Browsing by Author "Hakala, Ullastiina"

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  • Hakala, Ullastiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The use of ionic liquids in chemical research has gained considerable interest and activity in recent years. Due to their unique and varied physicochemical properties, in comparison to molecular solvents, the potential applications for ionic liquids are enormous. The use of microwave irradiation, as a powerful dielectric heating technique, in synthetic organic chemistry has been known since 1986. Since then, it has gained significant recognition for its research and application in both academia and industry. The use of either ionic liquids or microwave irradiation in synthetic organic chemistry has been known to afford improved, alternative or complimentary selectivities, in comparison to traditional processes. In this study, the use of ionic liquids as solvents, co-solvents and catalytic media was explored in Friedel-Crafts, deuterolabelling and O-demethylation reactions. Alternative methods for the production of a variety of aromatic ketones using the Friedel-Crafts acylation methodology were investigated using ionic liquid catalyst or ionic liquid acidic additive systems. The disclosed methods, i.e. metal bistriflamides and chloroindate ionic liquids systems, possessed good catalytic activity in the synthesis of typical benzophenones. These catalytic systems were also recyclable. Microwave irradiation was found to be useful in the synthesis of various polyhydroxydeoxybenzoins and arylpropanones as synthetic precursors to naturally occurring or potentially bioactive compounds. Under optimized condition, the reaction occurred in only four minutes using systems such as [bmim][NTf2]/HNTf2 and [bmim][BF4]/BF3·OEt2. Naturally occurring polyphenols, such as isoflavones, can possess various types of biological or pharmacological activity. In particular, some are noted for their beneficial effects on human health. Isotopically labelled analogues of polyphenols are valuable as analytical standards in the quantification of these compounds from biological matrices. A new strategy for deuterolabelling of polyphenols was developed using ionic liquids as co-solvents and 35% DCl/D2O, as a cheap deuterium source, under microwave irradiation. Under these conditions, perdeuterated compounds were achieved in short reaction times, in high isotopic purity and in excellent yields. An O-demethylation reaction was developed, using an ionic liquid reaction medium with BBr3 for the deprotection of a variety methyl protected polyphenolic compounds, such as isoflavons and lignans. This deprotection procedure was found to be very practical as the reaction occurred under mild reaction conditions and in short reaction times. The isolation and purification steps were particularly straightforward and high yielding, in comparison to traditional methods.