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  • Lehtinen, Jyri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The outer convective envelopes of late-type stars are believed to support turbulent dynamos that are able to generate strong and dynamic magnetic fields. When these magnetic fields penetrate the stellar surface, they give rise to directly observable activity phenomena, such as dark spots and line emission from the chromospheric layers. Observing and analyzing these activity indicators allows us to characterize the behaviour of the dynamos on a wide range of different stars as well as to put the behaviour of the Sun into a wider context. This thesis presents a study of the activity of a sample of 21 young solar-type stars that can be seen as analogues of the Sun during the first few hundred million years of its existence. The aim is to characterize their activity behaviour on different time scales from months to decades as well as to derive estimates for the magnitude of their surface differential rotation. The results of the analysis provide important observational constraints for the dynamo theory. The study is primarily based on the time series analysis of up to three decades of photometric monitoring of the sample stars. The light curves of these stars display quasiperiodic variations that are induced by changing patterns of dark starspots on the stellar surface and the rotation of the star. The time series analysis results are supplemented by spectroscopic observations that are used to determine the chromospheric activity levels of the stars. The time series analysis is performed using the Continuous Period Search and Carrier Fit methods along with a selection of additional complementary tools. The development of the Continuous Period Search method forms a part of this thesis. This method is fully characterized and its performance is tested on noisy low amplitude light curve data. The photometric analysis reveals new results from both activity cycles and the longitudinal distribution of the spot activity on the stars. Furthermore, it confirms previously published results concerning these and the strength of the surface differential rotation using a new sample of stars. The results show that activity cycles of different lengths are common on active solar-type stars and that their lengths fall on a set of distinct branches. When the longitudinal distribution of the spot activity is compared to the activity level of the stars, the results show a clear domain shift between stars that have axisymmetric spot distributions and stars where the spot activity shows stable longitudinal concentration. Such concentration of activity, known as active longitudes, only appears on the faster rotating more active stars. This suggests a transition between axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric dynamo modes as a function of the activity level of a star. The active longitudes also show a tendency to follow prograde propagation with respect to the stellar rotation. This may be interpreted either as a signature of radial differential rotation or as an azimuthal dynamo wave.
  • Buzorius, Gintautas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Halme, Mia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Toxic and incapacitating chemicals are ubiquitous in everyday life. Despite the prohibition of chemical weapons by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), many toxic chemicals are still used: as legal riot control agents, in various processes and products of the chemical industry or as pesticides in agriculture. Validated analytical methods and knowledge of metabolism are therefore needed for the verification of possible intentional or unintentional exposures in carrying out occupational tasks or in civil incidents. The most reliable retrospective detection and confirmation of exposure to chemicals are achieved by analyzing unequivocal metabolites such as biomarkers, from biological samples, which have mainly been obtained from exposed persons, animals and experimental animal models. However, the use of animal testing for evaluating the safety and effects of chemicals that are known to be toxic or incapacitating raises ethical questions. Therefore, the use of an in vitro metabolism study approach to predict in vivo metabolite profiles, prior to obtaining more detailed knowledge in vivo could be a preferable strategy for evaluating the toxicology of these chemicals. Four toxic and incapacitating chemicals listed in the CWC or used for riot control were studied in this thesis, namely: sulfur mustard, capsaicinoids, chloropicrin and saxitoxin. The suitability of the conventional in vitro metabolism studies were assessed in this research. These assessments were achieved by using various mass spectrometric (MS) methods to screen and identify the formed metabolites. The validations of analyses methods for known biomarkers were carried out according to the current bioanalytical validation guidelines and identification criteria. The conventional in vitro metabolism studies used for sulfur mustard, capsaicinoids and chloropicrin, yielded new knowledge about the metabolic reactions and produced several novel metabolites by oxidative reactions and GSH conjugation. However, their clinical usefulness to serve as biomarkers of exposure in humans requires further studies. Quantitative fit for purpose analysis methods were optimized and validated for the following chemicals: saxitoxin, two b-lyase metabolites of sulfur mustard, and nitromethane as a metabolite of chloropicrin. All methods were found to be accurate and linear and fulfilled the general identification criteria.
