Valtiotieteellinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Munck af Rosenschöld, Johan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Research has shown that we are facing multiple urgent sustainability challenges in the ways in which our societies are organized. To address these challenges we need governance systems that are adaptive in order to absorb new knowledge and creative in order to generate innovative solutions. Yet, institutional inertia , or the tendency of institutions to resist change, slows down the adaptation to these complex challenges. A core concern is thus, how to address institutional inertia in the context of sustainability. The goal of this dissertation is to evaluate the role of projects in generating institutional change toward sustainability. The use of projects cross-cutting organizations that are employed to reach well-defined objectives during a specified period of time to implement public policy has lately attracted scholarly attention. The increasing reliance on projects, or projectification , resonates with the need for managing uncertainties and unpredictabilities in contemporary environmental governance and involves cross-sectoral cooperation in society. To explore the role of projects in institutional change processes, this study focuses on two dimensions of institutional work : participation the processes of including actors and different knowledges in projects as well as promoting deliberation among project participants and innovation the generation and diffusion of new knowledge and ideas produced in projects. This dissertation studies two programs that fund projects to implement public policy: the European Union s LEADER Program and the Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP) implemented by the Natural Resource Conservation Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. While both programs rely on projects as funding mechanisms, they differ in how they are organized and in terms of their historical significance. Taken together, the differences between the two programs provide interesting insights into the role of projects in institutional change processes. The data from the two cases, including interviews and central policy documents, was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. This dissertation highlights important contradictions regarding the question of projects serving as fruitful sites for instigating institutional change. The findings emphasize that institutional inertia is generated by a list of mechanisms including cost, uncertainty, path dependence, power, and legitimacy. The results also highlight that inertia has important temporal implications. Not only does inertia slow down change processes, challenging the development of timely responses to sustainability problems, but also calls for a temporally sensitive approach that acknowledges the multifaceted nature of time. The analysis of the empirical cases shows that projects can serve as vehicles for including actors from different sectors with different knowledges. The analysis also highlights the deliberative nature of project work, which serves as a basis for social learning among project participants. The lack of external participation in projects once they were initiated, however, raises some doubt as to the full extent of inclusion of actors and prompts the question of excluded critical voices in project work. The question of innovation sheds critical light on the capacity of projects to initiate institutional change. The analysis suggests that the ability of projects to engage in exploration and generate innovations can be significantly restricted by bureaucratic rules and traditions of administrative top-down control. The dissertation also points to the challenges of diffusing project knowledge to permanent organizations. Two types of innovation diffusion in projectified environmental governance are identified. Vertical diffusion refers to the process of scaling up project knowledge to higher levels of decision making in permanent organizations, such as regulatory agencies and project-funding organizations. The analysis highlights the challenges of vertical diffusion for projects that are locally situated and have decentered decision-making procedures. Horizontal diffusion, in turn, assigns more weight to the project participants themselves to make sense of and utilize project knowledge in future instances, either in their own work or in new projects. Here, projects function as points of contact, where aggregated and accumulated knowledges converge, which in turn generates new combinations and the potential for broader change. The dissertation expands the discussion of projectification in two ways. First, previous research on projectification has thus far relied on single-country or single-region analyses. While the aim of this dissertation is not to conduct a formal comparative analysis of LEADER and RCPP, it represents one of the first attempts to illustrate the significance of projects and projectification by building on empirical findings from Europe and the USA. Second, this dissertation introduces two ideal types, mechanistic and organic projectification, proposing an alternative approach to conceptualizing projects and their role in institutional change in a public policy setting. Deemphasizing rationalism and embracing tensions, inconsistencies, and the untidiness of projectification could help us gain a fuller understanding of different institutional change processes toward sustainability.
