Browsing by Author "Peura, Marko"

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  • Peura, Marko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The structure and the mechanical properties of wood of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) were studied using small samples from Finland and Sweden. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the orientation of cellulose microfibrils (microfibril angle, MFA), the dimensions of cellulose crystallites and the average shape of the cell cross-section. X-ray attenuation and x-ray fluorescence measurements were used to study the chemical composition and the trace element content. Tensile testing with in situ XRD was used to characterise the mechanical properties of wood and the deformation of crystalline cellulose within the wood cell walls. Cellulose crystallites were found to be 192 284 Å long and 28.9 33.4 Å wide in chemically untreated wood and they were longer and wider in mature wood than in juvenile wood. The MFA distribution of individual Norway spruce tracheids and larger samples was asymmetric. In individual cell walls, the mean MFA was 19 30 degrees, while the mode of the MFA distribution was 7 21 degrees. Both the mean MFA and the mode of the MFA distribution decreased as a function of the annual ring. Tangential cell walls exhibited smaller mean MFA and mode of the MFA distribution than radial cell walls. Maceration of wood material caused narrowing of the MFA distribution and removed contributions observed at around 90 degrees. In wood of both untreated and fertilised trees, the average shape of the cell cross-section changed from circular via ambiguous to rectangular as the cambial age increased. The average shape of the cell cross-section and the MFA distribution did not change as a result of fertilisation. The mass absorption coefficient for x-rays was higher in wood of fertilised trees than in that of untreated trees and wood of fertilised trees contained more of the elements S, Cl, and K, but a smaller amount of Mn. Cellulose crystallites were longer in wood of fertilised trees than in that of untreated trees. Kraft cooking caused widening and shortening of the cellulose crystallites. Tensile tests parallel to the cells showed that if the mean MFA is initially around 10 degrees or smaller, no systematic changes occur in the MFA distribution due to strain. The role of mean MFA in defining the tensile strength or the modulus of elasticity of wood was not as dominant as that reported earlier. Crystalline cellulose elongated much less than the entire samples. The Poisson ratio νca of crystalline cellulose in Norway spruce wood was shown to be largely dependent on the surroundings of crystalline cellulose in the cell wall, varying between -1.2 and 0.8. The Poisson ratio was negative in kraft cooked wood and positive in chemically untreated wood. In chemically untreated wood, νca was larger in mature wood and in latewood compared to juvenile wood and earlywood.