  • Pettersson, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Salmi, Ari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Globally, mechanical pulping consumes much energy (approximately 150 TWh of electric energy annually, approximately 27 Finnish nuclear reactors would be needed to produce this amount), and the paper consumption has been increasing despite the visions of a paper-free office. The research field has strived for energy efficiency for decades, and in recent years, innovations utilizing repetitive compressive loading have yielded significant energy savings. However, the fundamental physical reason for the energy efficiency of this technique is unknown it has been hypothesized that the compressive loading generates fatigue in the wood, resulting in an energy efficient process. In this thesis the physical question what is the significance of fatigue for mechanical pulping is broken down into five sub-questions: 1) can we model the repetitive compressive loading in a controlled manner (e.g. controllable frequency, amplitude of impacts and moisture content) and quantify the resulting decrease in stiffness (Paper I), i.e. the amount of fatigue? 2) What are the changes generated in the non-linear mechanical properties and where is the generated fatigue localized (Paper II)? 3) If the effects of fatigue in a well-controlled situation can be quantified, are the phenomena detected in the modelled process present in the actual industrial process (Paper III)? 4) What is the effect of fatigue on the energy consumption (Paper IV)? 5) How does the localization of the generated fatigue change in different wood geometries (radial and tangential, Paper V)? The proposed characterization techniques include (a) quantitative through-transmission ultrasonics for bulk wood (Paper I) and for depth profiling (Paper II, III and V). The latter allows determining stiffness tensor components in wood samples as a function of depth. (b) Micro-computed x-ray tomography which offers an image of the microstructure of the samples (Papers II, III and V); (c) An encapsulated split-Hopkinson device (ESHD, Paper II) combined with a high-speed photography system, enabling research of in situ mechanical phenomena occurring during fast compression; (d) thermoporosimetry, measuring changes in the nano-size pores in the wood cell walls induced by grinding (Paper III) and (e) quasi-static materials testing, measuring the changes in the tensile and compression behaviour in various wood directions both in the elastic and plastic regime (Paper IV). To answer the first sub-question, the EES grinding process was mimicked: a custom made device was used to generate cyclic unipolar compressional pulses at 500 Hz along the radial wood direction. These pulses were found to reduce the measured radial stiffness by up to 90%. A clear moisture dependence on the stiffness drop was discovered, lower moisture content yielding more fatigue. Above the fiber saturation point no change in the amount of fatigue as a function of moisture was discovered. Ultrasonic depth profiling results and X-ray tomography images answered the second and the fifth question: they revealed that the generated fatigue was concentrated to a layer near the sample surface in both radial and tangential wood geometries. This layer, 1-3 mm thick depending on the fatiguing parameters, comprised a zone with saturated fatigue and a transition zone extending from fatigued to intact wood. A theory based on elastic energy storage was formulated to explain this localization. ESHD experiments combined with the quasi-static tensile and compression tests revealed that at nanoscale, the fatigue is generated between the cellulose microfibrils and the surrounding lignin-hemicellulose matrix. To answer the third question, it was shown that the layer-like formation of fatigue is present in the actual industrial process, confirming a hypothesis originating from the 1960 s. After this, in order to answer the fourth question, experiments were done with a laboratory-scale grinder, which indicated that compared to non-fatigued samples the fatigued samples could be ground into similar quality pulp (Canadian Standard Freeness and fiber length) using less energy. This means that pre-fatiguing, revealed as a reduced radial stiffness, induced by repeated cyclic compression, reduces the energy consumption of the grinding process. This improvement was hypothesized to result from the previously detected, induced micro-scale damage into the cellulose lignin-hemicellulose matrix boundary, which makes it easier to liberate the fibers. The amount of energy used for pre-fatiguing was not included in the energy balance since we aimed to show whether pre-fatiguing wood reduces the energy consumption rather than to engineer an industrial process. The main conclusion is that inducing pre-fatigue can reduce the energy consumption of the wood grinding process. This could be done with a grinding surface comprising of two zones: a pre-fatiguing zone and a shearing zone.
  • Gross, Oskar (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    In order to analyse natural language and gain a better understanding of documents, a common approach is to produce a language model which creates a structured representation of language which could then be used further for analysis or generation. This thesis will focus on a fairly simple language model which looks at word associations which appear together in the same sentence. We will revisit a classic idea of analysing word co-occurrences statistically and propose a simple parameter-free method for extracting common word associations, i.e. associations between words that are often used in the same context (e.g., Batman and Robin). Additionally we propose a method for extracting associations which are specific to a document or a set of documents. The idea behind the method is to take into account the common word associations and highlight such word associations which co-occur in the document unexpectedly often. We will empirically show that these models can be used in practice at least for three tasks: generation of creative combinations of related words, document summarization, and creating poetry. First the common word association language model is used for solving tests of creativity -- the Remote Associates test. Then observations of the properties of the model are used further to generate creative combinations of words -- sets of words which are mutually not related, but do share a common related concept. Document summarization is a task where a system has to produce a short summary of the text with a limited number of words. In this thesis, we will propose a method which will utilise the document-specific associations and basic graph algorithms to produce summaries which give competitive performance on various languages. Also, the document-specific associations are used in order to produce poetry which is related to a certain document or a set of documents. The idea is to use documents as inspiration for generating poems which could potentially be used as commentary to news stories. Empirical results indicate that both, the common and the document-specific associations, can be used effectively for different applications. This provides us with a simple language model which could be used for different languages.