  • Mäkinen, Liisa A. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This doctoral thesis investigates private surveillance practices in everyday life, ranging from control-related monitoring to watching for familial care, for both practical and playful purposes. The focus is on individual camera surveillance practices in private and semi-private places such as homes and recreational surroundings. The work is located in the field of Surveillance Studies. The research builds on the view that surveillance in its current form cannot be conceptualized merely in the framework of control, and recognizes that play can be offered as an alternative. Consequently, the objective is to examine how private surveillance practices can be placed in between, and beyond, frames of control and play. Furthermore, the aim is to examine how surveillance traditionally understood as a control-related activity can be connected to game-like and playful practices on a theoretical level. The study includes four research articles and a summary article. The main body of the empirical data is comprised of qualitative interviews (N:23) collected in Finland with users of private surveillance equipment. Two articles build on interview data, one is a case study (on an online surveillance application) and one is grounded on a theoretical analysis of playful traits in surveillance practices. The main result from the empirical data is that while private surveillance practices connect to forms of control-related monitoring and playful watching practices, uses are not limited to either but combine and add to them. A particularly interesting combination of the two is manifested in gamified surveillance, where surveillants might operate playfully, but surveillance is still authoritative. Control and play can indeed happen simultaneously. Five types of surveillance produced with domestic surveillance systems are recognized: controlling, caring, recreational, communicational and sincere. Furthermore, online cameras are analysed as practical devices which enable a convenient way to monitoring places and property which are important to the users. The key result on the theoretical level is the metaphorical model of surveillance analysis presented in two of the articles. This research introduces five novel metaphors for future surveillance analysis: 1) cat-and-mouse, 2) hide-and-seek, 3) labyrinth, 4) sleight-of-hand, and 5) poker. The metaphorical approach to surveillance practices proposes that control-related surveillance can be analysed from a ludic perspective. This study furthers both empirical and theoretical understanding of private surveillance practices and surveillance taking place at the interfaces of control and play. The underlying argument is that, in addition to control and play, convenience should be considered a framework for analysing private surveillance practices. Consequently, the positions of surveillance subjects should also be rethought.
  • Hämäläinen, Hans (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This doctoral dissertation explores the provision of financial aid and time transfers (care, childcare and practical help) by Finnish baby boomers (born 1945 - 1950) to their elderly parents and adult children. The research questions are: Do baby boomers provide more help to their adult children than elderly parents? How are the opportunities and needs associated with the help given by baby boomers to their elderly parents and adult children? How do the baby boomers reason their support to elderly parents and adult children? To answer these questions, the study utilizes three datasets: theme interview data and two nationally representative postal questionnaires which were all collected from Finnish baby boomers as a part of General transmissions in Finland project. The dissertation consists of four articles and a summary chapter. Articles I and II explore the direction of intergenerational support provided by baby boomers who are in the position of a middle generation. Article I shows that the financial aid given by baby boomers is directed almost entirely to adult children while only a few supports their parents financially. According to article II, baby boomers are also more likely to offer childcare help to their adult children (i.e. grandparental care) than care to their own elderly parents. However, baby boomers provide more practical help to their parents than children. Article III investigates how opportunities and needs are associated with the intergenerational time transfers. According to the results, care and practical help to elderly parents are primarily associated with the parents needs for support. In contrast, the childcare as well as practical help to adult children are positively associated, along with the needs, more widely with the baby boomers opportunities to help. Respectively, according to article I the opportunities and needs are related in the same way to the financial aid provided to adult children. Article IV explores how baby boomers reason the intergenerational support they provide. The results indicate that baby boomers reason the help they give to their parents with their parents needs for support. Needs are also an essential reason to support children. However, in addition baby boomers emphasize their willingness to help their children as much as possible, regardless of needs. The results are interpreted in the contexts of family sociology and evolutionary theory. These fields of research are perceived as complementary to each other. Sociological and evolutionary family studies often investigate the same subjects from different viewpoints. Therefore, combining these approaches is both necessary and productive.
  • Timko, Krisztina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Whenever a common goal requires coordinated action of a team, leadership facilitates the endeavor. Historically, men have held most of the leadership positions, and up to date, women are still a minority in top‐level business positions. Using the turnaround game in controlled laboratory experiments and varying treatment conditions, we investigate whether men and women are equally effective leaders. The first chapter reviews research from three different perspectives: coordination games in economic laboratory experiments and their real‐world implications, gender studies in relation to leadership and ongoing trends, and studies of the democracy effect related to leader effectiveness and gender equality. The second chapter shows with a basic experiment using the weak‐link game that men and women are equally effective leaders, no matter if gender is revealed or not. The third chapter considers communication styles of leaders and finds that despite the different paths in communication, men and women are equally effective leaders. The fourth chapter varies the selection process and presents a replication of the democracy effect on leader effectiveness in a laboratory experiment using the turnaround game as studied earlier by Brandts et al. (2015). The fifth chapter finds that women are elected at a similar rate than men and elected women are marginally less effective leaders than elected men, although the gender difference disappears with repeated interaction. The broad conclusion is that organizations can benefit from both employee participation in choosing group leaders and reconsidering gender imbalance in top‐level positions.
