Valtiotieteellinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Stenius, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    An ever larger share of organizations depend on knowledge for success. It can, however, only be utilized if individuals engage in sharing their knowledge; and hence, knowledge sharing is considered a critical employee behavior in expert work. While it is collectively desirable to share knowledge, for an individual knowledge sharing is a discretionary behavior, and one that may entail risks and costs. Hence, the aim of the present study was to shed light on the predictors of knowledge sharing with a focus on motivation to share, and its quality. This aspect has not been well covered in prior research. The model of knowledge sharing motivation by Gagnè (2009), which combines the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT), was used as a research framework. Knowledge sharing was investigated in two different work contexts. In terms of methods, the study included both a qualitative belief elicitation study (n=18), and a survey based quantitative study with a prospective design (T1 n=200; T2 n=95). The data was collected from a public sector expert organization. Study I established that the elicited shared outcome beliefs reflected the different knowledge sharing contexts. Furthermore, outcome beliefs (attitudes), subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control predicted knowledge sharing intentions, which, together with perceived behavioral control, predicted actual knowledge sharing in work meetings, lending support for the utility of elicitation studies. The same essentially applied to knowledge sharing in informal personal interactions. Study II established that the sense of personal importance and value congruence, labelled identified regulation, was the best motivational quality to predict knowledge sharing both in work meetings and in informal personal interactions, as well as tacit knowledge sharing. External regulation to share was positively, and identified regulation to share negatively associated with knowledge withholding. Studies III and IV lent empirical support for Gagné s model. Attitudes, autonomous motivation, and subjective norms predicted knowledge sharing intentions, which predicted knowledge sharing two months later (R2=.42; R2=.41). When autonomous motivation was replaced by identified regulation, the model improved. The study demonstrated that identified regulation was the best motivational quality to predict knowledge sharing, but it was also a better predictor than outcome beliefs and subjective norms. Treating knowledge sharing as a context-embedded behavior seemed justified. Elicitation study was deemed an effective way to generate information of shared underlying behavioral beliefs.
  • Kuusinen-James, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Many of the current changes in Finnish social and health care legislation promote the expansion of service users freedom of choice. There is, however, significantly less information about the freedom of choice in respect to social services than health care services. The purpose of this research was to investigate how freedom of choice and consumerism are constructed in a regular home care context in interaction between service users and employees in the institutional framework of the research municipality. The study was carried out as a case study. The data consists of a survey addressed to the elderly service users (44 respondents; mean age 82.5) and interviews (15 service users; 4 family members). A survey for private service providers (21 respondents) and group interviews (3 participants) were also conducted. Care assessors (5) were also interviewed in a group. Some observations (4) of needs assessment situations were also conducted. Furthermore documents linked to the municipality s decision to adopt service voucher in regular home care were analysed. The data was collected in one Finnish municipality (Lahti) from 2011-2012. Theoretically and conceptually the research connects to the discussions of governance, active citizenship and freedom of choice in a quasi-market. The results were examined in regards to how free choice in governed and how it is affecting service users autonomy, quality of the services or modernization of the welfare state. The findings show that elderly service voucher users appreciate the possibility to continue with the same service provider. In addition, they stress the importance of the possibility to buy additional services from the same provider, which is not currently possible for municipal home care clients. Elderly people found the freedom of choice, however, too narrow, because it is limited to just the choice of a service provider. The content of the service, the location of the production (home or assisted living), employees who provide the services, the time or the duration of the service, can t be chosen. The initiative for the needs assessment comes often from a loved one or from a health or social service employee. The municipal service needs assessor decides to whom the voucher will be offered. An individual must first "sell" themselves as a vulnerable person in order to attain the right to publicly funded services, and then as a consumer who is able to use the voucher. In addition to the limited content of the choice, who can choose is therefore also limited. Support from loved ones is often necessary or even a prerequisite for receiving a voucher. The tight service access terms, little information about the different choice options or the