Faculty of Social Sciences


Recent Submissions

  • Koev, Evgenii (Eugen) (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The dissertation consists of an introduction and three esssays. Each essay focuses on certain specific empirical and methodological questions in the field of economics of gender and gender inequality. The first essay investigates the association between feminization and returns of Finnish master's degree-programs. Results from a panel data model show that, for graduates from master's degree programs in Finland, during the period between 1987 and 2017, a systematic positive association existed between the programs' female share changes and the income changes of its graduates. I discuss two mechanisms that could explain the result. On the other hand, repeated cross-section analysis suggests that the return on markedly feminine degree programs has further deteriorated. This finding requires further investigation but is likely to be linked to the role of public sector employment for graduates from these programs, public sector budget constraints, and the public sector's role in determining the supply of university education in Finland. The second essay is a methodological contribution to the so-called Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, which is at the heart of empirical gender wage gap research. I show that part of the categorical variable's wage-structure difference effect in the detailed Oaxaca-Blinder gender wage gap decomposition is identified without coefficient restrictions or other additional assumptions. The finding means that the wage gap contribution of each categorical variable that affects wages can be evaluated more comprehensively than has been thought up to now. Empirical results showed that in the Finnish private sector, between 28 and 35 per cent of the gender wage gap in 1995 and between 15 and 25 per cent in 2013 is accounted for by wage-structure differences traceable to specific variables. In the third essay, I study the importance of the firm-specific wage components for the gender wage gap in private sector blue-collar occupations in Finland. It turned out that firm-specific wage premiums differ both by gender and by gender dominance of the occupation. Firm-specific factors account for 1/3 of the gender wage gap in female-dominated blue-collar occupations. For male-dominated blue-collar occupations, the results are somewhat inconclusive, but firm factors may be a much less important source of the gender wage gap in this group. I contribute to the method used in this type of study in two ways. Firstly, in the empirical analysis, I use the fact that the gender wage gap effect arising from within-firm differences in male and female wage premiums (the bargaining effect) is partly identified directly from the wage model. Under plausible assumptions, this effect is a lower bound of the full bargaining effect. Secondly, I also quantify the uncertainty associated with identifying the full bargaining effect. This uncertainty is high for male-dominated blue-collar occupations in the data.
  • Turkia, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In this research, I examine the development of cooperation and case management between Kela and Eksote (the South Karelia Social and Health District) in the context of a social work development project from 1 January 2017 to 31 July 2019. The aim of this study was to create new information on issues affecting cooperation and to develop and study what kind of cooperation models can be used to support cooperation and case management between Kela and the municipalities, especially for the most vulnerable customers. A local working group was set up for the project in South Karelia, with a total of 21 employees. Employees were from Kela’s customer services and benefits services, from Eksote’s adult social work and immigration services and an employee from the Centre of Expertise on Social Welfare in SouthEast Finland (Socom). The study material included memos and project documents, questionnaire surveys, a group interview, an individual interview, a final survey conducted for the working group and a research diary. The theoretical framework consisted of professions, multidisciplinary collaboration, case management and social rights. The study explored what kind challenges were involved in cooperation and case management at the beginning of the project. Based on these were developed collaboration and case management models. Good models included getting to know the work of others, information for Kela employees, regular service at another organization’s premises, Kela information for immigrants, and case management service. The development of multidisciplinary cooperation and case management between Kela and the municipalities can increase the knowledge and appreciation of each other’s work. One of the most important goals of the cooperation is to ensure that customers who need social services are identified. For those who need special support, a targeted service can support the holistic perception of the customers’ situation and guide them toward the required services. Keywords: multisectorality, cooperation (general), income support, action research, social work, development projects, customers, direction (instruction and guidance), social rights, social services, professions, hospital districts, municipalities, Social Insurance Institution of Finland
  • Gao, I-An (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation examines the relationship between the colonial state and Indigenous peoples by focusing on the case of elderly care. Studying the Tayal in Taiwan, it investigates aging, care and well-being from the Indigenous paradigm. The aim is to develop the hermeneutic perspective of the Tayal to privilege their voices in reconfiguring the concept of care. Three research questions are posed: 1) What are the “Indigenous problems” represented in long-term care (LTC) policies in Taiwan? 2) How do the Tayal experience care in a care center funded by the state? How do they contest the policies and what visions of care do they have? 3) What are the discrepancies between policy and practice? How do they reflect the relationship between coloniality and indigeneity in multicultural Taiwan? The data consists of policy documents, participant observation, field notes, interviews and personal narratives concerning the everyday experiences of Tayal elders (bnkis). Methodologically, the dissertation employs critical policy analysis and critical ethnography. The dissertation arrives at three main conclusions. First, the identified three frames depoliticize the “problem” of elderly care for the Indigenous peoples and make them “invisible.” Through frames of secludedness and inadequacy, the construction of the Indigenous problem is depicted as caused by their geographical location and by their lack of ability to be service providers or consumers. By contrast, the frame of culture emphasizes unique traditions, allowing more agency but running the risk of imposing an image of static and unchanging indigeneity. Second, the ethnographic analysis shows the strength, resilience and resistance of the bnkis. The idealized “tribal care” promoted in the Day Club, the social center which served as the core location for my fieldwork, turns a blind eye to the fluid, contextual and living Tayal culture, which underlies the kind of care that the bnkis prefer. Investigation of the experiences of bnkis shows that the Day Club is appropriated, repurposed and redefined by the Tayal community to negotiate identities and contest predominant conceptualizations of aging and care. Third, the findings indicate that contrary to Taiwan’s claims to be multicultural and its promise to recognize Indigenous rights, the approach to accommodate Indigenous elders is still predicated on a middle-class, urban, Han-Chinese norm. The novelty of this study lies in its aspiration to develop Indigenous epistemology and Tayal hermeneutics in the context of care. The results contribute to literature in critical policy analysis, care studies, Indigenous studies, critical gerontology and Taiwan studies, as they raise important questions about what indigeneity is and the role that the nation-state plays in the making of social policy for Indigenous elders.