  • Saarikkomäki, Elsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    While general trust in the police is high in Finland, young people's encounters with the police can be problematic. The starting point for this research was the observation that young people are experiencing higher levels of police control despite the lack of a corresponding rise in youth delinquency. Furthermore, the rapid rise of private security in many Western countries has changed the landscape of social control. This study provides new information about encounters between young people, the police and private security guards. It focused on social control directed at youth delinquency, alcohol use and the free time activities of young people. The study used mixed methods, drawing on a Finnish self-report delinquency survey (N=5 826), and on nine focus group interviews with 31 young people. The findings indicated that police and security guard interventions were highly prevalent among minors: 40 percent had experienced such interventions. Police and security guard interventions disproportionately targeted young people from lower social classes, and those living in non-nuclear families and cities, even when differences in delinquency were taken into account. Furthermore, delinquency and heavy drinking increased the likelihood of interventions. The study also examined how young people perceived encounters with policing agents. Fair and respectful treatment of young people was the key to good relations. Young people perceived encounters as fair when the interactions were friendly, peaceful and predictable. Furthermore, emotional factors, such as the ability of policing agents to be empathetic and control their own negative emotions, enforced trust. Aggressive and impolite treatment, on the other hand, challenged trust. The study also showed that young people have more trust and confidence in the police than in private security guards. Young people trusted the police more because they considered them better educated and their actions more legitimate and respectful. Security guards were perceived as often exceeding their legal rights and acting unfairly. The study emphasizes that within the context of this new form of public-private social control there is a need to understand the positive and negative effects of policing in a broad sense. Negatively experienced encounters can challenge young people's sense of social belonging and their trust in other people. Nevertheless, the study also shows that positive encounters can improve the relations and increase trust between young people and policing agents.
  • Kujanpää, Kirsti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The goal of this study is to research the link between Human Resources Management (HRM) and wellbeing at work in a multicultural work community. The study asks how multiculturalism emerges into human resources management and wellbeing at work. It examines human resources management from the perspectives of diversity management, promotion and leading of wellbeing at work, and the use of human resources management theory. The study focuses on the micro level of organisational studies, on leadership, and on the functionality of the work community. The research takes a case study approach. It is an empirical inquiry into a real-life contemporary phenomenon using multiple sources of evidence. The phenomenon is examined through a municipal public utility. The data are derived from focus groups, personal thematic interviews, wellbeing at work inquiry and human resources policy documents. In the first phase, the study looks at the focus groups perceptions of the concepts of wellbeing at work as well as work ability. A questionnaire for the whole work organisation consists of questions concerning different areas of wellbeing at work in addition to a Work Ability index (WAI) test. In the second phase, the study focuses on diversity management using a multiculturalism inquiry and personal interviews. In the third phase, human resources policy documents are analysed from the perspective of human resources management, wellbeing at work and diversity management/multiculturalism. The results revealed wellbeing at work to have been strongly related to human resources management, human resources functions and strategic decisions, and was found to be the function of the employer. In general, the concept of wellbeing at work was difficult to define, and was understood as the aspects of work ability. The inquiry showed no significant differences in opinion about the actualization of wellbeing at work between the original population and immigrants. Rather, the perceptions related to multiculturalism differed from each other with respect to the expertise and craftsmanship of the immigrants. The original population considered these as risk factors for wellbeing at work. The multicultural work community was found to requires diversity management, immigrants working-life knowledge, bi-directional cultural adaptation, and skills to handle conflicts. The collaboration between human resources management, superiors and occupational health was emphasised as being important when it concerned wellbeing at work and multicultural issues, especially issues that were difficult to bring up as well as work ability assessment. The study shows that the education of all main actors about immigrants culture, expertise, know-how, work ability and rehabilitation should be paid attention to. The analysis of the human resources policy documents found that the organisational management was strategic. However, human resources management was not well linked to the business strategy. Differences in views as expressed between personnel and personnel documents appeared in terms of wellbeing and diversity management. The study indicates that effective and efficient strategic management requires a link between human resources and diversity management strategies on one hand, and business strategy on the other.
