Browsing by Subject "lääketiede, neurokirurgia"

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  • Lehecka, Martin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Objective: Distal anterior cerebral artery (DACA) aneurysms represent about 6% of all intracranial aneurysms. So far, only small series on treatment of these aneurysms have been published. Our aim is to evaluate the anatomic features, microneurosurgical techniques, treatment results, and long-term outcome in patients treated for DACA aneurysms. Patients and methods: We analyzed the clinical and radiological data on 517 consecutive patients diagnosed with DACA aneurysm at two neurosurgical centers serving solely the Southern (Helsinki) and Eastern (Kuopio) Finland in 1936–2007, and used a defined subgroup of the whole study population in each part of the study. Detailed anatomic analysis was performed in 101 consecutive patients from 1998 to 2007. Treatment results were analyzed in 427 patients treated between 1980 to 2005, the era of CT imaging and microneurosurgery. Long-term treatment outcome of ruptured DACA aneurysm(s) was evaluated in 280 patients with a median follow-up of 10 years; no patients were lost to follow-up. Results: DACA aneurysms, found most often (83%) at the A3 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), were smaller (median 6 mm vs. 8 mm), more frequently associated with multiple aneurysms (35% vs. 18%), and presented more often with intracerebral hematomas (ICHs) (53% vs. 26%) than ruptured aneurysms in general. They were associated with anomalies of the ACA in 23% of the patients. Microsurgical treatment showed similar complication rates (treatment morbidity 15%, treatment mortality 0.4%) as for other ruptured aneurysms. At one year after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), DACA aneurysms had equally favorable outcome (GOS≥4) as other ruptured aneurysms (74% vs. 69%) but their mortality was lower (13% vs. 24%). Factors predicting unfavorable outcome for ruptured DACA aneurysms were advanced age, Hunt&Hess≥3, rebleeding before treatment, ICH, intraventricular hemorrhage, and severe preoperative hydrocephalus. The cumulative relative survival ratio showed 16% excess mortality in patients with ruptured DACA aneurysm during the first three years after SAH compared to the matched general population. From the fourth year onwards, there was no excess mortality during the follow-up. There were four episodes of recurrent SAH, only one due to treated DACA aneurysm, with a 10-year cumulative risk of 1.4%. Conclusions: The special neurovascular features and frequent association with anterior cerebral artery anomalies must be taken into account when planning occlusive treatment of DACA aneurysms. Clipping of DACA aneurysms provides a long-lasting result, with very small rates of rebleeding. After surviving three years from rupture of DACA aneurysm, the long-term survival of these patients becomes similar to that of the matched general population.
  • Marjamaa, Johan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The rupture of a cerebral artery aneurysm causes a devastating subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), with a mortality of almost 50% during the first month. Each year, 8-11/100 000 people suffer from aneurysmal SAH in Western countries, but the number is twice as high in Finland and Japan. The disease is most common among those of working age, the mean age at rupture being 50-55 years. Unruptured cerebral aneurysms are found in 2-6% of the population, but knowledge about the true risk of rupture is limited. The vast majority of aneurysms should be considered rupture-prone, and treatment for these patients is warranted. Both unruptured and ruptured aneurysms can be treated by either microsurgical clipping or endovascular embolization. In a standard microsurgical procedure, the neck of the aneurysm is closed by a metal clip, sealing off the aneurysm from the circulation. Endovascular embolization is performed by packing the aneurysm from the inside of the vessel lumen with detachable platinum coils. Coiling is associated with slightly lower morbidity and mortality than microsurgery, but the long-term results of microsurgically treated aneurysms are better. Endovascular treatment methods are constantly being developed further in order to achieve better long-term results. New coils and novel embolic agents need to be tested in a variety of animal models before they can be used in humans. In this study, we developed an experimental rat aneurysm model and showed its suitability for testing endovascular devices. We optimized noninvasive MRI sequences at 4.7 Tesla for follow-up of coiled experimental aneurysms and for volumetric measurement of aneurysm neck remnants. We used this model to compare platinum coils with polyglycolic-polylactic acid (PGLA) -coated coils, and showed the benefits of the latter in this model. The experimental aneurysm model and the imaging methods also gave insight into the mechanisms involved in aneurysm formation, and the model can be used in the development of novel imaging techniques. This model is affordable, easily reproducible, reliable, and suitable for MRI follow-up. It is also suitable for endovascular treatment, and it evades spontaneous occlusion.
  • Frösén, Juhana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Backround and Purpose The often fatal (in 50-35%) subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by saccular cerebral artery aneurysm (SCAA) rupture affects mainly the working aged population. The incidence of SAH is 10-11 / 100 000 in Western countries and twice as high in Finland and Japan. The estimated prevalence of SCAAs is around 2%. Many of those never rupture. Currently there are, however, no diagnostic methods to identify rupture-prone SCAAs from quiescent, (dormant) ones. Finding diagnostic markers for rupture-prone SCAAs is of primary importance since a SCAA rupture has such a sinister outcome, and all current treatment modalities are associated with morbidity and mortality. Also the therapies that prevent SCAA rupture need to be developed to as minimally invasive as possible. Although the clinical risk factors for SCAA rupture have been extensively studied and documented in large patient series, the cellular and molecular mechanisms how these risk factors lead to SCAA wall rupture remain incompletely known. Elucidation of the molecular and cellular pathobiology of the SCAA wall is needed in order to develop i) novel diagnostic tools that could identify rupture-prone SCAAs or patients at risk of SAH, and to ii) develop novel biological therapies that prevent SCAA wall rupture. Materials and Methods In this study, histological samples from unruptured and ruptured SCAAs and plasma samples from SCAA carriers were compared in order to identify structural changes, cell populations, growth factor receptors, or other molecular markers that would associate with SCAA wall rupture. In addition, experimental saccular aneurysm models and experimental models of mechanical vascular injury were used to study the cellular mechanisms of scar formation in the arterial wall, and the adaptation of the arterial wall to increased mechanical stress. Results and Interpretation Inflammation and degeneration of the SCAA wall, namely loss of mural cells and degradation of the wall matrix, were found to associate with rupture. Unruptured SCAA walls had structural resemblance with pads of myointimal hyperplasia or so called neointima that characterizes early atherosclerotic lesions, and is the repair and adaptation mechanism of the arterial wall after injury or increased mechanical stress. As in pads of myointimal hyperplasia elsewhere in the vasculature, oxidated LDL was found in the SCAA walls. Immunity against OxLDL was demonstrated in SAH patients with detection of circulating anti-oxidized LDL antibodies, which were significantly associated with the risk of rupture in patients with solitary SCAAs. Growth factor receptors associated with arterial wall remodeling and angiogenesis were more expressed in ruptured SCAA walls. In experimental saccular aneurysm models, capillary growth, arterial wall remodeling and neointima formation were found. The neointimal cells were shown to originate from the experimental aneurysm wall with minor contribution from the adjacent artery, and a negligible contribution of bone marrow-derived neointimal cells. Since loss of mural cells characterizes ruptured human SCAAs and likely impairs the adaptation and repair mechanism of ruptured or rupture-prone SCAAs, we investigated also the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived or circulating neointimal precursor cells could be used to enhance neointima formation and compensate the impaired repair capacity in ruptured SCAA walls. However, significant contribution of bone marrow cells or circulating mononuclear cells to neointima formation was not found.