Browsing Matemaattis-luonnontieteellinen tiedekunta by Title

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  • Macias Fauria, Marc (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Ecological processes are controlled to varying degrees by climate. Large-scale climatic patterns (teleconnections) control the frequency of local weather phenomena over large regions (continents to hemispheres) and at different timescales (days to decades). This Ph.D. aims to explain how large-scale climate patterns synchronize a set of ecological processes northern coniferous forests (tree-ring growth, large area burnt by wildfire, and tree-mortality caused by mountain pine beetle) through controlling the frequency, duration, and spatial correlation of key local weather variables over large areas. Methodology was based on obtaining long complete ecological and climatic records and applying a variety of timeseries analyses in order to find out if climate and populations were related, and the nature and extent of such relationships, within a framework defined by knowledge on both the biological and the physical characteristics of the studied interactions. The description of the mechanisms through which such teleconnections control population traits is essential in these studies. Research on timeseries allowed the development of new methods to deal with highly autocorrelated data. Overall, the studied processes were strongly related with and synchronized by large-scale climate. Mountain ranges played a major role in creating regional climatic gradients and thus strongly influenced relationships between climate and the ecological processes. Moreover, land use (grazing in this case) strongly affected the relationships between ecological processes (tree-growth) and climate. Relationships between climate and ecological processes were found to be highly dynamic and to have changed during the 20th century, driven in part by long-term climatic changes and by internal variability of large-scale climate patterns. Finally, an environmental multi-proxy reconstruction is presented using regional relationships between climate and proxy records.
  • Elo, Aija-Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    To a large extent, lakes can be described with a one-dimensional approach, as their main features can be characterized by the vertical temperature profile of the water. The development of the profiles during the year follows the seasonal climate variations. Depending on conditions, lakes become stratified during the warm summer. After cooling, overturn occurs, water cools and an ice cover forms. Typically, water is inversely stratified under the ice, and another overturn occurs in spring after the ice has melted. Features of this circulation have been used in studies to distinguish between lakes in different areas, as basis for observation systems and even as climate indicators. Numerical models can be used to calculate temperature in the lake, on the basis of the meteorological input at the surface. The simple form is to solve the surface temperature. The depth of the lake affects heat transfer, together with other morphological features, the shape and size of the lake. Also the surrounding landscape affects the formation of the meteorological fields over the lake and the energy input. For small lakes the shading by the shores affects both over the lake and inside the water body bringing limitations for the one-dimensional approach. A two-layer model gives an approximation for the basic stratification in the lake. A turbulence model can simulate vertical temperature profile in a more detailed way. If the shape of the temperature profile is very abrupt, vertical transfer is hindered, having many important consequences for lake biology. One-dimensional modelling approach was successfully studied comparing a one-layer model, a two-layer model and a turbulence model. The turbulence model was applied to lakes with different sizes, shapes and locations. Lake models need data from the lakes for model adjustment. The use of the meteorological input data on different scales was analysed, ranging from momentary turbulent changes over the lake to the use of the synoptical data with three hour intervals. Data over about 100 past years were used on the mesoscale at the range of about 100 km and climate change scenarios for future changes. Increasing air temperature typically increases water temperature in epilimnion and decreases ice cover. Lake ice data were used for modelling different kinds of lakes. They were also analyzed statistically in global context. The results were also compared with results of a hydrological watershed model and data from very small lakes for seasonal development.