  • Kaila, Eero (Faculty of Social Sciences, 2017)
    This dissertation is aimed at clarifying the concept of moral responsibility within Anglophone, analytic ethics broadly defined, as well as looking at the concept of character to inquire about its role embedded within these theories. In this work, it is claimed that considerations of character matter when moral responsibility is assessed. Two families of theories of moral responsibility are compared with each other starting with Peter F. Strawson s'sentimentalist theory, originated in his influential article Freedom and Resentment (Strawson, 1962) and followed by work of others including R. Jay Wallace (1994). Scholarship on Aristotle's theory provides the basis for a similar framework of responsibility for action (NE III.1). Other aspects of Aristotle's work provide additional depth to his concept of moral responsibility however. Character differs greatly in emphasis in Aristotle's theory from that of Strawson. It is claimed here that character is an essential part of human agency, and is thus a defining factor for actions taken. It is also claimed since that character is not a precise concept, taking it fully into account presents a formidable challenge to all theories attempting to explain responsibility exhaustively. In Strawson's case, the further claim is made that what is traditionally discussed in terms of character is rephrased in terms of pleas and special conditions, which amount together into excuses instead. One common concept that both of these doctrines utilize is blame. Blame (usually accompanied with praise) is identified as a crucial component of responsibility by a majority of thinkers writing on the subject, and this reasoning is followed here as well. An aporetic conclusion supporting critical sources is reached in terms of a common understanding of moral responsibility in Part I. The Aristotelian notion of character and the Strawsonian notion of excuse will be re-visited as examples of blame mitigation within the context of these theories in the systematic section of Part II. Analysis is conducted based on Bernard Williams's (1993 and 1997) explication of elements of responsibility, where a comparison is done between character and excuses appearing in the two families of theories of responsibility. Based on the findings it is concluded that the two theoretical families share similarity of structure regardless of the difference in their age, in a way that no matter whether character or excuses are used to describe the alteration of initial judgment, in terms of the end results blame mitigation appears to happen identically in all cases. Examination of character in the context of philosophy of responsibility shows that there is room for expansion in the narrower attempts to define the concept. Comparisons of both of these theoretical alternatives are illustrated with examples and further discussion is called for.
  • Obstbaum-Federley, Yaira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Kriminologian ja oikeuspolitiikan instituutin Tutkimuksia
    This doctoral dissertation study analyzed changes in the division of labor between the main societal institutions that handle substance-abuse-related harm, the changes in substance-abuse problems among prisoners that occurred between 1985 and 2006, as well as current prison practices in the assessment and treatment of these problems. The study materials included registers from the social and health authorities, the police and the prisons, along with nationally representative medical studies - Finnish Prisoner Health investigations conducted in 1985, 1992 and 2006. The study shows that substance-abuse-related harm handled within institutions increasingly became a matter for the prison rather than the social-welfare institutions between 1985 and 2006. The number of prisoners with substance-abuse problems in Finnish prisons grew substantially between 1985 and 2006. Addiction to both alcohol and drugs increased. Drug dependence increased to a higher degree and drugs have heavily supplemented alcohol among prisoners. Substance abuse is currently seen as a risk factor that should be tackled in prison in order to reduce reoffending. The study further investigated the degree to which substance-abuse problems are recognized in prisons, comparing the prisoner s sentence plans and risk and need assessments to the independent prisoner health study of 2006. Furthermore the study analyzed interventions given to prisoners whose sentence plans or risk and needs assessments recognized problems related to intoxicant abuse, focusing on prisoners released in 2011 (N=3798). The study shows that longer sentences allow more thorough recognition of problems and leave time for interventions, whereas short sentences seem to warrant both less thorough recognition of problems and fewer interventions. This is a cause for concern given the prominent link between substance abuse and repeat offending among prisoners who receive short sentences. The study suggest that efforts should be made to notice misuse problems in prison and to provide support during the re-entry phase via the providers of social and other services if there is not time during the sentence.
