Valtiotieteellinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • den Broeder, Chantal (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    ABSTRACT The first objective of this dissertation is to identify and analyze the challenges encountered by Ghanaian tomato farmers when they cultivate and sell their crop. Set within the context of low, national productivity in the tomato sector, this dissertation focuses on a case study of the village of Matsekope, located in one of the three main tomato-producing regions in Ghana. Both the cultivation and selling processes are analyzed because they are interlinked - tomatoes are cultivated in order to be sold, while markets provide the incentive for and possibly influence cultivation practices. This research utilizes value chain analysis (VCA) - input, output, geographical destination, governance and institutions - since it allows for a detailed study about the development of a commodity from the initial stages of production or cultivation to the eventual sale on the market. By utilizing VCA, this research also addresses a second objective, which is to contribute to the current debate concerning the parameters of VCA research. In other words, to see if every process and actor from input to the end-use product ought to be included in VCA, or if rather only specific segments and actors along the chain can be analyzed. While information on input, output and the geographical destination of tomatoes proved to be integral parts to this value chain, the governance and institutions portion of the analysis (utilizing the Kaplinsky and Morris model) was key to obtaining a better understanding about how and why the value chain was operating as it was, and more specifically why farmers were encountering certain challenges. These challenges were namely obtaining access to credit, farming irrigation, input supply (tractor services) and improved cultivation practices, as well as difficult price negotiations with traders, limited access to markets, and price fluctuation throughout the season. The overall picture that evolved was a complex set of relationships between actors and their respective rules or legislation. In addition, utilization of VCA in this research also demonstrated that it can be used as an analytical framework to focus on a specific segment and set of actors within a larger value chain, and that the departing point of analysis does not necessarily have to be the global firm. Keywords: value chain analysis, governance, Ghana, farmers, tomato sector
  • Menard, Rusten (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation makes methodological and empirical contributions to understanding how we represent and use values that are important in defining ‘us’, and who ‘we’ consider ourselves to be. It also contributes to our understanding of how particular values, which we might typically assume as enhancing societal wellbeing, can be formulated ideologically in the sense that they are discursive representations and tools for elevating ‘our’ identities and subjugating ‘theirs’. The study material consists of written responses to open questions that were produced by people who are differently positioned in relation to institutionalised norms on “sociability” and/or “sex/gender”: People contacted through a national random sample, people diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome and people with transgendered experiences. I therefore also consider how being explicitly marked as psychiatrically, medically and socially ‘abnormal’ might interact with how social values are negotiated in identification and in ideological work. The perspectives informing this dissertation are interdisciplinary. I draw upon theoretical and methodological approaches to values, identification and ideology in social semiotics and critical discourse studies, critical and societal psychologies, semiotic sociology and cultural studies. The first of two primary methodological contributions is in developing a framework for analysing social values as constructions that are formulated in dynamic identification processes. I specify analyses of social values firstly in relation to territorialising what ‘we’ consider to be important, desirable or obligatory; secondly in relation to formulating action programmes by positioning contents into relational participant roles; and thirdly in relation to evaluative positioning of oneself and others in relation to those territorialisations and action programmes. The second methodological contribution is in developing a framework for analysing ideologies as both structures and processes, from the perspective of modalities. Modality is amongst the discursive resources that function to connect and divide viewpoints, to build value projects and to build communities of shared values. My empirical contributions in this dissertation deal with analyses of Finnish equality discourses; how equality is given meaning and used in identification processes. I also examine the extent to which equality as a concept is ideological such that its imbued meanings and uses work to produce and update relations of domination. I interpret four discourses on equality. I suggest that a network of ideological discourses on Finnish equality works to somewhat paradoxically produce and maintain symbolic and material inequalities. Integrating an historical analysis, I argue that this ideology is being constantly updated and maintained in part because of the interrelatedness in the historical path of equality with national projects on temperance, homogeneity, non-conflict and civil unity, the nation and sameness. Particular ways of continually referencing and integrating aspects of these projects into meanings and implementations of equality have been key to maintaining its ideological status. They are also key to understanding how ideological Finnish equality formulations might be transformed.
