Browsing by Subject "käyttäytymistiede"

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  • Karikoski, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The aim of this study was to describe school leadership on a practical level. By observing the daily behaviour of a principal minute by minute, the study tried to answer the following questions: how did the principals use their time, did they have time to develop their school after participating in the daily life of the school, and how did the previously studied challenges of modern leadership show in their practical work? Five principals in different areas of Helsinki were observed – two women and three men. The principals were chosen at random from three educational conferences. The main hypothesis of this research was that the work of the principal consists of solving daily problems and routines concerning the pupils, teachers and other interest groups and writing all kinds of bureaucratic reports. This means that the school and its principal do not have enough resources to give to a visionary development of teaching and learning – in other words pedagogical leading – even though every principal has the best knowledge about his or her own school’s status quo and the needs for development revealed by this status quo. The research material was gathered by applying the Peer-Assisted Leadership method. The researcher shadowed each principal for four days for three hours at a time. After each shadowing period, any unclear situations were clarified with a short interview. After all the shadowing periods, the principals participated in a semi-structured interview that covered the themes emerging from the shadowing material. In addition to this, the principals evaluated their own leading with a self-assessment questionnaire. The results gathered from the shadowing material showed that the actions of the principals were focused on bureaucratic work. The principals spent most of their time in the office (more than 50%). In the office they were sitting mainly by the computer. They also spent a significant mount of time in the office meeting teachers and occasional visitors. The time spent building networks was relatively short, although the principals considered it as an important domain of leadership according to their interviews. After the classification of the shadowing material, the activities of the principals were divided according to certain factors affecting them. The underlying factors were quality management, daily life management, strategic thinking and emotional intelligence. Through these factors the research showed that coping with the daily life of the school took about 40% of the principals’ time. Activities connected with emotional intelligence could be observed over 30% and activities which required strategic thinking were observed over 20% of the time. The activities which according to the criteria of the research consisted of quality management took only 8% of the principals’ time. This result was congruent with previous studies showing that the work of school leaders is focused on something other than developing the quality of teaching and learning. Keywords: distributed leadership, building community, network building, interaction, emotional intelligence, strategy, quality management
  • Castrén, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Disordered gambling is a multifaceted phenomenon, and consequently many factors have a role in its development and maintenance. Adverse consequences of disordered gambling can be mental, social and legal. Only a few epidemiological studies of disordered gambling have previously been conducted in Finland, and none of these studies have been published internationally. Gambling research in Finland has increased during the past years, especially the investigation of treatment options for disordered gambling. In this thesis, disordered gambling is approached from two angles: the epidemiological angle provides an overall picture of the current situation in Finland, and the treatment angle studies the phenomenon from an individual standpoint. In the epidemiological studies of this thesis, the prevalence, socio-demographic characteristics, comorbid substance use, perceived health and well-being and the type of gambling and its relations to the severity levels of gambling were measured. The data were derived from two samples, The Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population, Spring 2010, postal survey (N = 2826) and The Finnish Gambling 2011 (N = 3451), telephone interview. These studies used South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and Problem Gambling Severity Index as a measure of gambling severity. In the epidemiological studies the prevalence of disordered gambling was found to be about 3% (Finnish Gambling 2011). Disordered gambling was more common among males and the younger age group. Disordered gambling was generally associated with socio-economic disadvantages like being divorced, unemployed or having a low level of education. Comorbid alcohol use and nicotine dependency as well as low self-perceived mental health status were associated with disordered gambling. Lotto (Finnish lottery) was the most popular type of game gambled, but slot machine and internet gambling were found to be associated with disordered gambling. The two treatment studies of this thesis describe the socio-demographic characteristics (N = 471), the severity of disordered gambling, gambling urge, gambling-related erroneous thoughts and the level of control of gambling among the treatment-seeking gamblers. In the treatment studies, comorbid alcohol use and depression were also studied. Moreover, changes in the severity of gambling, gambling urge, gambling-related erroneous thoughts and control of gambling, as well as alcohol use and the level of depression at baseline, post-treatment and 6- and 12-month follow- up were studied. The data were derived from the Peli Poikki program which is an internet-based 8-week cognitive behavioural therapy for gamblers. This study used NORC DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems as a measure of gambling severity. Results revealed that 78.8% of the treatment-seeking participants were disordered gamblers. 224 participants completed the treatment and after 8 weeks of treatment a significant decline was seen in gambling-related problems and gambling urge, and an improvement in control of gambling. The mood of participants improved and alcohol use decreased during the treatment period, and participants reported improvements in their social situations after the treatment. In conclusion, the prevalence of disordered gambling has been more or less unchanged during the past years in Finland. A specific socio-demographic group of individuals seems to be at higher risk of having and developing disordered gambling, especially with the abundant gambling opportunities in Finland. The results of the Peli Poikki program encourages implementing more evidence-based treatment options for disordered gambling in Finland.