responsibilities of the individual, indicate that in a quasi-market (privately provided and publicly paid for services) home-care service voucher users don t seem to be fully autonomous consumers but quasi consumers. A substantial improvement of the quality or the efficiency of the services should not be expected because the service users do not compare, complain about the services or change their service provider. So the free choice brought on by the voucher does not prune out the low-quality services. Choice does therefore not work as a good quality control instrument for the service organizers. Publicly funded social and healthcare services have traditionally aimed to promote equality between service users and to decrease welfare disparities. Freedom of choice, executed with a regular home care service voucher, includes risks of increased inequalities and the results refer to the realization of these risks. Polarization of the people who need less help and use vouchers and people who need more help and are therefore channeled directly to municipal services, seem to be in progress. The right to choose a service provider appears to be more important than equal possibilities to make a choice, the possibility to make meaningful choices or the consequences of the choices. Keywords: freedom of choice, care, an elderly person, voucher, governance, marketization, quasi-market, active citizenship, quasi-consumers
  • Särmäkari, Veli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This study examines how the modern European model of conscription took shape in Finland at the end of the 1800s. The aim of this study is to deepen and diversify the building of the modern Finnish idea and concept of conscription both during the time that Finland was an autonomous grand duchy and in modern-day Finland by using the methodology of historical social science. Conscription is studied using historical sources - but the reasons for conducting this research stem from the present. The study also falls under conceptual history, as it looks at how the concept of conscription has changed over time and at the "struggles over concepts" that have led to these changes. In this study I argue that Finland could possibly abolish conscription in the 2010s or reserve the power in its Constitution to resume it should the need arise - but only after careful consideration of the changes in the Finnish principle of conscription that have occurred over time and once research on Finnish conscription has become more diverse. The study consists of eight chapters. The first chapter presents the aims of the study, its significance, the research questions and it introduces the plausible ways in which the Finnish principle of conscription could be modified (discussed in full in chapters seven and eight). Sources include texts produced by social scientists, military scientists and politically active people. The methods used are the thorough examination of texts and deliberative policy analysis. The second chapter presents the theoretical framework of the study, which is formed by Pierre Rosanvallon's critique of a political culture of generality and Albert O. Hirschman's conceptualisation of political possibilities. The third chapter presents the turning points in French, Prussian and Finnish national conscription, from the French Revolution to the end of the 1800s. The fourth chapter presents three North European developers of modern universal conscription: Hugo Raab, Christian Theodor Oker-Blom and Dmitri Milyutin. The fifth chapter describes the key arguments that are used when speaking about Finnish universal conscription. This includes a review of the following: Johan Vilhelm Snellman's "A Nation's Conscript", Yrjö Sakari Yrjö-Koskinen's "National Conscription", Leo Mechelin's "Pro Lege - Conscription" and Johan Gustav Silfversvan's proposal "Conscription Based on a National Militia." The sixth chapter follows the development of the concepts related to Finnish conscription in newspapers and dictionaries published mainly in the 1800s. As research findings I firstly propose that at the end of the 1800s what overshadowed all other alternatives was the basic idea and terminology of Fennoman conscription. Secondly, there were two constitutional ruptures, one at the end of the 1800s and one at the beginning of the 1900s that surreptitiously still restrict the Finnish constitutional discussion in the 2010s on the possibilities of modifying the principle of liability for military service and the legislation on conscription. Thirdly, I bring to light the paradox that the terms and expressions used to talk about the concept of modern Finnish conscription were originally put together by Elias Lönnrot who specifically sought "to avoid conceptualisation", i.e. chose not to recognise the historical layers or cultural associations of the concepts he used. For instance, when putting together his French-Finnish dictionary (published in 1877), Agathon Meurman translated the revolutionary term levée en masse with Finnish words that were used to describe the allotment system, a military system that had been put in place when Finland was still part of Sweden (the turn of phrase in Finnish being mies talosta meneminen maan puolustukseksi, which in English translates as man from croft leaves to defend the country). Key words: universal conscription, political culture of generality, contingency, nation, Fennomania, constitutionalism, army, defence forces, historical social science, conceptual history, militia, citizen soldier, man liable for military service, conscript soldier, reservist.
