Valtiotieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Diatlova, Anastasia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation examines the life and work experience of Russian-speaking women engaged in commercial sex in Finland. It explores the ways in which commercial sex is conceptualised within the Finnish national project and the ways this affects the everyday lives of migrant women who engage in commercial sex. The contemporary relationship between commercial sex, understood as a form of intimate labour (Boris & Parreñas, 2010), and the Finnish nation is predicated on the abrupt appearance of particular visible bodies associated with mercantile sexuality. Though the visibility of sexual commerce in public spaces in Finland is limited, it is present in political discussions, the media, and the public imagination that connect particular bodies with sexual commerce, regardless of whether any sexual acts take place. I argue that migrant women who engage in commercial sex are perceived to be space invaders (Puwar, 2004), as their presence exposes the limits of Finnish national values, in particular, gender equality and social equality. Analysing commercial sex through the lens of everyday as problematic (Smith, 1987), I argue that the national anxieties over the intersection of sexuality, gender, labour, and migration shape the day-to-day lives of Russian-speaking women engaged in commercial sex in Finland. The discursive externalisation of commercial sex creates a moral system in which surveillance and control is primarily directed at migrant women (or those perceived to be migrant), forcing them to structure their everyday lives in such a way as to be invisible to state agents and society at large, but visible to their potential clients. The thesis consists of peer-reviewed articles and the summary chapter. The data collected for this multi-sited ethnographic research includes observations conducted in clubs, privates, and an NGO that provides services for sex workers in Southern Finland; semi-structured interviews with key actors in the field of commercial sex, such as policymakers, police, NGO representatives, healthcare providers, experts on issues of trafficking, and migration officials (N=18); and semi-structured interviews with Russian-speaking women engaged in commercial sex in Finland (N=41). Article I explores the relationship between commercial sex and the nation, focusing on the ways the nation is imagined vis-a-vis commercial sex, particularly when migrants engage in it. Article II examines the various ways in which Russian-speaking women engaged in commercial sex in Finland experience bordering and the consequences it has for their daily lives. In Article III, conceptualisation of home and belonging is discussed in the context of transnational commercial sex. Article IV focuses on various skills necessary in commercial sex and posits that a particular worker emerges from the discourses of the interviewees, characterised by an aptitude for commercial sex. The study shows how commercial sex is conceptualised within the Finnish national project, the effect it has on the lives of migrant women who engage in commercial sex, and the various strategies they use to cope with it in their everyday lives.
  • Muurinen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study investigates the application of an experimental approach to social work knowledge production related to developing and researching practices. The empirical sub-studies concern developing social services for adults and using an experiment-driven design approach. In the concluding chapter, the analysis of the experimental approach moves from the level of developing practices to the philosophy of science. The experimental approach is founded in pragmatism in which knowledge production is based on the consideration of practical consequences and on fallibilistic instrumentalism. This study proposes pragmatism as a potential foundation for social work knowledge production. The research questions addressed are 1) what are the possibilities, obstacles and preconditions for an experiment-driven design approach in social work and 2) how does reasoning relate to a reflected experiment and how can it enhance knowledge production? To address the first research question, a case study approach is applied to the synthesis analysis of three separate, qualitative sub-studies. To address the second question, reasoning in an experimenting process is analysed conceptually by drawing on the author’s experiences of the research and pragmatist philosophy. This study argues that experiments can be conducted in hectic the day-to-day practice of social work. The experiments support multifaceted knowledge production and enable the participation of human and non-human actors in the process. The experiments allow service users to influence practice. In co-designing the services, the recognition of service users and their expertise supports knowledge production. However, service users’ participation is dependent on the professionals. In addition, small experiments do not necessarily reveal all of the practical consequences. A high turnover rate of practitioners can challenge the continuity of knowledge production, and the organizational supportive structures for experimenting can be insufficient. Experimenting requires a pragmatist attitude, dialogical discussions, mutual recognition, agreement regarding leadership, consideration of participants’ responsibilities and taking into account non-human agency. Applying abductive, deductive and inductive reasoning is a prerequisite for the experimental approach. Thorough reasoning turns an experiment into a reflective experiment and creates the conditions for evaluating situational consequences and doing practice-based research. Taking advantage of different strategies that support reasoning enables considering the perspectives of the different parties and creates better prospects for learning. An analysis of the reasoning and different strategies used contributes to the discussion on the culture of experimentation. Key words: Social work, pragmatism, abduction, experiments, developing, knowledge production
  • Lahtinen, Hannu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Those with advantaged socioeconomic positions – that is, individuals with high educational qualifications, professional or managerial occupations and a high level of income – are the most likely to vote in elections. Finland provides researchers with the rare privilege of studying individual-level determinants of voter turnout in an exceptionally reliable manner by utilizing register-based data. This dissertation includes four studies on socioeconomic differences in voter turnout, primarily from the 1999, 2012 and 2015 elections, conducted by exploiting this great resource. Despite socioeconomic differences in voter turnout being a classical topic in electoral studies, recent decades have seen frequent claims of the political decline, or even death, of social class. This dissertation joins the studies demonstrating that this is not the case regarding electoral participation. On the contrary, a polarization of socioeconomic differences in turnout has occurred during the last few decades. Moreover, linking survey data to registers revealed that, due to social desirability bias and the self-selection of survey respondents, true socioeconomic differences are even larger than those suggested by survey estimates. These results imply that socioeconomic inequality in electoral participation is a more pressing social problem than conventionally acknowledged, even among experts on the subject. The empirical analyses also assess some of the mechanisms contributing to the socioeconomic gap in turnout. Income explained a substantial part of the occupational social-class differences in electoral participation whereas the health differences contributed only weakly to this gap. However, among those with most serious health problems, no social class gradient in turnout was observed. The role of intergenerational transmission was of particular importance in explaining electoral participation. Among the observed parental factors, parental education social class and income were together roughly as important as parental voting in a single election in explaining this intergenerational association. Mother’s and father’s contributions were roughly equal, mother’s factors perhaps slightly more pronounced. Furthermore, in addition to studying the factors that create differences, it is also important to identify the factors that suppress them. Social mobility during an individual’s life-course was identified as one mechanism that constrains turnout inequality between socioeconomic groups. The dissertation concludes by discussing the implications of the results at a more theoretical level through four themes. The first theme is the importance of accurate descriptive research, which is necessary and also often sufficient to answer many important questions regarding the topic. The second is the significance socioeconomic position as a conceptual tool. It is a multi-dimensional construct, but at the same time constitutes a coherent unit that is a central component in the social structure of modern societies. The third is the continued relevance of occupational social class, which should be maintained (or re-adopted) in basic analytical repertoire also when explaining electoral participation. The fourth theme is that voting in elections is simultaneously both a poignantly individualistic and social act. These properties, in addition to its concreteness, measurability, and practical social relevance, make electoral participation a particularly thrilling sociological topic.