  • Magnusson, Roland (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This thesis consists of three essays on the use of economic instruments in environmental policy. The first essay analyses the case for interstate cooperation in environmental taxation while the second and the third essays study questions specific to the use of economic instruments in climate change mitigation. The first essay analyses the incentives of national governments to cooperate in regulating pollutants that spill over jurisdictional boundaries. A well-established result within the literature that assumes perfect competition is that a country, which is small in the sense that it cannot affect world prices, has no incentive to depart from the cooperative choice of environmental regulation. By generalising the model presented by Oates and Schwab (1987, 1988) it is shown that this result does not hold for pollutants that have regional or global characteristics, as e.g. sulphur dioxide (SO2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) have. The second essay demonstrates a methodology for analysing the progress and failure of projects in the CDM. It models the hazard of first issuance. Integrated over duration, the hazard of first issuance gives the time to market, defined as the duration between the start of the Global Stakeholder Process and the first issuance of Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs). It is shown that 50\% of all projects which have started the Global Stakeholder Process fail to issue CERs, while the remainder has a median time to market of 4 years. The third essay illustrates a paradox in which overlapping climate policy instruments may have the unintended consequence of accelerating rather than decelerating global warming. The insight follows from a dynamic model, where a quota obligation for power generated from renewables is introduced alongside a carbon budget. A dynamic model allows to study how the schedule at which the carbon budget is exhausted is affected by the quota obligation. The exhaustion schedule determines the global temperature response.
  • Uutela, Marjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The thesis examines with primary sources, how Finland nullified the military articles of the Paris Peace Treaty and the reference to Germany as a potential aggressor in the FCMA-Treaty in September 1990. This project, called later “Operation Pax”, paralleled the restoration of reunified Germany’s full sovereignty in Finland. The study is located in the intersection of Cold War political history and international relations. It utilizes new primary source materials from Finland and Germany and theoretical tools from international relations. The thesis describes first how the Finnish foreign policy leadership interpreted the Paris Peace Treaty during the Cold War years 1962 and 1983. The analysis focuses especially on how the international position of the two German states affected interpreting the Peace Treaty 1987–1990. The main emphasis is on the unilateral move of the Finnish government to reinterpret the military articles of the Peace Treaty in 1990. Easing of tensions between the superpowers and the German states made it possible for President Mauno Koivisto to allow importing a German civilian plane to Finland in 1987 without consulting the Soviet Union and Great Britain, even though acquiring aircraft from Germany was prohibited in the Peace Treaty. Because the decision was made unilateral, it meant differing from usual foreign policy practices and is thus seen as a turning point in the thesis, although importing civilian aircraft was not in itself of great significance. The study concludes that ”Operation Pax” was one of the most important Finnish cases of interpreting the Peace Treaty. Yet, nullifying military articles in 1990 did not change Finland’s international orientation or political goals. Finland’s neutrality policy remained intact. “Operation Pax” was an act of sovereignty, but the leading motive behind it was military-political. In order to acquire weaponry from Germany, the Finnish Ministry of Defence had suggested in November 1989 that the military articles could undergo changes. In June 1990 the Ministry for Foreign Affairs justified in its memorandum to Koivisto the importance of the plan with the interest that the Finnish Defence Forces had in German and Japanese weapons systems.
  • Spel, Oghogho Christal (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study explores why poor African migrants remain in Johannesburg, South Africa’s harsh migration context, to build their lives, and how, in pursuit of a better future, they engage with the various forms of socioeconomic and political constraints that they experience. Popular as a destination for African migrants, South Africa is a country with a very high percentage of asylum seekers, but also a place where they are the targets of violent xenophobia. Yet such migrants are known to live for years in this situation, one which is generally considered socio-economically and politically marginalized and constraining. Their continued presence raises the pertinent sociological query of how and why such large numbers have remained in their host society, continuing to welcome new incoming members, while others have left, been imprisoned or murdered, or died of a range of ailments. Methodologically, resilience theory - conceptualised as a dynamic process of interaction between the individual and his or her environment – is utilised as an explanatory and descriptive framework to examine the subject of this study. Data for the study were collected through life-story interviews with African migrants who are economically active on the streets of Johannesburg, and document analysis was utilised for triangulation purposes. Data were analysed using narrative analysis. Empirical observations called attention to the prominence of aspirations for a better life amongst the informal migrants, an observation that is accompanied by several relevant findings: firstly, that the migrants’ resilience in their constraining environment cannot be attributed to itemized factors. Rather, their resilience takes the form of a dynamic and interactive engagement with the South African context. The interactions are orchestrated by their perceptions of opportunities in their home countries and the South African society, and combined with the application of faith and tactics in dealing with identified adverse conditions. Their resilience is