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  • Aitola, Erkki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    This doctoral thesis deals with the syntheses of olefin homo- and copolymers using different kind of metallocene catalyst. Ethene, propene, 1-hexene, 1-hexadecene, vinylcyclohexane and phenylnorbornene were homo- or copolymerized with the catalysts. The unbridged benzyl substituted zirconium dichloride catalysts (1-4), ansa- bridged acenaphtyl substituted zirconium dichloride catalysts, ( 5, 6), rac- and meso-ethylene-bis(1-indenyl)zirconium dichlorides, (rac- and meso-8), rac-ethylene-bis(1-indenyl)hafnium dichloride, ( 12), bis(9-fluorenyl)hafnium dichloride (14 ) enantiomerically pure (R)- phenylethyl[(9-fluorenyl-1-indenyl)]ZrCl2, (11), 14 and asymmetric dimethylsilyl[(3-benzylindenyl-(2-methylbenzen[e]indenyl)] zirconium dichloride, (13), were prepared in our laboratory. Dimethylsilyl-bis(1-indenyl)zirconium dichloride, (9), isopropylidene(9-fluorenyl-cyclopentadienyl)zirconium dichloride, (10), and were obtained commercially. The solid-state structures of the catalysts rac- and meso-1 were determined by X-ray crystallography. Computational methods were used for the structure optimization of the catalyst rac- and meso-1 in order to compare the theoretical calculations with the experimental results. Polymerization experiments were conducted in a highly purified autoclave system using low pressures (< 5 bar) of gaseous monomers. The experiments were designed to attain the optimal catalytic activity and a uniform copolymer composition. The prepared homo- and copolymers were characterized by the gel permeation chromatography, GPC, differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, FTIR . Molar mass (Mw, Mn), molar mass distribution (Mw/Mn), tacticity, comonomer content, melting temperature, glass transition temperature, and end group structures and content were determined. A special attention was paid on the correlation of the polymer properties with the catalyst structures and polymerization conditions. An intramolecular phenyl coordination was found in phenyl substituted benzyl zirconocenes 1-3 explaining the decreased activity of the catalysts. Novel copolymers poly(propene-co-phenylnorbornene) and poly(propene co-vinylcyclohexane), were synthesized and high molar mass poly(ethene-co-1-hexene) and poly(ethene-co-1-hexadecene) copolymers with elastic properties were prepared. Activation of a hafnocene catalyst was studied with UV-Vis spectrometry and activation process for the synthesis of ultra high molar mass poly(1-hexene) was found out.
  • Rämänen, Pirita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Due to increased awareness of environmental issues and tightened legislation, bio-based substitutes for traditional petroleum-based polymers are being increasingly sought. Tall oil fatty acid (TOFA) is an attractive material for that purpose being a by-product of kraft pulping. Thus, it is abundant year-round, the price is reasonable, and it does not compete with foodstuff materials. In this study, the preparation and properties of TOFA-based waterborne materials for various coating and barrier applications were examined. Alkyd-acrylic copolymers were synthesized from conjugated and nonconjugated fatty acid-based alkyd resins, as well from rapeseed oil-based alkyd resins for comparison. The polymerization was performed in a miniemulsion, because of the stability and copolymer formation issues. The ratio between the alkyd resin and acrylate monomers was varied and the effect on copolymerization and the copolymer binder properties, such as monomer conversion and grafting of acrylate to the alkyd resin was studied. It was observed that the monomers butyl acrylate (BA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) showed dissimilar affinity for the grafting site. The steric hindrances prevented MMA from reacting with the double bonds of the fatty acids as readily as BA. The allylic, especially the bis-allylic sites, were the principal grafting sites of MMA, for energetic reasons. However, this effectively retarded the polymerization and increased the homopolymerization of the acrylates. Limiting monomer conversion was overcome, using post-initiation. This research showed that it is possible to prepare stable dispersions of TOFA-based alkyd-acrylate copolymers with varied chemical composition. Self-standing films of these dispersions can be prepared and the dispersions applied effortlessly on paperboard and utilized as barrier material. An increased amount of alkyd resin made the copolymer films more brittle and increased their hydrophobicity. Oxygen barrier performance of the materials was not adequate, but was improved with cellulose. Various cellulose types were modified with TOFA to improve the compatibility between cellulose and polymer matrix. Modified cellulose was added to the copolymer dispersion to improve the mechanical and barrier performance of the copolymer films and coatings. Enhanced strength as well as increased oxygen barrier properties were clearly observed when cellulose was used as filler. The water barrier of the coatings was favorable despite the material composition.
