Browsing by Subject "käyttäytymistieteet"

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  • Saros, Leila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    In our consumer-oriented society, participation in sport is only one of many choices people can make nowadays. In this study physical activity and sports activity were approached from the stand point of sports activities, the amount, the time and strength of sports and health recommendations. The aim of this research was to get to know the motives as to why Finnish comprehensive school students participate endurance sports and why these activities are not based on Weiner s theory of attribution and motivation. In addition this study examines the role of the motives of their running test result. Adults were divided into sports generations. The material for the study was collected 2009 (boys`) and between 2001 - 2002 (men´s) consisted of an enquiry collected from boys in the ninth grade n = 262 as well as telephone interviews conducted by Suomen Gallup, where the men in the study ranged in age 17 and 45 years of age n = 1458 between years 2001 and 2002. Ten percent of the ninth graders exercise daily and their exercise full fills the recommendations of aerobic exercise. Approximately ten percent of adults also exercise for endurance and strength in accordance with the recommendation. The findings of the study did not provide same conception of the four different factors as outlined by Weiner's theory of attribution and motivation. Instead the model gave four different sport types of adolescents; 1. Those positively oriented towards sports (sport positive) are selfdisciplined and successful. 2. Those who value the stability and health requirements (health orientated). 3. Those who easily drop out of sports (sports dropouts) are motivated differently than the others and have no motivation to participate in sports. 4. Those who ignore sports (sport avoiders) lack motivation to engage in sports, where any participation is driven by outside motives. The ninth graders who engaged in ball games, endurance and skilled sports and who were in good shape participate in endurance sports in order to feel good (an inside motive) more frequently than the ones who were not engaged in sports. They also experienced their endurance sport as being important for achieving good health (an outside motive). Those who do not engage in sports and the ones in bad shape have a hard time to find time for engaging in sports because they are involved in other things (an inside motive). Results of running test was statistically significantly related to use of computer.
  • Lähteenmäki, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This study examines the daily life of children who seek asylum in Finland and spend their time at reception centres and schools. The objective of the study is to establish how these children's previous experience finds representation in their lives during the asylum-seeking process and how social networks support them. Ethnographic research of childhood proposes to make visible the practices that create limitations and barriers in children's lives. The key concepts and tools applied in the course of this work are ethnicity, citizenship, culture, and change in life. Debates in critical, sociological research of childhood and ethnographic, feminist-oriented research are used as important source materials. The study describes the experience and thoughts of asylum-seeking children between the time of submission of an asylum application and the time of its approval or rejection. The methodology applied is based on the ethnographic study of childhood. The study was conducted at two reception centres and one school. The target group was 18 children, representing seven nationalities and ranging from four to twelve years of age. Most of the data was collected during the academic year 2005 - 2006, and the work was carried out by means of participating observation. The methodology involved ethnographic narrative interviews made with children, parents and employees (12), fairy tales told by the children (59), and pictures drawn by them (38). The study establishes that the asylum seeker centres do, on the one hand, allow the children to express themselves, yet, on the other hand, there is much passive suffering and silence. The fear, uncertainty and discrimination experienced in the past do not subside while the children remain in Finland, however, and the feelings of desolation tend to increase during the asylum-seeking process. The study shows that cramped living conditions, moving from one reception centre to another, poor health of the children and their families, and the commonness of events shocking the community create an atmosphere of anxiety, which prevails in the lives of these children. Extended application processes, long waiting periods for municipal housing, and responsibilities involving housework and caring for family members complicate the lives of the children as do the lack of friends and the sudden departures of friends, once they have been gained. The study reveals that asylum decisions have effects on the lives of all those who are connected in one way or other with the asylum-seekers. It is evident how a positive decision brings hope and a negative decision creates anxiety in the life of each child. The research also shows how the positive representations of home are transferred to the home where the children live during the asylum-seeking process. Depending on the child's experience, home finds representation either in terms human relationships or in terms of place. Children are attached, especially, to family members who live with them during the asylum-seeking process in Finland, and to other children living at the reception centre. Activities at school, pre-school, clubs and organised hobbies, mentors, and social and health services help the children to cope with the asylum-seeking period. Shaping these children's lives is very much about giving them a voice, and through it securing that their rights are respected - or, in the worst case, denying their rights.