  • Svanström, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation deals with the work of three sexual difference thinkers: Adriana Cavarero, Luce Irigaray and Fanny Söderbäck. I argue that binary oppositions which include value hierarchies and which are implicitly present in our thinking affect both how the public is materially formed, and the tools we have for conceptualizing politics in general and questions of difference in the context of political thought and praxis in particular. I show how Cavarero, Irigaray and Söderbäck have rethought specific binaries related to the binary male/female and created new concepts in the field of political thought. There are similarities in their thinking related to rethinking binary oppositions and conceptualizing the subject as singular, embodied and relational that make it fruitful to discuss their work in the framework of the tradition of sexual difference thinking in the context of political thought. Irigaray, Cavarero, and Söderbäck all contribute to creating alternative ways of intellectual work that can replace thinking based on binary oppositions by making careful analysis of specific binaries that include value hierarchies. Male/female and mind/body are the binaries I focus on in the work of Irigaray, semantic/vocal related to speech in the work of Cavarero, and the binary linear/cyclical related to time in the work of Söderbäck. I argue that, when read together, Irigaray and Cavarero provide a method for rethinking hierarchical binary oppositions. The method includes: 1) analyzing what has been said and what has not been said about the two poles in the binary under examination, which are male/female in the context of Irigaray, and semantic/vocal related to speech in the context of Cavarero, 2) articulating the lower pole of the binary in new ways, and 3) thinking through the relation between the two poles in the binary with the aim of enabling thinking where difference is thought in non-hierarchical terms. I claim that this method can also be used for rethinking other binaries than the ones that Irigaray and Cavarero focus on in order to allow expression of difference in non-hierarchical terms. Furthermore, I show how Cavarero, Irigaray and Söderbäck trace the logic of hierarchical binary oppositions to the work of Plato. I present, furthermore, a normative argument related to democracy: we, when investing in democracy, need to pay attention to a) the limits of language when it comes to expressing difference in non-hierarchical terms and b) the historical situatedness of different, embodied subjects in the public. I bring, furthermore, to the fore that there are historical examples of oppressed groups that have been denied access to the political public sphere and whose speech has not been considered rational. Instead, they have used for example poetic writing, rhythms and movement for communicating. This is something that we need to take into account when discussing the historical situatedness of different subjects and what consequences this has for democracy.
  • Pulkka, Ville-Veikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In the 2010s, advances in digital technologies and artificial intelligence (AI) have sparked a wide-ranging debate on how social policy should be reformed so that the Fourth Industrial Revolution can benefit both people and the economy. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a deeper understanding of the future of social policy by examining how socio-economic conditions, public opinion and ideas may drive social policy change in the digital economy. Sub-study I utilised the EUROMOD microsimulation model and EU-SILC-based microdata to examine the socio-economic implications of technology-induced hypothetical employment scenarios for the EU-28 countries. The microsimulations of hypothetical employment scenarios showed that the Nordic and Benelux countries in particular, but also France, are clearly more resilient to technological unemployment than the countries of Southern and Eastern Europe. In an optimistic employment scenario, the biggest beneficiaries would be Belgium, Croatia, Finland and Slovenia. Sub-study II explored the Finnish view on the future of work and preferred policy ideas utilising unique population-level survey data collected for this thesis. The survey results indicate that the vast majority of Finns are not worried about permanent technological unemployment, although most assume volatility will increase in the labour market. The results also suggest that Finns are not in favour of a significant change in the guiding principles of social policy. Due to unprecedented interest in universal basic income (UBI) in recent social policy debates, three sub-studies of this thesis focused specifically on the feasibility of the idea. While sub-study III examined public support for basic income in Finland based on seven population-level surveys conducted in the past decade, sub-study IV extended the analysis to an international context, with a focus on Finland and the UK. The economic feasibility of providing a basic income was analysed in sub-study V, exploiting microsimulation calculations conducted in Finland. Content analysis of basic income surveys showed that the divergent frames used in the surveys explain the great variation in measured support. Regression analysis exploiting the Finnish and British survey data also indicated that the socio-economic determinants of support for basic income are dependent on the frames used in the surveys. The feasibility of basic income can also be questioned from the perspective of economic efficiency, as analysed in sub-study V. The results from all five sub-studies of this thesis suggest that under current circumstances, the likelihood of a radical social policy change resulting from digital transformation is relatively small.
