Browsing by Subject "kognitiotiede / organisaatiopsykologia"

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  • Teperi, Anna-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Abstract A mastery of human factors (HF) in such complex systems as air traffic management (ATM) and air traffic control (ATC) is crucial to maintain the efficiency and safety of the system and the well being of those working within it (Vicente, 1999; Kirwan, 2002; Reason, 2008; Carayon, 2010). ATC aims at preventing collisions between aircrafts. In ATC work, several characteristics cause complexity, uncertainty and dynamicity, and there is a possibility of risks and disturbances that make ATC vulnerable to human error. The discipline of HF applies knowledge regarding human behaviour to the design of systems (IEA, 2000; FAA, 2005). In the current thesis, HF is used as a tool for improving work, competence and safety in the context of ATM. In the four studies on which this thesis is based, the application of HF to one ATM organisation was studied over a period of 10 years, and, in this process, the factors that supported or hindered the adoption and application of new thinking and new tools were evaluated. Interviews, intervention results, questionnaires and incident data were used as the material and methods for the studies. It was recognised that the organisation was run in strict compliance with international regulations and that it had a strong technical competence, but this was not the case with respect to HF aspects (Study I). The interviews of the upper and middle managers of the target organisation revealed that there was no unified strategy within the organisation for applying knowledge regarding HF (Study II). The results showed limitations in utilising incidents as material for organisational learning and safety improvement (Study III). Finally, the organisation succeeded in applying an easy-to-use tool to determine, analyse and learn about HF risks and resources (Study IV). Taken together, the studies in this thesis demonstrated that, although there were cultural and structural barriers, such as a strong, fragmented and authoritarian history of aviation administration, that hindered the adaptation of new thinking, the HF application was facilitated by the tensions for change in which HF-based interventions and tools were considered valuable solutions. The current thesis indicates that the target ATM organisation should continue HF application to strengthen its competence as a high reliability organisation. In this future process, recognising the facilitating and hindering factors involved in the mastery of HF is necessary. The findings of this thesis also support the possibility of using HF application in other complex systems.