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  • Sinikara, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    PROFESSION, PERSON AND WORLDVIEW AT A TURNING POINT A Study of University Libraries and Library Staff in the Information Age 1970 - 2005 The incongruity between commonly held ideas of libraries and librarians and the changes that have occurred in libraries since 2000 provided the impulse for this work. The object is to find out if the changes of the last few decades have penetrated to a deeper level, that is, if they have caused changes in the values and world views of library staff and management. The study focuses on Finnish university libraries and the people who work in them. The theoretical framework is provided by the concepts of world view (values, the concept of time, man and self, the experience of the supernatural and the holy, community and leadership). The viewpoint, framework and methods of the study place it in the area of Comparative Religion by applying the world view framework. The time frame is the information age, which has deeply affected Finnish society and scholarly communication from 1970 to 2005. The source material of the study comprises 30 life stories; somewhat more than half of the stories come from the University of Helsinki, and the rest from the other eight universities. Written sources include library journals, planning documents and historical accounts of libraries. The experiences and research diaries of the research worker are also used as source material. The world view questions are discussed on different levels: 1) recognition of the differences and similarities in the values of the library sphere and the university sphere, 2) examination of the world view elements, community and leadership based on the life stories, and 3) the three phases of the effects of information technology on the university libraries and those who work in them. In comparing the values of the library sphere and the university sphere, the appreciation of creative work and culture as well as the founding principles of science and research are jointly held values. The main difference between the values in the university and library spheres concerns competition and service. Competition is part of the university as an institution of research work. The core value of the library sphere is service, which creates the essential ethos of library work. The ethical principles of the library sphere also include the values of democracy and equality as well as the value of intellectual freedom. There is also a difference between an essential value in the university sphere, the value of autonomy and academic freedom on the one hand, and the global value of the library sphere - organizing operations in a practical and efficient way on the other hand. Implementing this value can also create tension between the research community and the library. Based on the life stories, similarities can be found in the values of the library staff members. The value of service seems to be of primary importance for all who are committed to library work and who find it interesting and rewarding. The service role of the library staff can be extended from information services provider to include the roles of teacher, listener and even therapist, all needed in a competitive research community. The values of democracy and equality also emerge fairly strongly. The information age development has progressed in three phases in the libraries from the 1960s onward. In the third phase beginning in the mid 1990s, the increased usage of electronic resources has set fundamental changes in motion. The changes have affected basic values and the concept of time as well as the hierarchies and valuations within the library community. In addition to and as a replacement for the library possessing a local identity and operational model, a networked, global library is emerging. The changes have brought tension both to the library communities and to the relationship between the university community and the library. Future orientation can be said to be the key concept for change; it affects where the ideals and models for operations are taken from. Future orientation manifests itself as changes in metaphors, changes in the model of a good librarian and as communal valuations. Tension between the libraries and research communities can arise if the research community pictures the library primarily as a traditional library building with a local identity, whereas the 21st century library staff and directors are affected by future orientation and membership in a networked library sphere, working proactively to develop their libraries.
  • Telaranta, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Abstract This dissertation analyses basic Aristotelian notions in two quite different contexts: in the modern Western philosophy of Martin Heidegger and in the mystical thought of perhaps the greatest Islamic medieval mystic Ibn al- Arabí (1165 1240CE). These two widely separated receptions of Aristotelian philosophy are intended to emphasize the main approach of the dissertation as phenomenological studies in the philosophy of religion. Phenomenology stands here for the perennial nature of genuine philosophical questioning: the demand of Zur Sachen Selbst is equally pertinent in the framework Aristotelian, Ibn al- Arabian and Heideggerian frames of reference. Thus the work is divided into three main sections: the first part tends to give an overall picture of Aristotelian thinking in its own context through the analysis of two modern scholars on Aristotle. These two are Monte Johnson (2005) on Aristotelian teleology and Heinz Happ (1971) on the Aristotelian concept of matter, hylê. These two studies serve as the general foundation of Aristotelian thinking to provide background for the later interpretations in the medieval Islamic and modern European frames of reference. The second part takes a closer look at the project of the young Heidegger on Aristotelian philosophy before the publication of his major work, Being and Time in 1927. Although his primary motive was to attack the Aristotelian scholastic tradition, these early years of thorough Aristotelian investigations brought him to a Radicalizing of Ancient Ontology, meaning a new and relevant entry into Aristotelian philosophy without the heavy baggage of Christian scholastic tradition. This study aims to show that if Aristotle is understood in a genuine philosophical sense and not through the western metaphysical or onto-theological tradition, his basic ideas are highly applicable to both genuine mystical ideas and provide an opportunity for a new and fresh entry into philosophical questions as such. The third and largest part of this work deals with the Aristotelian legacy in the Islamic world. Here we see how the earliest and decisive channel of influences came through the Aristotelian and the earlier Greek peri physeôs tradition through the early translation of On Generation and Corruption, On the Heavens, and the Meteorology of Aristotle. Here I want to show the direct influence of Aristotelian physics in the cosmological teachings of Ibn al- Arabí and the Islamic tradition on the whole. The study ends in a meeting between philosophy and mysticism to show the similarities and differences of these two basic human approaches on ultimate human ends. Key-concepts: hylê/hayûlâ matter; dúnamis/quwwa, force, possibility; energeia/bi l-fa el, actuality; tò tí ên eînai, quod quid erat esse, the what it was to be, entelekheia, having-come-to-the-end, al-nashâ al-insânîya, the human level, Dasein, being-there; stoikheia, al-ustuqussât, the elements.
