Browsing by Subject "käyttäytymistieteet"

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  • Saros, Leila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    In our consumer-oriented society, participation in sport is only one of many choices people can make nowadays. In this study physical activity and sports activity were approached from the stand point of sports activities, the amount, the time and strength of sports and health recommendations. The aim of this research was to get to know the motives as to why Finnish comprehensive school students participate endurance sports and why these activities are not based on Weiner s theory of attribution and motivation. In addition this study examines the role of the motives of their running test result. Adults were divided into sports generations. The material for the study was collected 2009 (boys`) and between 2001 - 2002 (men´s) consisted of an enquiry collected from boys in the ninth grade n = 262 as well as telephone interviews conducted by Suomen Gallup, where the men in the study ranged in age 17 and 45 years of age n = 1458 between years 2001 and 2002. Ten percent of the ninth graders exercise daily and their exercise full fills the recommendations of aerobic exercise. Approximately ten percent of adults also exercise for endurance and strength in accordance with the recommendation. The findings of the study did not provide same conception of the four different factors as outlined by Weiner's theory of attribution and motivation. Instead the model gave four different sport types of adolescents; 1. Those positively oriented towards sports (sport positive) are selfdisciplined and successful. 2. Those who value the stability and health requirements (health orientated). 3. Those who easily drop out of sports (sports dropouts) are motivated differently than the others and have no motivation to participate in sports. 4. Those who ignore sports (sport avoiders) lack motivation to engage in sports, where any participation is driven by outside motives. The ninth graders who engaged in ball games, endurance and skilled sports and who were in good shape participate in endurance sports in order to feel good (an inside motive) more frequently than the ones who were not engaged in sports. They also experienced their endurance sport as being important for achieving good health (an outside motive). Those who do not engage in sports and the ones in bad shape have a hard time to find time for engaging in sports because they are involved in other things (an inside motive). Results of running test was statistically significantly related to use of computer.
  • Lähteenmäki, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This study examines the daily life of children who seek asylum in Finland and spend their time at reception centres and schools. The objective of the study is to establish how these children's previous experience finds representation in their lives during the asylum-seeking process and how social networks support them. Ethnographic research of childhood proposes to make visible the practices that create limitations and barriers in children's lives. The key concepts and tools applied in the course of this work are ethnicity, citizenship, culture, and change in life. Debates in critical, sociological research of childhood and ethnographic, feminist-oriented research are used as important source materials. The study describes the experience and thoughts of asylum-seeking children between the time of submission of an asylum application and the time of its approval or rejection. The methodology applied is based on the ethnographic study of childhood. The study was conducted at two reception centres and one school. The target group was 18 children, representing seven nationalities and ranging from four to twelve years of age. Most of the data was collected during the academic year 2005 - 2006, and the work was carried out by means of participating observation. The methodology involved ethnographic narrative interviews made with children, parents and employees (12), fairy tales told by the children (59), and pictures drawn by them (38). The study establishes that the asylum seeker centres do, on the one hand, allow the children to express themselves, yet, on the other hand, there is much passive suffering and silence. The fear, uncertainty and discrimination experienced in the past do not subside while the children remain in Finland, however, and the feelings of desolation tend to increase during the asylum-seeking process. The study shows that cramped living conditions, moving from one reception centre to another, poor health of the children and their families, and the commonness of events shocking the community create an atmosphere of anxiety, which prevails in the lives of these children. Extended application processes, long waiting periods for municipal housing, and responsibilities involving housework and caring for family members complicate the lives of the children as do the lack of friends and the sudden departures of friends, once they have been gained. The study reveals that asylum decisions have effects on the lives of all those who are connected in one way or other with the asylum-seekers. It is evident how a positive decision brings hope and a negative decision creates anxiety in the life of each child. The research also shows how the positive representations of home are transferred to the home where the children live during the asylum-seeking process. Depending on the child's experience, home finds representation either in terms human relationships or in terms of place. Children are attached, especially, to family members who live with them during the asylum-seeking process in Finland, and to other children living at the reception centre. Activities at school, pre-school, clubs and organised hobbies, mentors, and social and health services help the children to cope with the asylum-seeking period. Shaping these children's lives is very much about giving them a voice, and through it securing that their rights are respected - or, in the worst case, denying their rights.