  • Backman, Marie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Ion irradiation is used to analyze and modify the structure of condensed matter. It can for instance be used to form and shape nanocrystals in solids. In research on materials for high radiation environments, ion beams function as a controlled source of irradiation for studying the basic mechanisms of ion-solid interactions and for analyzing the structure of materials by methods like Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Understanding the fundamental processes that take place in a material under ion irradiation is important for all these applications of ion beams, and of great interest from a basic science point of view. The mechanisms involved during ion irradiation-induced displacement of atoms in uniform bulk solids are fairly well understood and described in the literature, but many unresolved questions remain regarding the structural modification caused by electronic interactions, and the radiation response of materials with phase boundaries. Especially ion irradiation of nanomaterials is a topic that is under active research. The short-lived collision cascades caused by energetic ions in solids cannot be studied in experiments and are therefore often modeled in computer simulations. Such simulations can give a host of valuable information about processes that occur in nature. It is necessary to validate simulation results by either some other computational method, or ideally by experiments. Ions lose energy by elastic collisions with the atomic nuclei as well as to the electronic system through excitation and ionization. Both energy loss mechanisms - nuclear and electronic stopping - can cause modifications to the structure of the material. In this thesis, molecular dynamics simulations are carried out in close collaboration with experimental scientists in order to study the effects of nuclear and electronic stopping during ion irradiation on nanoclusters and bulk materials. The amorphization of germanium and silicon nanocrystals in silica under ion irradiation is studied in simulations. The amorphization dose of nanocrystals is much lower than for bulk materials and it is furthermore found to depend on the size of the nanocrystals. The inelastic thermal spike model is explored as a method of incorporating electronic stopping effects into molecular dynamics. The simulations predict that local heating due to electronic stopping contributes to irradiation damage in both nanocrystals in silica and bulk silica. In silicon carbide, high electronic stopping is found to recrystallize irradiation damaged samples. Molecular dynamics simulations of inelastic thermal spikes support the hypothesis that the observed recrystallization is induced by local heating due to electronic stopping. We need a combination of computer simulations and experimental observations to explain many of the complex processes that take place during ion irradiation. The results in this thesis give insight into some experimentally observed phenomena of the effect that nuclear and electronic energy loss have in materials, but especially the research on combined effects is still in its infancy and further progress can be expected in the near future.
  • Tarkoma, Sasu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Event-based systems are seen as good candidates for supporting distributed applications in dynamic and ubiquitous environments because they support decoupled and asynchronous many-to-many information dissemination. Event systems are widely used, because asynchronous messaging provides a flexible alternative to RPC (Remote Procedure Call). They are typically implemented using an overlay network of routers. A content-based router forwards event messages based on filters that are installed by subscribers and other routers. The filters are organized into a routing table in order to forward incoming events to proper subscribers and neighbouring routers. This thesis addresses the optimization of content-based routing tables organized using the covering relation and presents novel data structures and configurations for improving local and distributed operation. Data structures are needed for organizing filters into a routing table that supports efficient matching and runtime operation. We present novel results on dynamic filter merging and the integration of filter merging with content-based routing tables. In addition, the thesis examines the cost of client mobility using different protocols and routing topologies. We also present a new matching technique called temporal subspace matching. The technique combines two new features. The first feature, temporal operation, supports notifications, or content profiles, that persist in time. The second feature, subspace matching, allows more expressive semantics, because notifications may contain intervals and be defined as subspaces of the content space. We also present an application of temporal subspace matching pertaining to metadata-based continuous collection and object tracking.
  • Gurtov, Andrei (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Hämäläinen, Wilhelmiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Analyzing statistical dependencies is a fundamental problem in all empirical science. Dependencies help us understand causes and effects, create new scientific theories, and invent cures to problems. Nowadays, large amounts of data is available, but efficient computational tools for analyzing the data are missing. In this research, we develop efficient algorithms for a commonly occurring search problem - searching for the statistically most significant dependency rules in binary data. We consider dependency rules of the form X->A or X->not A, where X is a set of positive-valued attributes and A is a single attribute. Such rules describe which factors either increase or decrease the probability of the consequent A. A classical example are genetic and environmental factors, which can either cause or prevent a disease. The emphasis in this research is that the discovered dependencies should be genuine - i.e. they should also hold in future data. This is an important distinction from the traditional association rules, which - in spite of their name and a similar appearance to dependency rules - do not necessarily represent statistical dependencies at all or represent only spurious connections, which occur by chance. Therefore, the principal objective is to search for the rules with statistical significance measures. Another important objective is to search for only non-redundant rules, which express the real causes of dependence, without any occasional extra factors. The extra factors do not add any new information on the dependence, but can only blur it and make it less accurate in future data. The problem is computationally very demanding, because the number of all possible rules increases exponentially with the number of attributes. In addition, neither the statistical dependency nor the statistical significance are monotonic properties, which means that the traditional pruning techniques do not work. As a solution, we first derive the mathematical basis for pruning the search space with any well-behaving statistical significance measures. The mathematical theory is complemented by a new algorithmic invention, which enables an efficient search without any heuristic restrictions. The resulting algorithm can be used to search for both positive and negative dependencies with any commonly used statistical measures, like Fisher's exact test, the chi-squared measure, mutual information, and z scores. According to our experiments, the algorithm is well-scalable, especially with Fisher's exact test. It can easily handle even the densest data sets with 10000-20000 attributes. Still, the results are globally optimal, which is a remarkable improvement over the existing solutions. In practice, this means that the user does not have to worry whether the dependencies hold in future data or if the data still contains better, but undiscovered dependencies.
