Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 590
  • Mäkipää, Toni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Assessment and feedback are quintessential components of learning. If used properly, they can advance learning in myriad ways. The national core curriculum for general upper secondary education (2016) underlines that feedback is a crucial aspect of the relationship between a student and a teacher. With teacher feedback, students receive valuable information on their learning, how they have achieved their goals, and what they should do next. Likewise, the core curriculum describes the importance of diverse assessment practices. However, international research has established that there has been a lack of feedback in education. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore Finnish general upper secondary students’ perceptions of teacher assessment and feedback practices. This thesis comprises three sub-studies, for which a survey was used to collect the data. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The purpose of sub-study I was to investigate students’ perceptions of assessment and feedback in general upper secondary schools. This study did not focus on specific subjects. Rather, the purpose was to explore general perceptions about assessment and feedback. The data (N=918) consisted of closed and open-ended questions, which were analysed using deductive content analysis and oneway ANOVA. The results showed that teachers tend to rely heavily on exams and that assessment in general is one-sided. The students also reported a lack of feedback although differences exist between teachers and subjects. Sub-study II focused on students’ perceptions of feedback in Swedish and English courses. The objective was to ascertain whether the perceptions differ between proficiency levels. The data (N=255) consisted of closed-ended answers, which were analysed using one-way ANOVA, one-way MANOVA, and exploratory factor analysis. Based on the analyses, it could be noted that no differences were found in English courses, whereas higher proficiency students in Swedish courses were more willing to correct their mistakes, found teacher feedback to be more useful, and received more feedback compared to lower-level students. A moderate correlation was found between proficiency level and the usefulness of feedback. The main aim of sub-study III was to explore the kind of feedback students find encouraging, and how they consider feedback to be one of several teacher assessment practices. The data (N=282) comprised one open-ended question and one closed-ended question with nine items. Inductive content analysis, oneway ANOVA, and one-way MANOVA were used in the analysis of the data. The results showed that feedback on the content of work is perceived as encouraging, particularly feedback on how to improve the work. Students related teacher assessment practices primarily to assessing exams and giving course grades. Feedback was not regarded to be an important teacher assessment practice. In conclusion, it can be stated that the current assessment and feedback practices give rise for concern. Assessment practices are not as diverse as the core curriculum stipulates, and the amount of feedback is limited. It also seems that feedback has not been useful for every student and that students have not internalised the role of feedback in teacher assessment practices. Therefore, the role of feedback about diverse assessment and feedback practices should be advocated more in teacher education, and in-service training for teachers is needed. Keywords: feedback, assessment, foreign languages, general upper secondary education
  • Perander, Katarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    My aim with this dissertation was to explore different factors that impede and enhance students’ transition to higher education in Finland. Studying in higher education requires self-regulated learning skills, self-efficacy, regulation of academic emotions and effective study strategies, which were also focused on in this dissertation. The theoretical framework for this dissertation was based on the social cognitive theory that perceives the student as an active participant in the learning process, who can regulate thoughts, emotions and actions in accordance with personal factors and the environment. This dissertation was composed of three part-studies, published in three articles, that contribute to the understanding of the complexity of the factors that affect the transition to higher education. Qualitative content analysis was used as methodological approach in all part-studies. The aim of the first part-study (Article I) was to examine how first-year university students perceived their learning strategies, self-regulated learning skills and academic emotions in and how they reflected on them in reflective journals. The findings showed that students perceived several challenges during their first semester in higher education. These challenges were related to independent learning, and more particularly to self-regulated learning. Moreover, the first part-study also showed that self-regulated learning was closely intertwined with the academic emotions perceived by the students. Thus, the students perceived different academic emotions both to affect self-regulated learning strategies and to be a result of those strategies, which indicated how complexly weaved they are with the learning process. In addition, this part-study demonstrated that reflective journals were useful in raising students’ awareness of their academic emotions and study strategies as well as their metacognitive awareness. Hence, this first part-study clearly indicated a need to provide students with opportunities to adapt to studying in higher education by normalising feelings of insecurity and by supporting self-regulated learning skills. The aim of the second part-study (Article II) was to explore how upper secondary school educators (teachers and study counsellors) perceived and described their students’ self-belief, study habits, academic emotions and behaviour. This part-study was conducted as an interview study. By understanding what happens before the transition to higher education it is possible to carry out targeted interventions also on previous levels of education to ease the transition. The findings from this second part-study revealed clear stereotyped gender perceptions and expectations among the educators the in upper secondary schools. This was especially troublesome in relation to the attribution of success. Girls were perceived as succeeding academically due to their effort and boys due to their ability. Thus, the girls were described as diligent, yet anxious, and the boys as lazy and indifferent about school. These findings are worrying on several levels. Firstly, they show that despite all the efforts to decrease gender inequality at school, gender roles are still reinforced via biased perceptions and expectations. Secondly, the support provided for the students may not be adequate when students are perceived through gendered lenses. This can have aggravating effects on the transition to and the studying in higher education since gendered perceptions affect self-belief and aspirations. Hence, this second part-study indicated that to provide all students with adequate support and guidance, these gendered perceptions and expectations need to be acknowledged and rectified. The third part-study (Article III) focused on analysing the effects of an intervention for first-year university students aimed at supporting their transition to higher education. The students participated in a compulsory workshop on study strategies during their first semester in higher education and reflected on their learning strategies in reflective journals. The aim of this part-study was to explore how the students perceived the workshop and thereby provide an example of how students can be supported during their first year in higher education, to enhance study progress, retention and finally graduation. The findings of this third part-study showed that small measures for first-year higher education students can have a major impact on students’ transition. When students became aware of their study strategies and what affected them, they were able to make changes that were needed for a smoother study path. This third part-study also showed the importance of the workshops for the students' emotional regulation when the students could reflect on their study habits, as well as to receive and to give peer support, in a safe environment. Thus, the findings indicated that interventions offered to first-year university students can enhance their self-belief and academic competence by providing tools and strategies for the adaptation to the demands of higher education. By supporting students’ self-awareness, they can identify the strategies that benefit them the most. This dissertation adds to the research field by implementing theory into practice via the recognition of students’ own perceptions of their study habits and by empowering their agency beliefs in their own studying. The findings of this dissertation show that interventions that support students’ self-efficacy beliefs, self-regulated learning skills and regulation of academic emotions ought to be a part of the introduction to higher education. Moreover, this dissertation shows a need for an explicit focus on gender equality in teacher education and in in-service training for teachers. The awareness of stereotyping and its reproduction of rigid gender roles needs be brought to the attention of all educators from early childhood education onward. Studying in higher education requires a variety of study skills and first-year students would benefit from being able to practise and acquire these skills in the first year of higher education and not to be expected to develop these skills on their own outside the university context. Thus, by acknowledging the challenges many students encounter in the transition to higher education and by normalising feelings of insecurity, students’ stress levels and feelings of inadequacy can be reduced and therefore their wellbeing enhanced. How to meet students’ challenges during first year in higher education would also be useful to be implemented even stronger in university pedagogy and university teaching. Keywords: transition to higher education, self-regulated learning, self-efficacy, academic emotions, intervention, gender