presented as enduring but also transient, as it is subject to individuals’ evaluations and negotiations. In that light, the migrants are shown to be active agents but also victims in their harsh context, calling attention to the duality of the informal migrants’ experience in Johannesburg, irrespective of their violent xenophobic environment. Consequently, considerable challenges are posed to the projects of classifying informal migrants as either passive victims or active agents, and listing or identifying specific factors as means to attaining resilience. Secondly, an observed fallout from the interviewees’ notion of hope – aspiration – is the productive use of ‘waiting time’. The hegemonic control of the interviewees’ time through, for example, official delays or manipulation in the processing of asylum applications, is challenged by the tactical and creative utilization of the period of waiting in which two things stood out: micro-entrepreneurship and development of their social and personal lives but particularly micro-entrepreneurship, as the interviewees focused on achieving a better life through micro businesses. Their engagement in trade and services in a context devoid of institutional support, and under dire personal circumstances, though borne of feelings of ‘no alternatives’, suggests creativity, with potential for growth. Furthermore, my interviewees were also able to make productive social use of the ‘time of waiting’ even as asylum seekers. Living in the city, my interviewees took initiatives to learn new skills, develop new intimate and business relationships, had children, and so on. Their lives reveal that even as asylum seekers, they were slowly building the futures they desired, for instance, through savings and personal projects in the home country. On the basis of empirical observations, the conclusions drawn indicate the limitations of policy in terms of improving the experience of informal migrants, and raises questions concerning the moral or ethical values (or lack thereof) involved in perpetuating their vulnerability – thus calling attention to questions of choice and agency in acts dehumanising informal migrants. Moreover, observations of micro-entrepreneurship beg another question. Could migration management be mutually beneficial if a context conducive to migrants’ entrepreneurial pursuits is promoted? As a contribution to the body of knowledge of Social Policy, the author uses the perspective of the informal migrants as active agents and social victims to argue that political inclusion by the host country cannot be enough to improve the wellbeing of informal migrants. Thus, the author theoretically reflects on the relevance of Social Policy in improving human welfare and emphasizes the informal migrants’ experience of vulnerability as a creative opportunity to engage the development of Social Policy in Africa, for example, from a regional body. Therefore, the thesis postulates that the dilemma of better lives for informal African migrants is a regional political question of belongingness, care, and social responsibility.
  • Heiskanen, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of this study is to discuss problem gambling as a financial issue, to study the everyday life (unbalanced) budgets and financial matters of problem gamblers, and to discover their financial recovery processes, with or without the support from state public welfare services. In practice, the results of this study aim to support the development of prevention of problem gambling and services (especially financial support) for people who have experienced problems with their gambling. Using three data sets, this research asks: what gambler consumer clusters can be identified in Finland? How do problem gamblers experience financial problems as being secondary to gambling? How do they perceive the assistance available in deteriorating financial situations, partly related to their socio-economic positions? What meanings do Finnish social services directors gice to the public (financial) support available for problem gamblers? First, the main data set comprises 17 thematic interviews with individuals who have experienced problematic gambling. The second data set includes 11 email and phone interviews with different-level social services directors in the most populous cities in Finland, while the third data set is a population survey entitled “Finnish Gambling 2011”. First, three problematic issues connected to money during different phases of problem gambling are identified: needing money for gambling, missing money due to gambling and potential money to sort out the problems caused by gambling. The everyday life financial affairs and practices described by the gamblers revealed the episodic nature of problem gambling: disposable money means that gambling activities are organized temporally. Second, this thesis shows that gamblers in general are heterogeneous consumers. Problem gambling is most common among gamblers who play many different games. Problem gamblers come from different socio-economic backgrounds, which results in variations in the nature of the financial problems in the everyday life of the gamblers and their households. Also, their paths to financial recovery vary, especially regarding public financial assistance and social services in general, as problem gamblers have different subjective “distances” from public services. Third, problem gamblers themselves may conceptualize their problems as financial and feel that their concerns are left unaddressed in treatment. Also, measures to recognize problem gambling within social services seem necessary. The social service directors expressed the view that financial support is available for problem gamblers but requires resources, especially for the more controlling measures such as having a social worker manage the client’s finances. Control in general is an important element in supporting problem gamblers financially, as different money-management strategies may influence the gambler’s financial autonomy, but may provide support in managing financially. Problem gambling is often understood as a mental health issue and treated with individual therapy. This study suggests that the prevention and treatment of problem gambling ought to be set in a broader, financial perspective. Gambling is undertaken with money, and the cycles of everyday life budgets, as well as the different social and economic positions of the gamblers, should be recognized and acknowledged.
