Valtiotieteellinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Ylä-Anttila, Tuukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Populism has often been understood as a description of political parties and politicians, who have been labelled either populist or not. This dissertation argues that it is more useful to conceive of populism in action: as something that is done rather than something that is. I propose that the populist toolkit is a collection of cultural practices, which politicians and citizens use to make sense of and do politics, by claiming that ‘the people’ are opposed by a corrupt elite – a powerful claim in contemporary politics, both in Finland and internationally. The concept of the populist toolkit has analytical utility, since it can separate a set of populist repertoires from others, for example that of exclusionary nationalism, and takes seriously the effect culture has on action, while avoiding cultural determinism. I study four instances in which the populist toolkit was used in Finnish politics from 2007 to 2016. As data, I use party publications, a Voting Advice Application, newspaper articles and opinion pieces, and a large set of online media data. Methodologically, I employ qualitative text analysis informed by theories of populism, cultural practices, frame analysis and Laurent Thévenot’s sociology of engagements, as well as topic modeling. Article I argues that the state of the Eurozone in 2011 gave the Finns Party an opportunity to frame the situation as a crisis for Finland and to present itself as a righteous populist challenger to established parties. Article II shows that the Finns Party uses anti-feminist arguments to present itself as a populist alternative. Article III presents a theory of how populist argumentation can use familiar emotional experiences in bonding ‘the people’ together. Article IV tackles the populist epistemology: while populism can be critical of intellectuals and experts in general, the article shows that another populist strategy is counterknowledge, incorporating alternative knowledge authorities. This strategy is particularly employed by the populist radical right. After the monumental success of right-wing populism in Western democracies, the next big question is whether left-wing or liberal actors will take up the tools of populism, or will they rather position themselves on the side of pluralism, democratic institutions and scientific expertise. This will have to be assessed by future studies.
  • Alava, Henni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study explores how the Catholic and Protestant (Anglican) Churches have influenced the negotiation of societal co-existence in the aftermath of over two decades of brutal war in northern Uganda. Drawing from a total of nine months of ethnographic fieldwork between 2012 and 2016 that focused on a Catholic and a Protestant parish in Kitgum town, this study provides a historically grounded ethnographic analysis of the relationship between mainline churches and politics in Acholiland. It argues that churches, as socially, politically, and materially embedded institutions, have performed as sites of, and provided individuals and communities resources for, narrative imagination. The two churches were at the forefront of the Acholi Religious Leaders’ Peace Initiative (ARLPI), which gained global acclaim and local respect for its efforts to draw the international community’s attention to the war, and to convince the warring parties to embark on peace talks. Yet the churches, which have been deeply entangled in Ugandan politics since the country's independence, were themselves hard-hit by the war and, as this study shows, their political and societal role in its aftermath has been complex. First, rather than being the monolithic actors they are often perceived to be, churches are deeply woven into networks of ethnicity, kinship, party politics, government, patronage, and friendship, and the criss-crossing lines of division that cut across society also run through the churches themselves. Second, although public church events function as platforms for performances of statehood, they also provide arenas for genuine political debate and critique of Uganda’s ruling government. Third, while churches have taken part in forging a powerful and at times healing utopian vision of a peaceful future in post-war Acholiland, this utopia lends itself to entrenching boundaries of inclusion and exclusion, both within the churches, and within society. To make these claims, the study draws analytical tools from debates in the anthropology of hope and of the good, in political theology, in studies on political narratives and utopias, and in multidisciplinary research on Christianity and politics in Africa. The thread followed throughout is the Acholi concept of anyobanyoba, ‘confusion’, which emerges as both a sense of ambivalence and uncertainty, and as a state of affairs within a community. By analysing public church events at which elaborate political narratives are woven, as well as quotidian moments in which silence, fear, and hope are encountered and expressed, the study highlights how ‘confusion’ diminishes the possibilities of crafting hopeful imaginaries for a less violent future – yet also the multiple ways in which confusion and violence are addressed. The notion of confusion is also employed as an epistemological and ethical device. Acknowledging the challenges of studying violence and its aftermath; the futility of claims to absolute knowledge in situations characterised by uncertainty and silence; and the difficulty of transforming the experiences of others into text in an ethically uncompromised way; the study advocates scholarship that embraces hesitance and experimentation rather than certainty and disciplinary rigidity. In a world increasingly framed by oppositional extremes, there is a need for research that, instead of seeking clear-cut answers, asks questions that provoke recognition of complexity and confusion, and explores the ways in which communities and individuals orientate themselves towards the future in the face of them.