  • Tölö, Eero (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The thesis “Financial fragility – empirical studies on crises and reforms” consists of an introduction and four empirical studies. The introduction provides a more detailed summary of the articles and the empirical methods than is provided here. Paper 1 entitled “Indicators used in setting the countercyclical capital buffer” is a comprehensive study of early warning indicators of banking crises. These indicators can be used to help guide the decisions on the level of the countercyclical capital buffer. The study examines a large set of early warning indicators in a robust comparable setup. The study corroborates the view by the literature that credit-based indicators are important. Additionally, we find various price-based indicators to be useful. Second paper, “Predicting financial crises with recurrent neural networks”, studies the state-of-the-art methods to predict financial crisis events. All these methods make use of subset of variables similar to those covered in paper 1. It finds that deep neural networks based on the Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture or Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) deliver superior performance compared to the more basic models. Paper 3 is entitled “Do banks’ overnight borrowing rates lead their CDS price? Evidence from the Eurosystem”. It is based on interbank overnight loans filtered from unique payment system data on interbank transactions that take place in the European TARGET2 large value payment system. The study finds that the overnight loan prices can lead the CDS price especially during periods of financial stress. The interpretation is that the private overnight loan rates contain private information not present in the public CDS quotes. Overall, the results suggest that the bank-specific overnight borrowing rates can be a useful short-term risk indicator for banks. The last paper “Have Too-Big-To-Fail Expectations Diminished? Evidence from the European Overnight Interbank Market” uses the same data source as paper 3 and investigates whether the post-crisis regulation has affected the pricing of loans in the overnight market. Specifically, the article studies whether the perceived too-big-to-fail subsidies of large banks have decreased following the implementation of bank resolution and recovery directive (BRRD) in EU. The article finds a gradual decline in the overnight loan rate differential between small and large banks that coincides with the gradual implementation of the new directive. However, the decline in the rate differential does not occur at the exact implementation dates of the BRRD directive. Rather, we observe a decline in the funding cost advantage of large banks when actual bail-in events take place during the sample period.
  • Mölkänen, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis is concerned with the rapid rearrangement of nature and the intensification of land use in rural northeastern Madagascar. I argue that despite intensive efforts of imposed environmental conservation based on notions of biodiversity loss and deforestation, the Tsimihety, a group of swiddeners and rice and vanilla farmers, claim that their environment is a good and viable place to live in. This thesis weaves together an ethnographic account of how the Tsimihety interact and intertwine with environmental conservation efforts and how they transform and are transformed by them in a broader context of commercial interests in land. By focusing on three main themes, place making, knowledge hierarchies and political-economic schemes and values, the thesis shows how Madagascar has been defined as a hot spot of biodiversity conservation with its unique endemic animal and plant species and how the Tsimihety, who actually live in these environments, make sense and live with dynamics that they define as ‘strange’ or foreign. The thesis challenges simplifying narratives of the Tsimihety as an indigenous people living close to nature without modern technology. “This is a good place” is a Tsimihety statement of a good way of living that cannot be reduced into political-economic and technological schemes and solutions creating, for instance, new livelihoods, such as ecotourism. For the Tsimihety good life evolves through movement between places and to new places, subsistence practices and nurture work as well as living with relatives (living and dead, animals and plants) and strangers. Especially, in funeral rituals, the Tsimihety maintain and negotiate these values and highlight their autonomy. Moreover, the thesis notes that the places made by the Tsimihety, for example fields, villages or tombs, are not merely maintained by the Tsimihety because they are important for Tsimihety identity, but place making is a continuous and prospective process through which the Tsimihety are also willing to incorporate new crops and technologies into their social worlds. More recent political-economic restructuring processes resulting in the creation of markets and elevated living costs as well as working with and around powerful others, such as environmental conservationists, tourists and vanilla buyers, raise moral and existential questions about how to live well with others in places that the Tsimihety claim as theirs.
  • Zhen Jie, Im (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In West European economies, there is growing concern about the extent to which workplace automation affects employment patterns, and thus the level of risk which workers may face from such labour market disruption. There are also worries that elevated automation risk may generate substantial political fallout, namely automation-driven grievances that feedback into the political process. In this regard, I ask: how does automation risk affect individual workers’ support for social policies and party choice? I focus particularly on its impact on workers’ support for benefit conditionality policies and radical right parties. I argue that the impact of automation risk on these two political outcomes may be traced to automation-vulnerable workers’ fear of status decline and concern about welfare competition. These worries may emanate from workers’ elevated automation risk, even if they do not actually become unemployed from automation. Benefit conditionality policies, which are increasingly prevalent, apply stringent obligations like accepting available albeit worse jobs, and sanctions like unemployment benefit cuts to pressure unemployed workers into reemployment. Automation-vulnerable workers may reject benefit conditionality because its stringent obligations and sanctions may exacerbate their economic vulnerabilities. However, they may yet support benefit conditionality if they consider their worries about status decline and welfare competition to be more salient than their worries about the economic costs of benefit conditionality. These worries may have electoral implications. If automation-vulnerable workers worry about status decline and welfare competition and support benefit conditionality, they may prefer parties that support such policies, like radical right parties whose appeals speak to these concerns. This study investigates these political implications of automation risk in West European countries by exploiting cross-national individual-level surveys from the European Social Survey. I find that automation-vulnerable workers support benefit conditionality policies that obligate unemployed workers to accept worse jobs, namely lower wage or educationally mismatched jobs. This finding may indicate that these workers find welfare competition and status decline worries more salient than potential economic costs which they may suffer from benefit conditionality. These worries may also explain their preference for radical right parties over other party families. These findings show that risk is an important determinant of support for benefit conditionality policies, and its impact should be disentangled from that of current employment status. However, and through the case of automation, I demonstrate that risk may manifest different worries and threats, even non-economic ones, which may likewise affect benefit conditionality support. I also echo recent studies which show that automation-vulnerable workers’ support for radical right parties may be traced to their status worries, but I add that their concerns about welfare competition and support for benefit conditionality may also be relevant explanations.
