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  • Kyrö, Ella-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Atmospheric aerosols affect our health, air quality, visibility and climate. They can impact the climate trough their ability to interact with radiation and to alter cloud properties by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN). Globally, aerosols cool the climate, but locally their effect may be opposite. Their climatic effects are determined by their concentration, size distribution and chemical composition as well as their vertical and spatial distribution and the underlying surface type. Currently, the largest uncertainties in estimating our future climate are related to atmospheric aerosols and their intearctions with climate. Polar regions are experiencing faster warming than the Earth on average. This enhanced warming leads to many dramatic changes in the cryosphere, including rapid shrinkage of Arctic summer sea ice. Arctic ampli cation also decreases the temperature gradient between the Arctic and polar air masses. Both of these changes feed back to the atmospheric dynamics and thus the transport of pollutants into the Arctic. The rapid climate change alters also the sources - both natural and anthropogenic - and sinks of secondary aerosols in polar regions. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the formation and growth mechanisms of atmospheric aerosols in these areas in order to assess their climatic effects. High latitudes also offer a great natural laboratory to study the aerosol dynamics and timescales for reaching climatically relevant sizes or obtaining a balance between sources and sinks, with very little anthropogenic influence. Moreover, as the precipitation amount and patterns will change in the future, the removal of aerosols is also subject to change. Quantifying this requires parameterization for climate models. This thesis adds to the understanding of all of these aforementioned parts in the aerosol processes and their climatic effects in polar regions. It offers the fi rst observations of Antarctic new particle formation (NPF) from continental biogenic precursors and shows that areas with melt water ponds over glaciers and continental ice sheets are important regions for the formation of secondary aerosols and the organics evaporating from such ponds have the potential to grow the particles up to climatically relevant sizes even in timescales of only few hours. In this thesis, it is also shown that in areas with low background aerosol concentrations, large sources of anthropogenic sulphur have a substantial impact to the trends in NPF and potential CCN in the scale of few hundreds of kilometers. This thesis also introduces a new way to study the evolution of aerosol number size distribution during air mass transport and shows that the aerosol condensational growth is markable even in the absence of evident NPF. Finally, this thesis offers the fi rst parameterization of snow scavenging in a way that is easily applicable to climate models.
  • Jokinen, Asko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
  • Maeda, Eduardo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The indigenous cloud forests in the Taita Hills have suffered substantial degradation for several centuries due to agricultural expansion. Currently, only 1% of the original forested area remains preserved in this region. Furthermore, climate change imposes an imminent threat for local economy and environmental sustainability. In such circumstances, elaborating tools to conciliate socioeconomic growth and natural resources conservation is an enormous challenge. This dissertation tackles essential aspects for understanding the ongoing agricultural activities in the Taita Hills and their potential environmental consequences in the future. Initially, alternative methods were designed to improve our understanding of the ongoing agricultural activities. Namely, methods for agricultural survey planning and to estimate evapotranspiration were evaluated, taking into account a number of limitations regarding data and resources availability. Next, this dissertation evaluates how upcoming agricultural expansion, together with climate change, will affect the natural resources in the Taita Hills up to the year 2030. The driving forces of agricultural expansion in the region were identified as aiming to delineate future landscape scenarios and evaluate potential impacts from the soil and water conservation point of view. In order to investigate these issues and answer the research questions, this dissertation combined state of the art modelling tools with renowned statistical methods. The results indicate that, if current trends persist, agricultural areas will occupy roughly 60% of the study area by 2030. Although the simulated land use changes will certainly increase soil erosion figures, new croplands are likely to come up predominantly in the lowlands, which comprise areas with lower soil erosion potential. By 2030, rainfall erosivity is likely to increase during April and November due to climate change. Finally, this thesis addressed the potential impacts of agricultural expansion and climate changes on Irrigation Water Requirements (IWR), which is considered another major issue in the context of the relations between land use and climate. Although the simulations indicate that climate change will likely increase annual volumes of rainfall during the following decades, IWR will continue to increase due to agricultural expansion. By 2030, new cropland areas may cause an increase of approximately 40% in the annual volume of water necessary for irrigation.