  • Sarolahti, Pasi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The TCP protocol is used by most Internet applications today, including the recent mobile wireless terminals that use TCP for their World-Wide Web, E-mail and other traffic. The recent wireless network technologies, such as GPRS, are known to cause delay spikes in packet transfer. This causes unnecessary TCP retransmission timeouts. This dissertation proposes a mechanism, Forward RTO-Recovery (F-RTO) for detecting the unnecessary TCP retransmission timeouts and thus allow TCP to take appropriate follow-up actions. We analyze a Linux F-RTO implementation in various network scenarios and investigate different alternatives to the basic algorithm. The second part of this dissertation is focused on quickly adapting the TCP's transmission rate when the underlying link characteristics change suddenly. This can happen, for example, due to vertical hand-offs between GPRS and WLAN wireless technologies. We investigate the Quick-Start algorithm that, in collaboration with the network routers, aims to quickly probe the available bandwidth on a network path, and allow TCP's congestion control algorithms to use that information. By extensive simulations we study the different router algorithms and parameters for Quick-Start, and discuss the challenges Quick-Start faces in the current Internet. We also study the performance of Quick-Start when applied to vertical hand-offs between different wireless link technologies.
  • Timonen, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This thesis focuses on term weighting in short documents. I propose weighting approaches for assessing the importance of terms for three tasks: (1) document categorization, which aims to classify documents such as tweets into categories, (2) keyword extraction, which aims to identify and extract the most important words of a document, and (3) keyword association modeling, which aims to identify links between keywords and use them for query expansion. As the focus of text mining is shifting toward datasets that hold user-generated content, for example, social media, the type of data used in the text mining research is changing. The main characteristic of this data is its shortness. For example, a user status update usually contains less than 20 words. When using short documents, the biggest challenge in term weighting comes from the fact that most words of a document occur only once within the document. This is called hapax legomena and we call it Term Frequency = 1, or TF=1 challenge. As many traditional feature weighting approaches, such as Term Frequency - Inverse Document Frequency, are based on the occurrence frequency of each word within a document, these approaches do not perform well with short documents. The first contribution of this thesis is a term weighting approach for document categorization. This approach is directed to combat the TF=1 challenge by excluding the traditional term frequency from the weighting method. It is replaced by using word distribution among categories and within a single category as the main components. The second contribution of this thesis is a keyword extraction approach that uses three levels of word evaluation: corpus level, cluster level, and document level. I propose novel weighting approaches for all of these levels. This approach is designed to be used with short documents. Finally, the third contribution of this thesis is an approach for keyword association weighting that is used for query expansion. This approach uses keyword co-occurrences as the main component and creates an association network that aims to identify strong links between the keywords. The main finding of this study is that the existing term weighting approaches have trouble performing well with short documents. The novel algorithms proposed in this thesis produce promising results both for the keyword extraction and for the text categorization. In addition, when using keyword weighting with query expansion, we show that we are able to produce better search results especially when the original search terms would not produce any results.