  • Saarinen, Auli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    An ePortfolio is an evolving electronic resource that acts to record and store the artefacts of learning and reflections for an individual learner. It may reflect the progression of a student’s learning process, or it can testify the level reached. This thesis analyzed the longitudinal use of an electronic portfolio in craft studies for a period of six years (2013-19). The Educational Design Research (EDR) was implemented in three parts containing year-long iterations. The students (ages 9 to 14 years) traced their craft process activities by photos, narratives, recordings and assessment assignments. In the first study, the functions, and the benefits of the ePortfolio method were emphasized and general user experiences based on pupil interviews (N=38) were outlined. The results indicated that an ePortfolio (realized through the iPad application, Book Creator) is a workable method in craft education. The identified key functions were collection and management of information, communication, and verification of development. The experienced benefits were related to supporting the working process: memory, understanding and activities. In the second study the data comprised of the textual and visual content of the students’ (N= 38) ePortfolios. The results indicated that the most emphasized areas in the textual and visual content of students’ ePortfolios were a combination of the process and free learning reflection. The results confirmed that if ePortfolios are used in a flexible way with open assignments, variations on use and the end-product are self-evident. In the third study the data contained a six-year-long tracing of learning and the final interviews (N=8). The interview focused on students’ experiences of the eportfolio method and its development. The longitudinal textual content was conceptualized by applying Anderson and Krathwohl’s “Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing”. The results indicated that the students’ knowledge type was transformed from versatile to a more limited, and cognitive process levels were transformed from concrete to a more abstract level. The interview data confirmed the findings. Suggested improvements were technical and platform issues, and practical functionalities. The implications drawn were linked with the ePortfolio’s pedagogical foundation and the development of the method. Diverse functions and benefits helped provide the answer to the main research question of the ePortfolios’ pedagogical dimensions: memory and communication support, learner-centered activity to consolidate the ownership of the learning process, and the versatile use of technological tools to train ICT skills, as well as more general skills. The long-term progress showed the transformation of knowledge type and cognitive process, and that the model of progress in ePortfolio usage simulates development.
  • Luodeslampi, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The character of religious education was widely discussed during the planning stage of comprehensive school in the late 1960s and in the early 1970s. This study aims at adding the teachers’ own voice to the overall view. Its main question is what shared issues there were in the career trajectories of RE teachers born in the 1930s at the outset of comprehensive school. This study examines the career trajectories of the Finnish Religious Education (RE) teachers via an autobiographical retrospective approach and via archival materials from the aforementioned decades. The research data consists of retrospective narratives written by now-retired Finnish RE teachers born in the 1930s (N = 62). The data was collected in 2011 and analyzed with methods of qualitative content analysis. The first part of the study asks what important aspects teachers promoted when the new school system was born and what kind of an overall picture could be illustrated. The second one asks what kind of challenges RE teachers faced and solved. The third one is about the relationship between one’s reli-gious background and professionality in career trajectories while the fourth one is centered on RE teachers’ career orientations. According to these studies, the confessionality of RE was the major concern for teachers. They started to defend it and initiated a strong focus on pedagogical development in their work as a response for the societal demands and challenges that they faced as far as RE as a subject was concerned. Most of the teachers had been affiliated with the revivalist movements in some point of their life but they kept their personal religious life distinctively apart from their professional role as teachers. The fourth article represents four examples of the teachers’ ways to tell about their respective career trajectories including religious aspects, youth support, pedagogical development, and political activities in associations. Together, these four articles state that teachers have perceived their subject as a very special and valuable one while finding it notably challenged by political discussions. They defended it mostly by developing their pedagogical abilities and related instruction. They started to develop pedagogy, professional skills, and learning material in order to prove their high level of competence and professionality as well as the equally high quality of the teaching materials and subject contents to show in so doing that RE brought as valuable a contribution to the curriculum and to general education as the other subjects did.
  • Kavonius, Marjaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the significance of worldview education for young people in the Finnish comprehensive school context. The study examines the students’ own perceptions of the significance of worldview education, and the context is in which the young people of today encounter worldviews and build their own personal worldview. Furthermore, this study explores the purpose and aims of worldview education in Finnish schools and society in general. The goal of the study is to give voice to the students of various worldview education groups – Religious Education (RE) and Ethics – and through their perceptions provide new perspectives and encourage development of Finnish worldview education. This article-based thesis takes a mixed-methods approach and is based on three refereed research articles (Kavonius, Kuusisto, & Kallioniemi, 2015a, 2015b; Kavonius & Ubani, 2020). The data were gathered from five lower secondary schools in Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen in spring 2013. The quantitative data (articles I and II) were collected as a part of the European project known as REDCo2 (Religion in Education: A Contribution to Dialogue or Factor of Conflict in Transforming Societies in Europe, N=406), and the qualitative data (articles I, II and III) consist of semi-structured interviews (N=37). The interview was based on the themes of the original REDCo questionnaire. The quantitative data were analyzed with basic statistical methods and the qualitative data with qualitative content analysis. The research problem in this study is twofold: how do the students comment on their experiences in RE and Ethics contributing to their readiness to encounter worldview plurality and tolerance of diversity, and how do the students consider that RE or Ethics contribute to their personal worldview development. This research problem is explored through three research questions: 1. How do 9th grade students perceive worldview education and worldview diversity in the Finnish comprehensive school? (Article I). 2. How do students perceive religious and worldview education and their own tolerance of worldview plurality in the changing Finnish society? (Article II). 3. How is the contribution of religious and worldview education in the development of worldviews perceived among 9th grade students? (Article III). The main findings of this study answer the research questions by showing that the students’ perceptions of worldview education were mostly positive and most of the participants considered that worldview education had contributed to their tolerance and understanding of worldview diversity. Some contribution in worldview formation was also articulated by most of the interviewees. However, there is an evident variance in the students’ perceptions about the contribution on the formation of their personal worldviews. Predominantly, RE groups were considered having differences between majority and minority RE. Teachers’ worldview seemed to be important, especially in minority RE, thus perceptions of RE appeared to be quite teacher reliant. The model of religious and worldview education according to one’s ‘own’ worldview appeared particularly challenging, and some participants did not adhere or feel connected to the tradition presupposed by their group of instruction as students’ ‘own’ tradition, in the means of a personal worldview nor family background. Furthermore, the subject contents seem to vary and depend on the teachers’ choices and emphasis. The results indicate that the Finnish worldview education could benefit from an update. The concept of worldview education according to one’s ‘own’ tradition would be a beneficial topic for investigation in a post-secular societal setting in which worldviews are increasingly diverse, fluid and complex (according to recent studies). More focus on the core idea of worldview education could sharpen the focal purpose, main goals and contents of worldview education as whole. From the perspective of teacher professionalism and teacher education, worldview reflection and teachers’ self-reflection ought to be highlighted further to develop worldview-consciousness in school context. The current Finnish model of worldview education has many components that the results of this study support, yet there are components in need of further consideration. Thorough investigation of the current model as a part of the whole school context in Finland might open up new viewpoints and options for worldview education in a changing, plural Finnish society. keywords: worldview education, religious education, ethics education, worldview diversity, basic education