  • Laurent, Helene (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The Finnish laws on maternal and child health care came into force in 1944, during the last months of WWII. During the war, resources had been allocated specifically to child welfare, which resulted in record-low infant mortality rates in 1943. These seemingly controversial facts formed the starting point for my doctoral thesis on the history of preventive child health care in Finland. In my research I analyzed, how changes in the soci-ety and in medical knowledge have influenced the ideology, organization and practices of preventive child health care in the early to mid-twentieth century. I have approached the process by examining child health experts as an epistemic community, a concept coined by Peter Haas, which refers to transnational networks of knowledge-based, policy-oriented experts. In addressing my research questions, I have relied on content analysis and, where possible, also statistical data. The research material consists mainly of texts produced by health professionals. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part ends in 1939, which marks the beginning of the Finno-Soviet Winter War, and follows the ideological and institutional development of preventive child health care in Finland. The prevailing ideology was primarily based on positive eugenics: on raising strong and healthy children for the newly independent nation. International contacts included Germany via pediatrician Arvo Ylppö, and the Anglo-Saxon world, via public health nurses. Practical work was con-ducted mainly by child welfare organizations. By the end of the 1930s, pop-ulation questions and problems in public health were activated in national politics, where special emphasis was put on the rural communities lagging in development. Public health experts joined forces to promote publicly funded preventive health care for mothers and children. The second part is set in the years of WWII, and it examines the chang-es in child health care catalyzed by the evacuations and high infant mortal-ity during the Winter War. Finland received extensive international aid, which was targeted mainly at the health care of evacuated mothers and children. The aid agency Finnish Relief and its expert-run Health Commit-tee could develop new forms of child health and welfare, e.g. ambulatory health clinics and cottage hospitals for children, in cooperation with exist-ing non-governmental organizations. Spurred on by powerful pronatalist and defense-related arguments, the laws on maternal and child health clinics were enacted in 1944. Based on the annual reports of district physi-cians, the health of children remained good from 1941 onwards, due to the focus on the welfare of children. However, 75,000 children from the most vulnerable families had been sent to Sweden. The practices and possibili-ties of public health care are discussed in a local case study of the Sortavala region in Karelia, where many health reforms were applied in advance. The last section extends to the mid-fifties and focuses on the post-war reconstruction efforts. Again, with the help of international aid agencies, a network of health centers, including maternal and child health clinics, was built to serve as basic health care units in the rural areas. By the mid-fifties, practically all pre-school children were enrolled at the clinics. The Finnish child health experts found new tasks in the World Health Organi-zation, the new center of the global epistemic community of child health.