  • Tanskanen, Eija I. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
  • Hellemaa, Pirjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 1998)
  • Ruohomaa, Sini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Inter-enterprise collaboration has become essential for enterprise success. Competition between supply chains and networks of enterprises brings with it a need to participate in multiple collaborations simultaneously. We propose to increase the automation of the routine decision processes where possible, which reduces the cost and effort of collaboration establishment and management. Inter-enterprise collaboration builds on trust. Relying on autonomous partner enterprises for a joint venture creates uncertainty and risks, which must be balanced by a willingness to collaborate despite the loss of control. Trust decisions are first made on establishing the collaboration to ensure an acceptable balance between the risks of the commitment and its benefits to the participant. In addition, measures are taken during the collaboration in order to keep this balance. We define a trust management architecture where autonomous actors make automated, local trust decisions based on private policy. The decision-making process considers identified risks to assets as well as incentives, and learns from both first-hand and globally shared experience on the behaviour of business peers. While trust decisions help protect enterprise assets locally, a feedback loop through shared experiences also provides social pressure to respect contracts in the entire ecosystem. Trust decisions can be adjusted to different and changing business situations through policy configurations. Policy-defined routine decisions are automated, while others are passed to a human user. This system is a part of the Pilarcos collaboration management infrastructure, which includes services for partner discovery and interoperability checking, contract negotiation, breach detection and recovery. Our contribution encompasses the information model, algorithm and process for making multi-dimensional trust decisions, aggregation algorithms for past experiences, and methods for adjusting the trust decisions. We have implemented the architecture and analyzed its properties, such as adjustability and attack resistance. The results of this work can be utilized by the service provider enterprises through increased computational support for collaboration management, by operators in designing the infrastructure services, and to standardize best practices and create new collaboration patterns within business domains.
  • Vaalgamaa, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Historical sediment nutrient concentrations and heavy-metal distributions were studied in five embayments in the Gulf of Finland and an adjacent lake. The main objective of the study was to examine the response of these water bodies to temporal changes in human activities. Sediment cores were collected from the sites and dated using 210Pb and 137Cs. The cores were analyzed for total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), organic phosphorus (OP), inorganic phosphorus (IP), biogenic silica (BSi), loss on ignition (LOI), grain size, Cu, Zn, Al, Fe, Mn, K, Ca, Mg and Na. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to summarize the trends in the geochemical variables and to compare trends between the different sites. The links between the catchment land use and sediment geochemical data were studied using a multivariate technique of redundancy analysis (RDA). Human activities produce marked geochemical variations in coastal sediments. These variations and signals are often challenging to interpret due to various sedimentological and post-depositional factors affecting the sediment profiles. In general, the sites studied here show significant upcore increases in sedimentation rates, TP and TN concentrations. Also Cu, which is considered to be a good indicator of anthropogenic influence, showed clear increases from 1850 towards the top part of the cores. Based on the RDA-analysis, in the least disturbed embayments with high forest cover, the sediments are dominated by lithogenic indicators Fe, K, Al and Mg. In embayments close to urban settlement, the sediments have high Cu concentrations and a high sediment Fe/Mn ratio. This study suggests that sediment accumulation rates vary significantly from site to site and that the overall sedimentation can be linked to the geomorphology and basin bathymetry, which appear to be the major factors governing sedimentation rates; i.e. a high sediment accumulation rate is not characteristic either to urban or to rural sites. The geochemical trends are strongly site specific and depend on the local geochemical background, basin characteristics and anthropogenic metal and nutrient loading. Of the studied geochemical indicators, OP shows the least monotonic trends in all studied sites. When compared to other available data, OP seems to be the most reliable geochemical indicator describing the trophic development of the study sites, whereas Cu and Zn appear to be good indicators for anthropogenic influence. As sedimentation environments, estuarine and marine sites are more complex than lacustrine basins with multiple sources of sediment input and more energetic conditions in the former. The crucial differences between lacustrine and estuarine/coastal sedimentation environments are mostly related to Fe. P sedimentation is largely governed by Fe redox-reactions in estuarine environments. In freshwaters, presence of Fe is clearly linked to the sedimentation of other lithogenic metals, and therefore P sedimentation and preservation has a more direct linkage to organic matter sedimentation.