  • Kallunki, Veera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This three-phase design research describes the modelling processes for DC-circuit phenomena. The first phase presents an analysis of the development of the DC-circuit historical models in the context of constructing Volta s pile at the turn of the 18th century. The second phase involves the designing of a teaching experiment for comprehensive school third graders. Among other considerations, the design work utilises the results of the first phase and research literature of pupils mental models for DC-circuit phenomena. The third phase of the research was concerned with the realisation of the planned teaching experiment. The aim of this phase was to study the development of the external representations of DC-circuit phenomena in a small group of third graders. The aim of the study has been to search for new ways to guide pupils to learn DC-circuit phenomena while emphasing understanding at the qualitative level. Thus, electricity, which has been perceived as a difficult and abstract subject, could be learnt more comprehensively. Especially, the research of younger pupils learning of electricity concepts has not been of great interest at the international level, although DC-circuit phenomena are also taught in the lower classes of comprehensive schools. The results of this study are important, because there has tended to be more teaching of natural sciences in the lower classes of comprehensive schools, and attempts are being made to develop this trend in Finland. In the theoretical part of the research an Experimental-centred representation approach, which emphasises the role of experimentalism in the development of pupil s representations, is created. According to this approach learning at the qualitative level consists of empirical operations like experimenting, observations, perception, and prequantification of nature phenomena, and modelling operations like explaining and reasoning. Besides planning teaching, the new approach can be used as an analysis tool in describing both historical modelling and the development of pupils representations. In the first phase of the study, the research question was: How did the historical models of DC-circuit phenomena develop in Volta s time? The analysis uncovered three qualitative historical models associated with the historical concept formation process. The models include conceptions of the electric circuit as a scene in the DC-circuit phenomena, the comparative electric-current phenomenon as a cause of different observable effect phenomena, and the strength of the battery as a cause of the electric-current phenomenon. These models describe the concept formation process and its phases in Volta s time. The models are portrayed in the analysis using fragments of the models, where observation-based fragments and theoretical fragements are distinguished from each other. The results emphasise the significance of the qualitative concept formation and the meaning of language in the historical modelling of DC-circuit phenomena. For this reason these viewpoints are stressed in planning the teaching experiment in the second phase of the research. In addition, the design process utilised the experimentation behind the historical models of DC-circuit phenomena In the third phase of the study the research question is as follows: How will the small group s external representations of DC-circuit phenomena develop during the teaching experiment? The main question is divided into the following two sub questions: What kind of talk exists in the small group s learning? What kinds of external representations for DC-circuit phenomena exist in the small group discourse during the teaching experiment? The analysis revealed that the teaching experiment of the small group succeeded in its aim to activate talk in the small group. The designed connection cards proved especially successful in activating talk. The connection cards are cards that represent the components of the electric circuit. In the teaching experiment the pupils constructed different connections with the connection cards and discussed, what kinds of DC-circuit phenomena would take place in the corresponding real connections. The talk of the small group was analysed by comparing two situations, firstly, when the small group discussed using connections made with the connection cards and secondly with the same connections using real components. According to the results the talk of the small group included more higher-order thinking when using the connection cards than with similar real components. In order to answer the second sub question concerning the small group s external representations that appeared in the talk during the teaching experiment; student talk was visualised by the fragment maps which incorporate the electric circuit, the electric current and the source voltage. The fragment maps represent the gradual development of the external representations of DC-circuit phenomena in the small group during the teaching experiment. The results of the study challenge the results of previous research into the abstractness and difficulty of electricity concepts. According to this research, the external representations of DC-circuit phenomena clearly developed in the small group of third graders. Furthermore, the fragment maps uncover that although the theoretical explanations of DC-circuit phenomena, which have been obtained as results of typical mental model studies, remain undeveloped, learning at the qualitative level of understanding does take place.
  • Hakkarainen, Anna-Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The dissertation focuses on the recognition of the problems of uneven regional development in Finland in the 1950s, and the way the idea of controlling this development was introduced to Finnish politics. Since it is often stated that Finnish regional policy only began in the mid-1960s, the period at hand is considered to fall in the time before regional policy. However, various ideas, plans and projects of regional development as well as different aims of development were brought forward and discussed already in the 1950s. These give an interesting perspective to the ideas of later regional development. In the 1950s, many Finnish politicians became more conscious of the unavoidable societal change. The need for overall modernisation of the society made it reasonable to expect a growing level of unemployment and eagerness to migration. The uneven distribution of well-being was also feared to cause discontent and political changes. International experience proved interfering in the regional development possible when using the argument of public interest ; the measures taken increased the level of well-being, helped sustain societal balance, and supported national economy. Many of the development projects of the 1950s focused on Northern Finland, the natural resources of which were considered an important reserve and the political climate of which was regarded unstable. After the late 1940s, regional development was discussed frequently both on the national and the regional level. Direct and indirect support was given to less developed areas and the government outlined thorough investigations in order to relieve the regional problem. Towards the end of the decade, the measures taken were already often connected to the idea of equality. In the 1950s the conflicts within and between the largest Finnish political parties significantly affected the decisions of regional development. There are three case studies in this qualitative research based on the narrative method. The case studies clarify the characteristics of the 1950s regional development. In the first one, the representatives of the northern region and the state first discuss the location of a state-run nitrogen fertilizer factory and later the location of a new university. In the second, the aims and perspectives of private entrepreneurs and the state collide due to ideas of statist industrialisation projects and later due to an idea of a tax relief targeting northern industry. In the third case, the main role is given to the changing rural areas, in relation to which societal development and urbanisation were often measured. The regional development of the 1950s laid groundwork for the new, more established regional policy. The early problem solving actions were aimed both at the prevailing situation and the future and thus showed the way for the upcoming actions. Regional development policy existed already before regional policy.