  • Alanko, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The study investigates policy level attempts to improve mental health care. It analyses the rationale of the proposals to improve Finnish mental health policy between 1964–2016. Such proposals have been presented in policy documents such as committee reports, working group memorandums, government bills and project reports. The most prominent examples of the improvement proposals are reducing psychiatric hospital care, increasing outpatient treatment, increasing the possibilities for mental health services users to work, emphasising the autonomy of the service users, and increasing the equal position of mental health care service users and other citizens. The study seeks to find out what has been in the focus in reforming mental health care, how the people using mental health services have been perceived, and finally, what has been left unproblematised. Since the late 1970s, Finnish mental health care has been subject to continuous reforms. A key feature of these reforms has been psychiatric dehospitalisation, i.e. reducing psychiatric hospital care. Dehospitalisation is a trend with complex origins, which became global after the Second World War and reached Finland by the mid-1970s. Dehospitalisation stems from various and conflicting origins, such as citizens’ rights movements, the development of the psychiatric profession, the economic interests of the state, as well as from pharmaceutical development. Dehospitalisation and mental health policy in general are deeply connected with welfare policy, but it the relationship is not straightforward. In Finland dehospitalisation was planned as part of an expansive welfare policy, but its’ implementation has sometimes recalled austerity politics. Another phenomenon that affects mental health policy is the expansion of mental health care: the simultaneous increase in the provision, demand, methods and areas of jurisdiction of mental health care. The dissertation shows that in the reform initiatives set forth in the policy documents, similar suggestions are given in different contexts. In the analysed policy documents, dehospitalisation has been proposed as a solution to almost any problems perceived in mental health care. Dehospitalisation also seems to have materialised, as the number of psychiatric hospital beds is now many times lower than it was in the beginning of the period. Along with the diminishing number of hospital beds, new residential care facilities have been established which seem to be as institutionalising as the previous psychiatric hospitals. Also increasing the amount of outpatient treatment has materialised, but it seems that the services are used by a new group of citizens with milder problems. During the period between the 1960s and the early 1990s, those with a serious mental health problem were considered the core focus group of mental health policy, independently of whether they were within the labour market. Moreover, providing sheltered work for those with serious problems was considered a method of rehabilitation. After the mid-1990s the emphasis on paid work has increased. Those who are able to work in the labour market are the new focus group the mental health policy. The pursuit of mental health care service users’ increased autonomy is ideologically connected to the aim of dehospitalisation. However in the latter phases of the period, after the mid-1990s, the improvement suggestions start to assume the autonomy of the service users instead of seeking ways of supporting it. The changing understanding of autonomy also reflects to the notion of ‘user expertise’. This recently emerged way of thinking lifts the expertise of people having experience with their own mental health problems. However the emphasis on ‘expertise with experience’ fails to take into account that there is a high demand for professional mental health services. In the conclusions I argue that as a whole the well-meaning improvement proposals fail to problematise many structural factors contributing to the unequal provision of mental health care. Instead of achieving the revolving goal of increasing the equality of mental health care service users, the rationale has left room for excluding even further those with the most serious problems.
  • Kyllönen, Simo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The thesis explores critically some of the theoretical suggestions offered in the literature of environmental political philosophy to overcome the ecological challenges and suggests some promising ways forward. According to the thesis, complexity of the ecological problems, uncertainty related to them, and vulnerability to disagreements because of this, speak in favour of democratic justification of the authority: no other way of resolving the disagreements in the uncertain and complex world can be claimed to be epistemically and morally superior to democracy. Moreover, because appropriately democratic processes are able to show publicly that the (possibly) disputing interests of people are treated in equal and fair manner, the democratic outcomes are able to gain more legitimacy than those resorting solely to the environmentally grounded epistemic (eco)-authority. While democratic processes remain an essential way to produce legitimately authoritative environmental outcomes, the global and intergenerational scope of the problems requires a justification that transcends the democratic processes themselves. Here the thesis defends a Rawlsian kind of contractualism as a way to justify the authority of some global and intergenerational principles and argues that even in the existing non-ideal circumstances the Rawlsian principle of fairness gives us some guidance about the limits within which our societal institutions, laws, and policies deserve our compliance. In addition, the thesis defends the common sense no-harm principle that holds irrespective of the institutional arrangements between people. ¬Due to vast dispersion of causes and effects, a growing number of environmental ethicists have doubted its applicability in the context of large-scale environmental problems at all. Some others have proposed its application at the collective level. Contrary to these authors, the thesis provides a defence of the individualistic no-harm principle as a common-sense way to justify individuals’ duties to change their environmentally harmful behaviour and to promote more effective collective and institutional ways to prevent environmental harm. Finally, the thesis defends a sufficientarian understanding of social justice as the most plausible and coherent way to connect local, global and intergenerational demands. It is also suggested that the sufficientarian approach is capable of overcoming some theoretical challenges that rise at the intergenerational context, in which our choices have an influence not only on how well- or badly-off people in the future are, but also on who those future people are.
