Browsing by Organization "University of Helsinki, Departments of Pathology and Radiology"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-1 of 1
  • Ylä-Kotola, Tuija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Microneurovascular free muscle transfer with cross-over nerve grafts in facial reanimation Loss of facial symmetry and mimetic function as seen in facial paralysis has an enormous impact on the psychosocial conditions of the patients. Patients with severe long-term facial paralysis are often reanimated with a two-stage procedure combining cross-facial nerve grafting, and 6 to 8 months later with microneurovascular (MNV) muscle transfer. In this thesis, we recorded the long-term results of MNV surgery in facial paralysis and observed the possible contributing factors to final functional and aesthetic outcome after this procedure. Twenty-seven out of forty patients operated on were interviewed, and the functional outcome was graded. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of MNV muscle flaps was done, and nerve graft samples (n=37) were obtained in second stage of the operation and muscle biopsies (n=18) were taken during secondary operations.. The structure of MNV muscles and nerve grafts was evaluated using histological and immunohistochemical methods ( Ki-67, anti-myosin fast, S-100, NF-200, CD-31, p75NGFR, VEGF, Flt-1, Flk-1). Statistical analysis was performed. In our studies, we found that almost two-thirds of the patients achieved good result in facial reanimation. The longer the follow-up time after muscle transfer the weaker was the muscle function. A majority of the patients (78%) defined their quality of life improved after surgery. In MRI study, the free MNV flaps were significantly smaller than originally. A correlation was found between good functional outcome and normal muscle structure in MRI. In muscle biopsies, the mean muscle fiber diameter was diminished to 40% compared to control values. Proliferative activity of satellite cells was seen in 60% of the samples and it tended to decline with an increase of follow-up time. All samples showed intramuscular innervation. Severe muscle atrophy correlated with prolonged intraoperative ischaemia. The good long-term functional outcome correlated with dominance of fast fibers in muscle grafts. In nerve grafts, the mean number of viable axons amounted to 38% of that in control samples. The grafted nerves characterized by fibrosis and regenerated axons were thinner than in control samples although they were well vascularized. A longer time between cross facial nerve grafting and biopsy sampling correlated with a higher number of viable axons. P75Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (p75NGFR) was expressed in every nerve graft sample. The expression of p75NGFR was lower in older than in younger patients. A high expression of p75NGFR was often seen with better function of the transplanted muscle. In grafted nerve Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and its receptors were expressed in nervous tissue. In conclusion, most of the patients achieved good result in facial reanimation and were satisfied with the functional outcome. The mimic function was poorer in patients with longer follow-up time. MRI can be used to evaluate the structure of the microneurovascular muscle flaps. Regeneration of the muscle flaps was still going on many years after the transplantation and reinnervation was seen in all muscle samples. Grafted nerves were characterized by fibrosis and fewer, thinner axons compared to control nerves although they were well vascularized. P75NGFR and VEGF were expressed in human nerve grafts with higher intensity than in control nerves which is described for the first time.