  • Mäki, Tarja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This study examines the site managers’ daily work, collaboration in construction projects and the implementation of new tools. The theoretical framework of the study draws from the cultural-historical activ-ity theory and the theory of expansive learning. The activity theory provides an analytical model to study the elements of historically emerging activities and the tensions between the elements. The ethnographic methodology is applied for collecting and analysing the data of the first and second articles. The data were collected by shadowing site managers in their daily work and by observing the site meetings, where project participants collaboratively solved design-related open questions between 2011 and 2013. The model of expansive learning was applied in the analysis of the third article. The data were collected by interviewing and observing the implementation processes of the Last Planner method in three organisations between 2016 and 2017. The study shows that site managers’ daily work varies significantly between various managerial roles, but it is filled with collaboration, mobile, prone to disturbances, and many types of problem-solving situations. BIM is actively used in a site manager’s daily work. At the time of the study, however, using BIM appeared to be challenging in the construction site due to insufficient number of skillful users of BIM among employees, lack of mobile solutions to be fully exploited, and multiple issues to be developed in the design contents of BIM models from the perspective of site operations. Design-related open questions caused disturbances in site management activities: work was interrupted, and management had to spend time resolving various issues. Design-related open questions were discussed, and new design solutions were created during the site meetings. The issues were plentiful and handling them was multi-vocal. Design solutions comprised partially shared objects of activity that caused conventional boundaries of the division of labor to become blurred: different contractors, the project manager and the maintenance manager were active in developing new design solutions. The analysis of the site meetings demonstrated that multi-disciplinary competence and multiple perspectives were required in the creation of new design solutions. The examination of the implementation processes of Last Planner System revealed how the organizations were able to support the adoption of new methods in their activity. During the implementation, many challenges emerged having to do with e.g., motivation, meeting prerequisites and especially temporary project organizations. The critical stage for implementation was the end of the pilot phase. The project environment did not offer a stable organization for new methods to become consolidated. There is a risk of accumulated knowledge dispersion, when a project ends instead of transfer and consolidation of new knowledge and competences to other projects.
  • Kramer, Martin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The thesis is concerned with the relationship of the ‘individual self’ and ‘collective subject’ in the formation of teachers’ transformative agency conceptualised within cultural-historical activity theory. This topic is addressed by moving and oscillating between accomplishing an intervention project of school development as a joint activity of teachers and a theoretical discussion on individual needs deriving from existentialist and self-determination frameworks. These two lines of thinking are integrated in the original studies and their corresponding publications which focus theoretically on different aspects of the individual and collective planes of activity. The school development project took place at a small Austrian secondary school during the period of a nationwide school reform. Study 1 dealt with a unit of analysis in conceptualising learning. It contrasted J. Reitinger’s theory of inquiry learning arrangements, a local (Austrian) rendition of inquiry learning representing an individualistic approach to learning, with Y. Engeström’s theory of expansive learning, identified as a collective approach to learning and known for utilising and advancing formative intervention methodology. Study 2 focused on reflective practice which draws attention to an internal or mental part of activity. In defining reflective practice, Thompson and Pascal (2011) led me to examine six core existentialist assumptions which underlie their theory of reflective practice. Cross-fertilisation between these assumptions and the chosen formative framework shed light upon the relation between existential needs and activity and, at the same time, turned the attention to the finding that human motivation is weakly addressed both in object-oriented activity and in reflective practice. Hence, Study 2 includes a tentative model by which I aimed to integrate the idea of activity system model and existential need dimensions with their ‘metanecessities’ (basic psychological needs) as a source of motivation, as introduced by D. Leontiev (2012). The individual and collective need dimensions of the model were discussed in the field of education. Study 3 brought into discussion teachers’ attitudes and worldviews as professional resources of meaning making, and personal constructs being studied as tertiary artefacts by which the teachers were constructing what is meaningful in education. A special interview technique (D. Leontiev’s ‘Ultimate Meanings Technique’) was used in the project for approaching teachers’ core assumptions of the world. Interview results were turned into reflective material (mirror) to assist teachers’ discussions on worldviews. The study drew attention to a historical tension inside the professional vision. The summary of the original studies extended the theoretical discussion on need, motive, and object related to activity. D. Leontiev’s integrative model of needs, based on existential need theories, offered an analytical view to individual in which a person’s interaction with the world, mediated by culturally transmitted tools, is considered the source of human motivation. I argue in the thesis that, capitalising on this integrated model, the existential metanecessities can be interpreted as ‘unobjectified’ needs (A. N. Leontiev, 1978) that are inherent on a biological, a social, and a personal level of a human relating to the world. In the frame of this conception, the metanecesseties can be interpreted as mediating links between individual and collective planes of activity. By combining this view with object-oriented activity, I could refine and argue for the tentative model (Study 2) in which psychological needs (metanecessities) are placed inside the collective activity system forming the ­‘inner’ triangle which is dialectically related to the collective activity system through three ‘outer’ triangles. The model is presented as a contribution to the discussion on the still insufficiently resolved dichotomy of individual and collective planes of activity by providing a double framing which can be likened to and demonstrated as being reflectively positioned between two opposing mirrors. While looking at a mirror and analysing what lies before you, you realise that what you see (and can see) is actually your background – a colourful texture of experience that has accumulated over the years of practice within the activity. Conceiving yourself as being embedded in the picture, positioned in front of that background, and amidst other participants with an assumed similar experiencing but with their personal sense making, makes subjective mechanisms discernible as inherently necessary moment within unfolding activity. The theoretical discussion is completed with an illumination of possible mechanisms through which the teachers are shaping and are being shaped by instrumentality of transformative agency for allowing one to participate in and contribute to processes of which object is collective. Keywords: cultural-historical activity theory, reflective practice, transformative agency, existential needs, school development