  • Mayer, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Finnish development cooperation in the field of meteorology has continued for nearly 50 years and over 100 countries have been beneficiaries of this aid. Cooperation in this field is complex, it brings together public and private sector actors and experts from different backgrounds. Projects have succeeded in capacity development, but have struggled with sustainability. Local capacity often lowers after projects ends. Data includes interviews (n=56) with experts from the Finnish Meteorological Institute, Vaisala, Ministry for Foreign Affairs and 8 recipient countries. Archive material and policy documents are also included in analysis. Exploratory case study method applying conventional content analysis is used. The objective of the study is to explore the underlying issues influencing the challenge of sustainability. Theoretical framework includes a combination of concepts and theories: governmentality (Foucault) and analytics of government (Dean), power theories (Lukes, Clegg and French & Raven) and approaches regarding patterns of aid behavior (Hydén and Mease, Gibson et al., Burnell and Mosse). Historical analysis shows the various phases of these projects, and reflects them to the history of Finnish aid from the late 1960s to the 2010s. Experts’ experiences from the grass-roots level form an important basis for the analysis. Policy analysis shows that projects have been well-fitting with development policies up until the 2000s, after which the gap between policy and practice has widened. Cooperation is focused more on technology and less to the societal aspects of meteorology. The Ministry is not involved in practice, allowing projects to be driven towards more technology-oriented goals by the experts of meteorology, many of which who have adopted an “apolitical” strategy. This weakens connections between projects and local people. Private sector experts have adopted an opposing strategy, and engage actively with politicians, who are able to make decisions regarding purchasing of meteorological equipment. Analysis shows that all important decisions within the aid system "come from above", bureaucracy is heavy and control is tight. Lack of flexibility and trust within the system lowers the influence of the projects. Differences between the donor stakeholders are found in general approaches to key issues. Power analysis shows that the Ministry holds the most influential forms of power, while FMI and Vaisala hold mainly dispositional power. Recipients of aid lack access to important forms of power, yet they are expected to sustain capacity after projects ends. Several “donor traps” are also found to actualize, which influence outcomes of aid. In order to make projects truly sustainable for the aid recipients, the donor would have to give up some power and through that, also some accountability. This is nearly an impossible choice, since both are highly important for the donor. This study finds that within the current system, there is no one actor who has both motive and power to change aid. For the sake of the future, this is a significant challenge to overcome regarding the role of the developing nations, as well as the renewal of the aid system.
  • Kilpi, Fanny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Social inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) are a notable feature of modern societies, and create a major population health burden. Though CHD incidence and mortality have been in decline in past decades, the absolute and relative inequalities by socioeconomic position (SEP) remain substantial. This thesis investigates the influence of different social determinants on MI incidence and fatality amongst ageing Finnish cohorts. The focus lies on the interdependent and independent effects of several dimensions of SEP (education, occupation, income and wealth), living arrangements and partner characteristics. The study used longitudinal study designs with large nationally representative samples derived from Finnish registers. Education, occupation, income and wealth may all serve as indicators of SEP, yet denote different types of resources with varying health consequences. The findings demonstrated that distinct relationships with MI incidence and survival were observed when comparing their independent effects. Education and occupation strongly predict MI incidence, in contrast to the more robust connection between material resources and MI fatality. Wealth, however, differed from income in that it appears to play a role at both stages of disease. In addition, the effects of education and income were observed as independent from early socioeconomic circumstances, while childhood factors such as parental education, occupation and household crowding showed modest persisting associations with MI incidence. The findings from this study support the notion that living arrangements are important factors for MI survival. Amongst men, cohabiting with a marital or non-marital partner was associated with better outcomes than living alone. Amongst women, however, marital benefits depended on material resources, while cohabiting with a non-marital partner was associated with an elevated fatality risk. The results also indicate that the partner’s education substantially impacted women in the long-term aftermath of MI, providing further evidence that the health benefits of relationships may be at least partly contingent upon the socioeconomic resources of one’s partner. For both men and women, the partner’s education appeared to serve as an additional socioeconomic resource influencing cardiac health outcomes. The findings underscore the importance of both individual and household-level socioeconomic resources for health and mortality, and demonstrate how the health consequences of social relationships and socioeconomic resources have significant overlap. In light of the attempts to reduce inequalities in CHD mortality, more attention needs to focus on the distinct influences operating at different stages of disease, using a life course perspective on the upstream determinants of risk factors in the CHD aetiology.