  • Kemell, Marianna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Komssi, Soile (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Kangasmäki, Aki (Helsingin yliopisto, 1999)
  • Mäkelä, Jakke (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The dissertation deals with remote narrowband measurements of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by lightning flashes. A lightning flash consists of a number of sub-processes. The return stroke, which transfers electrical charge from the thundercloud to to the ground, is electromagnetically an impulsive wideband process; that is, it emits radiation at most frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum, but its duration is only some tens of microseconds. Before and after the return stroke, multiple sub-processes redistribute electrical charges within the thundercloud. These sub-processes can last for tens to hundreds of milliseconds, many orders of magnitude longer than the return stroke. Each sub-process causes radiation with specific time-domain characteristics, having maxima at different frequencies. Thus, if the radiation is measured at a single narrow frequency band, it is difficult to identify the sub-processes, and some sub-processes can be missed altogether. However, narrowband detectors are simple to design and miniaturize. In particular, near the High Frequency band (High Frequency, 3 MHz to 30 MHz), ordinary shortwave radios can, in principle, be used as detectors. This dissertation utilizes a prototype detector which is essentially a handheld AM radio receiver. Measurements were made in Scandinavia, and several independent data sources were used to identify lightning sub-processes, as well as the distance to each individual flash. It is shown that multiple sub-processes radiate strongly near the HF band. The return stroke usually radiates intensely, but it cannot be reliably identified from the time-domain signal alone. This means that a narrowband measurement is best used to characterize the energy of the radiation integrated over the whole flash, without attempting to identify individual processes. The dissertation analyzes the conditions under which this integrated energy can be used to estimate the distance to the flash. It is shown that flash-by-flash variations are large, but the integrated energy is very sensitive to changes in the distance, dropping as approximately the inverse cube root of the distance. Flashes can, in principle, be detected at distances of more than 100 km, but since the ground conductivity can vary, ranging accuracy drops dramatically at distances larger than 20 km. These limitations mean that individual flashes cannot be ranged accurately using a single narrowband detector, and the useful range is limited to 30 kilometers at the most. Nevertheless, simple statistical corrections are developed, which enable an accurate estimate of the distance to the closest edge of an active storm cell, as well as the approach speed. The results of the dissertation could therefore have practical applications in real-time short-range lightning detection and warning systems.
  • Galambosi, Szabolcs (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Inelastic x-ray scattering can be used to study the electronic structure of matter. The x rays scattered from the target both induce and carry information on the electronic excitations taking place in the system. These excitations are the manifestations of the electronic structure and the physics governing the many-body system. This work presents results of non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering experiments on a range of materials including metallic, insulating and semiconducting compounds as well as an organic polymer. The experiments were carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Source, USA and at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France. The momentum transfer dependence of the experimental valence- and core-electron excitation spectra is compared with the results of theoretical first principles computations that incorporate the electron-hole interaction. A recently developed method for analyzing the momentum transfer dependence of core-electron excitation spectra is studied in detail. This method is based on real space multiple scattering calculations and is used to extract the angular symmetry components of the local unoccupied density of final states.