  • Kangasharju, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    In recent years, XML has been widely adopted as a universal format for structured data. A variety of XML-based systems have emerged, most prominently SOAP for Web services, XMPP for instant messaging, and RSS and Atom for content syndication. This popularity is helped by the excellent support for XML processing in many programming languages and by the variety of XML-based technologies for more complex needs of applications. Concurrently with this rise of XML, there has also been a qualitative expansion of the Internet's scope. Namely, mobile devices are becoming capable enough to be full-fledged members of various distributed systems. Such devices are battery-powered, their network connections are based on wireless technologies, and their processing capabilities are typically much lower than those of stationary computers. This dissertation presents work performed to try to reconcile these two developments. XML as a highly redundant text-based format is not obviously suitable for mobile devices that need to avoid extraneous processing and communication. Furthermore, the protocols and systems commonly used in XML messaging are often designed for fixed networks and may make assumptions that do not hold in wireless environments. This work identifies four areas of improvement in XML messaging systems: the programming interfaces to the system itself and to XML processing, the serialization format used for the messages, and the protocol used to transmit the messages. We show a complete system that improves the overall performance of XML messaging through consideration of these areas. The work is centered on actually implementing the proposals in a form usable on real mobile devices. The experimentation is performed on actual devices and real networks using the messaging system implemented as a part of this work. The experimentation is extensive and, due to using several different devices, also provides a glimpse of what the performance of these systems may look like in the future.
  • Ikonen, Teemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Scattering of X-rays and neutrons has been applied to the study of nanostructures with interesting biological functions. The systems studied were the protein calmodulin and its complexes, bacterial virus bacteriophage phi6, and the photosynthetic antenna complex from green sulfur bacteria, chlorosome. Information gathered using various structure determination methods has been combined to the low resolution information obtained from solution scattering. Conformational changes in calmodulin-ligand complex were studied by combining the directional information obtained from residual dipole couplings in nuclear magnetic resonance to the size information obtained from small-angle X-ray scattering from solution. The locations of non-structural protein components in a model of bacteriophage phi6, based mainly on electron microscopy, were determined by neutron scattering, deuterium labeling and contrast variation. New data are presented on the structure of the photosynthetic antenna complex of green sulfur bacteria and filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs, also known as the chlorosome. The X-ray scattering and electron cryomicroscopy results from this system are interpreted in the context of a new structural model detailed in the third paper of this dissertation. The model is found to be consistent with the results obtained from various chlorosome containing bacteria. The effect of carotenoid synthesis on the chlorosome structure and self-assembly are studied by carotenoid extraction, biosynthesis inhibition and genetic manipulation of the enzymes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis. Carotenoid composition and content are found to have a marked effect on the structural parameters and morphology of chlorosomes.
  • Kettula, Kimmo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    As galaxy clusters are the most massive bound objects in the Universe, their number and evolution can be used for constraining cosmological parameters. This requires the knowledge of cluster masses, which is typically achieved through calibrating scaling relations, where an observable is used as a mass proxy. Clusters can be efficiently detected through the X-ray emission of the hot intracluster gas, whereas weak gravitational lensing provides the most accurate mass measurements. This thesis studies the X-ray emission of galaxy clusters, the cross-calibration of X-ray instruments and the scaling between X-ray observables and weak lensing mass. We characterise the thermal Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission of the Ophiuchus cluster with XMM-Newton and use INTEGRAL to detect non-thermal hard X-ray excess emission. We model the excess emission, assuming that it is due to inverse-Compton scatter of CMB photons by a population of relativistic electrons, derive the pressure of the relativistic electron population and give limits on the magnetic field. We also study the cross-calibration of the XIS detectors onboard the Suzaku satellite and show that discrepancies can be explained by the modelling of the optical blocking filter contaminant. We conclude that XIS0 is more accurately calibrated than XIS1 and XIS3 and show that soft band cluster temperatures measured with XIS0 are approximately 14 % lower than those measured with XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn. We study the scaling of X-ray luminosity L and temperature T of the intracluster gas to weak lensing mass for galaxy groups and low-mass clusters. These samples are combined with high-mass samples from the literature, include corrections for survey biases and provide the current limitations for L and T as mass proxies. Studying the residuals, we find the first observational evidence for a mass dependence in the scaling relations using weak lensing masses. We also study hydrostatic mass bias in X-ray mass estimates and find indications for an increased bias in low-mass systems. Our results on scaling relations are limited by our understanding of sample selection and number of observations of low-mass systems. Calibration against e.g. weak lensing can help to address cross-calibration discrepancies and forthcoming X-ray observatories will significantly improve our understanding of non-thermal phenomena in clusters.