  • Kotilainen, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Visual images picturing suffering of others are in many ways forceful; they move their spectators emotionally and politically. Images of wars, crisis and suffering communicate humanity, the peril it is in, as well as the need to protect it and to alleviate suffering. Emotive images of bodily suffering affect the understanding of not only the immediate crisis they depict but of the surrounding world, the position of the spectators of the images, as well as the position of the spectated (suffering) others. This is a study into the position, significance, framings and utilization of images of atrocity, war and human suffering within the evolvement of the ideas of a shared human community and humanitarian discourse. The visual theaters of suffering are approached within a historical perspective from the times of the Enlightenment onwards, focusing particularly on the era of Western lead humanitarian world politics of the recent decades. The thesis asks, how images of suffering presented within a humanitarian frame have historically been communicating apprehensions of a shared humanity whilst reflecting the political preconditions of their era. And how images of distress and crisis in the more contemporary international political and media contexts are framed and used within the Western sphere, and how they are communicating the prevalent humanitarian ethos of their time. The dissertation focuses on visual practices that constitute namely the Western spectatorship and Western spectator of suffering, and thus the practices that through visual representations of suffering, war and conflict constitute, produce and reproduce conceptions of international politics, the West and the Rest and hierarchies of humanity. Humanitarianism, especially in the more contemporary political settings is approached as an influential (unconscious) ideology. Emotive images of suffering are perceived as emotionally driven theatrical tragedy arrangements through which the ideological apparatus of humanitarianism addresses and invites its audiences to see the spectacles of global suffering in certain contextual, politically and ideologically constructed and governed ways. Firstly the history of visual humanitarian communication from the mid- eighteenth century until 2000s is mapped out. Through the mapping out of the imagery, the positions and framing of images of human suffering within the evolvement of the humanity and humanitarianism discourses and changing notions of life seen as worthy of protection and rights are analyzed. Secondly, through four divergent, contemporary and empirically orientated cases, it is analyzed how various images of crisis, war and suffering/non- suffering are arranged and utilized in the contemporary settings of Western humanitarian world politics. In the contemporary setting, images of conflict, war, natural catastrophes and refugeeness are discussed, and the differences of the representation of Western suffering vis-à-vis non-Western suffering are analyzed as a theater of proof of the conditional nature of humanity. Topical Western visual war branding efforts strategic communication of the NATO Afghanistan operation are analyzed from the point of view of the legitimizing narratives of contemporary Western war. Also the visual narratives of the Western enemies Muammar Gaddafi, Saddam Hussein and Osama bin Laden in the context of Western humanitarian international politics are scrutinized. And finally, the positions of social media images of contemporary war within international politics namely the images of the Syrian 2013 Ghouta chemical assault are analyzed. The thesis shows how visual humanitarian communication, the representational practices and arrangements of images of pain and crisis, have during history reflected, as well as constructed, the predominant thinking on humanity, the perils it faces and the available means to protect life from these perils. It is concluded that in addition to mediating distant atrocities and informing the spectators of the need of help, images of war and suffering are contemporarily often used in the branding of military operations and legitimation of interventionist actions, as well as utilized as strategic enablers in foreign political settings in times of crisis. Moreover, it is argued that the humanitarian imagery of today has become a central arena of communicating the world order, and further of indicating the status of the sufferers within the global hierarchy of humanity, and thus manifesting the globally conditional value of (human) life and the limited universality of humanity. The study includes 24 collage illustrations into which some of the key visual images discussed in the study are compiled.
  • Ronnie, Delsy (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Much of the existing literature describes a successful peace process as the embellishment of an agreement. In fact, signing a peace agreement does not necessarily mean a lasting peace. The peace process between Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (GAM) or the Free Aceh Movement and the Government of Indonesia (GoI), or the central government, provides a unique and remarkable example of the dynamics of a peace process. This thesis presents a comprehensive analysis of the peace process in Aceh. Institutional, structural and historical elements of the process are thoroughly reviewed to capture its dynamics. This thesis indicates that the failure and success of a peace agreement substantially depend on the perception of the two conflicting parties of the existing conditions that shape their motivation and optimism concerning the peace process. Hence, certain conditions that can shape mutual motivation of both conflicting parties are instrumental in resolving dispute and building peace. The present thesis offers a useful lesson and a significant contribution for policy makers, scholars, and peace practitioners in conflict resolution, peace-building and peace implementation efforts in Aceh and beyond.