  • Sevon, Petteri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Parviainen, Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Bayesian networks are compact, flexible, and interpretable representations of a joint distribution. When the network structure is unknown but there are observational data at hand, one can try to learn the network structure. This is called structure discovery. This thesis contributes to two areas of structure discovery in Bayesian networks: space--time tradeoffs and learning ancestor relations. The fastest exact algorithms for structure discovery in Bayesian networks are based on dynamic programming and use excessive amounts of space. Motivated by the space usage, several schemes for trading space against time are presented. These schemes are presented in a general setting for a class of computational problems called permutation problems; structure discovery in Bayesian networks is seen as a challenging variant of the permutation problems. The main contribution in the area of the space--time tradeoffs is the partial order approach, in which the standard dynamic programming algorithm is extended to run over partial orders. In particular, a certain family of partial orders called parallel bucket orders is considered. A partial order scheme that provably yields an optimal space--time tradeoff within parallel bucket orders is presented. Also practical issues concerning parallel bucket orders are discussed. Learning ancestor relations, that is, directed paths between nodes, is motivated by the need for robust summaries of the network structures when there are unobserved nodes at work. Ancestor relations are nonmodular features and hence learning them is more difficult than modular features. A dynamic programming algorithm is presented for computing posterior probabilities of ancestor relations exactly. Empirical tests suggest that ancestor relations can be learned from observational data almost as accurately as arcs even in the presence of unobserved nodes.
  • Rantanen, Ari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The metabolism of an organism consists of a network of biochemical reactions that transform small molecules, or metabolites, into others in order to produce energy and building blocks for essential macromolecules. The goal of metabolic flux analysis is to uncover the rates, or the fluxes, of those biochemical reactions. In a steady state, the sum of the fluxes that produce an internal metabolite is equal to the sum of the fluxes that consume the same molecule. Thus the steady state imposes linear balance constraints to the fluxes. In general, the balance constraints imposed by the steady state are not sufficient to uncover all the fluxes of a metabolic network. The fluxes through cycles and alternative pathways between the same source and target metabolites remain unknown. More information about the fluxes can be obtained from isotopic labelling experiments, where a cell population is fed with labelled nutrients, such as glucose that contains 13C atoms. Labels are then transferred by biochemical reactions to other metabolites. The relative abundances of different labelling patterns in internal metabolites depend on the fluxes of pathways producing them. Thus, the relative abundances of different labelling patterns contain information about the fluxes that cannot be uncovered from the balance constraints derived from the steady state. The field of research that estimates the fluxes utilizing the measured constraints to the relative abundances of different labelling patterns induced by 13C labelled nutrients is called 13C metabolic flux analysis. There exist two approaches of 13C metabolic flux analysis. In the optimization approach, a non-linear optimization task, where candidate fluxes are iteratively generated until they fit to the measured abundances of different labelling patterns, is constructed. In the direct approach, linear balance constraints given by the steady state are augmented with linear constraints derived from the abundances of different labelling patterns of metabolites. Thus, mathematically involved non-linear optimization methods that can get stuck to the local optima can be avoided. On the other hand, the direct approach may require more measurement data than the optimization approach to obtain the same flux information. Furthermore, the optimization framework can easily be applied regardless of the labelling measurement technology and with all network topologies. In this thesis we present a formal computational framework for direct 13C metabolic flux analysis. The aim of our study is to construct as many linear constraints to the fluxes from the 13C labelling measurements using only computational methods that avoid non-linear techniques and are independent from the type of measurement data, the labelling of external nutrients and the topology of the metabolic network. The presented framework is the first representative of the direct approach for 13C metabolic flux analysis that is free from restricting assumptions made about these parameters.In our framework, measurement data is first propagated from the measured metabolites to other metabolites. The propagation is facilitated by the flow analysis of metabolite fragments in the network. Then new linear constraints to the fluxes are derived from the propagated data by applying the techniques of linear algebra.Based on the results of the fragment flow analysis, we also present an experiment planning method that selects sets of metabolites whose relative abundances of different labelling patterns are most useful for 13C metabolic flux analysis. Furthermore, we give computational tools to process raw 13C labelling data produced by tandem mass spectrometry to a form suitable for 13C metabolic flux analysis.
  • Zimmerbauer, Kaj (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Regions are considered to be in competition for investments, industries, inhabitants and skilled labour nationally as well as internationally. In the context of tightening competition, more and more attention has been paid to regional attractors. A positive image is an important attractor in regional competition. In Finland, many towns and regions have either implemented or are planning to implement various image-enhancing campaigns or other measures aimed at improving their image. The role of identity is very important in developing a regional image. Good regional image should be based on a strong regional identity and awareness. Related to this is the perception of one's own region as separate from others and the familiarity of the region. If a region has no place in the awareness of its residents or if the inhabitants do not identify with it, its very existence as a social construct can be questioned. This means that building the regional image, which in this context is seen as social constructivism, is extremely difficult if the degree of regional awareness and identification is low. On the other hand, regional identity is being built also by developing the regional image. In a way, regional discourses have become more marketing-oriented in that instead of trying to create a regional esprit de corps there is now more image-oriented speech aimed at striving to improve the attractivity to outsiders of the region. Even though the goal is to bring the region to the attention of non-residents, a measure of construction of regional identity for the local population is automatically effected at the same time. Regional image and identity are consequences of linguistic producing and understanding of a region. It means that both image and identity are seen as language-created social constructions. The regional image is created through various discourses, but also the construction of a regional identity as regional consciousness and identification is largely a linguistic process. Essential in this context is perceiving the region as a discursive project characterized by its representation as texts, images and symbols. The linguistic production of a region is not a neutral description of "reality", but a representation based on interpretations, experiences and different motivations. Production and perceiving vary in time, so regional image and identity are on the move. This research is driven by the ongoing change of the regional system. The municipal and service structure reform is in progress and the number of municipalities seems to be on the decrease. At the same time, European Union s regional policy and regionalism on the whole are changing the status of sub-regions. At municipal level the crucial question is how the municipal structure reform will affect regional identity. This study points out that strong sense of municipal identity is a source of opposition to changes in municipal structure, but on the other hand the deinstitutionalization of the old municipality in municipal merger does not in itself mean the weakening of municipal identity.
