research datasets, i.e. the cataloged museum data on textile collections, came from three museums: Espoo City Museum, Lahti City Museum and The National Museum of Finland. The data included 1803 textile, costume, and accessory objects. Unmatched object and textile material names were analyzed. In the case of the object names six categories (475 cases), and of the material names eight categories (423 cases), were found where automatic annotation was not possible. The most common explanation was that the cataloged field was filled with a long sentence comprised of many terms. Sometimes in the compound term, the object name and material, or the name and the way of usage, were combined. As well, numeric values in the material name cataloging field prevented annotation and so did the absence of a corresponding concept in the ontology. Ready-made drop-down lists of materials used in one cataloging system facilitated the annotation. In the case of naming objects and materials, one should use terms in basic form without attributes. The developed textile ontology has been applied in two cultural portals, MuseumFinland and Culturesampo, where one can search for and browse information based on cataloged data using integrated ontologies in an interoperable way. The textile ontology is also part of the national FinnONTO ontology infrastructure. Keywords: annotation, concept, concept analysis, cataloging, museum collection, ontology, Semantic Web, textile collection, textile material
  • Kangas, Kaiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Designing, from its very premise, aims to create something new. Therefore, it can be seen as a form of object-oriented process of knowledge-creation, which, in turn, is considered a fundamental future competence. In order to productively participate in the future society, students need experience of creative knowledge work practices from an early stage of their education. Since the objects and effects of design are daily apparent all around us, engaging in and comprehending design processes provides a means of developing a deep understanding of the less tangible issues affecting us humans and the world we inhabit. However, design learning and knowledge-creation have not, especially at lower levels of education, attracted much research interest. The general aim of the present study is to examine how knowledge-creation exemplified by collaborative designing could be promoted at the elementary level of education. This objective is two-fold; on one hand, the present study investigates the nature of students' collaborative design learning processes and, on the other hand, the facilitation of these processes. Further, the study explores the role of social, material, and embodied dimensions of designing in the learning processes as well as in their facilitation. The study represents design-based research, where the pedagogical approach Learning by Collaborative Design (LCD) was, for the first time, applied at the elementary level of education. In order to examine and further advance the approach, a longitudinal project, the Artifact Project, was organized in an elementary school in Helsinki, Finland. Video data (approximately 16 h) from the project's lamp designing phase constitute the main data source of the present study. The leadership of this phase was provided by a professional designer, and the data consists of interaction between him and the students, as well as of the student teams' peer collaboration. In addition, selected views from the Artifact Project's Knowledge Forum database were analyzed. The data was approached through iterative cycles of qualitative content analyses. The findings indicate that elementary students are able to engage in and learn creative knowledge-creation and design processes, and that these processes can be structured and promoted using the pedagogical LCD approach. Three foci of participants' activity were identified in the study, indicating that in order to engage in genuine design inquiry, students need support in understanding the rationale directing the design practice, in actually engaging in these practices, and in the reflection and sharing of their emerging design knowledge. From the findings, four pedagogical implications were drawn. First, creative knowledge-creation and design processes evolve within long, preferably undefined periods of time. Second, design is inherently interdisciplinary, and students' emerging design knowledge also calls for knowledge of science and the humanities. Third, design competence develops through several connected levels social, material, and embodied of thinking, interacting, and meaning making. Fourth, collective and participatory learning facilitates creative designing and knowledge-creation. The implications drawn are linked with the emerging maker culture, which may provide new prospects for implementing design learning as well as underlining its significance in general education.