  • Nisén, Jessica (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The study of educational differences in fertility is relevant because such differences signal differences between social groups in a crucial aspect of wellbeing: family life. Associations between education and fertility on the individual level are widely documented in women, but the mechanisms behind the associations are still not entirely clear. Men s fertility overall and differences between social groups therein have received less attention. The study aimed at (1) Describing in particular men s fertility according to age, educational group and parity; (2) Assessing the extent to which educational differences in lifetime fertility are attributable to early-life characteristics in women or men, or mediated by characteristics in adulthood in men; (3) Investigating the extent to which the educational differences are attributable to underlying genetic or environmental factors. The study utilized two data sets. The first one is based on a 10-per-cent sample of households in the 1950 Census in Finland, covering cohorts born 1940 1950. The second one is based on the Finnish Twin Cohort Study, covering cohorts born 1950 1957. The measurement of fertility in the study was register-based. The statistical methods included parity decomposition, conventional and sibling fixed-effects regression analysis, and behavioural genetics analysis. Women educated to higher levels accumulated fewer children, and men respectively more children, in their lifetime. The positive gradient in the number of children among men was largely attributable to first births and to a smaller extent to second births. Educational differences in age-specific fertility in the teens and early 20s were larger among women than men. A less-well-off family background predicted higher fertility in women but lower fertility in men. Neither observed early-life characteristics nor unobserved characteristics shared by same-sex siblings explained the educational differences in men s lifetime fertility, and had a moderate explanatory role among women. In men, occupational position and income considerably mediated the association between education and the chance of having a first child. In the behavioural genetics analysis this association was modelled as a genetic correlation in women and men. The differences in first births and young-age fertility contributed considerably to the gender difference in the lifetime number of children by educational group. The limited explanatory role of early characteristics suggests that adulthood mechanisms are likely to be more influential in explaining the associations. The plausibility of indirect genetic effects through education on the chance of having a first child is noted. Economic mechanisms appear relevant for explaining the entry into parenthood among men.
  • Eriksson, Pia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    In Finnish society, family creation is usually considered a private matter, whereas child protection is considered a public matter. In the adoption process these two matters intertwine, and prospective adoptive parents face the tensions which arise from this when becoming pre-adoption clients in social services. The power dynamics between prospective adoptive parents as clients and the professionals in this process have rarely been of interest, despite power being an integral to social work. Furthermore, the emotions of encounters between clients and professionals in social work settings have largely been overlooked in research. Though professionals are important facilitators in making crucial decisions about the creation of families in the inter-county adoption process, the client-professional relationship has only been studied to a minor extent in this institutional setting. This study investigates the context of statutory pre- adoption services of pre-adoption counselling (assessment and preparation) and mediation in inter-country adoption in Finland as a receiving country. The study conveys user perspectives of prospective adoptive parents and enhances the understanding of the institutional setting of pre- adoption services by utilizing the concepts of emotion, power, social interaction and service satisfaction. The study examines how prospective adoptive parents experience and account for statutory pre-adoption services from their client position, and how emotions and power intertwine in social interaction in the pre-adoption context. Finally, it contextualizes the experiences of prospective adoptive parents within broader social work and intercountry adoption discussions. This study applies a broad methodological approach, using survey derived data (N=1451) and narrative interviews (N=19). The overarching theoretical perspectives are those of narrativity, a horizontal view of knowledge production, and a reflexive methodology. The survey data was analysed using logistic regression and content analysis, whereas the interviews were analysed by way of thematic narrative analysis. The study showed that 81.7% of adoptive parents were satisfied with the pre-adoption counselling they had received. This service satisfaction was best explained on the interpersonal level in the relationship between client and professional. However, consequent analysis of the institutional setting indicated that stressful emotions are common among prospective adoptive parents. The findings suggest that an experience of fear was connected with the risk of the loss of a wanted child through either rejection in the assessment procedure or a termination of the adoption process. A gatekeeping function of the professionals is seen to be present throughout the whole pre-adoption process, and a power asymmetry was perceived by the prospective adoptive parent through different controlling practices. In combination with a sense of loss of control in their vulnerable client position and a dependency on the system, emotions of anger and fear were also experienced. The study showed that prospective adoptive parents use different strategies in their social interactions with professionals to navigate this institutional setting. However, stressful emotions and the resulting strategic actions can pose a challenge to establishing a trustful relationship with professionals, which is important in terms of service delivery. Prospective adoptive parents balance their anxiety and hope in the process through their own emotional engagement, but the study also identified the professionals as key actors in diminishing stressful emotions in the setting. Two different but converging discourses were identified in the interview data, as an emotional discourse of wanting a child , and a cognitive discourse of providing a home . These reflected a difference in primary aims between the client and professional, and were further found to be influenced by the knowledge orders of adult-driven Western reproduction, and child-centered child protection. The implications of the study suggest an acknowledgment of dependency, vulnerability and emotion among the prospective adoptive parents, as well as a need for client participation in creating a common understanding and a more dialogical set of practices. On a global level and as a social work practice, adoption services need to be brought closer to a child protection aim.