  • Merkouriadi, Ioanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The Gulf of Finland is located in the seasonal sea ice zone (SSIZ), were sea ice forms in the wintertime and melts in late spring. This seasonality entitles this sea as a key area regarding the impact of climatic changes. When the basin of interest is located at the climatological edge of the SSIZ, there is also high inter-annual variability in the ice conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the sea ice on the physics of the coastal waters in the Gulf of Finland. Three sites were chosen, two located at each side of Hanko Peninsula, northwest entrance of the Gulf, and one at the estuaries of River Kymijoki, northeast side of the Gulf. Long-term hydrographic and sea ice data were examined in order to study the inter-annual variability and trends of the hydrographic characteristics, heat content, freezing and break-up days and ice thickness during the last century in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Finland. The influence of the seasonal sea ice on the physics of the water body hydrography, circulation, atmosphere-ocean interaction was evaluated. The results showed significant decrease of the ice season length by almost 30 days in the last century. The maximum annual sea ice thickness decreased by 8 cm in the last 40 years. In the last 85 years, surface water temperature increased by 1 ˚C and surface salinity increased by 0.5 PSU. The water body stratification in the coastal zone was strongly affected by the limited wind mixing in the wintertime. The circulation under ice became weaker by almost 1 cm s-1. The ice cover was a good control measure of the net surface heat exchange. Solar radiation had a strong seasonal cycle with monthly maximum at 160 W m-2 and minimum below 10 W m-2. Terrestrial radiation was mostly between 40 and 60 W m-2. Latent heat exchange was much more important than sensible heat exchange, similar to the net terrestrial radiation values in summer and autumn.
  • Numminen, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The Arctic peoples are currently faced with the challenge of adapting to climate change. Adaptive strategies have been central for the survival of the Northern communities also in the past. This doctoral dissertation is a comparative study of how two Northern societies, the Faroe Islands and Greenland, have responded to challenges caused by the interplay of environmental, political and socio-economic changes. Its main objective is to describe the characteristics of respective adaptive strategies developed in the two societies and to show which connections exist between adaptation and the development of the settlement patterns. This study is based on document analysis, supported by an analysis of demographic and economic statistics. For the field work, the empirical method of landscape-reading was applied. A narrative approach was used to explain interrelations between adaptive strategies and societal developments in the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Maps illustrating development and changes in settlement patterns in different time periods are central for this study because they illustrate the impacts of adaptation on settlement development. The results of this dissertation show that people in the Faroe Islands and Greenland have consciously developed their settlements and used this as an adaptive strategy: different types of settlements were established depending on which kind of resource base was available. Strong dependency on a single resource is likely to increase the probability that settlement development was impacted by it. The interrelation of natural resource use and settlement pattern development has weakened in the Faroe Islands and Greenland from the mid-1900s. Since then, the importance of the government settlement policies has become pronounced and the existing settlement pattern, including settlements without prospects for genuine economic viability, has been preserved. Currently, the Northern communities are increasingly dependent on worldwide developments. In the light of this study, the communities can respond to challenges of globalization and climate change and develop new kind of adaptive strategies, such as diversification of their economic activities. This dissertation shows that it is important to extend studies about community adaptation in the High North to consider the overall development of the Northern settlement patterns.