  • Hokkanen, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    English Olli Hokkanen Finnish Urban Policy – its makers and interpreters As confusing as it sounds, there is no one answer to the question of what Finnish urban policy is. This has led to a controversy about the content and means of urban policy, as well as to belittling of the significance of urban policy, even to its denial. This study aims to answer the question of what Finnish urban policy is. This question is answered by examining how Finnish urban policy has been understood and by investigating who has supported and opposed it. The study seeks out a reason for why the government of Prime Minister Lipponen appointed the Urban Policy Committee. Urban policy started since 1995 is called the ‘new Finnish urban policy’. An overview of the urban policy of the kings of Sweden-Finland and the history of Finnish regional policy clarifies how the new Finnish urban policy differs from the urban policy pursued by kings and from Finnish regional policy. The study examines development phases, goals, instruments and external examples of the new Finnish urban policy. Furthermore, urban policy makers, opponents and supporters are identified, not to mention different definitions of urban policy. The ‘new Finnish urban policy’ was mainly cooperation between cities and the state, and it can therefore be called a ‘state urban policy’. Cooperation between the state and cities was burdened by several conflicts and tensions, which made it difficult to define and achieve urban policy goals. Gradually, belief in the possibilities of urban policy faded away, and the only legacy of the new state urban policy was the ‘agreement-based urban policy’ and ‘metropolitan policy’. The main data of the study consists of 69 expert interviews. In addition to interviews with state and municipal officials and researchers, government and other programmes, agreements, strategies, and various memos and reports are also part of the data. The theoretical and methodological starting points of the study are the theories of urban studies of the internationalizing city, scale levels and European cities. The study shows how the new Finnish urban policy responded to the challenge of globalization, balanced between the local, regional and state levels, and needed support from the charismatic leaders of the European urban tradition. In addition to urban studies, the study utilizes the idea of Bourdieu’s field, which allows opponents and supporters of urban policy to be placed in the field of Finnish urban policy.
  • Jyrkiäinen, Senni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Through a focus on the usage of smartphones and other digital communication tools amongst young people in Alexandria, this research examines the technologically mediated navigation of desires for love and marriage in post-2011 Egypt. Based on long-term ethnography, the thesis analyses how university students and graduates managed their intimate relationships and marital futures both online and within city gathering places in Alexandria, Egypt’s second biggest city. Focusing on relations between young, relatively well-off, socially progressive yet not subversive Alexandrians and new technologies, it explores their aspirations for, and negotiations with, modernity, particularly in relation to emotional expectations and gender roles in intimate relationships, but also in relation to class-specific ideas of ‘modern’ urban life. The thesis extends existing anthropological accounts of Egypt that explore intimacy, desiring selves and ‘modern’ aspirations among this particular demographic of urban youth. Whereas other studies might be looking for alternative or radical departures from dominant norms, this thesis concentrates squarely on those caught between wanting to comply with what is expected from them while simultaneously finding it constraining. In particular, the thesis describes how a shift from shared computers at home to smartphones, which provide more private and mobile communication for these young people, has had two significant effects. While the change has enabled secret romances and autonomous searches for a spouse, at the same time, it has also resulted in new forms of surveillance and control. The analysis of youthful online interaction revealed skilful alternation between compliant, playful and sarcastic tones. As such, it shows how users performed their compliance with prevailing gender norms in some social contexts, while playfully challenging them in others. With regard to the shaping of the self, digital communication platforms were a versatile instrument. On the one hand, these socially progressive yet compliant young Alexandrians used Facebook for reinforcing the ties of kinship and for performing as connected, family-oriented people. On the other, they used private digital communication channels and young people’s social spaces in the city in ways that helped them perform more individualistic interests and give a sense of individual agency; this included showing at least temporary indifference towards dominant gender and age expectations, and escaping what they imagined to be the public moral gaze. By using various communication tools, they engaged in flirtation and romance that sometimes extended beyond what they understood to be the limits set by norms of religion and ethnicity, as well as the barriers created by physical distance. The study is based on ethnographic research in Alexandria and in virtual environments. I conducted nearly ten months of ethnographic fieldwork among young people, mostly in the coastal city of Alexandria between the years of 2011 and 2014. The research was at times cut short because of the unstable political situation in Egypt at the time, particularly in 2013. In addition to ethnographic work, which involved participating in people’s everyday lives, I interviewed young Alexandrians and their mothers as well as some experts on youth issues. I also conducted online ethnography throughout the research project from 2011 to 2018, focusing mainly on Facebook and some blogs. Overall, the ethnography provided me with insights into the ways ICTs can be used as agency-providing navigation tools and turned into intimate technologies in the hands of young people. Perhaps most importantly, my focus on intimacy, and the techniques these young Alexandrians developed to explore that aspect of their lives online, revealed a complex blurring of boundaries between public and private. This took place within a social context in which these young people were aware that they were supposed to strongly maintain such boundaries, yet in a digital environment in which the most intimate moments were sometimes shared with large audiences at the push of a button. The thesis explores how these young people worked towards navigating this relatively new, and at times quite socially dangerous, social space of intimate practices, and how they acted to maintain a separation between that intimate space and their offline social world, or at least the parts of it that they imagined must be kept separate.