  • Poropudas, Salla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    DISSERTATION ABSTRACT The dissertation examines the professional identity of the students in Diaconal Work, Christian Youth Work and Christian Early Childhood Education programmes in the Diaconia University of Applied Sciences in the early stages of their studies. Previous studies regarding Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland have not analysed the professional identity of students in the various fields of the Church at the same time. The professional identity of deacon students has not previously been studied either. In this study, professional identity is examined interdisciplinary, especially from the perspective of educational science, social psychology and theology. Learning assignments of 61 students concerning the spiritual life history, the Bible and professionalism were used as research data. The material has been reviewed using a narrative approach. Both categorical and holistic methods have been used in the analysis of the data. Students' religiosity had been influenced by the home background in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, as well as events related to studies, religious communities, crises and supernatural experiences. In the early stages of studies, religiosity was represented by perceptions of the meaning of God’s guidance, the care of one's spiritual life, and the view of the Bible. The vision of the professional image of the Church employee consisted of values and ethics, experience and knowledge of the profession, perceptions of professionals, competence and its adoption, and the development of work. The results of the study were viewed through seven typical stories that were: From Christian Home to Church Work, Through the Confirmation Preparation to Church Work, From Christian Home towards Christian Calling, From Christian Background to Christian Life, Seeker's Path towards Church Work?, From Christian Home to Professional Uncertainty, and From Non-Christian Home to Spiritual Uncertainty. This study shows that the typical archetypal story of a student in the Church field is the story of a hero, who has overcome various challenges and found his spiritual and professional confidence. On the other hand, the story of some students also differs from and challenges the archetypal story. Based on this study, the strongest threat to the student's own spiritual confidence, and therefore also to the professional identity of the Church worker, is uncertainty about the eligibility of one's own faith for the church community. Key words: professional identity, religious socialisation, narrative, university of applied sciences
  • Lehto, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This PhD study explores schools’ targeted sport clubs and their potential for building and supporting children’s well-being. In 2004–2007, The Schools of Turku on the Move along with the City of Turku implemented a large project with the aim of supporting children’s and young adults’ holistic well-being and school satisfaction through physical activity. One focus of development chosen for this project was targeted school sports clubs. An invitation to a sports club was extended to children who did not attend any organised free-time physical activity. Since the reasons for children’s physical inactivity are manifold (obesity, weak social skills, lack of family support, etc.), the schools were allowed to further specify their invitation criteria and activity emphasis. The ultimate objectives of targeted school sports clubs were to reduce health- and wellness-related discrepancies among children, while simultaneously supporting the well-being of children who were at high risk of exclusion. The research is centered around educational sciences, in particular physical education, and the new social studies of childhood. This type of research regards school clubs and physical activity environments as key components in constructing childhood. The research data were gathered in 2006–2007 from nine different primary school sports clubs that were participants in The Schools of Turku on the Move. The research material was composed of short stories (N=51) by second to sixth graders by an empathy-based method as well as the children’s (N=21) and the teachers’ (N=12) interviews. In addition, this PhD study explores official documentation (N=51) governing school clubs from 1995 to 2011. A qualitative case study was chosen as the approach to the research. Content analysis was employed to analyze the official documentation (Article II), whereas the research material gathered from the school clubs and created with children was analyzed using theory-driven content analysis and examined as data-driven (Article III). The material gathered from the children and teachers was examined from feminist pedagogy and engaged pedagogy points of view (Article IV). Through the research process, children’s well-being became increasingly defined through engagement and promotion of engagement. The understanding of promotion of engagement and child well-being was deepened through the Convention on the Rights of the Child and a positive recognition perspective. Children described school sports clubs as pleasant places which brought them joy. Other important factors that contributed to these positive experiences with school sports clubs included bonds to friends and teachers, relaxed atmosphere while playing sports, and freedom to make choices and voice opinions. Children’s narratives through the short stories also brought to light the fear of negative attention from peers during sport events. However, children’s descriptions mainly focused on engagement and inclusion and creating an engaged and promotive environment. A targeted sports club seemed to lower power relations between different participants and promote an equal learning environment. These factors support an equal physical activity and hobby culture for children. The school club environment and prioritizing well-being from the perspective of positive recognition made it possible to genuinely acknowledge the individual within each child. Familiarization, in turn, laid the foundation for the teacher to be able to give recognition to children in matters that the children themselves deemed important. School clubs provided children with a physically and, especially in small clubs, socially safe place to exercise. Keywords: school club activity, children’s well-being, targeted school sports clubs, support of well-being, qualitative case study.
  • Sillanpää, Taina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation studies the turning points and continuities of everyday life in kindergartens and day care centers from the 1930s to the 21st century from a spatial perspective. The study combines theoretical and methodological aspects of childhood research, early childhood education history, oral history, and human geography. The dissertation examines the lived space of the recalled kindergarten childhood with the help of memory data collected in 2011–2012 and 2018. In addition to the memory data, official material representing information on early childhood education as well as photographs are used as reference material. The study aims to find connections between space and agency. By examining turning points and continuities, one analyzes how space is conquered horizontally in and around a kindergarten environment and, on the other hand, how the use of space is restricted. The examination of the vertical level defines the levels of activity of the child and the adult. The space of the kindergarten is built and changed by the people who use it and is described in the relevant experiences of childhood. The focus of the research is on the personal, revealing experiential knowledge of childhood and official knowledge that emerges in the structures of society, political decisions, and various legitimized practices, values, and attitudes. The concept third space used in this dissertation includes, in addition to the lived space of those who use or live in the space and the perceived place, also public or hidden community rules and principles, laws or regulations in the environment. The third space is characterized by the pursuit of change and the spatial practices of human life can be changed by perceiving, interpreting, and acting. Early childhood memory information refers to strong, personal, momentary emotional or sensory experiences. In addition to personal experiences related to one's own life, experience narratives deal with events defined as historical from the author's own point of view, in this study the authors' perspectives on the general history of kindergarten and kindergarten culture and environment. There are three significant spatial turning points in the data at the horizontal level: the narrowing of children's outdoor space, the expansion of indoor space and the narrowing of the kitchen space. On a horizontal level, the kitchen space became a no-go area for children in the early 2000s. Opportunities for children's own independent use of the interior increased while they simultaneously decreased from the outdoor space. The main research result of the dissertation is the manifestation of childhood agency throughout the study period from the 1930s to the present day. However, the forms of agency have varied at different times, partly because of spatial changes. In the initial phase, the yard and its surroundings served as a supporter of children's agency. Since the 1970s, the diversified interior spaces have supported children’s agency. The knowledge and skills with which to practice it can also be considered a prerequisite for agency. Diverse practice of handicrafts and various work tasks developed children’s skills. The memory data used in the study show that the need for children’s own space and counterculture occur in childhood memories in all the decades studied. They merely change shape as the horizontal and vertical space change.