  • Eranti, Veikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation examines how we should understand individuals doing politics. How should we understand people who are clearly involved with political issues through electoral processes, city planning, or ranting on social media but would usually not identify as politicians or activists, nor channel their political projects through established political communities or organisations? Broad changes in the technological, regulatory, and governing systems underlie the importance of individuals in politics, participation and the media landscape. Because of these changes, we now live in a world in which we need to understand how individual actors participate and do politics so that we can comprehend how contemporary politics and participation work. This work presents an outline for a sociological theory of political action by integrating a pragmatist approach to habits and situations with theories dealing with cultural and tangible repertoires and resources, and by constructing a grammar of political speech that makes realising and inspecting the legitimacy of claims based on individual interests easier. Understanding individual interests as a basis of political argumentation is relevant if we want to understand political culture, in which individuals, in addition to collective structures, are the key players. This dissertation develops conceptual tools for understanding the legitimacy of argumentation based solely on individual interests. The theory of grammars of commonality by Laurent Thévenot is used as a basis for this development. In the re-modelled grammar of individual interests, the legitimacy of political claims rests on the recognition of the rights of individuals and the construction of representative groups: even if actors act as individuals, they rhetorically construct a wider group of people, sharing their opinion, to back the claims. Empirically, argumentation based on individual interests is shown to play a relevant role in Finnish political culture, which is a feature less highlighted in previous studies. The empirical articles are focused on individuals doing politics in two different domains. These are participation in urban planning in Helsinki and the use of Facebook as both the nano-level context for political participation and as the organisational tool for individual campaigners in presidential elections. Firstly, the grammar of individual interests is a legitimate way of presenting critique against urban planning, and, thus, attempts at making urban planning more communicative do not necessarily make it more deliberative. Conflicts in urban planning can and should be thought of as political conflicts. This argument leads to a new definition for the often pejoratively used term Not in my Backyard (NIMBY): if participation based on individual interests is as legitimate as participation based on common goods, no reason should exist to classify some people participating in local land-use conflicts as NIMBYs. The term is better used to describe the conflicts, in which local residents act against planned land-use. Secondly, this dissertation presents evidence of a new type of political campaigner: one with a background in technology or advertising rather than in politics and who is connected and as independent as possible. This campaigner uses Facebook and other similar tools to create ad hoc campaign groups, utilises the cultural repertoire of the Internet, and participates in politics when (and only when) he or she sees fit. This kind of campaigner was crucial to the success of Pekka Haavisto in the 2012 presidential elections. As a context for nano-political action, Facebook also affects the way politics is done. The concept of nano-politics refers to the smallest possible public political gestures, which are, in this case, using the Facebook like button to send political signals. Facebook users do reflect on their liking pattern on the basis of previous likes, and their networked audience affects their liking behaviour. At the same time, the material tools provided by Facebook, such as the like button, are used by activists and normal users alike creatively and reflexively: these users send a wide range of signals by using the simplest of tools, and they often reflect on their own liking behaviour. This dissertation connects to a long line of studies showing the importance and heightened role of the individual in political participation. The phenomenon is investigated in relation to the planning authority and government in general, in relation to electoral politics, and in relation to a more generalised understanding of politics as something that all kinds of people do in the course of their lives.