  • Young Kyu, Shin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This dissertation examines insecure workers’ union memberships and attitudes towards new welfare programmes. To compare union memberships and policy preferences among different types of insecure workers, this research classifies these individuals into four different groups: part-time employees, temporary workers, low-skilled workers in the service sector, and solo self-employed workers. The first sub-study explores the unionisation of insecure workers by European industrial relations regime by estimating multilevel binary logistic models with the data from the European Social Survey Round 5 (2010). The second one investigates insecure workers’ choices regarding unemployment insurance and union membership after the reform of the Finnish Ghent system in 1992 by analysing the pooled Finnish Income Distribution Survey data from 2000 to 2012. On the other hand, the third and fourth sub-studies to examine insecure workers’ preferences for new social policy ideas concentrate on universal basic income and social investment policy for unemployment, respectively. To address these topics, both sub-studies estimate binary logistic regression models with clustered standard errors and country dummies by using the data from the European Social Survey Round 8 (2016) The first sub-study reveals that insecure workers’ inclination to join a union varies according to their form of employment and the industrial relations regime to which they belong. The second sub-study illustrates that in the transformed Finnish Ghent system, both part-time and temporary employees are inclined to have no union membership, whereas low-skilled service workers do not make significantly different choices from other employees. In addition, the third sub-study shows that only temporary employees tend to have more favourable attitudes among different groups of insecure workers. The fourth sub-study demonstrates that in a budgetary trade-off scenario between social protection and social investment, part-time permanent employees are inclined to be more supportive of social investment policy, whereas part-time temporary workers are less likely to support it. On the other hand, full-time temporary employees and solo self-employed workers do not exhibit significantly different preferences from standard employees.
  • Wang, Ziyu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This doctoral thesis examines how young Chinese people experience being and becoming in their education and how their child-parent relationships relationally influence these experiences. Two groups of concepts frame the analysis: first, being and becoming (including temporality, well-being, learner identity and orientations towards future) and, second, the child-parent relationship (including parental involvement, agency and relational influences). This study employs both quantitative and qualitative methods. The data was gathered through a China Family Panel Studies survey (N=1306), individual interviews (N=25) and an open-ended survey (N=479). These data were analysed by various methods, including statistical analysis, qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis. These young Chinese people have experienced multiple ways of being and becoming. The majority juggle being and becoming in a future-oriented way to achieve educational success, while a significant minority focus on the present and on happiness, entertainment and socialising. The findings point to a mix of abundant parental social support (particularly emotional support) and distant, conflictual child-parent interactions in young people’s negotiations of being and becoming. Young people’s agency has diverse forms embedded in their past, present and future family episodes, and they exercise their agency to mediate their parents’ educational involvement. The thesis suggests that the concept being and becoming heightens the entanglement between the present and the future and the intersection of the temporal and the social, which is increasingly recognised when studying youth. This study also demonstrates that a relational perspective is valuable in uncovering the dynamics, nuances and interactions in young people’s living and growing up. These rich descriptions enable further re-envisioning young Chinese people by questioning their traditionally submissive archetype. Such an inquiry into young people’s individual experiences and their interactions with their social context pinpoints ‘the social’ in social work studies at large. This study also draws out implications for educational and career support for young people and relational social work in practice.