  • Yli-Opas, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The theology of marriage in the Church of England(CofE) and in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland(ELCF)1963–2006 The method of the study is a systematic analysis of the sources. In the CofE marriage stems from creation, but it is also sacramental, grounded in the theology of love and redemption. Man and woman have a connection between them that is a mystical union in character because of the one between Christ and the Church; therefore every marriage is sacramental. The purposes of marriage have been expressed in a different order than earlier. A caring relationship and sexuality are set before childbirth as the causes of marriage. The remedial cause of marriage is also moved to the background and it cannot be found in the recent wedding formulas. A personal relationship and marriage as a school of faith and love have a central place in the theology of marriage. The theology of love unites the love of God and marriage. In the CofE the understanding of divorce and co-habiting has changed, too. Co-habiting can now be understood as a stage towards marriage. Divorce has been understood as a phenomenon that must be taken as a fact after an irretrievable breakdown of marriage. Thus the church must concentrate on pastoral care after divorce. Similarly, the ELCF also maintains that the order of creation is the origin of marriage as a lifelong institution. This is also an argument for the solemnization of marriage in the church. Faith and grace are not needed for real marriage because marriage is the culmination of reason and natural law. The society defines marriage and the church gives its blessing to the married couples if so requested. Luther’s view of marriage is different from this because he saw marriage as a school of love and faith, similar to CofE. He saw faith as essential to enable the fullfillment of natural law. Marriage in the ELCF is mostly a matter of natural ethics. An ideal form of life is sought through the Golden Rule. This interpretation of marriage means that it does not presuppose Christian education for children to follow. The doctrine of the two kingdoms is definitely essential as background. It has been impugned by scholars, however, as a permanent foundation of marriage. There is a difference between the marriage formulas and the other sources concerning the purposes of marriage in the ELCF. The formulas do not include sexuality, childbirth or children and their education as purposes of marriage. The formulas include less theological vocabulary than in the CofE. The liturgy indicates the doctrine in CofE. In the Lutheran churches there is not any need to express the doctrine in the wedding formulas. This has resulted in less theology of marriage in the formulas. The theology of Luther is no longer any ruling principle in the theology of marriage. The process of continuing change in society refines the terms for marriage more than the theological arguments do.
  • Kuusisto, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    In this study the junction of Christian mission, Christian education and voluntary work are examined in the Christian student voluntary association Opiskelijain Lähetysliitto (OL), which is the Finnish successor to the Student Volunteer Movement. The main subjects are the structure and content of the mission education as one aspect of Lutheran education and the reasons for expressing the mission interest through voluntary work. The research questions are as follows: What kind of organization has the OL been? What has mission education been like in the OL? Why have the former chairpersons participated in the OL? How have purposiveness and intentionality arisen among the former chairpersons? The study is empirical despite having a historical and retrospective view, since the OL is explored during the period 1972 2000. The data consists of the OL s annual reports, membership applications (N=629) and interviews of all 25 former chairmen. Data is analysed by qualitative and quantitative content analysis in a partly inductive and partly deductive manner. The pedagogical framework arises from situational learning theory (Lave - Wenger 1991), which was complemented with the criteria for meaningful learning (Jonassen 1995), the octagon model of volunteer motivation (Yeung 2004) and the definitions of intentionality and purposiveness in the theory of teachers pedagogical thinking (Kansanen et al. 2000). The analysis of the archive data showed that the activities of the OL are reminiscent of those of the missions of the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church congregations. The biggest difference was that all OL participants were young adults, the age group that is the greatest challenge to the Church. The OL is therefore an interesting context in which to explore mission education and mission interest. The key result of the study was the forming of a model of mission educa-tion. The model has three educational components: values, goals and methods. The gist of the model is formed by the goals. The main goal is the arousing and strengthening of mission interest which has emotional, cognitive and practical aspects. The subgoals create the horizontal vertical and inward outward dimensions of the model, which are the metalevels of mission education. The subgoals reveal that societal and religious education may embody a missionary dimension when they are understood as missionary training. Further, a distinction between mission education and missionary training was observed. The former emphasizes the main goal of the model and the latter underlines the subgoals. Based on the vertical dimension of the model the study suggests that the definition of religious competence needs to be complemented with missional competence. Reasons for participating in the OL were found to be diverse as noted in other studies on volunteering and motivating factors, and were typical to young people such as the importance of social relations. The study created new motivational themes that occurred in the middle of the continuity newness and the distance proximity dimensions, which were not found in Yeung s research. Mission interest as voluntary work appeared as oriented towards one s own spirituality or towards the social community. On the other hand, mission interest was manifested as intentional education in order to either improve the community or to promote the Christian mission. In the latter case the mission was seen as a purpose in life and as a future profession. Keywords: mission, Christian education, voluntary work, mission education, mission interest, stu-dent movement
  • Heikkilä, Jelisei (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The revolutionary reforms of Peter the Great in 1721 radically changed the whole Russian State. The changes which affected the Church's canonical and juridical status for the entire Synodal period during the early twentieth century s social and church-cultural metamorphosis, raise significant questions from the viewpoint of Orthodox canon law regarding marriage and divorce. The study's main focus is how were these questions treated during the Pre-Conciliar period and in the All-Russian Church Council of 1917-1918. The All-Russian Church Council of 1917-1918 was in many ways a unique and unparalleled phenomenon in the Russian Orthodox Church, State and in Russian social history. The Pre-Conciliar movement of the early twentieth century in Russia included the first and only experience in the Russian Orthodox Church of an open discussion with elements of dialogue touching all sides of Church life. The sources of this study, the documents and decrees of the Holy Synod and the preparatory bodies of the general Council of 1917- 1918, raise the following questions regarding marriage and divorce: 1. How did the Russian Orthodox Church understand the state law in relation to its own ecclesiastical law? 2. How was the ancient canonical tradition concerning matrimonial issues interpreted in Russia? By examining the canonical views of matrimonial matters in the Russian Orthodox Church in the early 1900s, especially through secular laws and canonical commentaries, it is possible to create a picture of a canonical marriage model eventually formed in the Russian Orthodox Church after the General Council of 1917-1918. The bureaucracy appeared to be a permanent barrier between the Church and the people, as well as between the Church and the State. Ecclesiastical regulations were joined to civil law, creating norms of marriage law that conformed to the State s viewpoint. This led to a situation before the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution where divorces were difficult to obtain. Eventually, the religious institution of marriage, which had been protected by the Russian judiciary from the eighteenth to the early twentieth centuries, was destroyed by the Revolution. Animosity towards traditional Christian family values began to pervade the social climate in Russia after the Revolution, and the laws of the Russian Orthodox Church came to reflect this. The study argues that after the All-Russian Church Council of 1917-1918, a new divorce model of the Russian Orthodox Church appeared. The Orthodox Church did not immediately abolish its previous bureaucratic model, especially when resolving the divorce cases in the Soviet State in 1918, but new pastoral aspects nevertheless were incorporated. The form of a petition was retained: one of the approved reasons for divorce had to be stated, as well as a detailed and correct statement of the circumstances under which the collapse of the marital union took place. The canonical spirit and the norms established in the Pre-Conciliar period were retained in this matter. Thus, any reasons that were not justified by the canons and their authoritative commentaries were not accepted as lawful causes for ecclesiastical divorce. However, the final resolution concerning the grounds for the dissolution of marriage appear as if the Council expected the Church to remain as it was in the past, namely with complete jurisdiction over marriage.