  • Roininen, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The research problem deals with the increasing fragmentation of the practical evaluation activities and academic evaluation research in the Finnish regional and urban planning. The fragmentation infiltrates all levels of evaluation theory, methodology, methods, processes and practices, as well as its sub-disciplines. The fragmentation is closely connected to the recent evolution of the modern Finnish society towards the so called project society. The hypothesis of the study is that the fragmentation can both challenge and profit evaluation and evaluation research. It can be a challenge, because fragmentation might increase the lack of common basic evaluation research. On the other hand, the profit implies that the fragmentation generates a diversification of evaluation research methods. The aim of the study is to describe and analyse the fragmented characteristics of evaluation in regional and urban studies and to investigate potential means to reintegrate them. A multidisciplinary theoretical framework of the study was built from the perspectives of evaluation research and urban and regional studies. The two research questions in the study are: what are the characteristics of evaluation research under the conditions of the modern project society, and what are the potential means to reintegrate evaluation research? The empirical part of the study consists of ten practical evaluation projects which provide material for a holistic picture of the state of the art of evaluation in the Finnish regional and urban planning. The empirical material covers the various regional levels and thematic fields of regional and urban planning. The empirical study comprises an analysis of the epistemology, ontology, aims, objects, procedures, orientations, applied fields, as well as of the practical processes and methodological tools of the ten evaluation projects. The methodology of the empirical part of the study also consists of a meta-evaluation in the form of a content analysis and a comparative analysis of the projects. The results of the study disclose that current evaluation practices have, on the one hand, expanded outwards to new fields and substance areas. On the other hand evaluations have fragmented inwards. The fragmentation means that the basic research on evaluation has been underdeveloped. The development of evaluation expertise has been strongly influenced by the main features of the project society, such as competition between project proposals and consultants. This has put an emphasis on applied studies instead of basic research. Thus, the development of evaluation practices has meant general adaptation to the needs of the operational environment and the project society. The results also indicate that evaluation activities are divided into three forms; academic evaluation research (basic research on evaluation), investigative evaluation (research in evaluation) and practical evaluation. The first type of evaluation has been underdeveloped and the last one widely diffused. The strengthening of basic research on evaluation would improve the methods, processes and practices of evaluation. However, the reintegration of evaluation demands, besides stronger basic research, three kinds of approaches; an evolutionary view of development, applied systems methodology and the application of utilization-focused evaluation. The study provides a systematic analysis and a comprehensive understanding of evaluation practices in regional and urban planning under the conditions of the modern project society, as well as new ways to develop integrated evaluation practices. It also offers a transdisciplinary methodology of evaluation research that can be applied in holistic and thematic evaluations. Thus, it contributes to the substance theory of evaluation. The results can be applied in the practice of planning and evaluation authorities, as well as in academic education at the universities.
  • Tynkkynen, Veli-Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    In this Ph.D. thesis I have studied how the objectives of sustainable development have been integrated into Northwest Russian urban and regional planning, and how the Russian planning discourse has changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union. By analysing the planning discussion, processes, and strategic documents I have also investigated the use of power and governmentality in urban and regional planning. As a methodological foundation I have used an approach that I call geographical constructivism . It was possible to answer in a relevant manner the question of how sustainable development has become a part of planning in Northwest Russia through a discourse analysis of the planning discussion. During the last decades, the aim of sustainable development has become globally one of the most central societal challenges. Urban and regional planning has a central role to play in promoting this process, since many meta-level objectives actually take shape within its sphere. An ever more actual challenge brought by sustainable development is to plan regions and places while balancing the conflicts of the pressures of safeguarding a good environment and of taking into consideration social and economic needs. I have given these unavoidable conflicts of sustainable development a central place in my work. In my view, complementing instrumental and communicative rationality with conflict rationality gives environmental planning a well-equipped toolbox. Sustainable development can be enhanced in urban and regional planning by seeking open, and especially hidden, potential conflicts. Thus, the expressed thinking (mentality) and actions taken by power regimes in and around conflicts open an interesting viewpoint into Northwest Russian governmentality. I examine the significance of sustainable development in planning through Northwest Russian geography, and also through recent planning legislation and four case studies. In addition, I project my analysis of empirical material onto the latest discussion of planning theory. My four case studies, which are based on independent and separate empirical material (42 thematic interviews and planning documents), consider the republics of Karelia and Komi, Leningrad oblast and the city of Saint Petersburg. In the dissertation I argue how sustainable development is, in the local governmentalities of Northwest Russia, understood as a concept where solving environmental problems is central, and that they can be solved through planning carried out by the planning professionals. Despite this idealism, environmental improvements have been overlooked by appealing to difficult economic factors. This is what I consider environmental racism, which I think is the most central barrier to sustainable development in Northwest Russia. The situation concerning the social dimension of sustainable development is even more difficult, since, for example, the development of local democracy is not highly valued. In the planning discourse this democracy racism is explained by a short history of democracy in Russia. However, precisely through planning conflicts, for example in St. Petersburg, planning has become socially more sustainable: protests by local inhabitants have bypassed the poorly functioning representational democracy, when the governmentality has changed from a mute use of power to one that adopts a stand on a conflicting issue. Keywords: Russia, urban and regional planning, sustainable development, environmental planning, power and conflicts in planning, governmentality, rationalities.