  • Wardi, Eva Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Väitöskirjatutkimuksen kolmen empiirisen osatutkimuksen tutkimuskohde on moraalin, oikeudenmukaisuuden ja eettisten ristiriitojen tutkiminen työelämän vuorovaikutussuhteissa suhteessa huolenpidon ammattilaisten omiin elämän arvoihin. Tutkimukset suoritettiin sosiaalikasvattajien lastensuojelun nuorisotyön avohoidon piirissä, sosionomien ja geronomien vanhustyössä valtion ja yksityisissä hoivakodeissa ja historiallisessa tapaustutkimuksessa kasvattajien (myöhemmin sosiaalikasvattajien) sotaorpojen orpokotien kasvatuksen tutkimuksena vuoden 1918 Suomessa. Tavoitteena ja kohteena ovat näin olleet lapset, nuoret ja yhä kasvava vanhusväestö sekä hoivakulttuurin inhimillisyyden ja oikeudenmukaisuuden ristiriidat ja kehitys maassamme. Ensimmäisen osatutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin Helsingin Diakonissalaitoksen sosiaalialan oppilaitoksessa sosiaalikasvattajaopiskelijoiden piiristä kehittävän työntutkimuksen innoittamana koulutusinterventiona. Tutkimus suoritettiin opetuskokeiluna, joka koostui neljästä orientoivan opetuksen opetusjaksosta. Niissä opeteltiin käyttämään kehittävän työntutkimuksen kolmiomallia, jonka tarkoituksena oli orientoida käsittelemään omakohtaisia työn sisällön ongelmia osana lastensuojelutyön työyhteisön työnjakoa ja muita reunaehtoja. Tutkimukseen osallistui 18 sosiaalikasvattajaopiskelijaa. Aineisto, joka koostui työhön liittyvien dilemmojen kuvauksista, tuotettiin ½ vuoden välein kahdella lastensuojelun avohuollon kenttätyöjaksolla. Omakohtaisia dilemmojen ratkaisumalleja verrattiin toisiinsa ja käytettiin työn sisällön kehittämisen välineenä koulutusten jälkeen tapahtuvan palautteen muodossa. Lastensuojelulaitosta pidettiin tutkimuksessa toimintajärjestelmänä, jonka piirissä pienetkin vuorovaikutuksen ristiriidat vaikuttavat koko toimintajärjestelmään sen jollakin tasolla. Työhön liittyvät esseemuotoiset raportit pisteitettiin Kohlbergin oikeudenmukaisuustasoille. Lisäksi tutkittiin Warkin ja Krebsin typologiaa soveltaen aineistossa esiintyneet dilemmatyypit. Tarkastelu toi dilemmakuvauksissa esiin vuorovaikutuksen ristiriidan kohteena olleet vanhemmat työntekijät, myös muut tahot kuten perhe saatettiin mainita. Tulokseksi saatiin havainto, että koulutusintervention vaikutuksesta vastaajat käyttivät useammin ylempää moraalikehityksen oikeudenmukaisuusajattelua sekä toiminnanteorian käsitteellistä kolmiota työnsä mallintamisen ja vuorovaikutuksen kehittämisen välineenä. Toisen tutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin kahdesta aikuiskoulutusoppilaitoksesta. Tutkimukseen valikoitui 14 vanhustyöntekijää, jotka kuvasivat henkilökohtaisen vanhustyöhön liittyvän ongelman ja vastasivat moraalisia skeemoja kartoittavaan Restin DIT-testiin ja Schwartzin PVQ42 -arvomittariin. Tutkittavien raportoimat ongelmat sijoittuivat pääosin Warkin ja Krebsin typologian sosiaalinen paine ja lojaalisuus -luokkiin. Niissä tuli esiin ristipaine omien ja työyhteisön asettamien arvojen välillä sekä ristiriita organisaation vaatimusten ja vanhuksen itsemäärämisoikeuden toteutumisen välillä. Työntekijöiden arvot ja moraaliset ajattelumallit näkyivät myös kuvattujen ongelmatilanteiden sisällössä, sillä universalismia ja itseohjautuvuutta arvostavat kiinnittivät useammin huomiota vanhusten autonomian toteutumiseen. Niin ikään tulokset antoivat viitteitä siitä, että vallitsevaa moraalisten ongelmien luokittelujärjestelmää pitäisi tarkentaa, koska monia dilemmoja oli vaikeata luokitella yhteen dilemmatyyppiin. Kolmas tutkimus käsitteli vuoden 1918 sisällissodan punaorpokysymyksen ratkaisua, jossa päätettiin sulauttaa punaisten lapset valkoiseen nationalistiseen kasvatusihanteeseen kasvattajakoulukunnan kasvattajien toimesta. Tapausta ja sen oikeudenmukaisuusajattelua tarkasteltiin toiminnanteorian, Kohlbergin moraaliteorian sekä Leyensin infrahumanisaatioteorian näkökulmasta. Historiallinen tapaustutkimus kohdistui kasvattajakoulutuksen opetusmateriaalin saksalaiseen aatehistorialliseen taustaan ja nationalistisen etiikan luonteen normatiiviseen tarkasteluun. Tarkastelun kohteena oli myös kaksi aikalaista: Sisälähetysseuran Kasvattajaopiston rehtori Ruusu Heinisen (1876-1962), joka valtion ja kirkon välisissä neuvotteluissa oli katsottu poliittisesti sitoutuneena valkoisena sopivaksi kouluttamaan sosiaalihallituksen ohjeen mukaan oikeaoppisia sijaisäitejä sisällissodan köyhille punaorvoille ja Sortavalan Diakonissalaitoksen sitoutumaton johtaja Jenny Ivalo (1854-1921). Heidän oikeudenmukaisuusajatteluaan ja toimintaansa tutkittiin kirjallisiin dokumentteihin tukeutuen, Kohlbergin heteronomisen A- ja universalistisen B-tyypin avulla. Laajemmin valkoista Suomea koskien tutkimus toi esiin vuoden 1918 samantapaisen jyrkän moraalisen kahtiajaon, sotaorpolainsäädännössä, kasvatusfilosofiassa ja opetuskirjallisuudessa, joissa A- tyyppi ja valkoinen sisäryhmäajattelu oli hallitsevaa ja B-tyyppi ja toisenlaisen, omasta sisäryhmäajattelusta poikkeavan ajattelun hyväksyminen kovin harvinaista. Tuloksia havainnollistava historiallinen aineisto kertoo Suomen oloissa harvinaisesta lasten indoktrinaatiosta ja toisaalta siirtymästä oikeudenmukaisempaan ajatteluun 1918 jälkeen niin lainsäädännön kuin sen hallinnon alaisuudessa olevan koulutuksen osalta. Myöhemmät vuosikymmenet ovat osoittaneet, että oikeudenmukaisuusajattelu on muuttunut ratkaisevasti demokraattisempaan suuntaan, mutta lasten tasa-arvoon liittyvät kysymykset muodostavat edelleen jossakin määrin haasteen. Avainsanat: moraalin kehitys, oikeudenmukaisuusajattelu, oman elämän moraalikonfliktit, roolinotto, kehittävä työntutkimus, arvo, arvoristiriidat, skeemat