  • Klingenberg, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The aim of this thesis is to investigate the interplay between individual and collective dimensions in personal understandings of religious affiliation. Thirty-one interviews with Swedish-speaking nineteen year olds from three localities in Finland provide the raw material for the study. The data is analyzed through an abductive qualitative content analysis. The theoretical lenses employed are socialization theory and role-identity theory. Membership patterns are also analyzed as reflections of societal majority or minority positions. Most of the young people interviewed were members of the Lutheran Church along with their families, and found it challenging to discuss their religious affiliation: they referred to it as something you do. Church membership implies complex patterns of collective belonging and individual interpretation. The religious majority related its membership to family tradition and cultural convention, and described religious practice as being social in character. The way in which church membership was anchored in significant relationships made it personally meaningful. In addition, church membership was explained as connected to personal beliefs and values. However, regardless of personal religiousness, most young people expressed reluctance towards being categorized socially as a Christian or a believer . There were also a few members of Christian minority communities and non-affiliated young people in the data. In contrast, these minority members shared a more distinct understanding of their religious affiliation status and its meaning and described it as part of their personal identity. While majority membership entailed social conformity, the accounts of minority members testified to a different experience. It is argued that these findings reflect Finnish religious affiliation patterns at large rather than the specific Finland-Swede setting of this study. Regardless of religious affiliation status, patterns of religious socialization were subtle, yet evident. Religious transmission in Finnish homes had seldom taken explicit and verbal forms; yet it was influential for the informants negotiations between personal and social identity markers. Here, minority members differed because of their more precise descriptions of their parents religious attitudes. Furthermore, peers exerted significant influence by constituting the social context in which institutional contexts for religious matters were encountered. Theoretically, this study addresses and challenges the diverse understandings of religious affiliation presented in previous research and theory. The findings point to the influence of majority and minority positions and common understandings of socially desired and undesired social categories in how personal religious identities are negotiated. Furthermore, the study suggests that these notions are not found only in the youth population, but amongst adults as well. Furthermore, this study directs attention to the poor fit between academic understandings of religious socialization as a verbal, active process, and cultural settings where religious matters are understood as private and are seldom verbalized, and also direct attention to the influence of peers on how religious matters are discussed and negotiated.
  • Huang, Paulos (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The aim of the present study is to analyze Confucian understandings of the Christian doctrine of salvation in order to find the basic problems in the Confucian-Christian dialogue. I will approach the task via a systematic theological analysis of four issues in order to limit the thesis to an appropriate size. They are analyzed in three chapters as follows: 1. The Confucian concept concerning the existence of God. Here I discuss mainly the issue of assimilation of the Christian concept of God to the concepts of Sovereign on High (Shangdi) and Heaven (Tian) in Confucianism. 2. The Confucian understanding of the object of salvation and its status in Christianity. 3. The Confucian understanding of the means of salvation in Christianity. Before beginning this analysis it is necessary to clarify the vast variety of controversies, arguments, ideas, opinions and comments expressed in the name of Confucianism; thus, clear distinctions among different schools of Confucianism are given in chapter 2. In the last chapter I will discuss the results of my research in this study by pointing out the basic problems that will appear in the analysis. The results of the present study provide conclusions in three related areas: the tacit differences in the ways of thinking between Confucians and Christians, the basic problems of the Confucian-Christian dialogue, and the affirmative elements in the dialogue. In addition to a summary, a bibliography and an index, there are also eight appendices, where I have introduced important background information for readers to understand the present study.