  • Matilainen, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Gambling is a ubiquitous phenomenon in Finland although only a less than a century ago lotteries in goods were the only legal form of gambling. This research explains this change. The focus of the research is on legal, commercialized gambling and on recreational gamblers instead of problem gambling or problem gamblers, because the field of gambling studies has traditionally focused on problematic aspects of gambling. The time period of the study stretches from the nineteenth century to the twenty-first one, but the focus is mostly on the twentieth century. The research question is multifaceted. The research focuses on the question of the cultural, social, and historical place of a phenomenon understood as gambling in a certain time-spatial context. The research asks how gambling and discourses and practices related to it have become to what they are and how they are experienced today: Why and how was gambling tamed to be part Finnish way of life; what has been gambling’s social, cultural, and economic significance to its practitioners, and what can research done on gambling tell about the history and changes of the Finnish society in the period? The objective of the study is to historicize gambling’s place by researching discourses and practices related to the ensemble understood as gambling from the theoretical perspective of Michel Foucault’s dispositif. To answer these questions a variety of qualitative data has been used. The idea has been to explore the ensemble understood as gambling from the perspectives of production (the regulation of gambling, gambling operators, technological changes affecting gambling), and consumption (the gamblers). The data include contemporary official memorandums, newspaper and magazine articles, archive material by two Finnish gambling monopolies Veikkaus and RAY, various collections of oral history data, Finnish fiction, and auto-ethnographic observations. The main method of the research is historical approach, which means using diverse and fragmented sources with a commitment to their relevance, reliability and validity and to different longitudinal and qualitative methods that recognize the possibility of change. The research results show that the history of Finnish gambling can be formulated into three dispositifs: prohibition dispositif, common good dispositif, and risk dispositif. These dispositifs describe solutions to the "problem" of gambling that are contingent upon the socio-temporal circumstances of the Finnish society. The dispositifs reveal how gambling has been understood, practiced, and regulated in certain periods, and they are also indicators of the change concerning gambling that has taken place in Finland. It is argued that in an international comparison, gambling in Finland was both legalised and tamed quite early and exceptionally successfully. Especially the Finnish state has had a quite unique role in taming gambling: Gambling defined good citizen-ship and the state actively promoted it in many ways decades earlier than similar processes were underway in Anglophonic countries. The theoretical ambition has been to take part in the international discussion in the field of gambling studies regarding gambling’s historical place, taming processes and gambling as consumption in Western societies in the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-first centuries, and to give an example of the usefulness of the concept of dispositif, and demonstrate both the value of comparative approach and of oral history data for the field of gambling studies.
  • Venäläinen, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Public discourse tends to position women who have committed crimes of violence as deviant ‘others’ who transgress gendered expectations about proper womanhood. This othering is commonly linked with tendencies to make sense of violence committed by women in stereotypical and reductionist terms. This dissertation analyses the construction of women as perpetrators of violence in both crime news in the tabloid press and the narratives of women imprisoned for violent crimes. By approaching the topic through different sets of research materials, and by integrating a variety of perspectives and analytical approaches, the dissertation opens up new ways of conceiving gendered dynamics of violence and, in particular, the relations between women and violence. Theoretically and methodologically the dissertation draws primarily upon feminist poststructural theorizations and critical discursive psychology, and is focused on ways in which meanings attached to gender and violence entwine with processes of being identified and identifying oneself within socio-cultural intelligibility. The dissertation comprises four sub-studies, two of which focus on analyses of tabloid news reports and the other two on the narratives of women serving a prison sentence. Sub-study I investigates how relations between gender categories and violence are constructed, and how notions about gender are drawn upon in making sense of lethal intimate partner violence in tabloid news reports. Sub-study II explores the ways in which women’s violent action is made sense of in terms of agency and the constitution of identities in the reports. Sub-study III focuses on the ways in which imprisoned women negotiate their positionings and identities in relation to culturally circulating conceptions about womanhood and violence. Finally, sub-study IV focuses on meanings attached to violence in the imprisoned women’s narratives, and on the discursive and affective processes through which those meanings entwine with the enactments of selves. Overall, the analyses illustrate different, context-specific ways in which femininity is referred to and drawn upon in positioning women in relation to violence in both tabloid news and in imprisoned women’s narratives, and shed light on the gendered ambivalences and paradoxical socio-cultural valuations and expectations that femininity entwines with. The analyses also show multiplicity in the meanings attached to violence perpetrated by women, while pointing to the specific prevalence of individualistic modes of meaning-making that emphasize individual agency. While such an emphasis tends to tie violence to the character of women suspected of violence and deepen their deviance in the tabloid news, in the imprisoned women’s narratives it frequently appears as a means for defending against otherness and gendered vulnerability. The dissertation contributes to the development of approaches to exploring relations between gender, womanhood and violence that accommodate complexity and thus work against dichotomies and reductionism. Furthermore, it charts theoretical and methodological experimentation that combines an interest in discourse and affects, and facilitates the viewing of social-psychological practices of gendered identification as both adaptive and patterned.