  • Martikainen, Joonas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this dissertation is to design a conception of political poverty that can address the loss of the experience of political freedom. This form of political poverty is described as separate from poverty of resources and opportunities, and poverty of capabilities required for participation. The study aims to make intelligible how a person or a group can suffer from a diminishing and fracturing of social experience, which can lead to the inability to experience oneself as a capable and credible political agent, political engagement as a meaningful field of action, and democratic politics as a meaningful avenue for changing things for the better. This is a phenomenon which has been heretofore neglected by political theorists. The study presents a heuristic diagnosis of political poverty as loss of experiential freedom that involves four aspects of experience that have specifically political relevance: loss of trust, loss of expressivity, loss of a sense of access to the public world, and the loss of future temporality in experience. Diminishing and fracturing of these aspects of social experience can lead to politically impoverished persons and groups to become complicit in their own marginalisation by remaining unmotivated to challenge it. These aspects of social experience are approached through phenomenological portraits, chosen from literature on social exclusion and poverty. The diagnosis remains open to further development through exploration of other aspects of experience. The study draws on the thinking of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Hannah Arendt to present an account of political freedom as only experienced in co-existence with others. Through a critical discussion of their work, a more comprehensive account of political agency is developed. The experience of having political agency involves not just the cognitive and communicative capacities of the subject, but also the entire perceptual and motor intentionality of their lived body. The experience of meaningfulness is approached by exploring the intersubjective constitution of the self in a dialectical process with their social environment. This experience is described as a form of faith in oneself as an agent and in the meaningfulness of political engagement. Such faith is a practical, meaning-giving intentional relationship of a lived body to their social environment. This study emphasizes the experience of being a capable and credible political agent, and experiencing politics as a meaningful field for engagement, as important aspects of political freedom that should be considered alongside inclusivity of democratic processes, the equality of opportunity to participate, and the equality of the cognitive and communicative capabilities required for effective participation. In order to discuss political poverty as the loss of experiential freedom, we must go beyond objectivist models of social critique and approach the problem with the tools of existential phenomenology.
  • Savonen, Tuomas (The Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters, 2020)
    This study examines the life and political line of Gus Hall (1910-2000), the long-time general secretary of Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA). The first main part of the study examines Hall’s Finnish American background and his life until 1959 when he became the general secretary of the CPUSA. The second main part focuses on the 1960s and looks closely at Hall’s political line during the first decade of his general secretaryship. The study shows that Gus Hall’s political line went through several major changes over the decades. Young Arvo Halberg – as Gus Hall was then known – joined the Communist Party in 1927. His Stalinist upbringing was perfected in Moscow’s International Lenin School in which he studied in the early 1930s. In the 1930s, when he served as a leader in demonstrations and strikes in Minnesota and Ohio, Halberg/Hall was sometimes ready to resort to violence to improve the conditions of the working class. In the early 1940s Hall gave his support to the Americanized communism of the CPUSA’s general secretary Earl Browder. In the mid-1940s, as the party went through a dramatic leadership change, Hall re-invented himself as a supporter of the more Soviet-minded communism of the new party leadership. In the late 1950s Hall once again changed his political line as the party went through tumultuous change following Nikita Khrushchev’s revelations concerning Stalin. Hall now represented himself as a moderate centrist who was ready to reform the CPUSA. Reforms were few, however, during Hall’s first decade as general secretary. The party continued following closely the political line of the Soviet Union. As a consequence, the party was not seen as an interesting alternative by the young New Left radicals of the 1960s. Hall’s Soviet-minded line was best exemplified by the CPUSA’s reaction to the Warsaw Pact occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1968. The CPUSA was one of the few Western Communist Parties which wholeheartedly accepted the Warsaw Pact measure. As Hall’s political line changed several times before the 1960s, he can be criticized of being an opportunist. In the 1960s, however, his line was consistent. It can be best described with the concept of proletarian internationalism. In the language of the international communist movement, proletarian internationalism self-evidently included the idea of Soviet Union’s unchallenged leadership.