  • Veistilä, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Related to the science of social work, this academic dissertation focuses on the social well-being of families with children who have moved from Russia to Finland. Well-being is scrutinized as a phenomenon that is constructed during integration processes. The starting point of the research was the challenges of re-focusing the well-being studies from economy towards questions of social well-being as well as the transition of migration studies from societal integration activities towards listening to the narratives of migrated families. The research problem was how families with children with a Russian background describe the construction of their social well-being during their integration processes. The summary of the dissertation answers the research problem using two research questions: how is the social well-being of families with a Russian background presented in the family narratives and how do these families construct their social well-being during their integration processes. The concept of well-being was defined to be an entity of needs, actions and resources, wherefrom social well-being was sharpened to include unity needs, social quality and social support. The families with children, subjectively describing their well-being as satisfaction of life based on evaluations and feelings, constructed their social well-being in relation to time, place and culture. According to a relational-systemic understanding, the families were scrutinized as systems of manifold social relationships, through which they connect to the society. Migration was scrutinized through the concepts of integration and acculturation as a phase of life that challenges the families to at least partly re-construct their well-being. The research data consisted of 25 polyphonic interviews of migrated families conducted in the year 2012 as well as nine re-interviews of the families in the year 2013 and eleven stories and narratives of migrated children and young people from the year 2013. The analysis method of the re-interviews was narrative reflection, where the researchers preliminary interpretations as narratives were discussed with the interviewees and the discussion was used as research data as well. Narrative method was the main method of analysis of the research and discourse analysis was additionally used in one of the articles. The first article of the dissertation focuses on the construction of migrant children s well-being from a needs and actions -based point of view. In the second article, the narratives of families with children are analyzed using the conceptual framework of social quality and in the third article the analysis focuses on the social support that these families receive from social relationships. The fourth article contextualizes the research to the integration process and visualizes the changes of family lives related to migration. As a result of the study, relational-contextual satisfaction of life is shaped as a definition of social well-being. Results show that the construction of social well-being of families with children with a Russian background is a relational action, where the central elements of relational being are family love and the assertive work that families do for it, the reciprocity of relationships and interaction defined as encountering and as a linguistic question. As action, the construction of social well-being challenges social work to re-build its working methods to be family-centered. The action takes place in contextual processes, where the context consists of the stages of an integration process: adaptation, integration and experiencing the feeling of being at home. Social work should pay special attention to these stages of an integration process as well as to the learning of cultural scripts, vicinities and time-related changes in family lives.
  • Ahola, Salla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Laypeople’s stances towards expert knowledge and the relationships of personal values to such stances are little studied and remain less than clear. The purpose of this dissertation was to shed more light on these stances and their relationships to personal values, and thereby to contribute to a greater understanding of them. More specifically, this study focusses on the readiness of laypeople to question experts’ views, their non-adherence to doctors’ instructions, and their preferences to seek health advice or treatment from either medical experts (i.e. doctors) or from practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as well as the associations of personal values with each of these. This study used population-based samples from a range of European countries. One of the three sub-studies used survey data collected in Finland for the specific purposes of this study and the other two sub-studies used open-access data from the European Social Survey. The data was mostly quantitative and was analysed using statistical methods, such as logistic regression analysis. The first of the three sub-studies examined the ten values specified in Schwartz’s (1992) theory of basic human values as well as the values of rational truth and non-rational truth proposed by Wach and Hammer (2003b). The results showed that the values of rational truth and power were positively associated with the readiness to question experts’ views (RQEV), whereas the values of security, conformity and tradition were negatively associated with RQEV. Moreover, the analysis of laypeople’s reasons for not disagreeing with experts indicated that these reasons were related to individual factors (personal characteristics, unwillingness to disagree and trust in experts), situational factors (importance of the issue and practical realities), social risks and views on experts. The results of the second sub-study indicated that endorsing openness-to-change values (vs. conservation values) was positively associated with non-adherence to doctors’ instructions. In the third sub-study, endorsing conservation values (vs. openness-to-change values) was found to be positively associated with preferring doctors’ consultations and negatively associated with preferring other practitioners and with the use of CAM treatments. It was also found that valuing self-transcendence (vs. self-enhancement) was positively associated with CAM use. Furthermore, a context-specific factor, namely country-level personal freedom, was found to be negatively associated with the preference to consult doctors, and positively associated with preferring other practitioners and the use of CAM. This study demonstrates that taking into account motivational constructs, such as personal values, contributes to an understanding of how laypeople relate to expert knowledge.