  • Kuokkanen, Aleksi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate contemporary philosophical models for global ethics in light of the Catholic theologian Hans Küng s Global Ethic Project (Projekt Weltethos). Küng s project starts with the motto, No survival without world ethos. No global peace without peace between religions. I will use the philosophically multidimensional potential of Projekt Weltethos in terms of its possible philosophical interpretations to evaluate the general discussion of global ethics within political philosophy today. This is important in its own right, but also because through it, opportunities will emerge to articulate Küng s relatively general argument in a way that leaves less room for mutually contradictory concretizations of what global ethics ultimately should be like. The most important question in this study is the problem of religious and ideological exclusivism and its relation to the ethically consistent articulation of global ethics. I will first explore the question of the role of religion as the basis for ethics in general and what Küng may mean by his claim that only the unconditional can oblige unconditionally. I will reconstruct two different overall philosophical interpretations of the relationship between religious faith and human rationality, each having two different sub-divisions: a liberal interpretation amounts to either a Kantian-Scheiermacherian or a Jaspersian view, whereas what I call postliberal interpretation amounts to either an Aristotelian-Thomistic or an Augustinian view. Thereafter, I will further clarify how Küng views the nature of ethics beyond the question of its principal foundation in religious faith: Küng searches for a middle way between consequentialist and non-consequentialist ethics, a way in which the latter dimension has the final stake. I will then set out to concretize further this more or less general notion of the theoretical potential of Projekt Weltethos in terms of certain precise philosophico-political models. I categorize these models according to their liberal or postliberal orientation. The liberal concretization leads me to consider a wide spectrum of post-Kantian and post-Hegelian models from Rawls to Derrida, while the alternative concretization opens up my ultimate argument in favor of a postliberal type of modus vivendi. I will suggest that the only theoretically and practically plausible way to promote global ethics, in itself a major imperative today, is the recognition of a fundamental and necessary contest between mutually exclusive ideologies in the public sphere. On this basis I will proceed to my postliberal proposal, namely, that a constructive and peaceful encountering of exclusive difference as an ethical vantage point for an intercultural and inter-religious peace dialogue is the most acute challenge for global ethics today.
  • Juntunen, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The purpose of this study is to examine the reception of Matthew 5 in Martin Luther s sermons; in other words to investigate how Luther interprets and applies Jesus teaching of the better righteousness and the law in Mt 5. The study applies the reception-historical approach and contributes to the history of effects and the history of interpretation in New Testament exegesis. The study shows that Luther understands the better righteousness of Mt 5 as good works and fulfillment of the law. Luther s interpretation coheres with the intention of the Evangelist, even if Luther s overall concept of righteousness is foreign to Matthew. In Luther s view righteousness is twofold: The greater righteousness of Mt 5 is the second and the actual righteousness (iustitia activa), which follows the first and the foreign righteousness (iustitia passiva). The first righteousness (faith) is for Luther the work of God, while the second righteousness (good works) is co-operation between a Christian and God. In this co-operation the law, as it is taught by Jesus, is not the opposite of the gospel, but the gospel itself in the sense of Christ as an example . The task of the law is to show the dependence of a Christian on God and to help one to love and to serve one s neighbour (brothers as well as enemies) properly. The study underlines a feature in Luther s thinking that has received little attention in Lutheran theology: Luther insists on preaching the law to Christians. In his view Mt 5 is directed to all Christians and particularly to pastors, for whom Jesus here gives an example of how to preach the law. Luther believes similarly to Matthew that Jesus reveals the real meaning of Mosaic Law and confirms its validity for Christians in Mt 5. Like Matthew, Luther insists on the practicability of the commandments of Mt 5 in his view Christians fulfil the law also with joy yet his interpretation of Mt 5 attenuates the radical nature of its commandments. Luther s reception of the individual pericopes of Mt 5 is considerably generative and occasionally contradictory, which is explained by the following factors, among others: Luther receives many ideas from tradition and reads them and his own theological concepts into Matthew s Gospel. He interprets Mt 5 through his understanding of some Old Testament passages as well as Paul. Most of all, Luther s reception of Mt 5 is shaped by his own experience as a preacher, by his relation to his religious enemies, rulers and to the congregation of Wittenberg. Here Luther shares with Matthew the experience of being opposed and concern about the upright living of the believers, which in both cases also explains the polemical tone of the paraenesis.
  • Laine, Antti (Luther-Agricola-Seura, 2015)
    This study examines the early stages of the Programme to Combat Racism (PCR) of the World Council of Churches (WCC), the foremost inter-church organization of Orthodox and Protestant churches, and reactions to it. Aside from the extensive archival and printed material of the WCC, the study is also based on both published and unpublished sources in Finland and Britain concerning the response to the PCR in these countries. To date, the PCR remains the most controversial and debated WCC initiative, with also the largest social and political impact. While the World Council had addressed social questions since its inception in 1948, it was in the late 1960s that they became the focus of special attention. Although the PCR was officially established in 1969, it originates from the Fourth WCC Assembly in Uppsala in 1968, which called for an action-orientated ecumenical programme to eliminate racism. Consequently, the period examined in this study commences with the Uppsala Assembly in August 1968 and concludes in August 1974, when the WCC Central Committee resolved to continue the PCR after the expiry of its initial five-year mandate. The 1960s was a decade marked by social and political upheaval and demands for radical social change. Calls for freedom, equality and justice were heard from recently decolonized countries and nations still struggling for independence. While social questions were no novelty on the agenda of the modern ecumenical movement, the spirit of the time promoted a new approach calling for action instead of discussion. The new demands also set a test for the WCC, which rose to the occasion by addressing one of the gravest social evils of the time, racism. This study clearly shows that the ecumenical attack against racism was the master plan of Eugene Carson Blake, the General Secretary of the WCC from 1966 to 1972 and a US civil rights activist. Although the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr only a few months before the Uppsala Assembly highlighted the problem of racism, it was Blake s determination that set the Assembly s focus on racism. Following the Uppsala Assembly, the new initiative on racism was prepared in a turbulent consultation in May 1969. The consultation drew attention to institutionalized forms of racism, and its conclusions formed the basis of the PCR, which the WCC Central Committee established in August 1969 with a decided focus on white racism. The PCR included a Special Fund to be distributed to organizations of racially oppressed groups. The WCC set an example to its constituency and transferred 200,000 US dollars from its reserves to the Fund, notwithstanding the financial difficulties it faced at the time. The establishment of the new ecumenical endeavour to fight racism went largely unnoticed until September 1970, when the WCC Executive Committee allocated the first grants from the Special Fund. As the Executive Committee wanted to give clear priority to Southern Africa, a significant proportion of the grants went to national liberation movements engaged in armed struggle against racially oppressive white minority regimes there. Immediately after the first grant allocation, fierce controversy erupted, especially in the West. Although the funds were granted solely for humanitarian purposes, the fact that