  • Käkönen, Mira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This is a study of expertise and power relations in riverine resourcification processes. With a focus on hydraulic infrastructuring and hydrosocial ordering efforts in the Mekong Region, I seek to contribute new perspectives to the analysis of water, energy and climate change governing. The central research question is how water resources are made and governed in the Mekong Region and with what effects, especially in terms of the consequent new power formations and implications for the lives of the Mekong’s riverine residents. This question is timely. Currently, the rivers in the region are being dammed and engineered at an accelerating pace, making the Mekong Basin a scene of one of the most intensive hydropower developments in the world. Around two hundred large dams are at different stages of development in the mainstream and tributaries of the Mekong. The study has global relevance because the actors, rationales and techniques involved epitomise those shaping the current resurgence of hydropower development and other large infrastructure projects in the global South. As I argue, the emergent governmental assemblages enabling the hydropower development are not only intensively present in the Mekong but also partially created there. The research is grounded in the interpretive research tradition of the social sciences and situated at the interface of environmental and development studies. It builds on Foucault-inspired research, especially in the field of political ecology. The analysis contributes to studies of hydrosocial relations and bridges the political-ecological research on water and on climate change. Moreover, it provides new insights on the co-constitutive relations between resources and power formations which have relevance for recent political ecology discussions on resource- and state-making. The constituent and constitutive power formations of resourcification that are analysed include technoscientific, infrastructural, discursive, corporate and different aspects of state powers. It also examines the socio-spatial configurations that emerge from resource-making processes. Analysis of the ways technoscience and technical infrastructures are implicated in the possibilities of hydrosocial ordering forges connections with science and technology studies. In the course of five published articles I examine a range of attempts to fix in place certain sets of biophysical, infrastructural, discursive and socio-political relations. I approach these fixing efforts as part of resource-making processes that seek to render the Mekong’s riverine flows and environments more ‘productive’, investable and exploitable, and governable and controllable. I begin the analysis with the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, the early colonial frontier for water resourcification that has since become the part of the Mekong Basin where the plans of ‘full control’ with aspirations of ‘acclimatisation’ have been materialised to the fullest extent. I sketch out the main continuities and ruptures in the Delta’s intensive hydrosocial and agro-hydraulic ordering efforts, and outline their major effects. I then shift my attention to the more recent hydropower boom in Laos and Cambodia, and the various elements enabling it in terms of knowledge production, the new sustainability standards of hydropower dams and climate change-related rationalisations and techniques. Finally, I bring to the fore how enclavistic, post-neoliberal hydropower projects in Cambodia get entangled with other processes of resource-making, with illiberal processes of state formation and the intensification of Chinese influence. The study shows how the past and current modes of fixing hydrosocial relations have been shaped by a complex interplay of different rationales and techniques of governing. It also highlights the importance of the legacies of past hydraulic endeavours, their infrastructural powers, and those of fluvial waters. I identify two waves of hydraulic infrastructuring with differing patterns of water resourcification. Characteristic of the first wave is that resourcification efforts tended towards uniform and centrally coordinated hydrosocial orderings while the resourcification efforts of the second wave exhibit more dispersed, corporate-led modes of hydrosocial ordering. A major change in hydraulic infrastructuring has been the increasing disjointedness between damming and river basin planning because of the proliferation of concessionary hydropower projects. The contradictory predicament of the current resurgence of hydropower is that while large dams are being justified on the basis of multiplying purposes – from poverty alleviation to the better governing of climate change – the concessionary dams are, in fact, geared almost solely towards optimising riverine affordances in terms of their hydroelectricity production. The concessionary governing mode through which the enclavistic, water-resourcification pattern of second-wave dams has evolved is shown to be animated by neoliberal governing rationales but also shaped by illiberal governing logics. While the enclavistic dams strengthen corporate powers over hydrosocial relations and may limit the development of state hydraulic powers, the study also highlights effects which overflow the enclave boundaries and strengthen other aspects of party-state rule in Laos and Cambodia. The various infrastructuring efforts analysed in this study produce waterscapes that are variegated: variously networked and with divergent power formations. There is also variation in the magnitude of the effects and in the mechanisms of how the benefits and adversities of the projects are distributed. Yet all of them, including the ‘sustainable’ dams with eco-modern safeguard policies, radically disrupt fluvial relationalities, diminish possibilities for diverse and decentralised river uses, tend toward more centralised control of hydrosocial relations, and make vulnerable those with the most intimate riverine connections. Despite these similar effects, a nuanced analysis of the ordering assemblages shaping each effort of fixing the fluid is relevant, as it enables more detailed reflection on the distributed responsibilities. Overall, the analysis illustrates how large-scale hydraulic infrastructures built and planned in the Mekong Region entail drastic alterations in hydrosocial relations. Keywords: Cambodia, Clean Development Mechanism, climate change, fluvial relationalities, frontiers, hydraulic infrastructuring, hydrosocial ordering, Laos, large dams, Mekong Region, political ecology, power formations, resourcification, rivers, Vietnam
  • Mäntyneva, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This dissertation is an institutionally oriented ethnographic study of rehabilitative work. Rehabilitative work was established and institutionalized in the early 2000s as part of the welfare state and service system. It brings together people from a wide range of life situations and authorities from various branches of government in a multidisciplinary manner. The research explores, broadens, and brings new social scientific knowledge on rehabilitation work from the perspectives of inclusion, human agency, and capabilities. The study opens up new possibilities on how social policy is pursued and implemented and not separated from the everyday lives of people. Active social policy has had tangible impacts on people’s lives in situations of extended and even chronic unemployment. Data were collected as a multi-location ethnography in three work units during 2015–2016. The fieldwork lasted eight months and was preceded by approximately six months of planning and practical preparatory work. The research material included interview materials for participants in rehabilitation work (37 in total) and fieldnotes of three units