  • Simonen, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This ethnomethodological conversation analysis study investigates how functional capacity interviews are organized in social interaction, thereby documenting recurrent assessment practices. Although interviewing is respected, due to its centrality in knowledge production in contemporary society, little is known about conducting functional capacity interviews per se. Moreover, as demonstrated in the literature review, the notion of functional capacity originates in the works of the sociologists Saad Z. Nagi and Talcott Parsons. It is likely that the very notion of functional capacity therefore conveys their sociological understanding of human functioning. A recent discussion of the social aspects of functional capacity has revealed, however, insurmountable difficulties in their original approach, which attributed functional incapacities to changes in the relationship between humans and their environment, but which was silent on the capacities that are relevant in social interaction. Thus, an alternative sociological understanding of human functioning is required, and this dissertation suggests that instead of focusing on single human subjects, we need to focus on social interaction between humans. That position allows us to elaborate and document the abilities needed in social interaction. The data for this study were drawn from a collection of videotaped welfare interviews (n=57) from three projects run between 2007 and 2009 to research and develop the assessment of functional capacity in central and southern Finland. The interviewers were professional nurses with a background in health care; the interviewees were either unemployed or retired. The data were transcribed and analyzed in detail with conversation analysis methods. The results were published in four articles and document how functional capacity interviews are organized in social interaction: (1) Functional capacity interviews are document-driven interactions: there are pre-scripted questions and answer options, (2) Speakers perform the interview as a mutual collaboration. Since displays of incompetence are prominent in this type of interaction, interviewers may need to support interviewees in situ with comforting actions, (3) Social identity is demonstrably relevant and procedurally consequential in the reception of simple positive responses that do not index any answer options, (4) Social relationship can work as a resource for helping the interviewee answer questions on social functional capacity, and (5) Abilities play an important role in how intersubjectivity emerges in interaction. In the light of the analysis, it seems clear that ethnomethodological conversation analysis is a viable sociological approach for understanding human functioning in social interaction.
  • Kiviruusu, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Self-esteem can be regarded as an essential component of mental health. Research has also shown that self-esteem is associated with happiness and life satisfaction as well as other indicators of well-being, including educational attainment for example. Research on self-esteem and its development has traditionally focused on child and adolescent samples, but during the last decade studies have begun to shed light on the life-span development of self-esteem. Finnish studies on self-esteem employing life course approach are relatively scarce, however. The present study examines the developmental trajectory of self-esteem from adolescence to mid-adulthood and its correlates. The study is part of a larger research project called Stress, development and mental health, conducted in National Institute for Health and Welfare. The original target population included all Finnish-speaking ninth-grade pupils attending secondary school in the spring of 1983 in Tampere. In 1983, 2194 pupils completed a questionnaire during school hours. Participants in the 1983 baseline study have been followed up by postal questionnaires at ages 22 (n = 1656), 32 (n = 1471) and 42 (n = 1334). The results showed that in this study cohort self-esteem developed favorably from adolescence to adulthood: the growth was linear between ages 16 and 32, but it stopped thereafter. Males had a higher self-esteem throughout the study period, while the growth rate was faster among females. Better school achievement and higher parental socioeconomic status were associated with a high self-esteem in adolescence, although the association relating to parental socioeconomic status was explained by adolescent s school achievement. Parental divorce among females and daily smoking among males were associated with poorer self-esteem in adolescence. Daily smoking in adolescence predicted also slower self-esteem growth rate among males from adolescence to adulthood. Among females higher and increasing body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower and more slowly increasing self-esteem. Among females also the negative association between self-esteem and BMI got stronger in adulthood, whereas among males the (negative) association between the two emerged only in the last measurement point at age 42. Among both females and males those who reported constantly low numbers of interpersonal conflicts throughout the study period had the most favorably developing self-esteem trajectory, whereas those