  • Gripenberg, Lidia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This is an account of the interaction of Finnish Roma with East European Roma in Finland. I will argue that this interaction is strongly influenced by these peoples’ engagement with Pentecostalism and Charismatic Christianity and nationality. Within the frame of this study, Finnish Roma refers to Finnish Kale, a distinctive group somewhat similar to the sinti, a branch of the European Roma population who live mostly in German-speaking countries. Finnish Kale have settled in Finland for more than 500 years: they are Finnish citizens and speak Finnish in addition to a local dialect of Romani. The East European Roma in Finland include representatives of different Roma groups, with different self-appellations, who have recently migrated to Finland from former socialist states of Europe, mostly Bulgaria and Romania, or who repeatedly visit Finland from those former socialist states. Pentecostal Finnish Kale have been in contact with East European Roma since the historic fall of the “Iron Curtain” in 1989 and the opening of the borders of the former Socialist European bloc countries to those European countries considered to be in the ‘Western’ bloc. The nature of that relationship changed at the beginning of 2007, when Bulgaria and Romania entered the EU and their citizens were able to visit and look for employment in Finland. This is the first extensive anthropological study on the interaction of different Roma groups in Finland and in general. The subject is interesting because it provides an opportunity to examine the interplay of different forms of identity – ethnic, religious and national. The research is based on an ethnographic description of encounters between Finnish and Eastern European Roma in Finland that took place over a period of 14 months of intensive fieldwork (2014-2015), supported by the insights and understanding gained through more than 20 years of personal friendship with Finnish and Bulgarian Roma, as well as one and a half years of social work amongst Finnish Kale. The theoretical frame is provided by research literature on Roma in the fields of anthropology and ethnology as well as anthropological studies on ethnicity, ethnic identity, Pentecostalism and Charismatic Christianity as well as nationality. My argument is that the social dynamics between nationality, ethnicity and religious identification determines the particular kind of sense of belonging that Roma in Helsinki have, which in turn affects the type of relation members of different Roma groups feel towards one another. Through exploring multiple everyday interactions between this groups, I have been able to show that religious belonging is the key factor that draws different groups together, due to the mutual trust and obligation that such belonging entails. The research contributes to the understanding of identity as a constantly ongoing process of identification as well as to the understanding of the role of spirituality in shaping people’s course of life.
  • Köhler, Harry (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Healing communication. Effective communication by physicians at patient encounters The primary task of health care is to promote health and treat illness. When the patient and physician meet, the primary goal of communication by the physician is to support this primary task. There is a wealth of research on patient-physician communication, but often this research is unsystematic. Also, the criteria for high-quality communication are diffuse and seem often to rely on the subjective experiences of the patient. This study has been conducted to examine the effect of communication from the point of view of treatment and health promotion of the patient. The study material for this study is used to examine the communication of the physician from the points of view of management communication and learning. Thus, the physician’s aim and responsibility are to induce the patient to benefit his/her own treatment and rehabilitation or cure by the patient’s own actions. The goal is to identify the factors related to the efficacy of communication with the help of the concepts of managerial communication and constructive learning. The study material for this thesis is twofold. The observational material generated at patient visits is analyzed qualitatively. This will identify a therapeutic method of communication which will be tested with the help of feedback material obtained at patient inquiries related to office visits to physicians. For the implementation of the test, 12 physicians were trained in the method of therapeutic communication, which was simplified into a set of two questions and a summary. The first set of data consists of 36 office visits (patient-physician encounters), the second of 59 replies to inquiries of patients by 12 physicians. The result will identify the reflection-construction process of the patient. In other words: each patient reflects upon the physician’s communication in his/her own way and constructs an action model according to which he/she will act during the treatment period. This action model may promote health, but it may also impair health, e.g., if it makes it possible for the patient to neglect treatment instructions. Another observation is that the physician’s attention to the patient’s entire sphere if experiences and values – rather than focusing purely on medical matters – seems to support the patient’s reliance on the treatment, the patient’s reflection and his/her construction of an action model that supports treatment. The third observation is that the learning process of the patient leading to changes in the patient’s attitudes and actions does not have to require excessive time. Indeed, the change process may start rapidly. These observations form the base of a communication model in three stages. The present study shows that as few as only two well-formulated questions may change the patient’s desire and capability to promote his/her health. Technological development will give the physician a new means to make clinical work and treatment more effective. The personal encounter between patient and physician will nevertheless be valuable. There are legitimate reasons to state that communication by a physician that support the rehabilitation of patients is good and responsible.