  • Huotari, Simo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
  • Ratvio, Rami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The lifestyles of people living in single-family housing areas on the outskirts of the Greater Helsinki Region (GHR) are different from those living in inner city area. The urban structure of the GHR is concentrated in the capital on the one hand, and spread out across the outskirts on the other. Socioeconomic spatial divisions are evident as well-paid and educated residents move to the inner city or the single-family house dominated suburban neighbourhoods depending on their housing preferences and life situations. The following thesis explores how these lifestyles have emerged through the housing choices and daily mobility of the residents living in the new single-family housing areas on the outskirts of the GHR and the inner city. The study shows that, when it comes to lifestyles, residents on the outskirts of the region have different housing preferences and daily mobility patterns when compared with their inner city counterparts. Based on five different case study areas my results show that these differences are related to residents values, preferences and attitudes towards the neighbourhood, on the one hand, and limited by urban structure on the other. This also confirms earlier theoretical analyses and findings from the GHR. Residents who moved to the outskirts of Greater Helsinki Region and the apartment buildings of the inner city were similar in the basic elements of their housing preferences: they sought a safe and peaceful neighbourhood close to the natural environment. However, where housing choices, daily mobility and activities vary different lifestyles develop in both the outskirts and the inner city. More specifically, lifestyles in the city apartment blocks were inherently urban. Liveliness and highest order facilities were appreciated and daily mobility patterns were supported by diverse modes of transportation for the purposes of work, shopping and leisure time. On the outskirts, by contrast, lifestyles were largely post-suburban and child-friendliness appreciated. Due to the heterachical urban structure, daily mobility was more car-dependent since work, shopping and free time activities of the residents are more spread around the region. The urban structure frames the daily mobility on the outskirts of the region, but this is not to say that short local trips replace longer regional ones. This comparative case study was carried out in the single-family housing areas of Sundsberg in Kirkkonummi, Landbo in Helsinki and Ylästö in Vantaa, as well as in the inner city apartment building areas of Punavuori and Katajanokka in Helsinki. The data is comprised of residential surveys, interviews, and statistics and GIS data sets that illustrate regional daily mobility, socio-economic structure and vis-à-vis housing stock.
  • Laakso, Teemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Hamiltonian systems in stellar and planetary dynamics are typically near integrable. For example, Solar System planets are almost in two-body orbits, and in simulations of the Galaxy, the orbits of stars seem regular. For such systems, sophisticated numerical methods can be developed through integrable approximations. Following this theme, we discuss three distinct problems. We start by considering numerical integration techniques for planetary systems. Perturbation methods (that utilize the integrability of the two-body motion) are preferred over conventional "blind" integration schemes. We introduce perturbation methods formulated with Cartesian variables. In our numerical comparisons, these are superior to their conventional counterparts, but, by definition, lack the energy-preserving properties of symplectic integrators. However, they are exceptionally well suited for relatively short-term integrations in which moderately high positional accuracy is required. The next exercise falls into the category of stability questions in solar systems. Traditionally, the interest has been on the orbital stability of planets, which have been quantified, e.g., by Liapunov exponents. We offer a complementary aspect by considering the protective effect that massive gas giants, like Jupiter, can offer to Earth-like planets inside the habitable zone of a planetary system. Our method produces a single quantity, called the escape rate, which characterizes the system of giant planets. We obtain some interesting results by computing escape rates for the Solar System. Galaxy modelling is our third and final topic. Because of the sheer number of stars (about 10^11 in Milky Way) galaxies are often modelled as smooth potentials hosting distributions of stars. Unfortunately, only a handful of suitable potentials are integrable (harmonic oscillator, isochrone and Stäckel potential). This severely limits the possibilities of finding an integrable approximation for an observed galaxy. A solution to this problem is torus construction; a method for numerically creating a foliation of invariant phase-space tori corresponding to a given target Hamiltonian. Canonically, the invariant tori are constructed by deforming the tori of some existing integrable toy Hamiltonian. Our contribution is to demonstrate how this can be accomplished by using a Stäckel toy Hamiltonian in ellipsoidal coordinates.