  • Cao, Yanling (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation explored teacher educators’ research and teaching work in the academic university-based teacher education context. The aims were to clarify how the university-based teacher educators considered their roles as teachers and/or researchers and the nexus between their research and teaching, how they integrated research into teaching, and the approaches to teaching they reported applying. Meanwhile, how their research-teaching integration was correlated to their reported approaches to teaching, i.e., their intentions for teaching and the strategies supporting the intention, was investigated. Furthermore, how teacher self-efficacy beliefs in teaching and burnout (inadequacy in teacher-student interaction, and exhaustion and stress) predicted teacher educators’ reported approaches to teaching were examined to explain the variation of their approaches to teaching. A mixed-methods approach was applied. Accordingly, a questionnaire including 34 quantitative items and one qualitative open-ended question was used. The data were collected from Finland (n = 101) and China (n = 115) and were analysed in three sub-studies. Study I explored Finnish teacher educators’ reported roles as teachers/researchers, the closeness of their research-teaching nexus, the tangible forms in which they integrated research into teaching, the approaches to teaching they reported applying, and the relationship between them. The results revealed that about half of the participants reported their roles of being more as teachers than researchers. About 80% of them considered the nexus between their research and teaching to be tight. Six forms of research-teaching integration were found. The most frequently reported form was teaching content is based on research, followed by teaching methods and course design are based on research, applying inquiry-oriented methods in teaching, acting as researchers in teacher education, encouraging student teachers’ involvement in research work, and a supportive relationship between research and teaching. Furthermore, Finnish teacher educators were identified as having three approaches to teaching: teacher educators with a student-focused approach to teaching; teacher educators with a dissonant approach to teaching; and teacher educators with a vague approach to teaching. However, no relationship was found between the varied approaches to teaching and teacher educators’ reported teacher/researcher role, their research-teaching closeness, or research-teaching integration. Study II examined Chinese teacher educators’ reported approaches to teaching, their roles as teachers/researchers and research-teaching closeness, and the relationship between them. The analyses indicated that the Chinese teacher educators reported differently from their colleagues in Finland regarding the components of the student-focused and teacher-focused approaches to teaching. Chinese teacher educators considered information presentation as one element of the student-focused approach to teaching rather than the teacher-focused approach. Besides this, the analyses showed three approaches to teaching in Chinese teacher education similar to the ones in Finland. Meanwhile, about half of the Chinese teacher educators reported themselves more as teachers than researchers, and that their research and teaching were tightly related. Furthermore, Study II revealed that the teacher educators with a student-focused approach to teaching reported a closer research-teaching nexus than the ones with a less student-focused approach. Study III investigated how teacher self-efficacy beliefs in teaching and burnout predicted approaches to teaching among Chinese teacher educators. It was shown that self-efficacy beliefs in teaching were positively related to the student-focused approach to teaching and explained most of the variance in this approach. Teacher educators’ experiences of inadequacy in interaction with students explained most of the variance in the teacher-focused approach to teaching; meanwhile, it was positively correlated to both the student-focused and teacher-focused approaches to teaching. Teacher educators’ experiences of exhaustion were negatively correlated with their student-focused approach to teaching. No relationship was revealed between teacher stress and approaches to teaching. This dissertation contributes to the literature on research-teaching nexus in academic university-based teacher education by revealing the forms of teacher educators’ research-teaching integration. Furthermore, it adds new knowledge on how we might understand teacher educators’ approaches to teaching within the different cultural contexts. The results indicate that the research-teaching nexus and approaches to teaching are complex phenomena bound to the particular contexts, and the teachers situated in the context. Research and teaching can be seen as interrelated activities in academic teacher education. Different strategies are needed for teacher educators to build an integrated research-teaching nexus according to the varied roles they have reported and the forms of research-teaching integration they have applied. Meanwhile, an improvement of self-efficacy belief in teaching is vital for teacher educators to promote approaches to teaching towards a student-focused way. Taking precautions to prevent teacher educators’ experiences of burnout is necessary, though the interaction between teacher burnout and approaches to teaching is complex. Keywords: teacher educators, research-teaching integration, research-teaching nexus, approaches to teaching, self-efficacy beliefs in teaching, teacher burnout, research-based teaching, academic university-based teacher education, teacher education in Finland and China
  • Niu, Shuanghong Jenny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Currently, with such rapid changes in societies and the environment and with significant global challenges, there are increasing demands to prepare students to take care of their personal development and their lives, as well as their competencies for future work. Schools and education must provide them with 21st century competencies, such as collaboration, critical thinking, communication, and creativity. Merely acquiring knowledge is not enough. The learning of competencies that consist of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values has become increasingly important. Moreover, how to teach and learn these competencies is one of the vital focal points in education. The main goal of this dissertation was to investigate the essential critical aspects which create the conditions for supporting the student learning of competencies for a changing environment. This dissertation consists of five original studies which focus on the pedagogical aspects promoting teaching and learning 21st century competencies. The material used in the five published articles was collected in Finland and/or China. The aim was not to compare these two very different educational systems, but to look for common aspects when using the same pedagogical methods in two different educational contexts. The main findings of the original studies were further analyzed with the purpose of uncovering what commonalities they had. The analysis had three main aims. One aim was to identify the students’ role in acquiring these competencies. Another aim was to examine what the teachers’ role is in supporting the student learning of competencies. The third aim was to reflect on what kind of learning environments promote student learning of competencies. To conclude, based on these five original studies, three critical aspects emerged in supporting teaching and learning 21st century competencies. First, students should have an active role in their learning, having agency when they acquire these competencies. Second, in this process, the teachers’ role was to facilitate the student learning processes and activities based on their pedagogical thinking and decision making. The third observation was the importance of socially-supported interactive and collaborative learning environments. Students learned these skills and competencies as active agents in socially-supported interactive and collaborative learning environments. In this dissertation, implications and suggestions based on the findings were also provided in order to stimulate and encourage further research in teaching and learning 21st century competencies.