  • Mattila, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study has been motivated by a specific characteristic of Finnish family policy: on one hand, the state supports relatively lengthy childcare at home and on the other hand, state-supported day care is available and guaranteed to all children under schooling age at a relatively low cost to families. These forms of support have been made available to give parents of children under three years of age the choice between paid employment and caring full-time at home. Regardless of the element of choice, Finnish childcare policies are still subject to ongoing criticism and debate. Some argue that the current system enhances a gendered division of labour, and others say it does not offer the possibility of free choice for parents either. In this study it is examined how mothers of young children justify their choices on whether to keep on caring for their child at home or to go to work after (the first year of) parental leave. Based on an analysis of these justifications, the question under scrutiny is how the financial situation of the family, mothers’ perceptions on the benefit of the child, the personal relations of the mothers and the significance they attach to paid employment affect this choice. In addition to the justifications given by the interviewees, secondary data on public discourse has been compiled to highlight specific characteristics of the interview data and to reflect its content in the framework of wider public debate of the same era. The primary data consists of the interviews of 35 mothers whose youngest child was two years of age at the time. The mothers were in spousal relationships, they possessed relatively high levels of education and they lived in the Greater Helsinki area or in its vicinity. The secondary data on public discourse consists of 101 articles and it has been compiled from the publications Helsingin Sanomat (a daily newspaper), Tulva and Meidän Perhe (periodicals). The data has been collected in 2009–2012. The justifications have been analysed with content analysis enhanced with concepts from Perelman’s argumentation theory. The theoretical framework of the study is a relational perspective that emphasises how the endeavours and actions of individuals are constructed within the preconditions of the relations they inhabit. In this study money, perceptions on the benefit of the child, personal relations and how interviewees related to work were essential factors in the choices the mothers made. In the analysis, the personal relations that figured the most in mothers’ choices were those to the child, spouse, the child’s grandparents and mothers in a similar situation. A mother’s relation to work is regarded here as one relation, even though it consists of various relations that tie her to collectively geared action. What is essential is that changes in one relation are reflected in other relations and they all are in constant flux. Mothers go back to work in order to contribute to the standard of living of the family, but also for the sake of financial independence and because they wish to share the responsibility of providing for the family with their spouse. On the other hand, the practice of shared family finances and a sufficiently high income of the spouse make it easier to choose between home and work. Mothers and their spouses might discuss these matters explicitly, but consensus is not always reached. A mother’s perception on the benefit of the child is almost always compatible with the choice she has made. The criteria presented for a choice are related to an affective attachment with the child, an environment that suits the age and developmental phase of the child and the possibility to receive good early education, the company of other children and time with parents. Some mothers highlight the practice of sharing parental leave between spouses as benefit for the child. In addition, a mother being content is seen to be reflected in the child. Also, a suitable phase for beginning day care is seen to be defined by the child’s personal characteristics and how suitable a mother thinks she is to care for her child full-time. The forms of distributing labour and financial resources that had developed within spousal relations and the possibility to change them make way to different solutions in different ways. To some mothers, a symmetrical distribution of responsibilities is important, whereas to others, a clear division of responsibilities and the possibility to take care of the child at home is important. Childcare from close relatives supports taking part in paid employment and the possibility to share everyday routines with other mothers in the same situation supports caring at home. The quality of the paid employment available, the terms of employment contracts, the individual employment trajectories of the mothers and the meanings the mothers gave to work all affected their justifications on when to return to work. Debates in the media concerning mothers at work or caring for their children polarise views on what kind of choices should be supported by family policy. Giving reasons for the benefits of one alternative contributes to criticising structures supporting the other alternative, which may be interpreted as criticising the other alternative as a choice. In interview-based articles, the polarisation is created by either interviewing public figures who have been successful in their work and invest a lot of time in it, or by interviewing women taking care of children at home whose profession is not always mentioned. As a conventional choice is not a piece of news, it is not usually presented in the media, which means the media tends to emphasise either a successful career or devoting oneself to one’s children. The conclusion reached by the study is, that by examining singular endeavours that guide choices as a whole, it is possible to find a common denominator linking the endeavours together. This common denominator and the goal guiding mothers’ choices can be called a life that feels meaningful and which draws together endeavours that are held important or valuable. One’s life and one’s everyday reality should feel suitable and meaningful in the present, but the choices made should also guide the life of the mothers and their families to a direction that seems to bring beneficial outcomes. In this endeavour, the choice made by a mother of a young child to go to work or to care at home is part of the ongoing process of ordering relations going on in her personal relations and working life, and ending up with a choice with either alternative is not self-evident.
  • Crescenzi, Michele (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation consists of three essays on information and interactive knowledge in game theory. In the first essay, we study how a consensus emerges in a finite population of rational individuals who are asymmetrically informed. Agents observe a private signal about the true state of the world and then start exchanging messages. Generalizing previous models of rational dialogues, we dispense with the standard assumption that the state space is either finite or a probability space. We show that a class of rational dialogues can be found that always lead to consensus provided that three conditions are met. First, everybody must be able to send messages to everybody else, either directly or indirectly. Second, communication must be reciprocal. Finally, agents need to have the opportunity to participate in dialogues of transfinite length. In the second essay, we provide a syntactic construction of Correlated Equilibrium. For any finite game, we study how players coordinate their play on a signal by means of a public strategy whose instructions are expressed in some natural language. Language can be ambiguous in that different players may assign different truth values to the very same formula in the same state of the world. We show that, absent any ambiguity, self-enforcing coordination always induces a Correlated Equilibrium of the underlying game. When language ambiguity is allowed, self-enforcing coordination strategies induce Subjective Correlated Equilibria. In the final essay, we study the problem of a sender who wants to persuade a two-member committee to take a certain action. Contrary to previous models, we assume that the Sender is uncertain about the committee members' preferences. We provide a full characterization of the Sender's optimal persuasion strategy in two different contexts. In the first case, the Sender is allowed to elicit information by asking committee members to report their preference types. In the second, the Sender is not allow to do so. We show how the sender's optimal persuasion strategy depends on the prior probability distribution over preference types. If the prior is informative enough, the Sender may find it optimal to persuade only a strict subset of type profiles. Finally, we show that uncertainty always entails a loss to the Sender with respect to the benchmark case with commonly known preferences.