  • Marttila, Jouko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The doctoral thesis of Jouko Marttila, Master of Social Sciences, in the field of political history puts in the historical context the convergence of economic policies of the National Coalition Party and the Social Democratic Party. The study focuses on party programmes with their ideological objectives and on two chronological phases in the post war economic policy of these two parties. The first phase deals with the economic policy after Korpilampi conference in the late 1970 s. The second phase concentrates on co-operation between conservatives and social democrats in prime minister Harri Holkeri´s government in 1987-1990. The study describes how the National Coalition Party and the Social Democratic Party converged their economic policies despite of opposite starting points and ended in favour of common economic policy limited market economy. The Coalition Party transformed its policy from people's capitalism and the market economy towards welfare state ideology. SDP aspired to reconcile the socialist planned economy with the market economy. In practise the solution for both parties was restrained market economy within the Nordic welfare model. The traditional ideological ideals and objectives were left behind. The dissertation shows how the global economy, changes in social and economic structures, and the internal political power struggle affected the implementation of economic policies. SDP had to adjust their policies in an environment where international oil crisis did not eventually lead to the overthrow of capitalism, but instead made the centralized economic planning and state control as well as implementation of Keynesian policies redundant. At the same time the growth of middle class voters strengthened the support for the Coalition Party. Based on the dissertation SDP's ideological transformation was deeper than Coalition Party's. SDP abandoned the goal of full employment and democratic socialism and accepted the basic principles of market economy. The Coalition Party distanced itself from capitalism and employers agenda when it defended the working life reforms that strengthened the position of employees. The partial privatization of state-owned companies served the goals of both parties. For the Coalition Party it meant extension of shareholding society, for the social democrats it meant democratisation of capital in limited market economy.
  • Salojärvi, Virpi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The dissertation investigates the role of media in political conflict during President Hugo Chávez s administration (1999-2013). This conflict is understood as antagonism where the political opponent is seen as an enemy instead of a more equal adversary. In Venezuela, private media were powerful economic and political actors before Chávez s era due to clientelistic tradition. President Chávez questioned the neoliberal measures taken by previous governments and started to apply his politics of the socialism of 21st century in a manner that shaped his government s media policies. Several private media outlets disagreed with his drastic measures and took them as an attack. Confrontation developed between the private media and state media sectors. This polarized situation offers an excellent case study to focus on the construction of hegemonies in a populist context, and the media s role in it because the society was penetrated by politics. Researching hegemonies should take into account differing parties of the conflict, which includes a variety of groups, even though on a macro level they are often treated as unified blocs. Thus, creating unity (the feeling of us ) becomes important in order for hegemonies to operate. A theoretical framework of hegemonies, antagonism, and populism frames examination of a variety of case studies, including newspaper content and the discourses of different media actors, with analyses of content, frame, visual rhetoric, and argumentation analysis. Three core findings are presented. First, in Venezuela during this period there were two populist power blocs, the Chavistas and their opposition, who both tried to create (counter-)hegemonic power and appeal to the people. Second, in a situation of hegemonic battles, the media functions as constructor of unity. As a result of the media s role in unifying the groups and constructing common identities, it became especially significant in this power struggle. Third, the construction of populist signifiers, which serve the function of forming group cohesion, is a process where collective memories and values play essential roles. Ultimately, values in hegemony are not only forced from above but also rise from below as individuals adopt different values and make them personal, and in this way construct their own meanings for populist signifiers.
  • Saari, Milja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation focuses on the politics of equal pay and unequal pay between women and men as a political and legal question in corporatist Finland in the 21st century. Its aim is to analyse what kinds of discursive and institutional orders frame the politics of equal pay and what these orders tell us about gendered power orders in Finnish gender equality policies and gender equality promotion. The study first asks how unequal pay gets represented as a social and political problem. Second, it examines how anti-discrimination legislation - which prohibits wage discrimination based on sex and demands employers to promote equal pay - clashes with wages as a negotiation issue (belonging to collective bargaining) in the political process of the formation of equal pay duties and in their implementation in workplaces. Third, the study analyses what kinds of challenges current right wing-conservative and neoliberal times mean for gender equality and equal pay policies, to their themes, institutions, language and actors. In the dissertation equal pay is analysed from a multidispiclinary perspective as an issue of gender equality policies, trade market policies and gender equality law. The dissertation includes five articles and a summary chapter. The study is framed with theoretical discussions on gender, power and corporatism and research on discourses, institutions and actors. The key theory applied is new feminist institutionalism in political science and the analysis of official and unofficial institutions from the perspective of gender. The main methodologies and methods in the dissertation are feminist discursive reading, Carol Bacchi's What is the Problem Represented to Be approach, feminist action research and research on equality promotion. The dissertation shows that the Paradigm of Benefits has gained the position of a hegemonic discourse in the politics of equal pay. In the Paradigm of Benefits equal pay is represented as a negotiation issue instead of framing it as a fundamental and human right. In gender equality politics there is a shift taking place and the direction is towards right-wing/conservative politics that focuses on individuals, neoliberal logics of the market and its discourses. The main conclusion of the dissertation is that the politics of equal pay should be understood as an area of human rights politics and the Finnish state should take more responsibility in implementing the principle of equal pay. The dissertation opens a new view on the politics of equal pay and through this also on representative democracy, fundamental and human rights, the reconfiguration of the corporatist system and the power relations between genders.