  • Kemppainen, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This thesis is concerned with the area of vector-valued Harmonic Analysis, where the central theme is to determine how results from classical Harmonic Analysis generalize to functions with values in an infinite dimensional Banach space. The work consists of three articles and an introduction. The first article studies the Rademacher maximal function that was originally defined by T. Hytönen, A. McIntosh and P. Portal in 2008 in order to prove a vector-valued version of Carleson's embedding theorem. The boundedness of the corresponding maximal operator on Lebesgue-(Bochner) -spaces defines the RMF-property of the range space. It is shown that the RMF-property is equivalent to a weak type inequality, which does not depend for instance on the integrability exponent, hence providing more flexibility for the RMF-property. The second article, which is written in collaboration with T. Hytönen, studies a vector-valued Carleson's embedding theorem with respect to filtrations. An earlier proof of the dyadic version assumed that the range space satisfies a certain geometric type condition, which this article shows to be also necessary. The third article deals with a vector-valued generalizations of tent spaces, originally defined by R. R. Coifman, Y. Meyer and E. M. Stein in the 80's, and concerns especially the ones related to square functions. A natural assumption on the range space is then the UMD-property. The main result is an atomic decomposition for tent spaces with integrability exponent one. In order to suit the stochastic integrals appearing in the vector-valued formulation, the proof is based on a geometric lemma for cones and differs essentially from the classical proof. Vector-valued tent spaces have also found applications in functional calculi for bisectorial operators. In the introduction these three themes come together when studying paraproduct operators for vector-valued functions. The Rademacher maximal function and Carleson's embedding theorem were applied already by Hytönen, McIntosh and Portal in order to prove boundedness for the dyadic paraproduct operator on Lebesgue-Bochner -spaces assuming that the range space satisfies both UMD- and RMF-properties. Whether UMD implies RMF is thus an interesting question. Tent spaces, on the other hand, provide a method to study continuous time paraproduct operators, although the RMF-property is not yet understood in the framework of tent spaces.
  • Talja, Markku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Polyethylene is the most widely used synthetic polymer in the world. Most polyethylene is made with Ziegler-Natta catalysts. Polyethylenes for special applications are made with metallocenes, which are nowadays heavily patented. It is laborious therefore, to develop new metallocenes. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of replacing the cyclopentadienyl ligands of metallocenes by aminopyridinato ligands without losing the good properties of the metallocenes, such as high activity and formation of linear polymer. The subject was approached by studying what kind of catalysts the metallocenes are and how they catalyze polyethylene. The polymerization behavior of metallocenes was examined by synthesizing a piperazino substituted indenyl zirconocene catalyst and comparing its polymerization data with that of the indenyl zirconocene catalyst. On the basis of their isolobality, it was thought that aminopyridinato ligands might replace cyclopentadienyl ligands. It was presumed that the polymerization mechanism and the active center in ethylene polymerization would be similar for aminopyridinato and metallocene catalysts. Titanium aminopyridinato complexes were prepared and their structures determined to clarify the relationship between structure of the catalyst precursor and polymerization results. The ethylene polymerization results for titanium 2-phenylaminopyridinato catalysts and titanocene catalysts were compared.
  • Ruokolainen, Toni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Societies world-wide are experiencing a constant servitization, a transition from traditional production and manufacturing to delivery and consumption of services. The transition is necessitated by societal and economic forces affecting individuals, organizations and enterprises. For individuals, the increased standard of living and increased leisure time have created a demand for new kinds of services. For governmental organizations, ageing of the population has increased the demand for efficient production and delivery of services, especially addressing health-care, elderly participation and security. For enterprises, globalization and commoditization of products have necessitated passage from monolithic, product-driven business to networked and service-based business. The servitization has given rise to the emergence of so-called service ecosystems. A service ecosystem is a socio-technical complex system that enables service-based collaborations between entities, such as enterprises, institutions and individuals. Although establishment of service ecosystems has been identified as fundamental for addressing the societal and economic forces, there are two foundational research challenges to be solved. Firstly, from an engineering perspective, there is an evident lack of a service ecosystem engineering which provides means for analysis, design, instrumentation and operation of service ecosystems. Especially, interoperability and governability have not been addressed sufficiently in the context of service ecosystem engineering. Secondly, from a business perspective, the current approaches for service ecosystem establishment do not provide sufficient support for ecosystem sustainability. Attaining service ecosystem sustainability requires facilities that enable efficient utilization of core competencies, opportunistic and flexible business networking, and support for operating in progressive business environments. The thesis addresses these research challenges by proposing service ecosystem engineering as a means for transitioning from contemporary ad hoc service ecosystems to sustainable ones. The individual contributions of this thesis include engineering tools and methods which enable analysis, design, instrumentation and operation of sustainable service ecosystems. The contributions can be utilized for mitigating risks associated for example with technology dependency and migration, and for supporting business decision-making when joining and operating in service ecosystems. The contributions enable approaches that utilize explicit architecture models for guaranteeing interoperability during service ecosystem operation. Furthermore, support for service ecosystem governance is provided.