  • Krivonos, Daria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This dissertation examines young Russian-speakers’ quest for ’Europeanness’ through migration to Helsinki, and their lives in pursuit of this dream. The promised ‘transition’ to capitalist modernity has not recognised them as fully modern subjects who still have to be assisted on their way to full-fledged Europeanness. Migration to the ‘West’, embodied by Finland and Helsinki, is seen by young Russian-speakers as an attempt to emancipate themselves as modern and cosmopolitan subjects, and dis-identify from failed socialist modernity that lacks the futures presumably achieved in the ‘West’. Within finely-graded, spatialised hierarchies of the modern world, Finland has become part of the global ‘West’, having a complex history of ‘Europeanness’ and an in-between position between the East and West, with its historically precarious relation to whiteness and the need to emphasise own belonging to the European cultural tradition vis-à-vis Russianness. Young Russian-speakers’ attempts to re-inscribe themselves into modern time and space, as well as their claims to whiteness following migration thus take place not in the heart of Western global modernity, but on its edge, and also on the edge of whiteness. This is a new context, wherein to analyse the production and racialisation of whiteness beyond the context of global metropoles, which nevertheless points to the very mode of connection to the global structures of race and whiteness in the geopolitical context that tends to escape post/decolonial critique. The thesis consists of four peer-reviewed articles and the summary chapter, and draws on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork done in Helsinki in 2014–2016. I conducted participant observation in integration, language and CV courses, and youth career counselling, and did interviews with 54 young people (aged 22 to 32), mainly from Russia and Estonia, the two largest migrant groups in Finland, but also other post-Soviet countries. Through the concept of connected sociologies (Bhambra, 2014), the thesis brings research on postcoloniality and postsocialism into conversation. The analysis departs from the analytical division of the world into either postcolonial or postsocialist and draws on the intertwined relations of the spatially constructed world with race and coloniality being foundational to modernity and capitalism. I demonstrate how Russian-speakers’ perception of their place in the global racial formation are constructed through the legacies of racial colonial projects that define the meaning of Europeanness itself. The analysis further argues that despite the persistence of whiteness and Europeanness in their claims to belonging to the ‘West’ after migration, these claims are continuously questioned through the relations of labour, challenged via the border regime, neoliberal workfare devices and day-to-day experiences of gendered racialisation. The study thus shows the workings of coloniality, labour and whiteness beyond North versus South constellations, and argues for thinking beyond the geographical boundaries of those places that are straightforwardly ‘post-colonial’.
  • Särkkä, Iro (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The objective of this study is to analyse NATO as portrayed in Finland’s foreign and security policy, by focusing on the study of policy discourses and rhetoric. The main research question is the following: how have conceptions of NATO changed in the Finnish foreign and security policy debate during the post-Cold War period? As a theoretical framework of the study, a constructivist approach to foreign policy analysis was applied, with the aim of accounting for the significance of political language, policy discourses and rhetoric in defining the Finnish security policy. Within this paradigmatic approach, my aim was to identify and explain for the long-term discursive changes in the Finnish foreign and security policy as well as the policy positions of the key foreign and security policy actors. Empirical and inductive qualitative content analysis (QCA) was applied as methodological approach in analysing the three primary research sources: 1) NATO’s official summit declarations (1990–2016), 2) Finnish foreign, security and defence policy reports (1995–2017) and 3) the corresponding speeches held by the members of the parliament addressing NATO (N=915 speeches addressing NATO). Within the constructivist approach of foreign policy analysis, dominant discourses play an important role in defining the foreign and security policy outcomes. Foreign policy discourses are used as means to legitimize foreign policy action and goal formation; however, they also direct foreign policy debates in domestic policy forums. In this study, my aim was to analyse, the extent to which government led foreign policy transmits to the corresponding foreign policy in the national parliament. I studied the speeches held by members of the Finnish Parliament in the corresponding timeframe in relation to four attributes: 1) the content of the speech and the policy discourses, 2) the rhetorical means employed by the speaker (Aristotles’s ethos, pathos and logos), 3) the formal roles that the speakers held (ministers, group leaders, members of the parliament) as well as 4) the NATO-related rhetorician types (pro-NATO, pragmatics, skeptics and anti-NATO -speakers). In addition to these four parameters, my aim was to synthetize the change in the foreign policy rhetoric of eight major political parties present at the Finnish parliament as well as the movement between the rhetorician types. This doctoral thesis has provided new, previously undiscovered empirical knowledge about the content and the use of different rhetorical means in relation to NATO in the post-Cold War Finnish foreign and security policy debate. Furthermore, it has sought to outline differences in the contextual interpretation of NATO, between the Finnish government and the parliament. Above all the study has shown, how complex foreign and security policy issue NATO is and how many different types of interpretations it may evoke in the Finnish security policy debate.
  • Vornanen, Marleena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Medical genetics and genetic technology have evolved rapidly during the past decades. Efficient use of genomic information requires understanding of how lay people perceive hereditary risks and how they interpret genomic risk information. This study explored lay perspectives on risks of common diseases and secondary findings of genome sequencing. The study consisted of two quantitative and two qualitative sub-studies. Quantitative sub-studies examined relationships between family history and perceived risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and depression, physiological risk indicators and health behaviour. Multivariate regression analyses and structural equation modelling were used to analyse cross-sectional FINRISK 2007 (N=6258) and longitudinal FINRISK 2002 (N=909) health examination and survey data, collected by the Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare. The qualitative inquiry used a hypothetical scenario to examine lay people’s concerns and needs related to genetic secondary findings. Participants imagined themselves receiving, via letter, a secondary finding predisposing to heritable cancer (Lynch syndrome or Li–Fraumeni syndrome) or heart condition (long QT syndrome or familial hypercholesterolemia). Participants (N=29) wrote down their immediate reactions and discussed the topic later in focus groups. The data were analysed through inductive thematic analysis. Family history was related to perceived risk of common diseases independently of sociodemographics, health behaviour, body weight, and depressive symptoms. In the five-year follow-up, risk indicators predicted higher perceived risk, but high perceived risk did not predict changes in physical activity, body weight, or blood glucose. Qualitative results showed that despite a positive attitude towards receiving secondary findings, people worried whether relevant counselling and preventive care would be accessible for individuals and families. Secondary findings concerning heart related conditions were perceived as less threatening compared to cancer related findings, or genetic risks for psychiatric or neurological disorders. People tend to view their disease risks optimistically, but risk perceptions of common diseases reflect actual risk indicators. Perceived risk of disease or individualized biomarker feedback alone, however, are unlikely to result in sustained changes in daily health behaviour. Increasingly individualized risk communication practices need to also direct attention to counselling and supporting self-efficacy. Lay illness representations need to be taken into account in risk communication, as previous understandings of diseases shape how people process new risk information. When reporting genomic results, preventive treatment paths for individuals and families need to be planned and communicated appropriately.
