Browsing by Subject "lääketiede, korva-, nenä ja kurkkutaudit"

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  • Airaksinen, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Occupational rhinitis is mainly caused by work environment and not by stimuli encountered outside the workplace. It differs from rhinitis that is worsened by, but not mainly caused by, workplace exposures. Occupational rhinitis can develop in response to allergens, inhaled irritants, or corrosive gases. The thesis evaluated the use of challenge tests in occupational rhinitis diagnostics, studied the long-term health-related quality of life among allergic occupational rhinitis patients, and the allergens of wheat grain among occupational respiratory allergy patients. The diagnosed occupational rhinitis was mainly allergic rhinitis, which was caused by occupational agents, most commonly flours and animal allergens. The non-IgE-mediated rhinitis reactions were less frequent and caused more often asthma than rhinitis. Both nasal challenges and inhalation challenges were found to be safe tests. The inhalation challenge tests had considerably resource-intensive methodology. However, the evaluation of nasal symptoms and signs together with bronchial reactions saved time and expense compared with the organization of multiple individual challenges. The scoring criteria used matched well with the weighted amount of discharge ≥ 0.2 g and in most cases gave comparable results. The challenge tests are valuable tools when there is uncertainty whether the patient's exposure should be reduced or discontinued. It was found that continuing exposure decreases health-related quality of life among patients with allergic occupational rhinitis despite of rhinitis medications, still approximately ten years after the diagnosis. Health-related quality of life among occupational rhinitis patients without any longer occupational exposure was mainly similar than that of the healthy controls. This highlights the importance of the reduction and cessation of occupational exposure. To achieve this, 17% of occupational rhinitis patients had been re-educated. Alpha-amylase inhibitors, lipid transfer protein 2G, thaumatin -like protein, and peroxidase I were found to be relevant allergens in Finnish patients with occupational respiratory wheat allergy. Of these allergens, thaumatin-like protein and lipid transfer protein 2G were found as new allergens associated with baker's rhinitis and asthma. The knowledge of the new clinically relevant proteins can be used in the future in the development of better standardized diagnostic preparations.