  • Puonti, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation is a collection of three self-contained essays that analyse the effects of monetary and fiscal policy using novel time series econometric methods. The research questions become important both academically and for practical policy-making after the global financial crisis of the early 2000s. The main contribution of the dissertation is in applying recent time series econometric methods to highly topical policy questions. Structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) models are an important tool in the empirical analysis of monetary and fiscal policy. The difficulty with conventional SVARs is the identification of structural shocks of interest needed for meaningful impulse response analysis. In this thesis I opt for a fairly novel approach to identify economically interpretable shocks which are then used to assess the macroeconomic effects of various economic policies. The so-called statistical identification consists of exploiting the statistical properties of the error processes, such as non-normality, to identify the structural model. In the three research chapters statistical, data-based information is combined with information from other sources. The assessment of economic policy can then be based on impulse response functions that are both economically meaningful and compatible with the sample data. In Chapter 2 I study the macroeconomic effects of the risk taking channel of monetary policy. The methodological improvement makes previously used identifying restrictions statistically testable and confirms that the balance sheet management of financial intermediaries led to a lower price of risk and higher real activity in the US before the financial crisis. Chapter 3 addresses the question whether increasing government spending stimulates real activity in the US. Unlike previous empirical research using SVARs I estimate a vector error correction model (VEC) that takes into account cointegration between the variables and use non-normality of the error processes for identification. The results show that when the empirical literature does not seem to reach a conclusion – in this case with respect to the sign or size of the fiscal multiplier – the identification strategy could play a role. In Chapter 4 I analyse the macroeconomic effects of the Bank of Japan’s, the Federal Reserve’s and the European Central Bank’s unconventional monetary policies. The use of a novel Bayesian SVAR method allows basing the whole analysis on the data and provides a formal way to assess the plausibility of given sign restrictions against the data. The analysis reveals differences in the output and price effects of the three central banks’ balance sheet operations.
  • Hakoköngäs, Eemeli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Collective memory refers to a practice in which social conceptions about a common past are used to build and maintain togetherness and group identity in the present and for the future. Social representations of history describe the contents of collective memory. The present dissertation focuses on social representations of history and collective memory from the perspective of their visual forms. Visual images are important modes for communicating and creating conceptions of the past. Previous research has suggested that visual images have a strong mnemonic capacity due to their specific characteristics, including persuasion through realistic semblance, evoking emotions, creating a sense of identification, and their ability to tell narratives in a compact form. The dissertation consists of four original studies that examine visual collective memory. The material, Finnish history textbooks and advertisements, illustrates two different contexts of collective memory construction: institutional (textbooks) and informal (advertisements). Visual semiotics, as a methodological approach, is used to explain how the visual meaning system is constructed and maintained in social interactions. In this dissertation visual images are seen as giving social representations of history concrete and visible form and as activating culturally- and socially-bound meanings. The dissertation argues for the importance of analysing naturalized representations – social knowledge that has become taken for granted. The analysis of visual images of Finnish national history in textbooks shows that politics, war, and historic figures important to Finns – President Urho Kekkonen, Carl Gustaf Mannerheim and the mythical sorcerer Väinämöinen – are characteristic themes of Finnish visual collective memory. The images create a