  • Rönkä, Anu-Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The current theoretical discussion on risk communication emphasizes a dialogic and participatory approach. In practice, however, risk communication proceedings are still characterized by the traditional deficit model. The aim of this study is to consid-er the conditions for implementing participatory formats and interaction in risk communication. The study focuses on analysing risk communication in the risk case characterized by high ambiguity (Renn 2015). In these cases, according to Ortwin Renn (2015), the process of evaluation needs to be open to public scrutiny and new forms of delibera-tion. High ambiguity would require the most inclusive strategy for involvement. The study will consider how interaction could be practiced in the case of controversy. A controversial public debate on the potential health risks connected to wireless communications technology is being analysed as a case example. The research mate-rial consists of newspaper material, webpage material and expert debate collected by the eDelphi method. In the case example, the expert contradiction is analysed exerting definitions for risk, ambiguity, uncertainty and ignorance (Stirling & Gee 2002). According to a formal definition, risk is a condition under which it is possible both to define a comprehensive set of all possible outcomes and to resolve a discrete set of probabili-ties across this array of outcomes (ibid.). In the case example, the ambiguity is con-nected to what extent areas of ambiguity, uncertainty and ignorance are taken into account when assessing the overall picture of the risk. The conclusion is that, in the case of risk as characterized by high ambiguity, risk communication should structure contradictory information in the frame of strong and weak information rather than in the frame of true and false information, as connected to traditional risk communication. Communication and interaction should be introduced as a force affecting the struc-ture of the conversation. Interactive risk communication should contribute to the discussion so that both strong and weak knowledge are involved in the discussion. Communication should structure and create more understanding concerning the discussion as a whole and the disagreement related to it. In terms of policy research, both conflicting and consensual policies should be avoided. As an alternative to these, a dialogic approach is presented to systematically address disagreements and increase understanding of controversy.
  • Martela, Frank (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    We are already engaged in a stream of experiencing in which we strive to navigate our way toward what we value. Taking this depiction of the human condition as the starting point, in this dissertation my aim is to embark on an inquiry that aims to identify a few reasonable tools of thinking that may help humans live more reflective and meaningful lives. The project builds strongly on the foundations laid out by pragmatist philosophy, especially the balanced, experiential, and inquiry-oriented style of pragmatism offered by John Dewey. The starting point for such a philosophy is the stream of experiencing we are already engaged in as active and caring beings. Within this unfolding life, we strive to grasp what is happening, we strive to realize what we value, and we strive to decide what is worth valuing. In other words, we engage in what Dewey calls an inquiry, through which we aim to increase our capability to navigate this stream of experiencing called life to better actualize what is valuable within this life. All we have at our disposal in this inquiry are the concepts, theories, values, and other tools of thinking that we have acquired from within this life. There is nothing external that can be used to justify certain theories or values; total certainty is unavailable for us fallible human beings. Yet certain tools of thinking are more warranted than others: Relying on them in past inquiries has tended to lead us to where we want to get. Instead of vainly yearning for truths, we can trust and utilize those tools of thinking that have proven themselves to be more reliable maps in helping us navigate our experiential realities. In the final analysis, even reflectively endorsed values are nothing more than tools of thinking subject to being re-designed in the future to better suit the wholeness of our lives. Philosophical inquiry grows out of actual living, and that’s where it ends too. Its ultimate value is in designing better working conceptual tools that can assist people in the real-life tasks of living good and worthy lives. This is also the task of the present dissertation, which consists of an introduction and six independent articles that all apply the same pragmatist point of view to different pertinent contemporary philosophical questions to illustrate what it means to approach philosophy and life as a pragmatist.
  • Erpyleva, Svetlana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In this monograph, the author analyzes a new type of politicized local activism that emerged as an outcome of the nationwide post-election 2011-12 protests in Russia, while these protests have been widely criticized for their political vagueness. Outwardly, new local groups resembled numerous activist groups that were active before the post-election mobilization. However, the pre-protest local activism was deliberately “apolitical” and focused on concrete and small problem-solving, while the post-protest local activism combined oppositional politics and “real deeds” tactics. This integration of opposite practices and meanings led to the emergence of the new politicized civic culture. The question the author answers is how the event of the protest mobilization could lead to the long-term changes in activist political culture. Considering this political evolution, she focuses on activists’ biographical trajectories. Basing on qualitative data (interviews, focus-groups, and observations of local activists groups organized in Moscow and St. Petersburg) and the existing theories of social movement studies, social events, and political socialization, the monograph proposes a new approach to the analysis of social and cultural changes through an event. The results show that patterns of activists’ socialization highly influenced the types of their future political involvement. Moreover, the post-election protest as an event (in terms of W. Sewell, 1996) helped people with different experiences who would never meet and act together before (e.g., apolitical volunteering and oppositional struggle) suddenly find themselves together and pushed them to continue their activity. Meanings and know-how that ordinarily are at odds (apolitical ideology of “helping people” and politics) met in post-protest local activism, thus creating new hybrid forms of civic participation and negotiating the opposition between the apolitical and the political. In the scholarly literature on an event and a biography, biographies are considered usually among the things an event can influence on, together with social structure, cultural meanings, etc. In the monograph, it is argued that the biography can be considered as an important tool, helping scholars to understand how exactly an event influence on structure or culture. The socialization taken in interactionist perspective, i.e., as the careers and not as the set of more or less stable dispositions, is a necessary tool to study how different experiences, visions, and know-how are accumulated, transferred from one place to another, find each others in the same groups or even the same lives, and how all these processes finally contribute to the creation of new elements of political culture. In this monograph thus, the author claims that in order to explain social movement transformations and changes produced by an event, people’s biographies should be brought back into the analysis.