  • Ylä-Anttila, Tuukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Populism has often been understood as a description of political parties and politicians, who have been labelled either populist or not. This dissertation argues that it is more useful to conceive of populism in action: as something that is done rather than something that is. I propose that the populist toolkit is a collection of cultural practices, which politicians and citizens use to make sense of and do politics, by claiming that ‘the people’ are opposed by a corrupt elite – a powerful claim in contemporary politics, both in Finland and internationally. The concept of the populist toolkit has analytical utility, since it can separate a set of populist repertoires from others, for example that of exclusionary nationalism, and takes seriously the effect culture has on action, while avoiding cultural determinism. I study four instances in which the populist toolkit was used in Finnish politics from 2007 to 2016. As data, I use party publications, a Voting Advice Application, newspaper articles and opinion pieces, and a large set of online media data. Methodologically, I employ qualitative text analysis informed by theories of populism, cultural practices, frame analysis and Laurent Thévenot’s sociology of engagements, as well as topic modeling. Article I argues that the state of the Eurozone in 2011 gave the Finns Party an opportunity to frame the situation as a crisis for Finland and to present itself as a righteous populist challenger to established parties. Article II shows that the Finns Party uses anti-feminist arguments to present itself as a populist alternative. Article III presents a theory of how populist argumentation can use familiar emotional experiences in bonding ‘the people’ together. Article IV tackles the populist epistemology: while populism can be critical of intellectuals and experts in general, the article shows that another populist strategy is counterknowledge, incorporating alternative knowledge authorities. This strategy is particularly employed by the populist radical right. After the monumental success of right-wing populism in Western democracies, the next big question is whether left-wing or liberal actors will take up the tools of populism, or will they rather position themselves on the side of pluralism, democratic institutions and scientific expertise. This will have to be assessed by future studies.
  • Alava, Henni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study explores how the Catholic and Protestant (Anglican) Churches have influenced the negotiation of societal co-existence in the aftermath of over two decades of brutal war in northern Uganda. Drawing from a total of nine months of ethnographic fieldwork between 2012 and 2016 that focused on a Catholic and a Protestant parish in Kitgum town, this study provides a historically grounded ethnographic analysis of the relationship between mainline churches and politics in Acholiland. It argues that churches, as socially, politically, and materially embedded institutions, have performed as sites of, and provided individuals and communities resources for, narrative imagination. The two churches were at the forefront of the Acholi Religious Leaders’ Peace Initiative (ARLPI), which gained global acclaim and local respect for its efforts to draw the international community’s attention to the war, and to convince the warring parties to embark on peace talks. Yet the churches, which have been deeply entangled in Ugandan politics since the country's independence, were themselves hard-hit by the war and, as this study shows, their political and societal role in its aftermath has been complex. First, rather than being the monolithic actors they are often perceived to be, churches are deeply woven into networks of ethnicity, kinship, party politics, government, patronage, and friendship, and the criss-crossing lines of division that cut across society also run through the churches themselves. Second, although public church events function as platforms for performances of statehood, they also provide arenas for genuine political debate and critique of Uganda’s ruling government. Third, while churches have taken part in forging a powerful and at times healing utopian vision of a peaceful future in post-war Acholiland, this utopia lends itself to entrenching boundaries of inclusion and exclusion, both within the churches, and within society. To make these claims, the study draws analytical tools from debates in the anthropology of hope and of the good, in political theology, in studies on political narratives and utopias, and in multidisciplinary research on Christianity and politics in Africa. The thread followed throughout is the Acholi concept of anyobanyoba, ‘confusion’, which emerges as both a sense of ambivalence and uncertainty, and as a state of affairs within a community. By analysing public church events at which elaborate political narratives are woven, as well as quotidian moments in which silence, fear, and hope are encountered and expressed, the study highlights how ‘confusion’ diminishes the possibilities of crafting hopeful imaginaries for a less violent future – yet also the multiple ways in which confusion and violence are addressed. The notion of confusion is also employed as an epistemological and ethical device. Acknowledging the challenges of studying violence and its aftermath; the futility of claims to absolute knowledge in situations characterised by uncertainty and silence; and the difficulty of transforming the experiences of others into text in an ethically uncompromised way; the study advocates scholarship that embraces hesitance and experimentation rather than certainty and disciplinary rigidity. In a world increasingly framed by oppositional extremes, there is a need for research that, instead of seeking clear-cut answers, asks questions that provoke recognition of complexity and confusion, and explores the ways in which communities and individuals orientate themselves towards the future in the face of them.