  • Sirniö, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The resources possessed by one generation have a substantial impact on the life chances of the following generation. Parental material, social, and cultural resources influence children s educational attainment and occupational career paths. This study provides new information about socioeconomic attainment by concentrating on income ranking, especially the lowest and highest income levels. The subject of this study is related to the on-going discussion about equality in life chances; often inequality resulting from family background is considered to violate the norms of equal opportunity. This study evaluates how the socioeconomic characteristics of parents and events during the early-adulthood life course are associated with a person s achieved income level in adulthood. A longitudinal register-based data that covered the period 1970 2012 were used. The information on income was obtained from tax authorities and incorporated all forms of taxable income. Approximately 75 percent of Finns in their thirties have entered an income quintile different from that of their family of origin. The findings of this study demonstrated, first, that the lowest and the highest levels of income distribution had the most pronounced persistence across generations. Second, this intergenerational association between parental and offspring s income remained after adjustments for parental and offspring s characteristics. Third, no substantial change across cohorts from the 1990s onward occurred among men whereas a slightly strengthening intergenerational association was found among women with low-income parental background. Fourth, the results showed that the effects of parental background on income attainment are found at different stages of an offspring s life course; even within the same completed educational level, individuals from backgrounds with a higher parental income gained a higher income after graduation. Finally, the effects of educational attainment, labor market integration, and family formation on adult incomes are modified by parental background; a higher parental income compensates when disadvantageous life events occur, shielding offspring from poorer outcomes. This dissertation shows that inequality in Finland is specifically linked to the ends of the stratification. The resources of those with low and high income are differentiated so that social mobility is clearly hindered among those in the lowest social position, while those in the highest position maintain their privileges. The study further established that the intergenerational mechanisms creating outcomes in adulthood differ by gender, possibly owing to structural factors such as a gendered labor market. The study also demonstrated that intergenerational associations are complex combinations of life events and different parental resources: family background influences the transitions across young adulthood as well as the achieved social outcomes. This implies that enhancing understanding of stratification and intergenerational transmission entails implementing a broader approach, taking into account the cumulative nature of socioeconomic and demographic factors.
  • Pönkä, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This thesis is a collection of four self-contained essays that discuss time series applications of binary response models. Although popular in microeconometric applications using cross-sectional data, this class of models is not among the most commonly used ones in time series econometrics. Nevertheless, these models hold interesting possibilities to various forecasting issues in empirical macroeconomics and finance. The most common time series application of binary response models, or more specifically probit models, has been recession forecasting. In this context, these models have been applied ever since Estrella and Hardouvelis (1991) used them to study U.S. recession periods. The application to recession forecasting is a natural one, due to the binary nature of the dependent variable, as business cycle turning points determine the economy into periods of expansion and recession. An obvious advantage of binary response models over models designed for continuous, real-valued dependent variables is that they provide probability forecasts to decision makers. Due to this convenient property, there are a number of potential applications for these models, where the decision makers are after a yes or no decision. One of these is predicting movements in the direction of asset prices, and basing investment decisions on these predictions. The directional predictability of excess stock market returns has previously been studied by, for example, Leung et al. (2000), Nyberg (2011), and Chevapatrakul (2013) and the findings have been promising when compared with those obtained using traditional methods, such as the conventional predictive regressions. This thesis extends the previous research on both predicting the direction of asset returns (Chapters 2-4) and state of the business cycle (Chapter 5). The most important connection between the essays in this thesis is the use of a common methodology, i.e. the probit model. Along with the new empirical results I also contribute to the previous literature by developing and employing new methods. In Chapter 3, written jointly with Henri Nyberg, we develop a new bivariate probit model allowing for contemporaneous effects. In Chapters 3, 4, and 5, I consider another way to assess the accuracy of probability forecasts, the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve that was originally developed for radar signal detection.