  • Lehtonen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Väitöskirja tarkastelee ihmisyyteen ja maailmankuvaan liittyviä haasteita ja draaman soveltamisen mahdollisuuksia ilmastokasvatuksessa. Tutkimuksessa kysytään: Miksi ja millainen yhteyksien tiedostaminen on keskeistä ilmastokasvatuksessa? Miten draaman kautta voidaan mahdollistaa yhteyden kokemuksia ja relationaalisia kestävyyskompetensseja? Millaista relationaalista tietämistä ja ymmärrystä draaman kautta voidaan tuottaa ilmastonmuutoksesta koettuna, psykososiaalisena, ihmisyyteen liittyvänä ilmasto- ja tulevaisuuskasvatuksen haasteena? Väitöskirjassa käsitellään ilmastokasvatuksen metatason haasteita modernin dikotomisen ajattelun näkökulmasta ja selitetään kirjallisuuteen perustuen, miksi yhteyksien tiedostaminen on keskeistä ilmastokasvatuksessa. Yhteyksien pedagogiikan periaatteet kiteyttävät, miten ilmastonmuutoksen todellisuudessa on keskeistä vahvistaa ymmärrystä maailmasta ja ihmisestä osana eko- ja psykososiaalisia systeemejä. Olennaista on myös ymmärtää oppiminen kokonaisvaltaisesti ja tietäminen relationaalisesti. Väitöskirja perustuu kolmelle opetuskokeiluille. jotka valottavat esimerkein, miten draaman kautta voidaan vahvistaa ilmastokasvatuksessa keskeisiä relationaalisia kestävyyskompetensseja. Draaman kautta voidaan luoda välittävä, kuunteleva ja yhteyksiä vahvistava tila, jossa voidaan olla yhdessä eri tavalla ja tutkia ryhmän ajattelua ja yhteisiä mielikuvia luovassa vuorovaikutuksessa ja toiminnassa. Draama voi lisätä systeemistä ymmärrystä maailmasta ja ihmisten erilaisista näkökulmista ja kokemuksista. Draamassa tehdään näkyviksi ja samalla vahvistetaan kriittistä tietoisuutta yhteisöllisistä tavoista suhtautua tulevaisuuteen ja ilmastonmuutokseen. Opetuskokeiluissa ilmastonmuutokseen liittyviä tunteita ja teemoja käsiteltiin draaman kehollisten ja yhteisöllisten harjoitusten kautta ja improvisaation, ryhmälähtöisen tarinankerronnan ja esityksen tekemisen kautta tragedian ja huumorin keinoin. Draamatoiminta voi synnyttää rikasta materiaalia, erilaisia taiteellisia synteesejä osallistujien ajattelusta, heidän kokemastaan ilmastonmuutoksesta ja tulevaisuudesta. Draamalle tyypillinen, relationaalinen tietäminen on luonteeltaan kokemuksellista, performatiivista, draamallista, eläytyvää, kehollista, dialogista, reflektoivaa, assosiatiivista ja poeettista. Parhaimmillaan draama voi tuottaa olennaista, merkityksellistä tietoa ilmastonmuutoksesta psykososiaalisena, sosiaalisena ja koettuna haasteena, mikä on arvokasta ilmastokasvatuksen kehittämisen kannalta. Draamallisen toiminnan ohjaaminen vaatii kuitenkin ohjaajalta erityisiä taitoja, pedagogista ja eettistä herkkyyttä ja harkintaa.
  • Rawlings, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of the thesis was to examine how temperamental reward and punishment sensitivities guide motivation in different learning contexts. Motivation was approached as students' relatively stable motivational tendencies (i.e., achievement goal orientations), and appraisals of domain- and course-specific interest, strain, and effort. The thesis comprises three articles. In Article I, the dimensional structure of temperamental sensitivities was studied in two data sets (Study 1; N = 157; Study 2; N = 506), and the predictions of temperamental sensitivities on university students’ achievement goal orientations were also examined. In Article II, the relationships between temperamental sensitivities and achievement goal orientations were followed over the first three school years (N = 212). In Article III, the impact of temperamental sensitivities on interest, strain, and effort was investigated in the domain of mathematics among eighth-graders (Study 1; N = 268), and course-specifically in four different subjects among general upper-secondary students (Study 2; N = 155). Reward sensitivity separated into two main dimensions, defined by the source of reward. Interindividual reward is dependent on the attitudes and actions of others (e.g., attention, praise), whereas intraindividual reward is derived from the individual’s own inner states and actions (e.g., positive responsiveness to novelty, enthusiasm and excitement over successes). Temperament was consistently associated with motivation, regardless of the age of the participants. Interindividual reward sensitivity appears motivationally problematic, given its negative links with mastery strivings, and positive with concerns over one’s performance relative others, work avoidance, and psychological strain. Punishment sensitivity was also linked with higher performance concerns and strain. In contrast, intraindividual reward sensitivity was associated with higher mastery strivings, interest appraisals, and willingness to exert effort, and may hence be more beneficial motivationally and for well-being. The findings indicate that temperamental sensitivities guide motivation in adaptive and maladaptive ways, both academically and as regards well-being more generally. Also notable for research and educational practice are the differential linkages between sensitivity to qualitatively different rewards and motivation.
  • Koivuhovi, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine whether studying in a selective class with a special emphasis influences children’s competence beliefs or mathematical thinking skills. The original idea was to explore empirically the commonly held assumption that studying in a class with a special emphasis improves motivation. This dissertation consists of four original empirical studies, all of which examined the research question from several perspectives. In this summary section, these perspectives were summarized into four research questions. The first overall aim was to examine how children’s competence beliefs and mathematical thinking skills develop during the comprehensive school years. The second overall aim was to examine, how pupils who study in classes with a special emphasis differ from pupils who study in classes without a special emphasis in terms of background factors. The third overall aim, focused on the differences between classes with and without a special emphasis in the development of competence beliefs and mathematical thinking skills. Finally, the last overall aim explored more specific peer effects (i.e., the Big-Fish-Little-Pond effect, the Reflected Glory effect and the Peer Spillover effect) related to selective classes and explored whether these effects were visible in the Finnish context. The data were drawn from a longitudinal learning-to-learn study in which the cognitive capabilities and motivational beliefs of 744 first graders were assessed and followed up throughout the comprehensive school years. Data consisted of several measurement points and tasks. The original sample size was increased during the follow up as children changed schools and new schools and classes were added to the sample. For the purpose of this thesis, data drawn predominantly from grades four to six (n=1025) and from seven to nine (n=2339) were used. Data were analyzed with statistical methods including single and multilevel structural equation models as well as repeated measures and analyses of variance. The first finding from this thesis considered the overall development of children’s competence beliefs and mathematical thinking skills and supported findings of prior research showing a decline in positive self-beliefs during the school years. Decline in the competence beliefs was detected at both primary school and lower secondary school but the trajectories of different belief types varied. Children’s mathematical thinking skills progressed, as expected, during the followed-up years. Additionally, the second finding from this thesis confirmed findings of prior research and showed that classes with a special emphasis clearly differed from classes without a special emphasis in terms of pupils’ background. Children who studied in classes with a special emphasis came from more highly educated families and had a higher grade point average (GPA) than pupils who studied in classes without a special emphasis. There were also detailed differences between classes with a special emphasis in terms of pupils’ background. The main results from this study considered the development of competence beliefs and mathematical thinking skills between classes with and without a special emphasis and showed interestingly, that there were no differences in the development. Even though pupils differed from each other initially due to the selective process of classes with a special emphasis, most of the differences in the development of competence beliefs and mathematical thinking skills were explained by these initial differences and the development was similar in different types of class after the background variables had been considered. Therefore, the results from this thesis gave no evidence of the assumed beneficial effects of emphasized teaching. On the contrary, findings regarding the peer effects explored showed that the Big-Fish-Little-Pond effect was visible in the Finnish context whereas other peer effects were not. In other words, the results showed that the average achievement level of class predicted individual pupil’s academic self-concept negatively. Therefore, these findings suggested that instead of the assumed beneficial motivational effects, studying in a highly selective class may have detrimental effects on individual pupil’s self-beliefs. ________________________________________ Keywords: Classes with a special emphasis, selective classes, competence beliefs, action-control-beliefs, academic self-concept, mathematical thinking skills, longitudinal study, class composition, Big-Fish-Little-Pond