  • Laurent, Helene (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The Finnish laws on maternal and child health care came into force in 1944, during the last months of WWII. During the war, resources had been allocated specifically to child welfare, which resulted in record-low infant mortality rates in 1943. These seemingly controversial facts formed the starting point for my doctoral thesis on the history of preventive child health care in Finland. In my research I analyzed, how changes in the soci-ety and in medical knowledge have influenced the ideology, organization and practices of preventive child health care in the early to mid-twentieth century. I have approached the process by examining child health experts as an epistemic community, a concept coined by Peter Haas, which refers to transnational networks of knowledge-based, policy-oriented experts. In addressing my research questions, I have relied on content analysis and, where possible, also statistical data. The research material consists mainly of texts produced by health professionals. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part ends in 1939, which marks the beginning of the Finno-Soviet Winter War, and follows the ideological and institutional development of preventive child health care in Finland. The prevailing ideology was primarily based on positive eugenics: on raising strong and healthy children for the newly independent nation. International contacts included Germany via pediatrician Arvo Ylppö, and the Anglo-Saxon world, via public health nurses. Practical work was con-ducted mainly by child welfare organizations. By the end of the 1930s, pop-ulation questions and problems in public health were activated in national politics, where special emphasis was put on the rural communities lagging in development. Public health experts joined forces to promote publicly funded preventive health care for mothers and children. The second part is set in the years of WWII, and it examines the chang-es in child health care catalyzed by the evacuations and high infant mortal-ity during the Winter War. Finland received extensive international aid, which was targeted mainly at the health care of evacuated mothers and children. The aid agency Finnish Relief and its expert-run Health Commit-tee could develop new forms of child health and welfare, e.g. ambulatory health clinics and cottage hospitals for children, in cooperation with exist-ing non-governmental organizations. Spurred on by powerful pronatalist and defense-related arguments, the laws on maternal and child health clinics were enacted in 1944. Based on the annual reports of district physi-cians, the health of children remained good from 1941 onwards, due to the focus on the welfare of children. However, 75,000 children from the most vulnerable families had been sent to Sweden. The practices and possibili-ties of public health care are discussed in a local case study of the Sortavala region in Karelia, where many health reforms were applied in advance. The last section extends to the mid-fifties and focuses on the post-war reconstruction efforts. Again, with the help of international aid agencies, a network of health centers, including maternal and child health clinics, was built to serve as basic health care units in the rural areas. By the mid-fifties, practically all pre-school children were enrolled at the clinics. The Finnish child health experts found new tasks in the World Health Organi-zation, the new center of the global epistemic community of child health.