homogeneous picture of Finnishness as ethnic and religious minority groups are almost completely missing. Also, the country outside the urban areas is marginalized. The color blue, which objectifies the Finnish flag and anchors it to the idea of Finnishness, is the most widely shared element in the visualizations. Frequent yet subtle use of the color demonstrates the process of naturalization by which social knowledge acquires a firm position in the minds of group members. The analysis of Finnish advertisements shows how individual and group-level nostalgia intertwine whenever references to common conceptions invite an audience to reflect on their personal memories. The study suggests that it is possible to approach nostalgia as socially constructed and shared meaning that reflects present values, needs and desires. Advertisements construct everyday myths that serve the ideological function of representing the past as an object of desire. In the context of marketing, nostalgia is motivated by a shared concern that life today has lost some of the positive elements it once had. A combination of visual rhetoric and social representations theory help to demonstrate how commercials are used to affect not only consumer behaviour, but also broader everyday conceptions, such as the value of domestic production. In the campaigns analysed here, social representation anchored to the idea of tradition and emphasis on connections between generations serve to project a sense of continuity between the past, present and future. The results show how processes of anchoring, objectification and naturalization serve as tools of visual collective memory. The studies develop the use of visual semiotic analysis in social representations research for different types of visual material. Finally, the present dissertation suggests that analysing visual images complements our understanding of the characteristics of collective memory, and more generally, of the nature and processes of socially-constructed everyday knowledge.
  • Karimi, Farid (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    A consensus exists that the current trend of energy consumption growth and CO2 emissions cannot continue if global warming is to be tackled. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has been considered in many countries for addressing climate change. CCS is a technology that curbs CO2 emission by removing CO2 from the atmosphere and storing it in carbon sinks, such as depleted oil and gas fields. CCS is a controversial technology. Notable opposition to and different perceptions of the technology exist among stakeholders, including experts, politicians and laypeople. Therefore, it is important to understand these diverse perceptions and their roots. I have developed a means towards such an understanding. I show that national culture influences both laypeople and expert perceptions. Moreover, it seems likely that cultural orientation affects some of the other factors, such as trust. In addition, I show that although mainstream research and literature consider experts as unbiased and rational stakeholders, both laypeople and experts have similar underlying cultural features and thus their models of perception follow a similar trend in a society. I specify how cultural orientations and their characteristics shape the perception of CCS technology and influence the reactions of people. For instance, hierarchical nations with high uncertainty avoidance have a tendency towards a higher level of risk perception. In contrast, nations that are characterised by social harmony might have a lower level of risk perception of a technology that could increase the long-term quality of life. This research is a comparative study; comparisons were performed between countries and between laypeople and experts. I used mixed methods to address the research questions. The quantitative part of the study is based on survey data analysis and the qualitative part involves both discourse analysis of interviews and Function of Innovations Systems (FIS) analysis. This research contributes to risk governance of CCS by developing a new framework that policymakers and authorities can use as a tool to consider the unheeded issue of culture in their planning. I demonstrate who is concerned with what and why with respect to the technology. Finally, I discuss the implications of this study, including policy recommendations. For instance, the European Commission might plausibly benefit from the framework when considering its budget allocation and communication with member states to study CCS projects and to estimate the failure or success of a project.
