Browsing by Subject "kasvatussosiologia"

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  • Kosunen, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation is positioned in the fields of sociology of education, urban sociology and family studies. The focus of the study is on schools and families lower-secondary school choices in 2010s urban Finland. The study consists of four academic articles and an introductory part, in which the results of the four original articles are presented and discussed in relation to each other. The first sub-study (I) is a literature review, in which the application and transmission of concepts in school choice research in five European countries is examined. The three empirical sub-studies (II−IV) concentrate on how the reputations and prestige of schools and their general and selective classes in the case city of Espoo are constructed in the parental discourse, what sorts of lower-secondary school choices the families conduct in relation to those hierarchies of symbolic prestige, and which factors seem to be interrelated to the success in the competition over certain study positions. The analysis concentrates on the differences in reputation between general and selective classes across and within schools, the constructed urban spaces of school choice, and families choices. The ways in which the educational trajectories of the pupils diversify and differentiate in basic education were analysed. The data consists of 96 semi-structured thematic interviews with parents of 6th graders. The interviews were conducted during the spring of 2011 in the research project Parents and School Choice. Family Strategies, Segregation and School Policies in Chilean and Finnish Basic Schooling (PASC). The data includes parents from all school catchment areas. The interviews were analysed by applying theory-informed qualitative content analysis. The theoretical framework leans strongly on Pierre Bourdieu s theory and conceptualisations of distinction. The analysis focuses on how the conducted school choices relate to families possession of different forms and combinations of cultural, social and economic capital and how these processes relate to the symbolically differentiated space of school choice. The study deals with who chooses, what is chosen, and especially with how and why. The parental discourse on school choice has been contrasted with the noted worry concerning the increase in urban segregation in the metropolitan area, the social and academic school differentiation, and the general condition of the Finnish comprehensive school. The space of school choice in the city of Espoo was divided into two separate spaces of school choice in the parental discourse: the local space of school choice and the selective space of school choice. The central divide was the pupil selection conducted by some of the schools to their selective classes. The local space of school choice consisted of general classes in schools within the catchment area. In some of the local spaces the symbolic hierarchy of the general classes was non-existent, but in some local areas the general classes across schools had a strict hierarchy. The general class in the bottom of the hierarchy was considered to be a study environment to avoid. The most common way of aiming to avoid the school allocation to those aversive classes was to apply for classes with a special emphasis. These classes comprised the selective space of school choice, which covered the whole city area and did not follow any catchment area borders. The transition from the local space to the selective space of school choice required different forms and amounts of cultural, social and economic capital from the family, and was not thereby equally accessible as an option to all families. In addition, the most desirable choices for the parents in their discourse were not the classes with elite reputations with high selectivity and presumably demanding teaching. The most desirable classes were often considered to be good enough in terms of teaching and learning, and somewhat selective, as long as desirable amounts of social and ethnic diversity existed. Contentment with school was emphasised in the discourse around the most desirable classes. The elite classes were avoided due to their expectedly high levels of unnecessary competition between pupils. The analysis on the school choices of upper-class families showed how the mobilisable amounts of different forms and combinations of capital strongly impacted the process of school choice. Optimising the school choice of the child in the competition over study positions was interconnected with social capital, as well as with the mechanisms of transforming and transmitting cultural and economic capital from one form to another and from one field to the next. The most successful with the highest numbers of realistic choices were those possessing the most amounts of capital. The role of social capital was emphasised. The success of the upper-class child in the competition seemed to derive from the habitus, and via their shared lifestyles success in the school choice seemed natural among them. The social differentiation produced by the practices of selection of pupils were noticed in the parental discourse, and the choice was legitimised by referring to meritocratic selection procedures and talented and motivated children. The cultural capital derived from the field of culture, such as skills in music or sports, turned out to be relevant trump cards in the competition over study-positions in selective classes within publicly funded compulsory education in Finland. The central features in the optimizing of the choice were the families capacities to evaluate their own position in the social space in relation to other families in the field as well as to the symbolic hierarchy of the schools. This combination is named as the social space of school choice. The limitations to parental action are urban limitations, caused by the urban structure of the city, as well as the borders of educational governance (e.g. catchment areas). The central notion is that the differentiation of school choices across families (how the families are able and willing to conduct school choices) are related to their possessed amounts of capital also in Finland. Interestingly, these processes of pupil selection seem to guide pupils from different social backgrounds seemingly naturally to different educational trajectories already within comprehensive education.