  • Eskola, Arkke (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    In this thesis, the kinetics of several alkyl, halogenated alkyl, and alkenyl free radical reactions with NO2, O2, Cl2, and HCl reactants were studied over a wide temperature range in time resolved conditions. Laser photolysis photoionisation mass spectrometer coupled to a flow reactor was the experimental method employed and this thesis present the first measurements performed with the experimental system constructed. During this thesis a great amount of work was devoted to the designing, building, testing, and improving the experimental apparatus. Carbon-centred free radicals were generated by the pulsed 193 or 248 nm photolysis of suitable precursors along the tubular reactor. The kinetics was studied under pseudo-first-order conditions using either He or N2 buffer gas. The temperature and pressure ranges employed were between 190 and 500 K, and 0.5 45 torr, respectively. The possible role of heterogeneous wall reactions was investigated employing reactor tubes with different sizes, i.e. to significantly vary the surface to volume ratio. In this thesis, significant new contributions to the kinetics of carbon-centred free radical reactions with nitrogen dioxide were obtained. Altogether eight substituted alkyl (CH2Cl, CHCl2, CCl3, CH2I, CH2Br, CHBr2, CHBrCl, and CHBrCH3) and two alkenyl (C2H3, C3H3) free radical reactions with NO2 were investigated as a function of temperature. The bimolecular rate coefficients of all these reactions were observed to possess negative temperature dependencies, while pressure dependencies were not noticed for any of these reactions. Halogen substitution was observed to moderately reduce the reactivity of substituted alkyl radicals in the reaction with NO2, while the resonance stabilisation of the alkenyl radical lowers its reactivity with respect to NO2 only slightly. Two reactions relevant to atmospheric chemistry, CH2Br + O2 and CH2I + O2, were also investigated. It was noticed that while CH2Br + O2 reaction shows pronounced pressure dependence, characteristic of peroxy radical formation, no such dependence was observed for the CH2I + O2 reaction. Observed primary products of the CH2I + O2 reaction were the I-atom and the IO radical. Kinetics of CH3 + HCl, CD3 + HCl, CH3 + DCl, and CD3 + DCl reactions were also studied. While all these reactions possess positive activation energies, in contrast to the other systems investigated in this thesis, the CH3 + HCl and CD3 + HCl reactions show a non-linear temperature dependency on the Arrhenius plot. The reactivity of substituted methyl radicals toward NO2 was observed to increase with decreasing electron affinity of the radical. The same trend was observed for the reactions of substituted methyl radicals with Cl2. It is proposed that interactions of frontier orbitals are responsible to these observations and Frontier Orbital Theory could be used to explain the observed reactivity trends of these highly exothermic reactions having reactant-like transition states.
  • Ungaro, Donatella (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Mirzaie Ataabadi, Majid (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Being at the crossroads of the Old World continents, Western Asia has a unique position through which the dispersal and migration of mammals and the interaction of faunal bioprovinces occurred. Despite its critical position, the record of Miocene mammals in Western Asia is sporadic and there are large spatial and temporal gaps between the known fossil localities. Although the development of the mammalian faunas in the Miocene of the Old World is well known and there is ample evidence for environmental shifts in this epoch, efforts toward quantification of habitat changes and development of chronofaunas based on faunal compositions were mostly neglected. Advancement of chronological, paleoclimatological, and paleogeographical reconstruction tools and techniques and increased numbers of new discoveries in recent decades have brought the need for updating and modification of our level of understanding. We under took fieldwork and systematic study of mammalian trace and body fossils from the northwestern parts of Iran along with analysis of large mammal data from the NOW database. The data analysis was used to study the provinciality, relative abundance, and distribution history of the closed- and open-adapted taxa and chronofaunas in the Miocene of the Old World and Western Asia. The provinciality analysis was carried out, using locality clustering, and the relative abundance of the closed- and open-adapted taxa was surveyed at the family level. The distribution history of the chronofaunas was studied, using faunal resemblance indices and new mapping techniques, together with humidity analysis based on mean ordinated hypsodonty. Paleoichnological studies revealed the abundance of mammalian footprints in several parts of the basins studied, which are normally not fossiliferous in terms of body fossils. The systematic study and biochronology of the newly discovered mammalian fossils in northwestern Iran indicates their close affinities with middle Turolian faunas. Large cranial remains of hipparionine horses, previously unknown in Iran and Western Asia, are among the material studied. The initiation of a new field project