Browsing by Subject "lääketiede (kliininen fysiologia ja keuhkosairaudet)"

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  • Rouhos, Annamari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) has proven useful in assessment of patients with respiratory symptoms, especially in predicting steroid response. The objective of these studies was to clarify issues relevant for the clinical use of FENO. The influence of allergic sensitization per se on FENO in healthy asymptomatic subjects was studied, the association between airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in steroid-naive subjects with symptoms suggesting asthma was examined, as well as the possible difference in this association between atopic and nonatopic subjects. Influence of smoking on FENO was compared between atopic and nonatopic steroid-naive asthmatics and healthy subjects. The short-term repeatability of FENO in COPD patients was examined in order to assess whether the degree of chronic obstruction influences the repeatability. For these purposes, we studied a random sample of 248 citizens of Helsinki, 227 army conscripts with current symptoms suggesting asthma, 19 COPD patients, and 39 healthy subjects. FENO measurement, spirometry and bronchodilatation test, structured interview. skin prick tests, and histamine and exercise challenges were performed. Among healthy subjects with no signs of airway diseases, median FENO was similar in skin prick test-positive and –negative subjects, and the upper normal limit of FENO was 30 ppb. In atopic and nonatopic subjects with symptoms suggesting asthma, FENO associated with severity of exercise- or histamine-induced BHR only in atopic patients. FENO in smokers with steroid-naive asthma was significantly higher than in healthy smokers and nonsmokers. Among atopic asthmatics, FENO was significantly lower in smokers than in nonsmokers, whereas no difference appeared among nonatopic asthmatics. The 24-h repeatability of FENO was equally good in COPD patients as in healthy subjects. These findings indicate that allergic sensitization per se does not influence FENO, supporting the view that elevated FENO indicates NO-producing airway inflammation, and that same reference range can be applied to both skin prick test-positive and -negative subjects. The significant correlation between FENO and degree of BHR only in atopic steroid-naive subjects with current asthmatic symptoms supports the view that pathogenesis of BHR in atopic asthma is strongly involved in NO-producing airway inflammation, whereas in development of BHR in nonatopic asthma other mechanisms may dominate. Attenuation of FENO only in atopic but not in nonatopic smokers with steroid-naive asthma may result from differences in mechanisms of FENO formation as well as in sensitivity of these mechanisms to smoking in atopic and nonatopic asthma. The results suggest, however, that in young adult smokers, FENO measurement may prove useful in assessment of airway inflammation. The short-term repeatability of FENO in COPD patients with moderate to very severe disease and in healthy subjects was equally good.