  • Fernandez Martinez, Manuel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    This thesis is a study of the x-ray scattering properties of tissues and tumours of the breast. Clinical radiography is based on the absorption of the x-rays when passing right through the human body and gives information about the densities of the tissues. Besides being absorbed, x-rays may change their direction within the tissues due to elastic scattering or even to refraction. The phenomenon of scattering is a nuisance to radiography in general, and to mammography in particular, because it reduces the quality of the images. However, scattered x-rays bear very useful information about the structure of the tissues at the supra-molecular level. Some pathologies, like breast cancer, produce alterations to the structures of the tissues, being especially evident in collagen-rich tissues. On the other hand, the change of direction due to refraction of the x-rays on the tissue boundaries can be mapped. The diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) technique uses a perfect crystal to convert the angular deviations of the x-rays into intensity variations, which can be recorded as images. This technique is of especial interest in the cases were the densities of the tissues are very similar (like in mammography) and the absorption images do not offer enough contrast. This thesis explores the structural differences existing in healthy and pathological collagen in breast tissue samples by the small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) technique and compares these differences with the morphological information found in the DEI images and the histo-pathology of the same samples. Several breast tissue samples were studied by SAXS technique in the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. Scattering patterns of the different tissues of the breast were acquired and compared with the histology of the samples. The scattering signals from adipose tissue (fat), connective tissue (collagen) and necrotic tissue were identified. Moreover, a clear distinction could be done between the scattering signals from healthy collagen and from collagen from an invasive tumour. Scattering from collagen is very characteristic. It includes several scattering peaks and scattering features that carry information about the size and the spacing of the collagen fibrils in the tissues. It was found that the collagen fibrils in invaded tumours were thinner and had a d-spacing length 0,7% longer that fibrils from healthy tumours. The scattering signals from the breast tissues were compared with the histology by building colour-coded maps across the samples. They were also imaged with the DEI technique. There was a total agreement between the scattering maps, the morphological features seen in the images and the information of the histo- pathological examination. The thesis demonstrates that the x-ray scattering signal can be used to characterize tissues and that it carries important information about the pathological state of the breast tissues, thus showing the potential of the SAXS technique as a possible diagnostic tool for breast cancer.
  • Dhalmann, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Ethnic minorities residential patterns and integration are widely discussed issues in many European countries. They have also become topical in Finland due to an increase in foreign migration, especially in recent decades. This dissertation contributes to debates associated with attempts to explain ethnic minorities residential patterns by examining the role of cultural factors and ethnic preferences of the residential choices of Somali and Russian immigrants in Finland. The research is based on in-depth interviews with Somali (n=24) and Russian (n=26) immigrants living in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Housing officials and social workers (n=18) working in cities of Helsinki and Vantaa were also interviewed. The results of this study show that propinquity to one s own ethnic group is important to Somalis living in Finland. This is important for maintaining their traditional, communal life styles, but also as a safe haven against the racism which they experience on a regular basis. They have a preference for mixed neighbourhoods that contain both native Finnish residents and some ethnic minorities. For Russians the spatial propinquity to their country people is less significant at the neighbourhood level. However, this is not to indicate the insignificance of intra-ethnic networks or one s cultural background. Rather, the differences in ethnic preferences between Somalis and Russians predominantly reflect their varying levels of exposure to racial harassment and diverse meanings that they give to social relations with their neighbours. According to this study, the time spent in a host-country and interactions with other ethnic groups affect ethnic preferences. The importance of one s own ethnic community also varies in accordance with life situations. Therefore, ethnic minorities residential preferences and choices should not be viewed as static or something deriving from cultural background alone. Residential preferences and aspirations are constantly being reshaped vis-à-vis to immigrants experiences. Past and present experiences and the way that immigrants observe the host society and its functions are important for the interpretation of residential preferences and patterns.