with an increasing number of interpersonal conflicts had the slowest self-esteem development. As to the directionality of effects between interpersonal conflicts and self-esteem, the results indicated effects from low self-esteem to later conflicts, although they were relatively weak and observed among males only. No effects were observed in the opposite direction. Higher socioeconomic status at ages 22 and 32 was associated with higher self-esteem and among females higher socioeconomic status at age 22 predicted more favorably developing self-esteem from age 22 to 32 years. Positive change in self-esteem also buffered the negative effects of lower socioeconomic status on psychosomatic symptoms. The results of this study indicate that self-esteem develops positively from adolescence to adulthood, but this development stops somewhere between ages 30 and 40. Males was shown to have higher self-esteem than females. Daily smoking among males, more rapidly increasing BMI among females and increasing number of interpersonal conflicts among both genders, were the factors that were associated with more slowly developing self-esteem. These factors are thus possible focal points of effective interventions to promote favorable self-esteem development from adolescence to adulthood. However, also factors that are associated only with the level of self-esteem, not with its growth rate, may reflect mechanisms of persistent disparities in well-being. Regarding such factors it is important to gain knowledge on the exact mechanism that produce the disparities to begin with as well as to study means for reducing such disparities. Favorably developing self-esteem is likely to have beneficial effects on other measures of well-being, both directly but also indirectly through its buffering mechanisms, for example in the context of low socioeconomic status and poor health. However, it is important to recognize that healthy self-esteem should be cherished in its own right, as one of the key components of good mental health.
  • Caserta, Tehetna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The psychosocial well-being of orphans in Africa has received little attention in the empirical literature despite experiences of orphan crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa precipitated by war, diseases, and natural disasters. The purpose of this dissertation is to shed light on factors associated with the psychosocial well-being of orphans by taking into consideration living environments, quality of care, the psychological vulnerability, and the sources and functions of social support in buffering stressful situations. This study was based on a survey of Rwandan orphans (N=430) consisting of participants from four living environments (i.e., child-headed households, orphanages, streets, and foster homes). The thesis applied a set of instruments to measure psychosocial well-being, social support, stigma and marginalization, and socio-demographic factors through a close-ended questionnaire administered to survey participants. First, the study assessed the psychosocial well-being of orphans in Rwanda by focusing on their living environments and the quality of care they received. Results indicated that the living environments played an important role where orphans in the orphanage exhibited a higher level of emotional wellbeing, lower mental distress and risk taking behavior than others. Quality of care such as having three meals a day and going to school were associated with high levels of emotional well-being and low levels of mental distress. However, length of time spent in a particular living environment was associated strongly with lower levels of emotional well-being and higher levels of mental distress. Second, orphans psychological vulnerability, such as perceived stigma and marginalization, were explored with respect to living environments, status and cause of parental death, and their roles on emotional well-being and mental distress. The result indicated perceived stigma and marginalization were associated strongly only with the living environments. High levels of stigma and marginalization were associated with lower level of emotional well-being and higher level of mental distress. Furthermore AIDS orphans exhibited higher levels of mental distress compared to those orphaned by genocide or other causes after controlling for stigma, marginalization and social support. Low levels of social support due to stigma and marginalization contributed to low levels of emotional well-being and mental distress. Third, the study explored the relative importance of social support in buffering stressful events. The findings suggest that higher perceived social support was associated with higher emotional well-being and lower mental distress. In addition not all sources and functions of perceived social support were equally beneficial for emotional well-being and mental distress. The most important finding was that the variations in psychosocial well-being across living environments diminished significantly when controlling for stigma, marginalization, and social support, suggesting that community interactions with orphans were important factors in shaping the emotional and mental health of orphans. Understanding this complex reality could provide significant insight into the improvement of the psychosocial well-being of orphans.