there was no control on how the money would be spent fed suspicions of its misuse. As this study clearly demonstrates, due to the background of the supported organizations and the aid they received from Communist countries, such as the Soviet Union, the WCC was widely accused of both legitimizing violence and supporting Communism. Its critics also held that the World Council had substituted social and political concerns for Christian unity. Furthermore, the WCC was blamed for concentrating on problems in Southern Africa while ignoring human rights violations in Eastern Europe and other parts of the Communist world. Moreover, in its preoccupation with white racism, the World Council was accused of disregarding other forms of racial injustice. Another central means used by the PCR to attack racism was its call for a boycott of Southern Africa and economic sanctions against corporations involved in business there. In August 1972, the WCC Central Committee decided to withdraw its investment in Southern Africa and called again on its member churches to follow its example. This disinvestment made the WCC one of the first international non-governmental organizations to implement a policy of ethical investment. Within the WCC, the PCR was primarily considered an educational tool for raising awareness in Western member churches and among individual Christians of the existence of racism and its manifestations in political, economic and military life. Furthermore, the PCR was credited with increasing respect for the Christian churches in the eyes of the racially oppressed. Despite the controversy surrounding the PCR, the WCC Central Committee decided to mandate it for another term in August 1974. Considering the heavy criticism levelled at the Programme, this seems rather surprising. However, both the PCR staff and the WCC leadership deemed the PCR a success. Aside from Blake, also M. M. Thomas, the first non-Western Chairman of both the WCC Central and the Executive Committee, embraced the Programme, even crediting it with justifying the whole existence of the World Council. The prestige the PCR enjoyed in the WCC was attested to by the fact that the Programme remained exempt from planned cost-cutting measures to balance the WCC budget. This study unequivocally shows that the PCR marked a turning point in the history of the WCC. It signalled a marked change in the WCC from its prior tendency of issuing general agreement statements to engaging in controversial action. Thus, the PCR can also be seen as the beginning of the WCC s more explicit humanitarian identity. Through the PCR, the WCC became a progressive force in society.
  • Eklund, Dan-Johan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study is a critical examination of the views about the voluntary aspect of religious faith in contemporary analytic theistic philosophy of religion. The background of the question is the variety of opinions regarding the voluntariness or involuntariness of religious faith. The study examines different propositional attitudes, such as belief, hope, and acceptance, which are taken to be involved in the cognitive-epistemic aspect of religious faith. Another important theme concerns the practical dimension of religious faith and the attitudes it involves. Questions having to do with the emotional and evaluative features of religious faith are also touched upon. In addition, certain traditional theological topics pertaining to voluntariness of faith are addressed. Apart from the critical evaluation, this study develops one view of faith, that is, faith as propositional hope. The method used is philosophical conception and argumentation analysis. In the first chapter I analyse the general views of analytic theists on the nature of faith and propositional belief. In the second chapter the central topic is how beliefs relevant to faith are acquired and the implications this issue has for questions about voluntariness of faith. Richard Swinburne s and Alvin Plantinga s accounts of faith are the main focus of this chapter. The third chapter is chiefly concerned with the possibility of believing without sufficient evidence; the permissibility of such believing is also addressed. Views elaborated by John Bishop and Jeff Jordan are central in this chapter. In the fourth chapter I analyse views which claim that faith need not entail belief and the impact of these views on issues concerning the voluntariness of faith. The chapter consists of views put forward by Robert Audi, William Alston, Louis Pojman, and J. L. Schellenberg. This chapter also includes the view of faith I defend, that is, faith as propositional hope. The voluntary aspect of religious faith has been understood in different ways. The overall conclusion of this study is that the cognitive aspect of faith is in the main involuntary, though volitional acts can have some effect on it. The same goes for the emotional and evaluative aspects of religious faith. On the other hand, the practical dimension of faith seems to be largely a matter of voluntary choice and behaviour. These insights imply that from a philosophical viewpoint whether people perceive a given religious faith as a worthwhile and meaningful worldview is due to other factors than their direct voluntary choice, but it is their decision whether they commit themselves to the faith in question.
  • Pyy, Elina (2014)
    This is a study of the role of gender in the literary construction of Roman identity in war-centred epic of the early Principate. I examine how gender subjectivity, gender difference and gender likeness are used in war epic as means of expressing and constructing ideas concerning Romanitas. The important historical factors are, on the one hand, the aftermath of the civil wars and, on the other, the imperial ideology and multicultural atmosphere of the Empire. These factors define the social and political atmosphere of the early Principate. In poetry of the period, they both reflect and construct the ideology of their time. Roman war-centred epic is often considered to be a masculine genre that reflects and constructs male Roman identity. This study calls into question the prevalent idea that the Subject of Roman war epic is self-evidently male, and that the genre s idea of Roman-ness is constructed exclusively through male exempla. I demonstrate that female subject position has a considerable significance in the war epics definition of Romanitas. Moreover, in the poems of Julio-Claudian and Flavian era, women are repeatedly used as both positive and negative exempla, even when it is possible to use a male exemplum instead. Femaleness is not a phenomenon that merely reflects or contradicts the ideal of male Roman-ness, but has a function of its own in the identity discourse. It is both independent of the masculinity of war epic and complementary to it. The argumentative part of the study divides into four chapters. In chapter three, I demonstrate that in the beginning of war, gender likeness is utilised to blur the line between the male and the female. Due to the dominant position of civil war rhetoric in the epics, women cannot be used simply as scapegoats or as symbols of the foreign, warmongering Other; Roman identity is constructed upon gender likeness and shared guilt of war. In chapter four, I argue that contrary to the prevalent idea, female fear and victimisation in epics do not make women irrevocable objects on the contrary, these are used as factors that encourage the audience to identify themselves with the female characters. In chapter five, I scrutinise the connection between gender and violence, and show that whereas Virgil uses gender role reversal to emphasise Roman unity that is born from diversity, Silius expresses imperial ideology through more traditional male-female power dynamics. Here, as in elsewhere, the poets different emphasis can be observed: While Virgil s identity discourse revolves around Italy, the later Roman poets are more interested about the interaction and cultural change between the centre and the periphery. In chapter six, I discuss the end of war, arguing that the failure of female mediation a characteristic theme of epic shatters the traditional ideal of Romanitas based on female pietas and clearly defined gender roles. The family-oriented mediation of the epic women is inadequate to solve the political conflicts of civil war, and in their deaths, the women become symbols of the shattering of the collective identity. Moreover, Virgil s Dido shows that the death of the empowered Other can become a determining factor in the formation of the Roman Self. This study offers a detailed examination of the six surviving imperial war epics. It places their ideas of gender and Romanitas into a wider historical context and, by studying them in relation to each other, offers a consistent discussion of the blurring concepts of Roman and foreign, and male and female in the Roman epic tradition, and in the early imperial society.