  • Alanko, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The study investigates policy level attempts to improve mental health care. It analyses the rationale of the proposals to improve Finnish mental health policy between 1964–2016. Such proposals have been presented in policy documents such as committee reports, working group memorandums, government bills and project reports. The most prominent examples of the improvement proposals are reducing psychiatric hospital care, increasing outpatient treatment, increasing the possibilities for mental health services users to work, emphasising the autonomy of the service users, and increasing the equal position of mental health care service users and other citizens. The study seeks to find out what has been in the focus in reforming mental health care, how the people using mental health services have been perceived, and finally, what has been left unproblematised. Since the late 1970s, Finnish mental health care has been subject to continuous reforms. A key feature of these reforms has been psychiatric dehospitalisation, i.e. reducing psychiatric hospital care. Dehospitalisation is a trend with complex origins, which became global after the Second World War and reached Finland by the mid-1970s. Dehospitalisation stems from various and conflicting origins, such as citizens’ rights movements, the development of the psychiatric profession, the economic interests of the state, as well as from pharmaceutical development. Dehospitalisation and mental health policy in general are deeply connected with welfare policy, but it the relationship is not straightforward. In Finland dehospitalisation was planned as part of an expansive welfare policy, but its’ implementation has sometimes recalled austerity politics. Another phenomenon that affects mental health policy is the expansion of mental health care: the simultaneous increase in the provision, demand, methods and areas of jurisdiction of mental health care. The dissertation shows that in the reform initiatives set forth in the policy documents, similar suggestions are given in different contexts. In the analysed policy documents, dehospitalisation has been proposed as a solution to almost any problems perceived in mental health care. Dehospitalisation also seems to have materialised, as the number of psychiatric hospital beds is now many times lower than it was in the beginning of the period. Along with the diminishing number of hospital beds, new residential care facilities have been established which seem to be as institutionalising as the previous psychiatric hospitals. Also increasing the amount of outpatient treatment has materialised, but it seems that the services are used by a new group of citizens with milder problems. During the period between the 1960s and the early 1990s, those with a serious mental health problem were considered the core focus group of mental health policy, independently of whether they were within the labour market. Moreover, providing sheltered work for those with serious problems was considered a method of rehabilitation. After the mid-1990s the emphasis on paid work has increased. Those who are able to work in the labour market are the new focus group the mental health policy. The pursuit of mental health care service users’ increased autonomy is ideologically connected to the aim of dehospitalisation. However in the latter phases of the period, after the mid-1990s, the improvement suggestions start to assume the autonomy of the service users instead of seeking ways of supporting it. The changing understanding of autonomy also reflects to the notion of ‘user expertise’. This recently emerged way of thinking lifts the expertise of people having experience with their own mental health problems. However the emphasis on ‘expertise with experience’ fails to take into account that there is a high demand for professional mental health services. In the conclusions I argue that as a whole the well-meaning improvement proposals fail to problematise many structural factors contributing to the unequal provision of mental health care. Instead of achieving the revolving goal of increasing the equality of mental health care service users, the rationale has left room for excluding even further those with the most serious problems.
  • Kyllönen, Simo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The thesis explores critically some of the theoretical suggestions offered in the literature of environmental political philosophy to overcome the ecological challenges and suggests some promising ways forward. According to the thesis, complexity of the ecological problems, uncertainty related to them, and vulnerability to disagreements because of this, speak in favour of democratic justification of the authority: no other way of resolving the disagreements in the uncertain and complex world can be claimed to be epistemically and morally superior to democracy. Moreover, because appropriately democratic processes are able to show publicly that the (possibly) disputing interests of people are treated in equal and fair manner, the democratic outcomes are able to gain more legitimacy than those resorting solely to the environmentally grounded epistemic (eco)-authority. While democratic processes remain an essential way to produce legitimately authoritative environmental outcomes, the global and intergenerational scope of the problems requires a justification that transcends the democratic processes themselves. Here the thesis defends a Rawlsian kind of contractualism as a way to justify the authority of some global and intergenerational principles and argues that even in the existing non-ideal circumstances the Rawlsian principle of fairness gives us some guidance about the limits within which our societal institutions, laws, and policies deserve our compliance. In addition, the thesis defends the common sense no-harm principle that holds irrespective of the institutional arrangements between people. ¬Due to vast dispersion of causes and effects, a growing number of environmental ethicists have doubted its applicability in the context of large-scale environmental problems at all. Some others have proposed its application at the collective level. Contrary to these authors, the thesis provides a defence of the individualistic no-harm principle as a common-sense way to justify individuals’ duties to change their environmentally harmful behaviour and to promote more effective collective and institutional ways to prevent environmental harm. Finally, the thesis defends a sufficientarian understanding of social justice as the most plausible and coherent way to connect local, global and intergenerational demands. It is also suggested that the sufficientarian approach is capable of overcoming some theoretical challenges that rise at the intergenerational context, in which our choices have an influence not only on how well- or badly-off people in the future are, but also on who those future people are.
