Browsing by Subject "lääketiede, kansanterveystiede"

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  • Bidel, Siamak (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Type 2 diabetes is one of the diseases that largely determined by lifestyle factors. Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and recently released data suggest the effects of coffee consumption on type 2 diabetes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of habitual coffee consumption on various aspects of type 2 diabetes and its most common complications. This study is part of the national FINRISK studies. Baseline surveys were carried out between 1972 and 1997. The surveys covered two eastern regions in 1972 and 1977, but were expanded to include a third region in southwestern Finland in 1982, 1987, 1992, and 1997. The Helsinki capital area was included in the survey in 1992 and 1997 and the Oulu province, in northern Finland, in 1997. Each survey was drawn from an independent random sample of the national register of subjects aged 25-64. In 1997, an additional sample of subjects aged 65-74 was conducted. The blood pressure, weight, and height of subjects were measured. By using self-administered questionnaires data were collected on medical history, socioeconomic factors, physical activity, smoking habits, and alcohol, coffee, and tea consumption. Higher coffee consumption was associated with higher body mass index, occupational physical activity and cigarette smoking, and lower blood pressure, education level, leisure time physical activity, tea consumption and alcohol use. Age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and current smoking were positively associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes, however, education, and occupational, commuting and leisure time physical activity were inversely associated. The significant inverse association between coffee consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes was found in both sexes but the association was stronger in women. Coffee consumption was significantly and inversely associated with fasting glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, fasting insulin, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose regulation, and hyperinsulinemia among both men and women and with isolated impaired glucose tolerance among women. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase modified the association between coffee consumption and incident diabetes. Among subjects with high serum -glutamyltransferase (>75th percentile), coffee consumption showed an inverse association for women, as well as men and women combined. An inverse association also occurred between coffee consumption and the risk of total, cardiovascular disease, and coronary heart disease mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. The results of this study showed that habitual coffee consumption may be associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Coffee consumption may have some effects on several markers of glycemia, and may lower the incident of type 2 diabetes in high normal serum -glutamyltransferase levels. Total, cardiovascular disease, and coronary heart disease mortality rate among subjects with type 2 diabetes may also be reduced by coffee consumption.
  • Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The aims of this dissertation were 1) to investigate associations of weight status of adolescents with leisure activities, and computer and cell phone use, and 2) to investigate environmental and genetic influences on body mass index (BMI) during adolescence. Finnish twins born in 1983–1987 responded to postal questionnaires at the ages of 11-12 (5184 participants), 14 (4643 participants), and 17 years (4168 participants). Information was obtained on weight and height, leisure activities including television viewing, video viewing, computer games, listening to music, board games, musical instrument playing, reading, arts, crafts, socializing, clubs, sports, and outdoor activities, as well as computer and cell phone use. Activity patterns were studied using latent class analysis. The relationship between leisure activities and weight status was investigated using logistic and linear regression. Genetic and environmental effects on BMI were studied using twin modeling. Of individual leisure activities, sports were associated with decreased overweight risk among boys in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, but among girls only cross-sectionally. Many sedentary leisure activities, such as video viewing (boys/girls), arts (boys), listening to music (boys), crafts (girls), and board games (girls), had positive associations with being overweight. Computer use was associated with a higher prevalence of overweight in cross-sectional analyses. However, musical instrument playing, commonly considered as a sedentary activity, was associated with a decreased overweight risk among boys. Four patterns of leisure activities were found: ‘Active and sociable’, ‘Active but less sociable’, ‘Passive but sociable’, and ‘Passive and solitary’. The prevalence of overweight was generally highest among the ‘Passive and solitary’ adolescents. Overall, leisure activity patterns did not predict overweight risk later in adolescence. An exception were 14-year-old ‘Passive and solitary’ girls who had the greatest risk of becoming overweight by 17 years of age. Heritability of BMI was high (0.58-0.83). Common environmental factors shared by family-members affected the BMI at 11-12 and 14 years but their effect had disappeared by 17 years of age. Additive genetic factors explained 90-96% of the BMI stability across adolescence. Genetic correlations across adolescence were high, which suggests similar genetic effects on BMI throughout adolescence, while unique environmental effects on BMI appeared to vary. These findings suggest that family-based interventions hold promise for obesity prevention into early and middle adolescence, but that later in adolescence obesity prevention should focus on individuals. A useful target could be adolescents' leisure time, and our findings highlight the importance of versatility in leisure activities.
  • Saarni, Suoma (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Overweight and obesity have become more prevalent during the last decades; more than half of the western population is now overweight and a fifth obese. Especially among adolescents has the increase in overweight prevalence been rapid. Overweight combined with a large waist circumference (i.e. abdominal obesity) and smoking increase the morbidity of cardiovascular disease, metabolic diseases, like diabetes, and many cancers. Obesity and smoking are two leading causes of preventable death in developed countries. Paralleling the escalating trends in obesity, dieting and especially health compromising dieting methods, including smoking motivated by weight control reasons, are becoming more prevalent. Dieting for rapid weight loss usually leads to weight regain with possible extra pounds and detrimental effects in fat distribution or other health measures. Three quarters of those with intentional weight loss more than 5 kg reports regaining it all. Smoking and dieting seem to be intertwined with the way that they affect the development of overweight and obesity. In this study the effects of recurrent dieting and smoking on body weight were examined. In addition the effect of smoking on the development of abdominal obesity was studied. A further aim was to clarify how strongly smoking and recurrent dieting are associated among Finnish men and women at different ages. Three different data sets were used in this study. FinnTwin16 consists of virtually all twins born between 1975 and 1979 (N=5563), surveyed at ages 16, 17, 18.5 and 24 years. The Finnish Twin Cohort includes 12 793 same-sex twins born between 1930 and 1957 surveyed in 1990. The Cohort of male elite athletes consists of 1838 athletes and 834 matched referents surveyed at 1985, 1995 and 2001. Self-reported height, weight and smoking are included in all questionnaires. Dieting behaviour was self-reported in twin data and based on sport among athletes. It is known that recurrent dieting with regains is common among sportsmen in sports with weight classes like boxing and wrestling. Smoking in adolescence predicted later abdominal obesity in both sexes and overweight among women. Recurrent dieting among men was found to predispose for later weight gain and obesity. Smoking was associated with recurrent dieting among young men and women, but among older men the association was the opposite. Smoking prevention and discouragement of unnecessary dieting might be more effective tools against later morbidity associated with obesity and abdominal obesity than previously thought.