  • Gao, Yuan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study presents a general overview of Augustine s insights into passions as well as his approach to the therapy of emotions and their sanctification. Attending to various phases of his writings, this work explores the systematic structure of Augustine s tenets on passions and on the freedom from passions in the context of his philosophical and theological convictions on the issue of amor sui and amor Dei. The analysis begins by examining Augustine s language of passions and the doctrinal connections between Augustine and his predecessors. I provide a survey of Augustine s usage of emotional terms and criticise the position that Augustine suggested a dichotomy between passio and affectus as well as the claim that none of Augustine s Latin terms can be justifiably translated by the modern term emotion . On the basis of terminological and doctrinal observations, I clarify the general features of Augustine s psychology of passions in Chapter 2. In addressing the issue of how Augustine transformed his predecessors therapy of passions and their ideal of freedom from emotion into his theological framework in Chapter 3, I examine a series of related concepts, such as propatheia, metriopatheia, apatheia and eupatheia, to determine how he understood them in various stages of his philosophical and theological thinking. On this basis, I draw an outline of Augustine s interpretation of emotions in his theological anthropology. During his early period, Augustine adopted the Stoic and Platonic therapy of passions and the Stoic ideal of freedom from emotion (apatheia), but he changed his position later, re-evaluating the received terminologies and values of emotions (love, will, justice, virtue, etc.) from the perspective of the doctrines of sin and grace. He developed a theological vision and evaluation of the human condition of emotions and he expressed a pessimistic attitude towards the human condition without the help of supernatural grace. Chapter 4 addresses Augustine s position on the criticism and renewal of passions in social life: the household, city, and the world. In Chapter 5, I argue that Augustine s ideal of freedom from passions was participation in the inner Trinitarian spiritual life by the bond of the Holy Spirit as a hallmark of deification. This is wholly dependent on the divine kenosis and the transaction in the person of Christ. By virtue of the gift of grace (the salvific real presence of the Holy Spirit in faith), the pilgrimaging citizens of the City of God will be elevated to the divine realm and become transformed into a better substance in the union with God in Heaven. Contrary to arguments by some Orthodox theologians, Augustine s theory of deification is not simply a matter of fulfilment of humanity without a genuine transformation. While grace improves the control of sinful impulses in the emotional life of believers who suffer the consequences of the damage of the soul through original sin, Augustine maintained that the new life in Heaven denotes freedom from this emotional condition as well as the non-apathetic peaceful love and joy of resurrected persons in their participation in the divine spiritual nature.
  • Stenlund, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The purpose of this study is to seek a definition of freedom of belief and opinion which would allow this freedom to be seen as a human right for a person with psychosis. This study has four research questions: 1) How can the freedom of belief and opinion be understood as a human right? 2) In what kinds of discourses, concepts and presuppositions are the different views of freedom of belief and opinion based? 3) What aspects are relevant when the realization of and interferences with freedom of belief and opinion are considered in the case of an individual with psychosis? 4) How are views about freedom of belief and opinion challenged in the case of an individual with psychosis? In this study materials from different fields are analysed by philosophical conceptual analysis in order to realize interdisciplinary two-way interaction in human rights theory. The material includes: (1) legislation and ethical principles which guide psychiatric care, (2) human rights theory, legislation and conventions concerning the freedom of belief and opinion, (3) textbooks on psychiatric diagnosis, (4) discussions concerning philosophy and the ethics of psychiatry, (5) (political) philosophical discussions concerning freedom and human rights and (6) studies and reports which concentrate on the views and experiences of patients with psychotic disorder. In this study necessary criteria of irrationality (with a loss of insight), being unwell and alienation are presented for a psychotic view of reality in order to distinguish it from other exceptional views of reality. However, it is noted, that in human rights theory the concepts of thought and opinion are defined in such a manner that they also seem to include delusions. Because it is also declared that there is an absolute right to hold thoughts and opinions (forum internum), it seems to follow that a person has an absolute right to hold a delusion. This conclusion challenges the formulations presented in human rights theory and reveals that there is a tension between human rights theory and views on, and the practice of, psychiatry. In order to arrive at an appropriate view of freedom of belief and opinion, three different views concerning the freedom of belief and opinion are analysed in this study and their applicability and the challenges they present in the case of an individual with psychosis are clarified. First, freedom of belief and opinion has been understood in classical human rights discussion in the negative sense, which means that other people do not interfere technically or physically with an individual holding and manifesting his or her beliefs and opinions. Non- and involuntary treatment is seen as an interference in an individual s negative liberty. One problem with this point of view is that when it is applied to a person with psychosis, the consequences seem to be ethically problematic. It seems to follow from this view that the use of involuntary antipsychotic medication is absolutely against an individual s human rights. Alternatively, it might be argued that a person with psychosis is no longer deemed to be entitled to freedom