  • Paasonen, Pauli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Aerosol particles have various effects on our life. They affect the visibility and have diverse health effects, but are also applied in various applications, from drug inhalators to pesticides. Additionally, aerosol particles have manifold effects on the Earths radiation budget and thus on the climate. The strength of the aerosol climate effect is one of the factors causing major uncertainties in the global climate models predicting the future climate change. Aerosol particles are emitted to atmosphere from various anthropogenic and biogenic sources, but they are also formed from precursor vapours in many parts of the world in a process called atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). The uncertainties in aerosol climate effect are partly due to the current lack of knowledge of the mechanisms governing the atmospheric NPF. It is known that gas phase sulphuric acid most certainly plays an important role in atmospheric NPF. However, also other vapours are needed in NPF, but the exact roles or even identities of these vapours are currently not exactly known. In this thesis I present some of the recent advancements in understanding of the atmospheric NPF in terms of the roles of the participating vapours and the meteorological conditions. Since direct measurements of new particle formation rate in the initial size scale of the formed particles (below 2 nm) are so far infrequent in both spatial and temporal scales, indirect methods are needed. The work presented on the following pages approaches the NPF from two directions: by analysing the observed formation rates of particles after they have grown to sizes measurable with widely applied instruments (2 nm or larger), and by measuring and modelling the initial sulphuric acid cluster formation. The obtained results can be summarized as follows. i) The observed atmospheric new particle formation rates are typically connected with sulphuric acid concentration to the power close to two. ii) Also other compounds, most probably strong bases such as amines and oxidized organic vapours, influence the NPF. In some locations their impact even dictates the observed particle formation rate. iii) Air temperature has an explicit effect on the formation of stable sulphuric acid clusters, in which also the relative humidity seems to play a role. These impacts of meteorological quantities on the initial cluster formation seem to influence also the observed particle formation rate.
  • Salonen, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Accessibility plays a key role in shaping the patterns of human activity on all spatial scales. Accessibility questions are particularly topical now that cities around the word strive for more sustainable urban mobility and information on human influence on natural systems is needed in order to better understand processes of global environmental change. Following these lines of development, supporting different spatial planning processes with quantitative accessibility information has become increasingly important, and different accessibility analysis methods are actively being developed for this purpose. Furthermore, availability of new types of data and increasing computational power enable novel approaches and a level of detail in analysis that were unfeasible in the past. This thesis addresses accessibility questions through five case studies in two different contexts. Two case studies take place in the rural Peruvian Amazonia (Loreto region) where the extensive river network forms the backbone of regional transportation and people s daily mobility. The other three case studies are conducted in the capital region in Finland (Greater Helsinki), and the focus of these studies is on urban environments. The contribution of my work is both methodological and contextual; I aim at finding novel data sources for spatial accessibility analyses and further developing methods for quantifying accessibility as distances and travel times. On the other hand, I aim at (visually) describing and understanding the spatial patterns of accessibility in my study areas and at analysing and discussing the implications of accessibility for the spatial organisation of land-use and people s daily mobility. My results show that realistic accessibility analyses require a consideration of different travel modes and regionally specific transport network properties. In fluvial transport networks, travel time analysis is particularly sensitive to river channel types, direction of movement and seasonality. In urban settings the door-to-door approach for multimodal travel time calculations gives more realistic results than in-vehicle travel time only, and it also makes the different travel modes mutually comparable. The value of the more advanced quantification methods becomes particularly visible when the results obtained from the accessibility calculations are further applied in new analyses. The use of simple Euclidean distances may, however, be justified in situations where appropriate data for more advanced analysis is lacking, but knowing the limitations and simplifying assumptions of these measures is important when applying them. The key contextual findings of this thesis are based on quantitative descriptions and visualisations of the spatial patterns of accessibility in the case study areas. Quantitative data on accessibility also serve as an input for analyses of human livelihoods (such as modelling of potential production zones for different agricultural produce in Loreto) and land-use pressure (such as Amazonian deforestation modelling). My results furthermore show how accessibility to services and other daily activities is an important factor influencing urban residents travel behaviour and its environmental sustainability in Greater Helsinki. Finally, this thesis provides examples of how different types of data sources and their innovative combinations can be used in accessibility analyses. In the case studies I utilize and thus also introduce freely available computational tools for detailed multimodal travel time analysis.