  • Särkelä, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation is a qualitative study consisting of four sub-studies and this summary part. The task of my research is to describe and interpret life and future of the “global generation” in the light of qualitative materials produced by 14–19 year old young people, and to consider the development of school and especially geography teaching from the perspective of these materials. The aim of the study is to bring qualitative information about young people’s life and thoughts and about the use of the method of empathy-based stories and photography in geography teaching into the discussions about education. The research task is specified by the following research questions: 1a. How do young people describe the state and future of the world in their empathy-based stories? 1b. What do the issues raised by young people in their empathy-based stories mean for school and geography teaching? 2a. What picture of the global generation is based on empathy-based stories written by young people, photographs taken by young people and young people’s reflections on the Global South? 2b. How can the issues raised by young people in the materials they produced be considered in schools and in geography teaching? 3. What opportunities do the method of empathy-based stories and photography offer for geography teaching? The research was conducted from 2013 to 2020, in the context of geography teaching. The data used in the study were produced by young people born between 1995 and 2004 and living in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (N = 169). At the time of the study, the participants were 14–19-year-old secondary and upper secondary school students. The material used in the study consisted of empathy-based stories (N = 110), photographs (N = 160) and their written interpretations (N = 160), written reflection tasks (N = 19), written evaluations of the use of photographs (N = 11) and writings on photography as a method (N = 20). In sub-studies 1 and 2, the material was produced by using the method of empathy-based stories that was developed by Antti Eskola (1988). In the first sub-study, young people were asked to empathize with utopia or dystopia and in the second sub-study, they were asked to reflect on the state of the world from an upper secondary school student’s point of view. The third sub-study was conducted in the context of global education as a part of geography and visual arts teaching. Young people were asked to photograph their lives and write interpretations of the photographs they took. In addition, participants wrote about their assumptions about the Global South, reflected on their assumptions using the photos they took and assessed whether the use of the photos supported this. In the fourth sub-study young people were asked to photograph inequality and write interpretations of the photographs they took, as well as write about photography as a process. When interpreting the meanings of photographs, the aim was to capture the meanings young people gave to the photographs they took – such as in photo-elicitation interviews in which participants’ interpretations are central and present to guide the researcher’s interpretations (Leonard & McKnight 2015; Pyyry, Hilander & Tani 2021). When analysing the empathy-based stories, the frame stories guided the formation of the first themes, and the analysis proceeded to form new themes from the data. The materials were analysed using qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke 2006; Eskola 2001). In sub-study 1, thematic analysis was followed by constructing two different but typical stories from the material. Empathy-based stories written by young people were dominated by climate change and other people-caused risks. The world in which environmental problems, conflicts and individualism are present, and its dystopian future, were easier to imagine than a world in which everything is fine. Empathy-based stories made visible the risk awareness of young people and reflected the uncertainty and insecurity that shades the life of the global generation. The young people’s descriptions about risk society can work as a starting point for dialogue between the everyday geography of young people and the school geography. This could clarify the connections between different things, local and global, and support young people in managing uncertainty. Young people also wrote about different coping strategies, several of which were related to it how individuals can act. Related to this, they wondered if even adults know what is happening in the world. Among the despair young people also found hope. The hope was connected especially to their own generation, which respects other people and the environment. However, the role of hope was fragile, and action was not always connected to the notions about grievance. Therefore, it is important in geography teaching to build the hope and reflect the opportunities to take action. In this, the importance of cooperation should be empathized, as global problems cannot be solved individually. Based on the materials produced by the young people, the picture was drawn of the global generation, its life, and the future. The young people valued their identity, friends and family. School was important to some of them, but also a place where it was not possible for everyone to be themselves. The results show the importance of the assumption of the diversity of young people’s identities in all school activities. For young people it was obvious that people are equal, but they recognized that their generation’s starting points for life differ both near and far, and how they also have privileges. Young people’s assumptions about the Global South were partly stereotypical, but because this was recognized, it opens the opportunity to reflect to them and to deconstruct them. Based on the results, reflecting on one’s own assumptions and preconceptions is important in geography teaching, such as when studying issues related to different areas. The method of empathy-based stories proved to be a teaching method that makes it possible to spark the use of the imagination. The method enabled utopias that could be interpreted as ordinary, as well utopias for which realization does not seem possible so far, but within which the power of change may lie. In geography teaching, the method of empathy-based stories could be used when studying the opportunities to build a sustainable future. Photography directed young people’s gaze towards visually achievable things, but also made them reflect on the complexity of inequality. The photographs were personal and showed the diversity of young people’s appreciations. However, photography did not prove to be a shortcut to reach young people’s personal experiences. Some young people felt that the use of photographs made it easier to reflect on their own assumptions about the Global South, but it was not seen as a prerequisite for criticality. With the help of the method of empathy-based stories and photography in geography teaching, it was possible to build a dialogue between the young people’s lifeworld, everyday geographies and the academic geography of schools. The results of the study are not generalizable, but they provide insights into the debate on geography teaching and school. Keywords: everyday geographies, geography teaching, global generation, lifeworld, method of empathy-based stories, photography, risk society
  • Letonsaari, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Current methods for developing computational thinking skills usually have a technical and programming-centric approach and are not suitable for all people. In this research, the use of nonlinear storytelling as an educational method was examined. The specific interest was to analyze its relationship with the concept of computational thinking and to investigate if nonlinear storytelling can be used as a low-threshold method for teaching fundamental computational thinking skills. This research situates itself in computer science education. It consists of four independent studies. Study I investigates how nonlinear storytelling can be integrated into an adult education course for developing basic information technology skills. Special attention was given to understanding the role of storytelling in the process. The result of this study was a method that integrates nonlinear storytelling into educational game development. Study II studied the relationship between nonlinear stories and computational thinking by examining how typical computer programs are implemented using stories. The study shows that nonlinear stories are best suited for implementing finite state machine programs and programs that include interaction. The natural character of applicability indicates that nonlinear storytelling can improve students’ readiness for learning programming skills. In study III, experiences and observations made at the end of the aforementioned adult education course are reported. The technical quality of the stories collected (N = 14) was investigated and common challenges in the storytelling process such as understanding hyperlinking and its purpose in gamification were identified. In this study, a practical classification for storytelling software and metrics for analyzing stories were developed. Finally, study IV focused on investigating whether the concept of computational thinking allows broader interpretations compared to how it is traditionally used. The concept of computational thinking was explored by using the Extended Mind thesis by Clark and Chalmers. Analysis showed that it is reasonable to expand the concept beyond the traditional computer programming-based interpretation.