  • Haapanala, Sami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reactive trace gases abundant in the atmosphere. As strongly reactive constituents they have many impacts on the atmospheric chemistry. To properly understand the processes involved in VOC cycles within the biosphere and atmosphere, we must have comprehensive knowledge on the biogenic and anthropogenic emissions and atmospheric concentrations. In this thesis, the emissions of VOCs were measured in many scales from various Fennoscandian ecosystems, utilizing several methods. First, enclosure method was applied to study the branch scale VOC emission from mountain birch. The measurements were conducted during two successive growing seasons. Significant emissions of sesquiterpenes were observed in the first year but not in the second one. Second, relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) method was used to study the ecosystem scale emissions of light hydrocarbons from a wetland. In addition to methane, the only significant emission was that of isoprene. Isoprene emission potential was found to be about 680 μg m-2 h-1. The REA method was further developed by studying the possible stability dependency of the method. Another ecosystem scale flux measurement method, disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA), was applied to study monoterpene emissions from a timber felling area. The emissions of monoterpenes were very high for a few months after felling, peaking at 5200 μg m−2 h−1. Despite of the short period those emissions seem to be of great importance for the atmospheric VOC burden. Third, profiles of boundary layer concentrations of some biogenic and anthropogenic VOCs were measured using a hot air balloon as a platform. Landscape scale emissions were inferred using the concentration data. Overall, our understanding of the previously poorly known VOC emissions from some Fennoscandian ecosystems was increased. This study highlights the importance to quantify emission hotspots of even marginal ecosystems to get comprehensive understanding for emission inventories and future redictions. The correct choice of measuring methods and experiment setup is essential for reliable field data.
  • Suomalainen, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The reflectance factor is a quantity describing the efficiency of a surface to reflect light and affecting the observed brightness of reflected light. It is a complex property that varies with the view and illumination geometries as well as the wavelength and polarization of the light. The reflectance factor response is a peculiar property of each target surface. In optical remote sensing, the observed reflectance properties of natural surfaces are used directly for, e.g., classifying targets. Also, it is possible to extract target physical properties from observations, but generally this requires an understanding and modeling of the reflectance properties of the target. The most direct way to expand our understanding of the reflectance properties of natural surfaces is through empirical measurements. This thesis presents three original measurement setups for obtaining the reflectance properties of natural surfaces and some of the results acquired using them. The first instrument is the Finnish Geodetic Institute Field Goniospectrometer (FIGIFIGO); an instrument for measuring the view angle dependency of polarized hyperspectral reflectance factor on small targets. The second instrument is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) setup with a consumer camera used for taking measurements. The procedure allows 2D-mapping of the reflectance factor view angle dependency over larger areas. The third instrument is a virtual hyperspectral LiDAR, i.e. a setup for acquiring laser scanner point clouds with 3D-referenced reflectance spectra ([x,y,z,R(λ)]). During the research period 2005 2011, the FIGIFIGO was used to measure the angular reflectance properties of nearly 400 remote sensing targets, making the acquired reflectance library one of the largest of its kind in the world. These data have been exploited in a number of studies, including studies dealing with the vicarious calibration of airborne remote sensing sensors and satellite imagery and the development and characterization of reflectance reference targets for airborne remote sensing sensors, and the reflectance measurements have been published as a means of increasing the general understanding of the scattering of selected targets. The two latter instrument prototypes demonstrate emerging technologies that are being used in a novel way in remote sensing. Both measurement concepts have shown promising results, indicating that, in some cases, it can be beneficial to use such a methodology in place of the traditional remote sensing methods. Thus, the author believes that such measurement concepts will be used more widely in the near future.
  • Polishchuk, Tatiana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The quickly growing community of Internet users is requesting multiple applications and services. At the same time the structure of the network is changing. From the performance point of view, there is a tight interplay between the application and the network design. The network must be constructed to provide an adequate performance of the target application. In this thesis we consider how to improve the quality of users' experience concentrating on two popular and resource-consuming applications: bulk data transfer and real-time video streaming. We share our view on the techniques which enable feasibility and deployability of the network functionality leading to unquestionable performance improvement for the corresponding applications. Modern mobile devices, equipped with several network interfaces, as well as multihomed residential Internet hosts are capable of maintaining multiple simultaneous attachments to the network. We propose to enable simultaneous multipath data transmission in order to increase throughput and speed up such bandwidth-demanding applications as, for example, file download. We design an extension for Host Identity Protocol (mHIP), and propose a multipath data scheduling solution on a wedge layer between IP and transport, which effectively distributes packets from a TCP connection over available paths. We support our protocol with a congestion control scheme and prove its ability to compete in a friendly manner against the legacy network protocols. Moreover, applying game-theoretic analytical modelling we investigate how the multihomed HIP multipath-enabled hosts coexist in the shared network. The number of real-time applications grows quickly. Efficient and reliable transport of multimedia content is a critical issue of today's IP network design. In this thesis we solve scalability issues of the multicast dissemination trees controlled by the hybrid error correction. We propose a scalable multicast architecture for potentially large overlay networks. Our techniques address suboptimality of the adaptive hybrid error correction (AHEC) scheme in the multicast scenarios. A hierarchical multi-stage multicast tree topology is constructed in order to improve the performance of AHEC and guarantee QoS for the multicast clients. We choose an evolutionary networking approach that has the potential to lower the required resources for multimedia applications by utilizing the error-correction domain separation paradigm in combination with selective insertion of the supplementary data from parallel networks, when the corresponding content is available. Clearly both multipath data transmission and multicast content dissemination are the future Internet trends. We study multiple problems related to the deployment of these methods.