of belief and opinion because as an incompetent person he or she does not fulfil the requirements of this right. This view of freedom does not take into account that the person with psychosis may need help in order to develop and manifest his or her beliefs and opinions and in order to live a life which is sufficiently in accordance with his or her values. If the forum internum was redefined as a negative right to competence, the view of negative liberty might be partly helpful in understanding freedom of belief and opinion. Second, especially in some philosophical and ethical discussions freedom of belief and opinion is understood in terms of authenticity, which means the right to hold such beliefs and opinions which are really one s own and the right to manifest them in a way that is in harmony with them. From this viewpoint, a psychotic disorder which distorts a person s beliefs and opinions can be defined as a violator of authenticity. One problem with this viewpoint is that there are different views about how such authenticity should be evaluated. Moreover, the criteria for any such evaluation seem to be, on the one hand, too demanding in order to understand freedom of belief and opinion as a human right in general. On the other hand, some people with delusions still fulfil these criteria, and should be regarded, because of that, as holding authentic beliefs and opinions and left without treatment. Third, freedom of belief and opinion can be understood in terms of capability, which signifies that the individual is capable of choosing a way of life which he or she considers valuable and which is worthy of human dignity. For example, stigmatization and the undesirable effects of both a psychotic disorder and antipsychotic medication can be seen as impediments to such a capability. This view encourages patients to participate in the treatment and to find their place in society and encourages carers to listen to patients voice including their existential considerations. Because of its background suppositions, the view of capability also seems to be relevant to people with psychosis. For example, the view of capability guides one to understand the forum internum not as something which protects holding thoughts and opinions or believing and thinking processes, but instead as something which protects the abilities needed in believing and thinking. This kind of redefinition would allow one to see the forum internum also as an absolute human right for a person with psychosis. However, one problem with this view is that the relationships between legal rights and what is ethically good are undefined. Moreover, it seems that many decisions are left to be considered individually in each case. This is why a capabilities approach is difficult to apply in a juridical context. However, the view of freedom in terms of capability could be developed in interdisciplinary discussion and cooperation so that juridical challenges concerning freedom of belief and opinion could be discussed and resolved in more detail. In psychiatry, the approach of values-based practice could be used in order to develop the view of freedom of belief and opinion in terms of capability. Developing human rights theory also requires more cooperation between conceptual research and practical psychiatry in order to clarify what we really want to protect under the term freedom of belief and opinion.
  • Lepojärvi, Jason (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    C. S. Lewis (1898-1963) was one of the most influential Christian thinkers of the twentieth century with continuing relevance into the twenty-first. Despite growing academic interest in Lewis, many fields of inquiry remain largely unmapped in Lewis scholarship today. This compilation dissertation, consisting of an introductory overview together with four stand-alone but connected essays, extends critical understanding of Lewis's contribution to the theology of love. In three of the four essays, Lewis's theology of love is compared to and contrasted with that of Anders Nygren (1890-1978); and in one, that of Augustine of Hippo. Using systematic textual analysis, the essays evaluate Lewis's key concepts, argumentation, and presuppositions. Nygren, the Swedish Lutheran theologian and bishop of Lund, has virtually dominated modern theological discussion of love. His antithesis between selfless and gratuitous Christian love and self-seeking and needful Pagan love, or agape and eros respectively, became enormously influential in twentieth century theology. Lewis was initially shaken up by Nygren's work, and it took him decades to formulate his own model, above all in Surprised by Joy (1955) and The Four Loves (1960). It is shown that Lewis constructed not only his theology of love, but also his theology of spiritual desire as a form of love, in conscious opposition to Nygren. Lewis's theology of love challenges the denigration of eros and its separation from agape. Nygren's predestinarianism is also rejected. Lewis devises his own vocabulary, avoids the use of eros and agape in Nygren's sense, and hardly ever mentions Nygren by name. All this suggests a deliberate apologetic strategy to bypass certain defences of his readers and to avoid Nygren-dependency. Despite their incommensurate love-taxonomies, Lewis's need-love/gift-love and Nygren's eros/agape have often been treated as parallels. This longstanding assumption is shown to be in need of greater nuance. The study demonstrates that Lewis's concept of spiritual longing, which he calls Joy, is relevant to the Nygren debate and serves as a potent variant for Nygren's eros. However, no one thing in Lewis's mental repertoire can serve as a perfect translation of Nygren's eros, because for Lewis it is an abstract caricature cut off from real life. In Lewis's theological vision, contra Nygren, spiritual longing, far from obfuscating the Gospel, is a God-given desire that prepares the way for it. Lewis is not free from the occasional hyperbole or blind spot. For instance, his argument that romantic love is not eudaimonistic is shown to be somewhat convoluted, and his famous disagreement with Augustine is possibly based on a misunderstanding. A perennial feature in Lewis's understanding of love, reflected in all four essays, is the ambiguity of love. Love is not something pejorative, but neither is it an infallible moral compass. God is love, but love is not God.