  • Kaukoluoto, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Is the early childhood day care facility possible? The research considering communal development of the early education. In Finland mothers and fathers look after 400 000 pre-school children. Half of these attend day care facilities, in which 50 000 staff are employed. The aim of this research is to develop co-operation practices within the day care centre. This research refines and expands my own interest in and knowledge of day care management and content development. The basis of the research draws upon ethnographic material covering the period 1999–2005. The day care centre chosen as a central informant was the first suburban centre founded in 1963, and it provided a rich local and welfare state research perspective. It became clear that the day care facility’s co-operation practices formed the basis of bringing up children and at the same time produced a new multi-operational and multi-layered community for child participation. Adult day care centre workers bringing up the children as a professional work and solutions defining the conditions for the work are expressed in a child’s upbringing. This obviously has an impact in where as the development of communities. From the human and community scientific point of view, the group of youngest children will take up a future position as key players in communities as essential actors and reformers. The research was carried out as multiphase and multiscientific practical research and iterative data formation. The results verified that the co-operation between parents and day care staff produces important benefits for all the stakeholders. However, the day care staff has difficulties in implementing the benefits. During the research process, it became clear that conceptually day care staff saw the practices as ”very important, but not easily realised in practice”. As a result this demanded further research to address this issue and to extend this to the carefacility’s co-operation practises and their communal and social conditions. The research looks at the carefacility’s co-operation with key stakeholders. At the same time it undertakes an analytical and historical examination of carefacilitys’s with an experimental focus as two day care centres chosen as experimental objects. The results of the research showed that the benefits gained by children were determined by the day care centre’s socio-political structure and the parent’s resources. The research framework categorised early childhood education as generational and gender based structures. As part of the research, the strains endemic to these formations have been examined. The system for bringing up children was created as part of a so called welfare state project by implemented by the Day Care Act in year 1973. The law secured the subjective right for every pre-school child to have access to day care facilities. The law also introduced a labour and sosiopolitical phase and the refinement of the day care facility’s education-care concept. The latest phase that started during the early 1990´s was called the market-based social services strategy. As a result of this phase, state support was limited and the screening function of the law was relaxed. This new strategy resulted in a divisive and bureaucratic social welfare system, that individualised and segregated children and their parents, leaving some families outside the communal and welfare state benefit net. The modern day care centre is a hybrid of different aims. Children spend longer and more irregular time in day care. The families are multicultural and that requires more training for the staff. The work in day care has been enhanced, for example he level of education for the staff has been lowered and productivity has been improved. However, administrative work and different kinds of support and net work functions together with the continuous change have taken over from the work done face to face with children. Staff experiences more pressure as the management and the work load has increased. Consequently the long-term planning and daily implementation of the nuclear task of the day care facility is difficult to control. This will have an effect on both motivation and manageability of the work. Overall quality of the early childhood upbringing has been weakened. The possibilities for the near future were tested in the two day care centres chosen as an experi-ment objects. The analysis of these experiments showed that generative interaction work will benefit everyone: children, parents and employees. The main results of the research are new concepts of an early support day care centre, which can be empirically and theoretically possi-ble for development the near future. Key words: Day care facility’s co-operation practises, early childhood education as generational structure, child’s multi-operational and multi-layered community, multi-subjective operator, generative interaction work, communal composition.