  • Dal Maso, Miikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Atmospheric aerosol particle formation events can be a significant source for tropospheric aerosols and thus influence the radiative properties and cloud cover of the atmosphere. This thesis investigates the analysis of aerosol size distribution data containing particle formation events, describes the methodology of the analysis and presents time series data measured inside the Boreal forest. This thesis presents a methodology to identify regional-scale particle formation, and to derive the basic characteristics such as growth and formation rates. The methodology can also be used to estimate concentration and source rates of the vapour causing particle growth. Particle formation was found to occur frequently in the boreal forest area over areas covering up to hundreds of kilometers. Particle formation rates of boreal events were found to be of the order of 0.01-5 cm^-3 s^-1, while the nucleation rates of 1 nm particles can be a few orders of magnitude higher. The growth rates of over 3 nm sized particles were of the order of a few nanometers per hour. The vapor concentration needed to sustain such growth is of the order of 10^7--10^8 cm^-3, approximately one order of magnitude higher than sulphuric acid concentrations found in the atmosphere. Therefore, one has to assume that other vapours, such as organics, have a key role in growing newborn particles to sizes where they can become climatically active. Formation event occurrence shows a clear annual variation with peaks in summer and autumns. This variation is similar to the variation exhibited the obtained formation rates of particles. The growth rate, on the other hand, reaches its highest values during summer. This difference in the annual behavior, and the fact that no coupling between the growth and formation process could be identified, suggest that these processes might be different ones, and that both are needed for a particle formation burst to be observed.
  • Hutri, Kaisa-Leena (Säteilyturvakeskus (STUK), 2007)
    Olkiluoto Island is situated in the northern Baltic Sea, near the southwestern coast of Finland, and is the proposed location of a spent nuclear fuel repository. This study examined Holocene palaeoseismicity in the Olkiluoto area and in the surrounding sea areas by computer simulations together with acoustic-seismic, sedimentological and dating methods. The most abundant rock type on the island is migmatic mica gneiss, intruded by tonalites, granodiorites and granites. The surrounding Baltic Sea seabed consists of Palaeoproterozoic crystalline bedrock, which is to a great extent covered by younger Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks. The area contains several ancient deep-seated fracture zones that divide it into bedrock blocks. The response of bedrock at the Olkiluoto site was modelled considering four future ice-age scenarios. Each scenario produced shear displacements of fractures with different times of occurrence and varying recovery rates. Generally, the larger the maximum ice load, the larger were the permanent shear displacements. For a basic case, the maximum shear displacements were a few centimetres at the proposed nuclear waste repository level, at proximately 500 m b.s.l. High-resolution, low-frequency echo-sounding was used to examine the Holocene submarine sedimentary structures and possible direct and indirect indicators of palaeoseismic activity in the northern Baltic Sea. Echo-sounding profiles of Holocene submarine sediments revealed slides and slumps, normal faults, debris flows and turbidite-type structures. The profiles also showed pockmarks and other structures related to gas or groundwater seepages, which might be related to fracture zone activation. Evidence of postglacial reactivation in the study area was derived from the spatial occurrence of some of the structures, especial the faults and the seepages, in the vicinity of some old bedrock fracture zones. Palaeoseismic event(s) (a single or several events) in the Olkiluoto area were dated and the palaeoenvironment was characterized using palaeomagnetic, biostratigraphical and lithostratigraphical methods, enhancing the reliability of the chronology. Combined lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy revealed an age estimation of 10 650 to 10 200 cal. years BP for the palaeoseismic event(s). All Holocene sediment faults in the northern Baltic Sea occur at the same stratigraphical level, the age of which is estimated at 10 700 cal. years BP (9500 radiocarbon years BP). Their movement is suggested to have been triggered by palaeoseismic event(s) when the Late Weichselian ice sheet was retreating from the site and bedrock stresses were released along the bedrock fracture zones. Since no younger or repeated traces of seismic events were found, it corroborates the suggestion that the major seismic activity occurred within a short time during and after the last deglaciation. The origin of the gas/groundwater seepages remains unclear. Their reflections in the echo-sounding profiles imply that part of the gas is derived from the organic-bearing Litorina and modern gyttja clays. However, at least some of the gas is derived from the bedrock. Additional information could be gained by pore water analysis from the pockmarks. Information on postglacial fault activation and possible gas and/or fluid discharges under high hydraulic heads has relevance in evaluating the safety assessment of a planned spent nuclear fuel repository in the region.
  • Järvinen, Onni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Antarctica is a major component in the climate system of the earth, acting as a large heat sink in the energy balance. The climatic conditions of Antarctica maintain the snow and ice cover that blankets almost completely the surface area of the continent. Physical properties of snow readily respond to changing environmental conditions and remote sensing signals are sensitive to these properties. The annual changes in the physical properties of the snow cover, especially in the coastal area, must be taken into account when snow cover and climate models are produced. In situ observations are needed for calibration and validation of these models. The aim of the present study was to examine the annual cycle of the active 10-m surface layer in western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The data were collected along a 300-km-long transect from the coast to the edge of the high plateau during the field campaigns in austral summers 2004-2005, 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 as a part of the Finnish Antarctic Research Programme (FINNARP). The studies were focused on the uppermost part of the ice sheet covering the most recent annual accumulation in the coastal area. The results showed that the present study lakes froze completely during winter and showed similar evolution but the exact timing depended on the location. In January, the general structure of lake Suvivesi was following: two layers, each about 1 m thick, an upper layer with a thin ice layer on top and main body of liquid water, and a lower layer containing slush and hard ice sub-layers. The formation and the depth scale of the present study lakes are determined by the light extinction distance and thermal diffusion coefficient, limiting the growth to less than ~1.5 m in one summer. In Antarctica, the mean spectral diffuse extinction coefficient varied between 0.04 and 0.31 cm-1 (10-20-cm snow layer) and varied only slightly between locations when the grain type was the same. The theoretically calculated average depth where broadband irradiance (400-700-nm band) was 1 % of the downwelling irradiance at the surface, was 50 cm. On the continental ice sheet, the compaction rate of the snowpack was 0.0201 ± 0.02 y-1 and the power spectra revealed a daily cycle, synoptic scale variability (~10 days), and variability in a low-frequency band of 60-120 days at a depth of 54 cm. The investigations of snow patches in Basen nunatak revealed that much more snow was lost in summer 2010-2011 (6.3 mm d-1 water equivalent (w.e.)) than in 2004-2005 (4 mm d-1 w.e.).