  • Jansson, Satu-Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Theatre and drama as forms of learning in organisations This dissertation concerns theatre and drama as a form of learning in organisational contexts. When developing human resources and activities in organisations, people are usually seen as rational human beings, which means overlooking their emotional side. The object of development is seen to be a rational professional who is filled with information as a commodity, which can then be shifted as such from one person to another. This view does not take into account the fact that people create new knowledge as they bring together their own understandings, motivations and emotions when solving mutual problems. This study suggests that when facing the challenges of working life, organisations need more comprehensive viewpoints and methods. In addition, the emotions and cognition are interconnected, which is why in organisational development people s emotions should be considered. Hence in the process of organisational development, the arts, and especially theatre and drama, can offer a full spectrum of methods for activating learning. Through theatre and drama, meaning is created by doing, as meaning is given form through physical movement and visuality, as well as kinetically. To examine this phenomenon, I have brought together activity theory, developmental work research and the arts. I construe theatre both as an object of intervention and as an intervention method. The dissertation consists of five articles and a summary. The summary answers the following two research questions: 1) How can theatre and drama be construed as forms of learning in work? 2) How can activity theory and the methodology of developmental work research enrich the analysis of theatre and drama? My empirical interventions for the research involved the Rovaniemi Theatre Lapland s Regional Theatre and the executive board of one of the units of University of Applied Sciences. The Rovaniemi Theatre offers an example of the changes that are occurring in the theatre field, the learning challenges that theatres are facing, and theatre as a form of learning for professionals in organisational development. In the case of the Rovaniemi Theatre, the logic of intervention research is applied for the first time in a professional theatre context. In 2008-2009 I worked for 15 months in a development project where I engaged all of the theatre s employees in order to analyse and understand their ongoing development. Their work practices were broadening, as some performances were being rehearsed without scripts, using group improvisation or devising instead. I gathered research data throughout the project: observations, interviews and video material. The second intervention concerned the development of change management in the context of University of Applied Sciences (during 2013). In this project I brought together cultural-historical activity theory, developmental work research and Forum Theatre. Forum Theatre was initially created by Augusto Boal to promote political change through a theatrical method and format. As part of the intervention we rehearsed a theatrical performance based on Forum Theatre. We wrote a script and rehearsed a performance consisting of three scenes. The methodology of developmental work research intertwined with the scriptwriting process, although we devised the performance originally without a script. The research data were gathered at the beginning of the project by interviewing the executive board, and the three-hour intervention was videotaped. After six months I interviewed several managers who had participated in the intervention, and a photo workshop was held where they photographed their learning experiences and the effects of the project. What combines the two interventions is that I applied the theoretical concept of developmental contradiction, which is widely used amongst researchers in developmental work research. Contradictions emerge in the change and development of work, and are felt in the work as disturbances, interruptions and problems (Engeström, 1985; 2004a; 2004b). These contradictions are experienced as conflicts, dilemmas and work-related new meaning makings (Engeström and Sannino, 2011). In view of this, to prevent the separation of emotions and cognition in organisational development we need new theoretical concepts. The concept of personal sense of work (Leontjev, 1977, 120) is one such solution. In organisational change, employees build a new relationship with their work, one in which the emotions are involved. Unless new connections can be made, emotional conflict may result. The idea that theatre and drama can be used to activate learning in the workplace and in human resource development, however, has yet to truly emerge. This dissertation is the first attempt to describe how theatre and drama can be analysed as forms of learning in organisations with the help of developmental work research and how the emotions play a key role in work development. The present dissertation provides insight into work development in the context of theatrical intervention and the emotions during the development process, as employees deal with their personal sense of work (Leontjev, 1977, 120). The study also shows how theatrical interventions, can be carried out for organisations, and how the processing of emotions engendered by work development can be focused on.