  • Warpenius, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Local alcohol policy as moral governance – Methodical and ethical questions raised by quasi-experimental effectiveness research The research analyses the effects of a local alcohol policy and discusses the problematics related to methods and ethics in quasi-experimental research into the effectiveness of an intervention programme. The first part of the research assess the effects of a local alcohol policy programme (PAKKA) on the frequency of alcohol served to intoxicated clients and the occurrence of violent assaults in licensed premises. The second part of the research discusses how effectiveness research per se can be used in the decentralised governing of local alcohol markets and communities. PAKKA was a community-based programme combining law enforcement, responsible beverage service-training (RBS), information and media campaigns and local structures for co-operation in two areas of Finland carried out in 2004–2007. The research design was a controlled quasi-experimental pre- and post-intervention study. In the field work, a male actor pretended to be clearly under the influence of alcohol and attempted to purchase a pint of beer from licensed premises in the study area. For the baseline measurement, every bar and night club was visited in the intervention and the control areas (94 licensed premises in total). Post-intervention data was gathered using the same method (100 licensed premises in total). The results were reported in terms of the service refusal rates. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to study the statistical significance of the results. In the post-intervention study there was a statistically significant increase in service denials to the actor in the intervention area (from 23% to 42% of the licensed premises) compared to the control area (OR = 3.7; p < 0.05). The refusal rates increased statistically significantly among the young servers. The findings demonstrate that multi-component community-based interventions can have a significant impact on over-serving alcohol to intoxicated customers. The most crucial element of the interventions seemed to be effective law enforcement. The local alcohol policy interventions had no scientifically demonstratable effects on the frequency of police-reported violent assaults in licensed premises. Quasi-experiments based on test purchases are open to criticism on methodological and ethical grounds. It is a challenge to control for methodical problems such as the validity of the comparative experimental setting, the standardisation of research assistants’ performances and the disclosure of covert field work. Ethical concerns relate to the fact that covert research is not declared to the research participants especially if the object of the study is an illegal action (i.e. selling and serving alcohol to intoxicated clients or minors). In this research, the concept of moral governance was developed as a theoretical perspective based on two traditions: Foucauldian analytics of government and theories of moral regulation. Local alcohol policy was viewed as a practice of moral governance, in which the responsibility for the regulation of lifestyle-related harm is decentralised from the central state to other actors. Confusion in terms of moral governance arises when market actors deploy the test purchasing method in order to highlight their own social responsibility and to promote private business interests in alcohol policy debates. Keywords: local alcohol policy, analytics of government, moral regulation, test purchase experiment, covert research
  • Tarkkala, Heta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In recent decades biomedical samples and data have been organized into large depositories such as biobanks. These biobanks have also been founded in Finland to allow for increasingly large-scale, international, and data-intensive biomedical research. Simultaneously expectations of personalized medicine have increased – in the future individuals instead of averages will be treated, and genomic data may be utilized in the clinics or in disease prevention. This study – rooted in science and technology studies, and linking to discussions of the role of expectations and imaginaries – examines biobanks as conditions of possibility for personalized medicine to become reality: that is, how biobanks are expected to make personalized medicine possible. The rearranging of biomedical research through biobanks is investigated against the backdrop of personalized medicine as a sociotechnical imaginary: a vision of a desirable future, which is both built on, and continuously requires, science and technology, and therefore societal efforts, for its fulfillment (Jasanoff and Kim, 2015). Consequently, this study asks: What do the expectations related to biobanks as conditions of possibility for personalized medicine tell us about the knowledge production in which biobanks are supposed to participate, and the role biobanks play in it? To answer this question, biobanking is studied through three different lenses. The analytical sections unpack, first, the claims of high quality samples they store; second, the ideas related to research population(s) seen to be stored in biobanks; and third, their link to the expectations of translational medicine. Thus, it is explored how biobanks are expected and said to contribute to contemporary biomedical knowledge production that takes place in highly regulated settings. The main argument of the study is that the very idea of biobanks is being reshaped as operations, conventions, regulatory frameworks, and new expectations are linked to the imaginary of personalized medicine and require that action be taken. The different layers of stakeholders, regulations, developments, and projects that condition and constrain biobanking and hence knowledge production, have, and continue to have, an effect on what biobanks are considered and understood to be, and the kind of knowledge and scientific practices they could foster. The analytical chapters illustrate the multiplicity of tendencies and linkages attendant on biobanks as they begin to reorganize biomedical research.