  • Kinnunen, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Despite being aware of public health guidelines, young men often consume too little vegetables, too much fast food, are quite inactive, and have relatively poor fitness levels. The aims were to examine the following: Is higher self-control associated with improved health behaviors, better fitness, and lower Body Mass Index (BMI)? Is the healthier eating of people with high self-control actually explained by HAPA-model e.g. with higher self-efficacy and more planning? Are typical healthy and unhealthy peer eaters (prototypes) evaluated differently when they are choosing healthy foods or abstaining from unhealthy foods? Are these prototypes associated with eating? And does an intervention of social images promote fruit and vegetable consumption? The present study is part of the DefenceNutri study. Data from 1824 Finnish male conscripts between 2008 and 2009 (age M = 20) was collected at the beginning of the military service, eight weeks after baseline (79% retention) and six months after baseline (67% retention). Studies I and III were cross-sectional observational studies, Study II was prospective and Study IV was non-randomized controlled intervention. Measures included questionnaires, height, weight, and physical fitness. Higher self-control was associated with healthier eating habits, higher leisure-time physical activity, better fitness and lower BMI. The association of higher self-control and fruit and vegetable consumption was fully explained by the HAPA-model; i.e. by higher self-efficacy and positive outcome expectancies of healthy eating, higher risk perceptions of unhealthy eating, higher intentions to eat fruit and vegetables and more planning in eating. However, the HAPA-model explained only partially the negative association between self-control and fast food consumption. Healthy-eating peers (whether choosing or abstaining) were mainly perceived more positively than unhealthy eating peers. A positive rating of vegetable-choosing peers was associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption. The associations of perceptions of a fat-choosing or -abstaining peer with fast food eating were weaker. The social images of peer eater became unhealthier and vegetable consumption declined during the military service. The intervention had some success in diminishing the negative development of images and vegetable consumption but, the mechanism could not be verified. Whereas high self-control is a relatively enduring trait, the social cognitive factors found to mediate self-control and behavior can be affected. Prototypes play a role in young men s eating behavior, but merely in fruit and vegetable consumption, not in fast food consumption. Targeting prototypes by campaign might require more participatory action from the target population.
  • Kinnunen, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Despite being aware of public health guidelines, young men often consume too little vegetables, too much fast food, are quite inactive, and have relatively poor fitness levels. The aims were to examine the following: Is higher self-control associated with improved health behaviors, better fitness, and lower Body Mass Index (BMI)? Is the healthier eating of people with high self-control actually explained by HAPA-model e.g. with higher self-efficacy and more planning? Are typical healthy and unhealthy peer eaters (prototypes) evaluated differently when they are choosing healthy foods or abstaining from unhealthy foods? Are these prototypes associated with eating? And does an intervention of social images promote fruit and vegetable consumption? The present study is part of the DefenceNutri study. Data from 1824 Finnish male conscripts between 2008 and 2009 (age M = 20) was collected at the beginning of the military service, eight weeks after baseline (79% retention) and six months after baseline (67% retention). Studies I and III were cross-sectional observational studies, Study II was prospective and Study IV was non-randomized controlled intervention. Measures included questionnaires, height, weight, and physical fitness. Higher self-control was associated with healthier eating habits, higher leisure-time physical activity, better fitness and lower BMI. The association of higher self-control and fruit and vegetable consumption was fully explained by the HAPA-model; i.e. by higher self-efficacy and positive outcome expectancies of healthy eating, higher risk perceptions of unhealthy eating, higher intentions to eat fruit and vegetables and more planning in eating. However, the HAPA-model explained only partially the negative association between self-control and fast food consumption. Healthy-eating peers (whether choosing or abstaining) were mainly perceived more positively than unhealthy eating peers. A positive rating of vegetable-choosing peers was associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption. The associations of perceptions of a fat-choosing or -abstaining peer with fast food eating were weaker. The social images of peer eater became unhealthier and vegetable consumption declined during the military service. The intervention had some success in diminishing the negative development of images and vegetable consumption but, the mechanism could not be verified. Whereas high self-control is a relatively enduring trait, the social cognitive factors found to mediate self-control and behavior can be affected. Prototypes play a role in young men s eating behavior, but merely in fruit and vegetable consumption, not in fast food consumption. Targeting prototypes by campaign might require more participatory action from the target population.