  • Vilkama, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This thesis critically examines the patterns and processes of ethnic residential segregation in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA). These phenomena are examined in two main ways: a) between the native and immigrant populations and b) the extent to which different immigrant groups are sharing the same neighbourhoods. The main aim of the study is to test the extent to which the theoretical claims of the selective migration processes can explain the development of ethnic residential segregation in HMA. The data is mixed: it consists of neighbourhood-level statistics related to the migration, demography and housing stock. The selective migration flows are analysed within and between neighbourhood-types, defined on the basis of the percentages of foreign-language-speakers. For contextual purposes, the study also includes fifteen expert interviews who work within the housing sector. Firstly, the results show that, from the early 2000s the patterns of ethnic residential segregation have strengthened while the differences between neighbourhoods have grown. On a more general level the HMA can be divided into two main areas: some eastern and north-eastern neighbourhoods that have experienced the rise of immigrant concentrations and; the northern, north-western and southern parts of the HMA, where the number and percentages of immigrants have remained relatively low. However, within the eastern and north-eastern neighbourhoods there are also discernable internal differences that reflect the income levels of the inhabitants and the type of housing stock. The results also show that, the existing immigrant concentrations are ethnically and culturally mixed and thus qualitatively different from China town and Little-Italy enclaves of single groups of immigrants. Secondly, the results show that there are clear signs of the selective migration processes of the native and immigrant populations which have resulted in the discernable development of ethnic residential segregation. Migration flows of the native population have gravitated towards neighbourhoods, where the percentage of immigrants is below the HMA average. This has resulted in significant migration losses for neighbourhoods with established and developing concentrations of immigrants. Meanwhile, migration of immigrants has been drawn to neighbourhoods where their percentages are above the HMA average. However, the results also point to clear differences in the migration and spatial patterns of different immigrant groups. The spatial selectivity of migration is, thus, more prominent amongst the native population than when compared with immigrants. Overall, the results indicate that the reproduction of the selective migration flows of the native and immigrant populations will largely determine HMA s future development of ethnic residential segregation.
  • Sarparanta, Mirkka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Poor biopharmaceutical properties such as low solubility and low permeability in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plight many existing drugs and new chemical entities, presenting an impediment for efficient drug therapy. Incorporation of the drug to a delivery system based on a nanostructured material is increasingly investigated as a strategy to overcome these limitations and to achieve controlled and targeted delivery. Porous silicon (PSi) is a promising material for carrier-mediated drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, high chemical stability, and facile elimination from the body. Moreover, the physicochemical properties of PSi can be tailored by variation of the fabrication parameters and surface modifications to suit diverse payloads. Positron emission tomography (PET), a sensitive and quantitative method of molecular imaging, is a potent tool for drug delivery system development. Already at the preclinical stage PET can be employed for the investigation of drug delivery carrier biodistribution in vivo, thereby facilitating the selection of the most promising material candidates for further development and future drug delivery studies. In this dissertation, a direct nucleophilic radiolabeling method with a short-lived positron emitter fluorine-18 (18F) was developed for three different surface-modified PSi materials: thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (THCPSi), thermally carbonized PSi (TCPSi), and thermally oxidized PSi (TOPSi). Out of the investigated materials, nanosized [18F]THCPSi emerged as the one with the highest potential for imaging and drug delivery in terms radiolabeling yield, label stability, and biocompatibility in cell models in vitro, and was therefore forwarded to biodistribution studies in rats. After oral administration, [18F]THCPSi nanoparticles were shown to pass intact through the GI tract in 4 to 6 hours. Modification of [18F]THCPSi with a self-assembled layer of a fungal hydrophobin (HFBII) changed the hydrophilicity of the material bringing about bioadhesive properties that promoted gastric retention of the protein-coated nanoparticles. Intravenous delivery of [18F]THCPSi nanoparticles resulted in their rapid accumulation to the liver and spleen alluding to rapid immune recognition and removal of the particles from the bloodstream by macrophages of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). HFBII-coating of the nanoparticles altered the adsorption of plasma proteins to the particle surface, which translated also to a change in the biodistribution pattern in vivo. In conclusion, the present work establishes 18F-radiolabeled particle tracers as useful means for the evaluation of new PSi-based drug delivery systems with PET.