  • Inkeri, Raakel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study explores whether and how race effects and shapes social integration in the post-apartheid Cape Town neighbourhood. The underlying questions are whether and how the racial classifications inherited from apartheid are meaningful when residents negotiate, determine and arrange their changing neighbourhood and neighbours. The object of this study is Thornton, a lower middle-class neighbourhood where the economic class of residents is homogeneous. Instead, racial diversification has been substantial during the post-apartheid decades. Thus, this study examines how race is processed and managed inside class. I built my research design on the concept of social cohesion which relates to the ideal of Rainbow Nation. Neighbourhood social cohesion presents Rainbow Nation on a small scale, a local and space-specific interpretation of the present stage of overcoming previous segregation structures. I analysed cohesion through two approaches, with the first considering collectivities and the second individuals. First, I ask how race is visible in neighbourhood social and spatial practices. This approach explores the forms of participation, community building and using public space. Second, I ask in which way residents of different race conceive their changing neighbours and neighbourhood. This approach explores residents´ attitudes towards people from another race group than their own. It also explores individual residents´ socializing patterns and interaction orientation. The underlying discipline is urban sociology; however, this study has drawn inspiration from several disciplines and research fields. Theoretically this study draws from socio-spatial integration research which examines whether physical residential proximity produces closer social interaction between people of diverse backgrounds. Methodologically this study follows ethnographic research methods and qualitative methodology. The main research material was gathered over a period of 11 months of fieldwork during 2016 and 2017 in Thornton, Cape Town. The analysis was based on interviews of the residents in Thornton, and observation of civic and religious communities and public places and spaces. The results of this study indicate that race is both significant and insignificant when explaining neighbourhood social cohesion. There is a complex relationship between post-apartheid reconciliation speech and lived mundane realities. The results of this study contribute to the discussion on the persistent nature of social classification and categorizing difference and can be drawn to wider than South African debates. In the South African context, this study adds to the discussion of the fairly new research field focusing on the new black African middle class. In addition, results of this study correlate with previous research on the patterns and success in dismantling apartheid´s spatial planning. Keywords: urban integration, South Africa, race, social cohesion, neighbourhood, middle class
  • Brander, Richard (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of this thesis is to clarify and understand the limits on Finnish foreign policy in relation to early Western European integration during the decade after World War II, studied through the actions of former Finnish foreign minister Hjalmar J. Procopé. During the years 1948 to 1954 Procopé acted as an informal and unappointed liaison between Finland and the European Movement (EM). The European Movement served as a platform for different organisations working towards European unity. Its most notable achievement was the impetus given to the founding of the Council of Europe in 1949 In this thesis, Finland’s relationship with the burgeoning European integration project is studied using primary sources chiefly comprising Procopé’s diaries, correspondence, as well as his written reports on European integration efforts and related affairs. Early European integration is also assessed in relation to anti-communism and resistance to the expansion of the Soviet Union, with a particular focus on the role of the United States and its secret services as promoters of (Western) European unity. The close proximity of the Soviet Union put considerable constraints on Finnish foreign policy. However, this sparked both a need and an opportunity for a private citizen to engage in unofficial and secretive interaction with the European Movement. Procopé wished to safeguard Finnish interests through the early European integration process. Both Procopé himself and national officials in Helsinki wished to avoid drawing parallels with the actions of Eastern European exiled politicians, as that could have signalled that Finland was part of the Eastern bloc One significant finding is that the empirical study of Procopé’s activities reveals much about the restrictions on Finnish involvement in the early political integration of Western Europe.  Procopé knowingly chose to engage himself in areas where official authorities had no part and where he thought he could benefit Finland. The study of Procopé is part of a broader and emerging line of research in European integration history. The aim of this new agenda is to gain better understanding of the integration process, and thereby the present-day European Union, by studying the lives and thinking of transnationally connected individuals who worked towards European unity. Procopé, who was living in self-imposed exile in Stockholm, both discovered and was offered a niche that played to his strengths. The leadership of the European Movement trusted Procopé, as did the movement’s sponsors in the United States, which included backing by the Central Intelligence Agency. Procopé maintained a network of old contacts in Finland, although his reputation was marred by his defence of former President Risto Ryti in the War Responsibility Trials. For Procopé, Western European integration and anti-communism were two sides of the same coin. Procopé maintained an amicable relationship with President J.K. Paasikivi, while Urho Kekkonen was a strong adversary to the former foreign minister, the study shows. Finland’s political room for manoeuvre was undoubtedly limited after the war, with its international standing largely defined by its relationship with the Soviet Union. This thesis, however, reveals that beneath the official surface lay unofficial networks, where promotion of Western European integration was matched with fierce anti-communism. Key words: European integration history, Europe, European Movement, Council of Europe, European Union, Western European integration, anti-communism
  • Hyötyläinen, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This is a study concerning land and housing policies and urban inequality in Finland. Land policy refers to the management of state and municipal land. Housing policy refers to public involvement in the supply and demand of housing. Urban inequality refers to the unwanted spatial differentiation of people in the city due to the unequal chances of individuals to choose where they live. An often-overlooked feature of urban inequality is the stigmatization of particular areas and neighborhoods of the city, and their symbolic differentiation from the rest of the city. Previous research on spatial differentiation in Finland has focused primarily on mapping the spatial differentiation of people. Although empirically rich, previous research has left explanations for urban inequality wanting. This dissertation addresses this research gap and contributes to our understanding of urban inequality from the policy perspective. It also reflects critically on the problems caused by the very lack of explanation in previous research. This dissertation consists of four original research articles. The main body of data used in the articles are interviews with representatives of urban authorities making decisions and recommendations on land and housing policies. The first article explores the means and objectives of land policy adopted in three Finnish cities at the time when new land use legislation was introduced and municipalities and the state introduced a new type of real estate policy. The second article is a study of that new land and real estate policy, which it calls the “entrepreneurial public real estate policy”, in Helsinki. Article three dives into the history of Finland’s housing policy. It presents critical discussion about the adopting of the dubious policy term “special groups” and investigates why social rental housing is increasingly targeted at those labeled “special”. The fourth article is a critical examination of the theories and concepts used in Finnish segregation research. Based on the findings of these research articles, the main argument of this dissertation is the following: state and municipal land and housing policies provide conditions for the spatial and symbolic division of the urban population. The land policy implemented in Finnish cities has increasingly prioritized competitiveness and attracting investments and businesses. This has left other goals of land policy, such as the prevention of urban inequality, secondary. Entrepreneurial public real estate policy is responsible for alienating municipal land and providing the conditions for spatial divisions, such as the development of the first exclusive, fenced residential area for the wealthy in Helsinki. In Finland’s housing policy, social housing is increasingly viewed and treated as a social service for the market-incapable, those deemed by policy language to be members of “special groups”. The dissertation calls this the “specialization” of social housing. The specialization of social housing and the derogatory category of “special groups” used in policy jargon provide conditions for symbolic divisions between social housing tenants and others. Land and housing policies that could and should work to prevent urban inequalities actually exacerbate those inequalities and provide the conditions for deepening urban divides. This dissertation investigates why these policies are so toothless.

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