  • Nickels, Brita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Grave sculpture as interpreter of life and death. Grave sculptures done by Heikki Häiväoja, Kain Tapper and Matti Peltokangas 1952-2002. The thoughts of Philippe Ariès and Erwin Panofsky on western funeral art constitute the starting point of this study. These scholars speak about the 20th century as a period of decline regarding western funeral art. The reason for this situation lies, according to them, in the fact that death has been rejected and become a private affair in modern society. Especially Panofsky sees an important reason for the decay of funeral art also in the separation of death from religion. In this study, I approach the view of Ariès and Panofsky from the angle of Finnish funeral art. The subject of the study is grave sculptures of three Finnish sculptors: Heikki Häiväoja, Kain Tapper and Matti Peltokangas, from 1952 to 2002. (The analysis of the grave sculptures has been performed with the Iconology of Erwin Panofsky. The analysis has been deepened by the ideas of a graveyard as a semiotic text according to Werner Enninger and Christa Schwens. In order to confirm their argumentation, they analyse the graveyard text with the model of communicative functions of Roman Jakobson and verify that the graveyard is a cultural text according to Juri Lotman.) Results of the study In the grave sculptures of the sculptors, different worldviews appear alongside Christian thoughts indicating a new stage in the tradition of funeral art. In the grave sculptures characterised as Christian, the view of life after death is included. In these memorials the direction of life is prospective, pointing to the life beyond. Death is a border, beyond which one is unable to see. Nevertheless the border is open or marked by the cross. On this open border, death is absence of pain, glory and new unity. In memorials with different worldviews, the life beyond is a possibility which is not excluded. Memorials interpret life retrospectively; life is a precious memory which wakens grief and longing. Many memorials have metaphysical and mystic features. In spite of democratization the order and valuation of social classes appear in some memorials. The old order also materializes in the war memorials relating the same destiny of the deceased. Different burial places, nevertheless, do not indicate social inequality but are rather signs of diversity. The sculptors' abstract means of modern funeral art deepen the handling of the subject matter of death and reveal the mystery of it. Grave sculptures are a part of Finnish and sacral modern art, and there is an interaction between funeral art and modern art. Modern art acquires a new dimension, when grave sculptures become a part of its field. Grave sculptures offer an alternative to anonymous burying. The memorial is a sign of the end of life; it gives death significance and publicity and creates a relation to the past of the society. In this way, grave sculptures are a part of the chain of memory of the western funeral art, which extends throughout Antiquity until ancient Egypt. (In this study I have spoken of funeral art as a chain of memory using the thoughts of Danièle Hervieu-Léger.) There are no signs of decay in the grave sculptures, on the contrary the tradition of funeral art continues in them as a search for the meaning of life and death and as an intuitive interpretation of death. As such, grave sculptures are part of the Finnish discussion of death.
  • Rohkimainen, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The main purpose of this study was to find out motives of the Lutheran Church of Finland for its activities in Sweden during years 1945-1967. Work as itself was made by a national ecclesiastical organization Suomen kirkon seurakuntatyön keskusliitto (SKSK). Church of Sweden had already organized activities for Finnish speaking inhabitants especially in northern Sweden. It also had a Finnish congregation in Stockholm. The main sources for the study were the archives of the Diaspora committee of the SKSK which are located in the National Archive of Finland and the in Unit for Ministry to Finns Abroad, which is under the Department of International Relations of Lutheran Church of Finland. During 1945-1949 the Diaspora committee sent pastor Aarne Siirala to Stockholm to organize all kinds of help from Sweden to Finland. The other task for him was to serve as a Finnish speaking pastor among Finns in Stockholm and nearby. He had time only for the charitable duties. And when fundraising collapsed because of some malpractices, pastor Siirala moved back to Finland. Year 1947 Finnish pastor Yrjö Knuutila got a short message from Sweden. The message was sent by an Ingrian, who wanted to get some Lutheran spiritual guidance to Borås where they lived. Political situation in Finland was very vulnerable because of the cautious relationship with Soviet Union. Knuutila discussed with SKSK s General Secretary Toivo Laitinen what to do. They had both participated the Winter war and the Continuation war and were members of a new theological movement Asevelipapit. This new group believed that that the Lutheran Church should take part to everyday life and follow brothers wherever they go. Knuutila and Laitinen descided to act. They organized Finnish pastors to travel to Sweden to give a finnish sermon to Ingrians. In 1950 s immigration from Finland to Sweden increased. The consequences were of many kinds. First most of the Finns stayed in Stockholm and its neighboring area and later even western and southern parts of Sweden. The Lutheran Church of Finland started a wide social work in Finland. The state of Finland couldn t act in Sweden. So, church was the only Finnish organization that could help Finns in need. Social work was a large investment for SKSK during 1950 s. It cost a half of its incomes. Because of the lack of money Diaspora committee tried to find suitable partners. It started to co-operate f. ex. with the Kummikuntaliitto and Suomi-Seura, Finland Society. In 1960 s the Diaspora committee started to activate laymen. Together with active laymen several ecclesiastical groups were initiated in central Sweden. Even the church of Sweden could open some post for Finnish pastors. Finns organized together a national ecclesiastical event in Sweden in 1961. The church of Sweden reacted when the Ingrians stayed in Sweden in 1948. Swedish Lutheran bishops founded a church committee for refugees. They helped Ingrians by employing a Finnish speaking pastor Hugo Grape and by founding a newspaper called Isien Usko. Later in 1960 s Swedish bishops supported somehow the Finnish speaking ecclesiastical work, but their efforts were restrained by the state of Sweden. In northern Sweden Finnish speaking ecclesiastical work continued during the years as a normal function of a Lutheran congregation. Diaspora committee sent pastors to north quite actively till the beginning of 1953, but after that quite seldom. The Church of Sweden reacted to the needs of the Finns, but slowly. The Finns in Sweden regarded that the tact was too slow. They decided to act themselves. In May 1967 the Finns founded a new national organization in Sweden called Ruotsin suomenkielisen seurakuntatyön keskus (RSSK). The new organization was ment to serve as an interest group for the Finns and specially for the Finnish speaking ecclesiastical activities. First the motives of Lutheran church to organize activities in Sweden were slightly affected by the Finnish nationalism. Then the motive was to give social help because Lutheran church was the only organization to be able to act in Sweden. Lutheran Church could concentrate to spiritual work in 1960 s when it started to train laymen and the Church of Sweden could employ some pastors.