  • Anekallu, Chandrasekhar Reddy (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The Sun drives the near-Earth electrodynamics by supplying the needed energy through the continuous stream of plasma called the solar wind blowing away from the Sun. The solar wind energy enters the Earth's magnetosphere through the magnetopause and mechanisms such as magnetic reconnection, diffusion, impulsive penetration, etc., facilitate the entry. For example, magnetic reconnection between magnetosheath and magnetospheric fields efficiently converts energy from magnetic to kinetic forms. Quantifying the amount of energy converted at the magnetopause in the magnetic reconnection and its subsequent distribution within the magnetosphere ionosphere system is one of the most important questions in space physics. Our current understanding of the conversion process at the magnetopause is based on theory of magnetopause reconnection. When the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is directed southward, magnetic reconnection takes place equatorward of magnetospheric cusps and the magnetic tension accelerates the plasma converting magnetic energy into kinetic form, while in the tail magnetic energy increases at the expense of plasma kinetic energy. During northward IMF, reconnection moves behind the cusps and the field lines advect towards the dayside. Hence, for southward IMF, equatorward of cusps is an electromagnetic load whereas the tailward of cusps is a generator and vice versa for northward IMF. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations confirm this theoretical description. However, observational verification of this understanding has not been addressed due to limitations associated with spacecraft observations and methodology to calculate energy conversion. The focus of this doctoral thesis is to investigate the magnetopause energy conversion using observations and to compare to previous simulation results on the subject. The final aim is to present the first statistical investigation of magnetopause energy conversion within the magnetopause using European Space Agency's Cluster spacecraft observations. The thesis is based on four articles including an introductory part. The introduction presents a review of the physics of the magnetopause, energy conversion process and the methods to investigate the subject observationally and compares the results to previous modeling results. The thesis ends with a discussion of energy conversion in the context of magnetopause reconnection and presents guidelines to address the topic in future investigations. In Paper I and II we estimated energy conversion across the Earth's magnetopause using Cluster observations and presented a comparison with the Finnish Meteorological Institute's GUMICS-4 global MHD simulations. Detailed data analysis and comparison with simulations indicated the existence of spatial variation in magnetopause energy conversion associated with IMF direction. These papers present the first observational evidence that the earlier simulation results may correctly reflect the nature of magnetic energy conversion within the magnetopause. In Paper III we investigated the usability of single spacecraft methods to calculate energy conversion instead of the more accurate multi spacecraft methods that can only be utilized during a limited periods of time when the inter-spacecraft distance is optimal. Paper III presents a comparison of magnetopause normal, velocity and energy conversion between multi and single spacecraft methods. Paper III also presents the uncertainties associated with single spacecraft methods in comparison to multi spacecraft methods. The paper concludes that single spacecraft methods consistently produce results similar to multi spacecraft methods while magnitude differences remain. In Paper IV we examine the spatial variation of magnetopause energy conversion and compare observations with simulations and with current theoretical understanding. A database of 4000 magnetopause crossings from Cluster spacecraft 1 was compiled from 2001-2008. Using single spacecraft methods, we estimated energy conversion and investigated magnetopause energy conversion as a function of solar wind parameters and the IMF. We found that the spatial pattern to some extent agrees with our current theoretical understanding with some disagreements. We interpret that the observed spatial pattern reflects the globally continuous and locally intermittent nature of magnetopause reconnection. The disagreements with simulations arise partly due to the local behaviour present in observations which is difficult to reproduce in global MHD simulations.