  • Kemppainen, Teemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Insecure and restless neighbourhood conditions lower the quality of life, imply health risks and may accelerate segregation through selective migration. This study examined subjective insecurity and perceptions of social disorder—including public drunkenness, vandalism, threatening behaviour and the like—in different residential contexts. The focus was on Finnish post-WWII housing estates built in the 1960s and 1970s. Compared to other kinds of neighbourhoods, these areas often suffer from a negative reputation related to poverty, insecurity and disorder. However, the residents’ views are often at odds with the negative public image. There is a lack of reliable evidence on where estates stand in comparison to other kinds of neighbourhoods. Furthermore, the full diversity of estates has typically not been addressed in prior studies. Empirically, the study relied on three sets of survey data that were combined with contextual register data. The covered area varies from Helsinki to the entire country while the contextual units range from statistical grids to city districts. The key findings were the following: 1) The level of perceived social disorder was only slightly higher in the estates built in the 1960s and 1970s than in other multi-storey neighbourhoods. This small difference was due to socio-economic disadvantage. As expected, the low-rise neighbourhoods were considerably more peaceful than the multi-storey ones. 2) Rental-dominated tenure structure exposed the estate residents to higher levels of perceived disorder because rental estates are typically more disadvantaged. Social integration of the estate community played no role in terms of disorder. In contrast, the level of normative regulation partly explained why disadvantage is related to disorder. 3) At the district level, disadvantage, disorder (from police registers), residing in proximity to a metro or train station and living in a social housing flat exposed residents to subjective insecurity. Victimisation partly mediated the association between disadvantage and insecurity. The study shed light on the diversity of estates. From the point of view of social life, estates markedly differ from each other. Tenure structure has a decisive influence on the socio-economic structure, which implies differences in normative regulation and social order. This is an important finding in terms of tenure-mix policies. Compared to rental-dominated neighbourhoods, a more mixed tenure structure implies a less disadvantaged and more regulated local community, which paves way for a more peaceful local social life.
  • Laaksonen, Salla-Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This doctoral thesis investigates how the reputations of organizations are narrated in the hybrid media system, characterized by different media logics and technological principles, and the affective attunement of storytelling stakeholders. The research problem is two-fold: first, to study how the new communication landscape affects the formation of organizational reputation, and second, to investigate the cognitive and emotional influences of reputation in the hybrid media system. The dissertation sees organizational reputation as a communicative phenomenon, which exists both as individual beliefs and socially constructed narratives that are born and circulated in the hybrid media system. Hybrid stands for a combination of older and newer media forms, which are intertwined in complex and dynamic assemblages, formed by individuals, affects, social contexts, organizations, and technological platforms, who all mutually influence the process of storytelling. The dissertation is a compilation of five articles. It employs a parallel mixed methods approach by using four different data sets: interviews with communication professionals in organizations; social media discussions; Wikipedia data; and psychophysiological measurements. With a multimethodological approach the study builds a bridge between the different schools of reputation studies: reputations are constructed as narratives that also have measurable effects on the people who consume them. In light of the results, a hybrid reputation narrative is polyphonic, emotional, and is formed in a context characterized by relative power structures between human and non-human actors. It is a form of narrative, in which the story elements can be stored in databases, searched, and hyperlinked by various, interacting actors, who through their use of the technical platforms generate the reputation narrative from fragmentary story pieces by merging opinions and facts. This dissertation highlights two aspects: the interplay between the social and the technological, and the importance of affect. First, the technological affordances and the social practices together form the settings in which the narrating takes place in the hybrid media system. Second, affect emerges as an inherent property of reputation, as an important characteristic of the reputation narratives, and as a feature to evaluate different platforms.
  • Grip, Lina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The thesis explores African small arms control practices and how these have emerged and changed over time. The thesis traces the origin of small arms control practices in Africa by using a historical narrative methodology. It then categorizes and interprets the findings using a critical theory, historical-relationalism , and identifies five different small arms control practices embedded in different historical periods: the pre-colonial, the imperial, the colonial, the decolonial and the neoliberal governance system. These systems are described, compared and situated in their historical contexts. The neoliberal governance system is specifically explored through an in-depth case study of the Nairobi Protocol. The Nairobi Protocol is an intergovernmental convention adopted by states in East and Central Africa to address proliferation of small arms and light weapons. Based on the institutional design and implementation record of the Nairobi Protocol, as well as evidence of simultaneous ongoing militarism in member states, the author draws conclusions about neoliberal governance as small arms control practice. She finds that neoliberal governance of small arms is associated with technical-, administrative- and legal reforms, aimed at protecting state and market interests, by, for example, enhancing controls of weapon flows not sanctioned by the state, while enabling state sanctioned proliferation.