  • Mayer, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Finnish development cooperation in the field of meteorology has continued for nearly 50 years and over 100 countries have been beneficiaries of this aid. Cooperation in this field is complex, it brings together public and private sector actors and experts from different backgrounds. Projects have succeeded in capacity development, but have struggled with sustainability. Local capacity often lowers after projects ends. Data includes interviews (n=56) with experts from the Finnish Meteorological Institute, Vaisala, Ministry for Foreign Affairs and 8 recipient countries. Archive material and policy documents are also included in analysis. Exploratory case study method applying conventional content analysis is used. The objective of the study is to explore the underlying issues influencing the challenge of sustainability. Theoretical framework includes a combination of concepts and theories: governmentality (Foucault) and analytics of government (Dean), power theories (Lukes, Clegg and French & Raven) and approaches regarding patterns of aid behavior (Hydén and Mease, Gibson et al., Burnell and Mosse). Historical analysis shows the various phases of these projects, and reflects them to the history of Finnish aid from the late 1960s to the 2010s. Experts’ experiences from the grass-roots level form an important basis for the analysis. Policy analysis shows that projects have been well-fitting with development policies up until the 2000s, after which the gap between policy and practice has widened. Cooperation is focused more on technology and less to the societal aspects of meteorology. The Ministry is not involved in practice, allowing projects to be driven towards more technology-oriented goals by the experts of meteorology, many of which who have adopted an “apolitical” strategy. This weakens connections between projects and local people. Private sector experts have adopted an opposing strategy, and engage actively with politicians, who are able to make decisions regarding purchasing of meteorological equipment. Analysis shows that all important decisions within the aid system "come from above", bureaucracy is heavy and control is tight. Lack of flexibility and trust within the system lowers the influence of the projects. Differences between the donor stakeholders are found in general approaches to key issues. Power analysis shows that the Ministry holds the most influential forms of power, while FMI and Vaisala hold mainly dispositional power. Recipients of aid lack access to important forms of power, yet they are expected to sustain capacity after projects ends. Several “donor traps” are also found to actualize, which influence outcomes of aid. In order to make projects truly sustainable for the aid recipients, the donor would have to give up some power and through that, also some accountability. This is nearly an impossible choice, since both are highly important for the donor. This study finds that within the current system, there is no one actor who has both motive and power to change aid. For the sake of the future, this is a significant challenge to overcome regarding the role of the developing nations, as well as the renewal of the aid system.
  • Kilpi, Fanny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Social inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) are a notable feature of modern societies, and create a major population health burden. Though CHD incidence and mortality have been in decline in past decades, the absolute and relative inequalities by socioeconomic position (SEP) remain substantial. This thesis investigates the influence of different social determinants on MI incidence and fatality amongst ageing Finnish cohorts. The focus lies on the interdependent and independent effects of several dimensions of SEP (education, occupation, income and wealth), living arrangements and partner characteristics. The study used longitudinal study designs with large nationally representative samples derived from Finnish registers. Education, occupation, income and wealth may all serve as indicators of SEP, yet denote different types of resources with varying health consequences. The findings demonstrated that distinct relationships with MI incidence and survival were observed when comparing their independent effects. Education and occupation strongly predict MI incidence, in contrast to the more robust connection between material resources and MI fatality. Wealth, however, differed from income in that it appears to play a role at both stages of disease. In addition, the effects of education and income were observed as independent from early socioeconomic circumstances, while childhood factors such as parental education, occupation and household crowding showed modest persisting associations with MI incidence. The findings from this study support the notion that living arrangements are important factors for MI survival. Amongst men, cohabiting with a marital or non-marital partner was associated with better outcomes than living alone. Amongst women, however, marital benefits depended on material resources, while cohabiting with a non-marital partner was associated with an elevated fatality risk. The results also indicate that the partner’s education substantially impacted women in the long-term aftermath of MI, providing further evidence that the health benefits of relationships may be at least partly contingent upon the socioeconomic resources of one’s partner. For both men and women, the partner’s education appeared to serve as an additional socioeconomic resource influencing cardiac health outcomes. The findings underscore the importance of both individual and household-level socioeconomic resources for health and mortality, and demonstrate how the health consequences of social relationships and socioeconomic resources have significant overlap. In light of the attempts to reduce inequalities in CHD mortality, more attention needs to focus on the distinct influences operating at different stages of disease, using a life course perspective on the upstream determinants of risk factors in the CHD aetiology.