Browsing by Author "Väyrynen, Samuli"

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  • Väyrynen, Samuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Silicon particle detectors are used in several applications and will clearly require better hardness against particle radiation in the future large scale experiments than can be provided today. To achieve this goal, more irradiation studies with defect generating bombarding particles are needed. Protons can be considered as important bombarding species, although neutrons and electrons are perhaps the most widely used particles in such irradiation studies. Protons provide unique possibilities, as their defect production rates are clearly higher than those of neutrons and electrons, and, their damage creation in silicon is most similar to the that of pions. This thesis explores the development and testing of an irradiation facility that provides the cooling of the detector and on-line electrical characterisation, such as current-voltage (IV) and capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements. This irradiation facility, which employs a 5-MV tandem accelerator, appears to function well, but some disadvantageous limitations are related to MeV-proton irradiation of silicon particle detectors. Typically, detectors are in non-operational mode during irradiation (i.e., without the applied bias voltage). However, in real experiments the detectors are biased; the ionising proton generates electron-hole pairs, and a rise in rate of proton flux may cause the detector to breakdown. This limits the proton flux for the irradiation of biased detectors. In this work, it is shown that, if detectors are irradiated and kept operational, the electric field decreases the introduction rate of negative space-charges and current-related damage. The effects of various particles with different energies are scaled to each others by the non-ionising energy loss (NIEL) hypothesis. The type of defects induced by irradiation depends on the energy used, and this thesis also discusses the minimum proton energy required at which the NIEL-scaling is valid.