  • Muszynski, Lisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation examines the deeply hidden metaphysical presuppositions from traditional philosophy of language that are built into the theoretical construct history-as-fiction. This construct is Hayden White's main contribution to the linguistic turn in the study of history-writing, or historiography, and is framed here from roughly the early 1970s to the early 2000s. History-as-fiction posits the figural nature of historical consciousness in terms of the master tropes of rhetoric (i.e., metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony). This figural analysis, which White developed on the basis of Giambattista Vico's 18th-century metaphor (tropic) theory of language, hypothesizes the unconscious linguistic strategies as structuring elements in historians writings. White is unaware, however, that this tropic theory unmakes history-as-fiction by sidelining the very framework it was meant to fulfill. Classical literary theory, which White employed as his framework in developing his tropic analysis, emerged from structural linguistics as developed in the early 20th century by linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. Saussure's key principle of language is the arbitrariness of the binary linguistic sign (i.e., the random pairing of the sound of a word with its meaning). This binary arbitrariness separated mind from body and was the cornerstone upon which Saussure constructed the science of modern linguistics as a system of linguistic value. By contrast, Vico's key principle of language was the necessary dependence of language on the human body acting in the world. The strategy of this thesis is to separate White's figural, tropological (Vichian) analysis from his (post)structuralist (Saussurean) framework, within which he analyzed history-as-fiction. From my methodological standpoint of autopoietic enactive embodiment (AE), I examine tropology and (post)structuralism within their own philosophical contexts and logics. My examination reveals a hidden tension between the two principles of language underpinning each theoretical strand of White s construct history-as-fiction. By decoupling the two strands, I explore the source of the tension at the core of history-as-fiction in its unmaking.
  • Seppo, Antti (Unigrafia, 2017)
    This study focuses on aspects of change in German strategic culture, i.e. on the changes in ways of thinking about and pursuing security and defence policy and the views on the questions of peace, war and the use of military force, in particular after the end of the Cold War. The overarching aim of the study is to provide a novel reading on German strategic culture, and this has been done by shifting the focus of research on strategic culture from the study of continuity to the study of change. This enables us to tell better stories about strategic cultures both in terms of how internal and external challenges leading to questions about the continuity of strategic cultural patterns and how strategic culture is shaped by the social and political reality of the strategic actors. The first main contribution of the study is to question the mantra of continuity that has been the primary object of study in the existing strategic culture research. This mantra has ultimately led to a rather stale and static state of affairs in terms of the contributions that strategic culture research is able to make in the field of International Relations. Instead, the study argues for a research agenda that identifies the nature, mechanisms and outcomes of strategic cultural change. The study achieves this by critically assessing the existing accounts of strategic cultural change and creating an analytical framework that stresses both the processes and outcomes of strategic cultural change. This framework is informed by critical realist metatheory since it enables us to move ahead of the epistemological impasse of the existing studies by focusing on the ontological aspects of strategic culture. This framework identifies the experience of warfare as the primary mechanism of change in strategic cultures. The second key contribution of the study is to apply this analytical framework in the study of German strategic culture. The empirical case studies cover the German strategic cultural track record since the end of World War II, with a clear focus on the developments after the end of the Cold War. These case studies show, firstly, how shifts within the normative structure of German strategic culture have shaped German views on the use of military force, and, subsequently, how they led to shifts and changes in German strategic practices. Secondly, the case studies underline the role of external shocks (e.g. the massacre at Srebrenica) in triggering change within German strategic culture. Thirdly, the case studies also provide a basis for a critique of some of the more widely accepted claims regarding German security and defence policy, such as the notion of normalisation or Sonderweg (special path). Finally, the analysis also suggests that counterfactual argumentation can be a useful analytical tool in assessing the importance of some of these developments in the evolution of German strategic culture. The third primary contribution of the study is a critical assessment of the process of coming to terms with the German past and how this affects German strategic culture. The study stresses the importance of socio-cognitive factors in the evolution of strategic cultures and identifies the shift from guilt to responsibility as one of the key changes in post-Cold War German strategic culture. Furthermore, the study recognizes the continuing impact and relevance of the German past on the further development of German strategic culture, even though the focus of the German debate has partly shifted from whether Germany can use military force to a discussion on the means and ends of the use of military force.