  • Knif, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Diverse Visual Arts: engaging spaces, equality acts, artistically known agency. Finnish basic education is based on the principles of equality and parity. However, studies have shown that the acts and practices of education, despite the best intentions, often strengthen inequality. Diversity education has not yet found a functional way of implementation in Finnish basic education or in teacher training. The task of this doctoral thesis is to clarify how diversity can be supported in visual arts education at the primary level of basic education. The task builds on the theories of equality and parity that aim for social justice, acknowledging priorities, building meanings and researching one’s place in a society and are common to both diversity education and visual arts education. The basis of practical visual arts education supporting diversity has been studied and developed through the stages of an empirical case study. The study consists of three qualitative and action-based and art-based case studies connected through the themes of diversity, the visual arts in primary education and the aim of developing education through participatory methodology. The first case focused on cultural codes and images as cultural texts. The data in this case consisted of 5th grade pupils’ (N=57) writings about Finnish national artworks in 2013. The second case was the Myrsky-community art project, held at a primary school in 2013-2014. The data for this case comprised observations of plans, actions and the artistic processes of the project and the knowledge gained during it, through interviews, questionnaires and the work diaries of pupils (N=45). The third case was a visual arts course at the University of Helsinki in class teacher training in 2016, in which students (N=25) planned and executed visual arts workshops for primary schools in the theme “equality and parity”. The data consists of the students’ study diaries. The data were analyzed using the methods of qualitative content analysis. This article-based doctoral thesis consists of four published articles and this compilation part. The study made the paradigm changes visible both in diversity and visual arts edu-cation. It strengthened the notion of the white Finnish norm and showed that its visual orders are strongly present at the primary school pupils´ conceptions of Finnishness. The study emphasized the importance of recognizing the inequalities and the importance of equality as the starting point of all education. The visual arts can be a functional platform for supporting diversity through its own way of knowing and building social engagement, agency and positions. The visual arts can work performatively through active continual processes, when the focus is not on the results but on the social categories, not on the products but on the community, in which meanings, interpretations, identities and cultures build and rebuild in polyphonic dialogue, artistic negotiations. Since social engagement is seen as communal empowerment and competence, it requires the development of critical and aware agency and creativity that can rebuild the culture. In that task, visual arts education as a critical, aware and creative subject, can offer a functional diversity supporting space of learning even in primary education.
  • Chmylevska, Nataliya (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This research explores the problem of child abuse and neglect at schools and aims to examine policies and practices concurrently. The research encompasses Ukrainian and Finnish comprehensive schools and their associated preventive policies. The problem of the study is that existing preventive policies are not effective in overcoming challenges of modern schools in preventing child maltreatment and thus, require urgent revision and improvement. The hope is to create a metapolicy that will guide policy-makers in the future and to build an agenda for future research. Hence, the goal of this research is to distinguish weaknesses of the existing preventive policies and, based on literature sources and practical experiment, to identify the best practices for tackling child abuse and neglect at schools. Moreover, current study pursues to generate versatile preventive policy, which can be employed to tackle these negative phenomena by any school irrespective of its geographical location. The study commenced with inductive analysis of existing policies at Ukrainian comprehensive schools, which constituted to the first phase of data gathering. Concurrently, a diverse array of literature sources was scrupulously examined to distinguish the best preventive practices for addressing challenges that had been identified in the Current State Analysis, which consequently contributed to creating a conceptual framework for this research. Upon the definition of the Conceptual Framework of this study, the second round of data gathering was conducted at Finnish comprehensive schools. This helped to extend and affirm the results that were obtained during the first phase of data gathering and facilitate creation of the provisional proposal of this study. When the provisional proposal was finalized, it was presented for reviewing to the policy-makers who were among the respondents of the current research. This allowed the execution of the third round of data gathering and therefore, to generate final proposal of this study. Keywords: child abuse, neglect, bullying, safe and secure school environment, metapolicy.
  • Räisänen, Milla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The overall aim of the doctoral dissertation was to examine the interaction between students’ experiences of self- and co-regulation of learning and study-related exhaustion during university studies. The first aim was to examine the interaction between self- and co-regulation of learning at the early stages of university studies. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate what kind of individual combinations can be identified among students based on their experiences of self- and co-regulation of learning. The second aim was to examine students’ experiences of study-related exhaustion and the interaction between self- and co-regulation of learning and study-related exhaustion at the early stages of their studies. Third, the aim was to investigate the stability and change in students’ experiences of self- and co-regulation of learning and study-related exhaustion during university studies and how these were related to each other during studies. The dissertation consists of three original studies. The dissertation applied a mixed-methods approach combining qualitative and quantitative methods, a variable- and a person-oriented approach as well as cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Studies I and II examined students’ experiences of self- and co-regulation of learning at the early phases of studies. In addition, Study II explored the differences among the profiles in terms of self-reported study-related exhaustion. Study III investigated students’ experiences of the stability and change in self- and co-regulation of learning and study-related exhaustion during university studies. In Study I, applying a person-oriented approach, three different profiles related to self- and co-regulation of learning were identified through qualitative methods: 1) self-regulated students not using co-regulation; 2) actively co-regulating students with average self-regulation skills and 3) students with self-regulation problems relying on co-regulation. To achieve a more comprehensive picture of different combinations of self- and co-regulation of learning, Study II explored the individual combinations related to self- and co-regulation of learning through quantitative methods. In Study II, four different profiles were identified: 1) self-regulated students with a low level of peer learning and low perceived value of peer support; 2) self-regulated students with a high level of peer learning and high perceived value of peer support; 3) students with self-regulation problems, a high level of peer learning and high perceived value of peer support and 4) students with self-regulation problems, a low level of peer learning and average perceived value of peer support. Studies I and II showed similarities among the profiles. Study II further indicated that the profiles differed in terms of self-reported study-related exhaustion. Self-regulated students with a low level of peer learning and low perceived value of peer support reported the lowest levels of study-related exhaustion. Students with self-regulation problems, a high level of peer learning and high perceived value of peer support reported the highest levels of study-related exhaustion. The results showed that problems in self-regulation explained self-reported study-related exhaustion. Study III showed that experienced study-related exhaustion increased during studies. However, the results also showed a large individual variation in study-related exhaustion. The students whose exhaustion decreased described that they had been able to develop their self-regulation skills through other students’ support. Students whose study-related exhaustion remained low evaluated their self-regulation skills as good. They experienced that they did not need other students’ support in the regulation of learning. The students whose study-related exhaustion remained average, high or increased described more problems in self-regulation. Most students emphasised that other students' support had an important role in their studying because of problems in self-regulation. However, not all students took an advantage of other students’ support in the regulation of learning despite of problems in self-regulation. In conclusion, this doctoral dissertation provides new knowledge on the interaction between self- and co-regulation of learning and study-related exhaustion during university studies. The dissertation showed individual differences in self- and co-regulation of learning by identifying different student profiles related to self- and co-regulation of learning. The study showed that the profiles differed in terms of experienced study-related exhaustion. The dissertation demonstrated that regulation skills have an important role in experienced study-related exhaustion during university studies. The dissertation showed the importance of using a mixed-methods approach in order to achieve a more comprehensive picture of the interaction between self- and co-regulation of learning and study-related exhaustion during studies. Keywords: self-regulation of learning, co-regulation of learning, study-related exhaustion, higher education