in the famous Maragheh locality also brings new opportunities to address questions regarding the chronology and paleoenvironment of this classical site. Provinciality analysis modified our previous level of understandings, indicating the interaction of four provinces in Western Asia. The development of these provinces was apparently due to the presence of high mountain ranges in the area, which affected the dispersal of mammals and also climatic patterns. Higher temperatures and possibly higher co2 levels in the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum apparently favored the development of the closed forested environments that supported the dominance of the closed-adapted taxa. The increased seasonality and the progressive cooling and drying of the midlatitudes toward the Late Miocene maintained the dominance of open-adapted faunas. It appears that the late Middle Miocene was the time of transition from a more forested to a less forested world. The distribution history of the closed- and open-adapted chronofaunas shows the presence of cosmopolitan and endemic faunas in Western Asia. The closed-adapted faunas, such as the Arabian chronofauna of the late Early‒early Middle Miocene, demonstrated a rapid buildup and gradual decline. The open-adapted chronofaunas, such as the Late Miocene Maraghean fauna, climaxed gradually by filling the opening environments and moving in response to changes in humidity patterns. They abruptly declined due to demise of their favored environments. The Siwalikan chronofauna of the early Late Miocene remained endemic and restricted through all its history. This study highlights the importance of field investigations and indicates that new surveys in the vast areas of Western Asia, which are poorly sampled in terms of fossil mammal localities, can still be promising. Clustering of the localities supports the consistency of formerly known patterns and augments them. Although the quantitative approach to relative abundance history of the closed- and open-adapted mammals harks back to more than half a century ago, it is a novel technique providing robust results. Tracking the history of the chronofaunas in space and time by means of new computational and illustration methods is also a new practice that can be expanded to new areas and time spans.
  • Silander, Tomi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This doctoral dissertation introduces an algorithm for constructing the most probable Bayesian network from data for small domains. The algorithm is used to show that a popular goodness criterion for the Bayesian networks has a severe sensitivity problem. The dissertation then proposes an information theoretic criterion that avoids the problem.
  • Väliviita, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Lauri, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Nucleation is the first step of a first order phase transition. A new phase is always sprung up in nucleation phenomena. The two main categories of nucleation are homogeneous nucleation, where the new phase is formed in a uniform substance, and heterogeneous nucleation, when nucleation occurs on a pre-existing surface. In this thesis the main attention is paid on heterogeneous nucleation. This thesis wields the nucleation phenomena from two theoretical perspectives: the classical nucleation theory and the statistical mechanical approach. The formulation of the classical nucleation theory relies on equilibrium thermodynamics and use of macroscopically determined quantities to describe the properties of small nuclei, sometimes consisting of just a few molecules. The statistical mechanical approach is based on interactions between single molecules, and does not bear the same assumptions as the classical theory. This work gathers up the present theoretical knowledge of heterogeneous nucleation and utilizes it in computational model studies. A new exact molecular approach on heterogeneous nucleation was introduced and tested by Monte Carlo simulations. The results obtained from the molecular simulations were interpreted by means of the concepts of the classical nucleation theory. Numerical calculations were carried out for a variety of substances nucleating on different substances. The classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation was employed in calculations of one-component nucleation of water on newsprint paper, Teflon and cellulose film, and binary nucleation of water-n-propanol and water-sulphuric acid mixtures on silver nanoparticles. The results were compared with experimental results. The molecular simulation studies involved homogeneous nucleation of argon and heterogeneous nucleation of argon on a planar platinum surface. It was found out that the use of a microscopical contact angle as a fitting parameter in calculations based on the classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation leads to a fair agreement between the theoretical predictions and experimental results. In the presented cases the microscopical angle was found to be always smaller than the contact angle obtained from macroscopical measurements. Furthermore, molecular Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the concept of the geometrical contact parameter in heterogeneous nucleation calculations can work surprisingly well even for very small clusters.