  • Wang, Caixin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Earth s ice shelves are mainly located in Antarctica. They cover about 44% of the Antarctic coastline and are a salient feature of the continent. Antarctic ice shelf melting (AISM) removes heat from and inputs freshwater into the adjacent Southern Ocean. Although playing an important role in the global climate, AISM is one of the most important components currently absent in the IPCC climate model. In this study, AISM is introduced into a global sea ice-ocean climate model ORCA2-LIM, following the approach of Beckmann and Goosse (2003; BG03) for the thermodynamic interaction between the ice shelf and ocean. This forms the model ORCA2-LIM-ISP (ISP: ice shelf parameterization), in which not only all the major Antarctic ice shelves but also a number of minor ice shelves are included. Using these two models, ORCA2-LIM and ORCA2-LIM-ISP, the impact of addition of AISM and increasing AISM have been investigated. Using the ORCA2-LIM model, numerical experiments are performed to investigate the sensitivity of the polar sea ice cover and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) transport through Drake Passage (DP) to the variations of three sea ice parameters, namely the thickness of newly formed ice in leads (h0), the compressive strength of ice (P*), and the turning angle in the oceanic boundary layer beneath sea ice (θ). It is found that the magnitudes of h0 and P* have little impact on the seasonal sea ice extent, but lead to large changes in the seasonal sea ice volume. The variation in turning angle has little impact on the sea ice extent and volume in the Arctic but tends to reduce them in the Antarctica when ignored. The magnitude of P* has the least impact on the DP transport, while the other two parameters have much larger influences. Numerical results from ORCA2-LIM and ORCA2-LIM-ISP are analyzed to investigate how the inclusion of AISM affects the representation of the Southern Ocean hydrography. Comparisons with data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) show that the addition of AISM significantly improves the simulated hydrography. It not only warms and freshens the originally too cold and too saline bottom water (AABW), but also warms and enriches the salinity of the originally too cold and too fresh warm deep water (WDW). Addition of AISM also improves the simulated stratification. The close agreement between the simulation with AISM and the observations suggests that the applied parameterization is an adequate way to include the effect of AISM in a global sea ice-ocean climate model. We also investigate the models capability to represent the sea ice-ocean system in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic regions. Our study shows both models (with and without AISM) can successfully reproduce the main features of the sea ice-ocean system. However, both tend to overestimate the ice flux through the Nares Strait, produce a lower temperature and salinity in the Hudson Bay, Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, and miss the deep convection in the Labrador Sea. These deficiencies are mainly attributed to the artificial enlargement of the Nares Strait in the model. In this study, the impact of increasing AISM on the global sea ice-ocean system is thoroughly investigated. This provides a first idea regarding changes induced by increasing AISM. It is shown that the impact of increasing AISM is global and most significant in the Southern Ocean. There, increasing AISM tends to freshen the surface water, to warm the intermediate and deep waters, and to freshen and warm the bottom water. In addition, increasing AISM also leads to changes in the mixed layer depths (MLD) in the deep convection sites in the Southern Ocean, deepening in the Antarctic continental shelf while shoaling in the ACC region. Furthermore, increasing AISM influences the current system in the Southern Ocean. It tends to weaken the ACC, and strengthen the Antarctic coastal current (ACoC) as well as the Weddell Gyre and the Ross Gyre. In addition to the ocean system, increasing AISM also has a notable impact on the Antarctic sea ice cover. Due to the cooling of seawater, sea ice concentration and thickness generally become higher. In austral winter, noticeable increases in sea ice concentration mainly take place near the ice edge. In regards with sea ice thickness, large increases are mainly found along the coast of the Weddell Sea, the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas, and the Ross Sea. The overall thickening of sea ice leads to a larger volume of sea ice in Antarctica. In the North Atlantic, increasing AISM leads to remarkable changes in temperature, salinity and density. The water generally becomes warmer, more saline and denser. The most significant warming occurs in the subsurface layer. In contrast, the maximum salinity increase is found at the surface. In addition, the MLD becomes larger along the Greenland-Scotland-Iceland ridge. Global teleconnections due to AISM are studied. The AISM signal is transported with the surface current: the additional freshwater from AISM tends to enhance the northward spreading of the surface water. As a result, more warm and saline water is transported from the tropical region to the North Atlantic Ocean, resulting in warming and salt enrichment there. It would take about 30 40 years to establish a systematic noticeable change in temperature, salinity and MLD in the North Atlantic Ocean according to this study. The changes in hydrography due to increasing AISM are compared with observations. Consistency suggests that increasing AISM is highly likely a major contributor to the recent observed changes in the Southern Ocean. In addition, the AISM might contribute to the salinity contrast between the North Atlantic and North Pacific, which is important for the global thermohaline circulation.