  • Hyrkäs, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation examines the rise of startup entrepreneurship as a cultural phenomenon, and builds a model for understanding the systemic logic behind this culture. While proceeding with the empirical research, the dissertation develops conceptual tools for modeling cultures as whirlpools that condition the transitions between different contextual rationalities. The empirical research answers the following questions: Why has this specific form of new venture creation developed such a popular sub-culture, jargon and identity? Why does it display counter-cultural tendencies in relation to the business world in general? What does it enable, as a differentiated cultural form and as a worldview, for the entrepreneurs and for the world around them?  Observing popular startup success stories, startup methodologies and articles from various business magazines, the research traces the general patterns of startup stories as well as the conceptual reservoir of startup entrepreneurship. Based on these investigations, the dissertation constructs a model that visualizes startup culture as a whirlpool of different systemic logics, and as a solution for a specific dissonance between these contexts. The findings suggest that startup culture is as much a culture of speculation as it is a culture of entrepreneurship. It has appropriated venture capital s perspective on potential markets and on venture financing, and turned these into everyday entrepreneurial jargon. In this culture, two levels of speculation are kept methodically separate: the technological speculation with problems and their solutions, and the economic speculation with possible business models and with the valuation of the startup. Startup culture can be said to condition this dissonance between the two forms of speculation. For the startup, this division creates obvious room for innovativeness, as the system of economy appears as culturally distant. At the same time, startup culture has opened a new popular form of inclusion into economy: the entrepreneur as a technological speculator, who is himself a token of speculation for venture capitalists.  Along with the empirical research, the dissertation offers new ideas on how to model culture while doing qualitative analysis. If we accept that new cultural forms develop in a mostly self-organizing fashion, then we must accept that they have their own logic separate from the logic of the actors. Thus, the theoretical interest of this dissertation is how to model and visualize the inner logic of cultures. The proposed solution draws heavily from the systems theoretical sociology of Niklas Luhmann and its later applications. Specifically, the suggested approach to modeling combines Dirk Baecker s ideas on how to model complex forms of communication in society with Niels Åkerstrom-Andersen s ideas on Luhmann s semantic analytical strategy for doing conceptual history. When combined, and slightly modified, these two applications of Luhmannian systems theory can act as a basis for an empirical approach to modeling subcultures as complex semantic forms of communication. Here, the analogy of a whirlpool is a fitting one: as opposing currents sometimes create a whirlpool, it is a steady state forming inside a non-equilibrium. In a similar fashion, cultures emerge out of the opposing contextual logics in society. When we model culture in this manner, the logic behind cultural evolution becomes clear: culture fills the gaps between different subsystemic/contextual logics, thus enabling meaningful transitions between different forms of sense-making.
  • Stenius, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    An ever larger share of organizations depend on knowledge for success. It can, however, only be utilized if individuals engage in sharing their knowledge; and hence, knowledge sharing is considered a critical employee behavior in expert work. While it is collectively desirable to share knowledge, for an individual knowledge sharing is a discretionary behavior, and one that may entail risks and costs. Hence, the aim of the present study was to shed light on the predictors of knowledge sharing with a focus on motivation to share, and its quality. This aspect has not been well covered in prior research. The model of knowledge sharing motivation by Gagnè (2009), which combines the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT), was used as a research framework. Knowledge sharing was investigated in two different work contexts. In terms of methods, the study included both a qualitative belief elicitation study (n=18), and a survey based quantitative study with a prospective design (T1 n=200; T2 n=95). The data was collected from a public sector expert organization. Study I established that the elicited shared outcome beliefs reflected the different knowledge sharing contexts. Furthermore, outcome beliefs (attitudes), subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control predicted knowledge sharing intentions, which, together with perceived behavioral control, predicted actual knowledge sharing in work meetings, lending support for the utility of elicitation studies. The same essentially applied to knowledge sharing in informal personal interactions. Study II established that the sense of personal importance and value congruence, labelled identified regulation, was the best motivational quality to predict knowledge sharing both in work meetings and in informal personal interactions, as well as tacit knowledge sharing. External regulation to share was positively, and identified regulation to share negatively associated with knowledge withholding. Studies III and IV lent empirical support for Gagné s model. Attitudes, autonomous motivation, and subjective norms predicted knowledge sharing intentions, which predicted knowledge sharing two months later (R2=.42; R2=.41). When autonomous motivation was replaced by identified regulation, the model improved. The study demonstrated that identified regulation was the best motivational quality to predict knowledge sharing, but it was also a better predictor than outcome beliefs and subjective norms. Treating knowledge sharing as a context-embedded behavior seemed justified. Elicitation study was deemed an effective way to generate information of shared underlying behavioral beliefs.