  • Vanhamäki, Heikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    This thesis deals with theoretical modeling of the electrodynamics of auroral ionospheres. In the five research articles forming the main part of the thesis we have concentrated on two main themes: Development of new data-analysis techniques and study of inductive phenomena in the ionospheric electrodynamics. The introductory part of the thesis provides a background for these new results and places them in the wider context of ionospheric research. In this thesis we have developed a new tool (called 1D SECS) for analysing ground based magnetic measurements from a 1-dimensional magnetometer chain (usually aligned in the North-South direction) and a new method for obtaining ionospheric electric field from combined ground based magnetic measurements and estimated ionospheric electric conductance. Both these methods are based on earlier work, but contain important new features: 1D SECS respects the spherical geometry of large scale ionospheric electrojet systems and due to an innovative way of implementing boundary conditions the new method for obtaining electric fields can be applied also at local scale studies. These new calculation methods have been tested using both simulated and real data. The tests indicate that the new methods are more reliable than the previous techniques. Inductive phenomena are intimately related to temporal changes in electric currents. As the large scale ionospheric current systems change relatively slowly, in time scales of several minutes or hours, inductive effects are usually assumed to be negligible. However, during the past ten years, it has been realised that induction can play an important part in some ionospheric phenomena. In this thesis we have studied the role of inductive electric fields and currents in ionospheric electrodynamics. We have formulated the induction problem so that only ionospheric electric parameters are used in the calculations. This is in contrast to previous studies, which require knowledge of the magnetospheric-ionosphere coupling. We have applied our technique to several realistic models of typical auroral phenomena. The results indicate that inductive electric fields and currents are locally important during the most dynamical phenomena (like the westward travelling surge, WTS). In these situations induction may locally contribute up to 20-30% of the total ionospheric electric field and currents. Inductive phenomena do also change the field-aligned currents flowing between the ionosphere and magnetosphere, thus modifying the coupling between the two regions.
  • Harjunmaa, Ari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Thin films are the basis of much of recent technological advance, ranging from coatings with mechanical or optical benefits to platforms for nanoscale electronics. In the latter, semiconductors have been the norm ever since silicon became the main construction material for a multitude of electronical components. The array of characteristics of silicon-based systems can be widened by manipulating the structure of the thin films at the nanoscale - for instance, by making them porous. The different characteristics of different films can then to some extent be combined by simple superposition. Thin films can be manufactured using many different methods. One emerging field is cluster beam deposition, where aggregates of hundreds or thousands of atoms are deposited one by one to form a layer, the characteristics of which depend on the parameters of deposition. One critical parameter is deposition energy, which dictates how porous, if at all, the layer becomes. Other parameters, such as sputtering rate and aggregation conditions, have an effect on the size and consistency of the individual clusters. Understanding nanoscale processes, which cannot be observed experimentally, is fundamental to optimizing experimental techniques and inventing new possibilities for advances at this scale. Atomistic computer simulations offer a window to the world of nanometers and nanoseconds in a way unparalleled by the most accurate of microscopes. Transmission electron microscope image simulations can then bridge this gap by providing a tangible link between the simulated and the experimental. In this thesis, the entire process of cluster beam deposition is explored using molecular dynamics and image simulations. The process begins with the formation of the clusters, which is investigated for Si/Ge in an Ar atmosphere. The structure of the clusters is optimized to bring it as close to the experimental ideal as possible. Then, clusters are deposited, one by one, onto a substrate, until a sufficiently thick layer has been produced. Finally, the concept is expanded by further deposition with different parameters, resulting in multiple superimposed layers of different porosities. This work demonstrates how the aggregation of clusters is not entirely understood within the scope of the approximations used in the simulations; yet, it is also shown how the continued deposition of clusters with a varying deposition energy can lead to a novel kind of nanostructured thin film: a multielemental porous multilayer. According to theory, these new structures have characteristics that can be tailored for a variety of applications, with precision heretofore unseen in conventional multilayer manufacture.