  • Lehtolainen, Raili (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Through this study I aim to portray connections between home and school through the patterns of thought and action shared in everyday life in a certain community. My observations are primarily based upon interviews, writings and artwork by people from home (N=32) and school (N=13) contexts. Through the stories told, I depict the characters and characteristic features of the home-school interaction by generations. According to the material, in the school days of the grandparents the focus was on discipline and order. For the parents, the focus had shifted towards knowledge, while for the pupils today, the focus lies on evaluation, through which the upbringing of the child is steered towards favourable outcomes. Teachers and those people at home hold partially different understandings of home-school interaction, both of its manifested forms and potentials. The forms of contact in use today are largely seen as one-sided. Yearning for openness and regularity is shared by both sides, yet understood differently. Common causes for failure are said to lie in plain human difficulties in communication and social interaction, but deeply rooted traditions regarding forms of contact also cast a shadow on the route to successful co-operation. This study started around the idea, that home-school interaction should be steered towards the ex-change of constructive ideas between both the home and school environments. Combining the dif-ferent views gives to something to build upon. To test this idea, I drafted a practice period, which was implemented in a small pre-school environment in the fall of 1997. My focus of interest in this project was on the handling of ordinary life information in the schools. So I combined individual views, patterns of knowledge and understanding of the world into the process of teaching. Works of art and writings by the informants worked as tools for information processing and as practical forms of building home-school interaction. Experiences from the pre-school environ-ment were later on echoed in constructing home-school interaction in five other schools. In both these projects, the teaching in the school was based on stories, thoughts and performances put to-gether by the parents, grandparents and children at home. During these processes, the material used in this study, consisting of artwork, writings and interviews (N=501), was collected. The data shows that information originating from the home environments was both a motivating and interesting addition to the teaching. There even was a sense of pride when assessing the seeds of knowledge from one’s own roots. In most cases and subjects, the homegrown information content was seamlessly connected to the functions of school and the curriculum. This project initiated thought processes between pupils and teachers, adults, children and parents, teachers and parents, and also between generations. It appeared that many of the subjects covered had not been raised before between the various participant groups. I have a special interest here in visual expression and its various contextual meanings. There art material portrays how content matter and characteristic features of the adult and parent contexts reflect in the works of the children. Another clearly noticeable factor in the art material is the impact of time-related traditions and functions on the means of visual expression. Comparing the visual material to the written material reveals variances of meaning and possibilities between these forms of expression. The visual material appears to be related especially to portraying objects, action and usage. Processing through that making of images was noted to bring back memories of concrete structures, details and also emotions. This process offered the child an intensive social connection with the adults. In some cases, with children and adults alike, this project brought forth an ongoing relation to visual expression. During this study I end up changing the concept to ‘home-school collaboration’. This widely used concept guides and outlines the interaction between schools and homes. In order to broaden the field of possibilities, I choose to use the concept ‘school-home interconnection’. This concept forms better grounds for forming varying impressions and practices when building interactive contexts. This concept places the responsibility of bridging the connection-gap in the schools. Through the experiences and innovations of thought gained from these projects, I form a model of pedagogy that embraces the idea of school-home interconnection and builds on the various impres-sions and expressions contained in it. In this model, school makes use of the experiences, thoughts and conceptions from the home environment. Various forms of expression are used to portray and process this information. This joint evaluation and observation evolves thought patterns both in school and at home. Keywords: percieving, visuality, visual culture, art and text, visual expression, art education, growth in interaction, home-school collaboration, school-home interconnection, school-home interaction model.