of work activities. A total of 25 interviews were conducted with participants in social rehabilitation, work placements (internships), work trials (job test participants), and employees. In addition, empirical research compiled written documents on work activities and its practices in different units. This research challenges the myth that everyone involved in rehabilitative work is in need of rehabilitation. According to the study, there are many people for whom the primary reason for participation was the lack of paid employment. Thus, the way in which rehabilitative work activities is used as part of ocial policy has changed. From the perspective of inclusion, the existence of rehabilitative work activities is unclear. Meaningful action, cohesion, and the experience of autonomy strengthened inclusion. Rehabilitative work also proved to be a part of the negative cycle of unemployment, creating a deadlock that weakened participants’ expectations for the future. The consequences of rehabilitative work activities for inclusion, human agency, and opportunities for action had been differentiated. In addition, there were differences in operating practices between work units. Without positive transitions and future horizons, the promising opportunities for rehabilitative work to promote inclusion and strengthen engagement remained temporary and interrupted, or even sudden erupted. In spite of good intentions, rehabilitative work and the capabilities it offers can strengthen social distances and exclusion rather than favourable capabilities. Theoretical concepts of this research, inclusion, human agency, and capabilities, unite all people. The strength of the policy supporting capabilities can be that it can make the direction of social policy and welfare services more sustainable. Key concepts: rehabilitative work activities, institutional ethnography, inclusion, capabilities, human agency
  • Aniluoto, Arto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This is a comparative study of the formal organisational structures of well-established European universities. The intense contemporary scholarly discussion on the convergence versus divergence claims of universities has so far mostly not reached the actual empirical change dynamics of the universities’ organisational structures at their population level. This research contributes to that discussion by comparing the long-term development in the organisational structures of a large group of well-established European universities, and clarifies the evolution of historical university models (from their medieval beginnings, through strong 19th century national influences, to their 20th century national Higher Education System adaptations), through which both the organisational structures of universities and the higher education systems of European countries have been born, developed and replicated. The research belongs to the field of higher education research, with certain reliance also on university history. The study utilises Henry Mintzberg’s ‘structures in fives’ theory, and organisational ecology on the population level, within the framework of structural contingency theory. The research problem is to chart how the organisational structures of well-established European universities have developed since the Second World War and in relation to the convergence and divergence claims. This is achieved by comparing the universities’ organisational structures, their units and organisation levels, configuration sizes, shapes, dispersal, differentiation, attributes and affiliations with both the historical university models, and the universities as organisational populations of the higher education systems level. International longitudinal series and database data of 106 European universities are used to cover a 50-year study period from 1962 to 2013. The results demonstrate how the European universities have within the study period differentiated and multiplied many times over, both as institutions and within their internal organisational structures. In the 21st century, the changes have accelerated and their effects have differentiated, leading to new types of above-faculty layers and organisational reforms. The convergence versus divergence discussion of universities is clarified by parsing the exhibited phenomena to the three organisational levels of higher education: the local higher education institutions (HEIs), the mostly national higher education systems (HESs) and the global higher education network (GHEN). The results of the research presented can be utilised in designing university reforms and university organisations of the future, by consciously choosing from a greater set of compared structural alternatives.
  • Boonjubun, Chaitawat (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Urban poverty remains persistent. Both the housing and employment needs of the urban poor remain key features of this social problem. Existing research has tended to explain these conditions as a function of the concentration of capital and the exploitation of labour. These are necessary, but they leave out a crucial element: urban land. The aim of this doctoral dissertation is to close this loop. Drawing on the urban land approach pioneered by Anne Haila (1988; 2016), this dissertation provides a discussion about land, not only as an explanation but also as a contributory current to ameliorating urban poverty. To do so, the dissertation examines three types of urban land—public land, private land, and religious land—and attempts to answer the following research questions: what are the urban problems concerning the uses of each land type by the poor?; why do these problems persist?; and how can they be addressed? To answer these questions, empirical materials were collected through interviewing diverse local actors; observing land use practices; and analysing official documents including laws, regulations, policies, and plans. This dissertation focuses on the interrelated notions of the right to land, the regulatory and licensing systems of public land, urban informality, gated communities, and the urban commons. Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand, provides the context for the empirical part of this research. In addition, this dissertation includes an analysis of the uses of Buddhist temple land in other Thai cities to show different characteristics of the Thai urban land system and how it can instantiate one way of enhancing the livelihoods of the urban poor. The main body of the dissertation consists of three articles. Each article investigates the uses of each land type—and the findings in these three articles flesh out the arguments, making up the substance of this dissertation. The first article analyses the goals, practices, and effects of a street clearance plan by the city government of Bangkok. Published in Cities, the article discusses street vendors' rights, property claims, conflicting interests, and varied survival strategies for coping with the eviction that affected the vendors’ lives and livelihood. The second article concerns gated communities in Bangkok. This article, published in Social Sciences, develops a context-specific conceptualisation of gating. In contrast to the prototypical Western concept of gated communities—which holds that gated communities are enclosed private residential space built exclusively for the middle class, while the poor are found in ‘informal’ settlements—the article shows the diversification of gated communities. It points out that gated communities are not only spatially constructed but also socially constructed. That is also the aim of the third article of this dissertation, accepted for publication by The American Journal of Economics and Sociology. Buddhist temples are built on a type of land where the property relations are quite distinct from both private and public land systems. Do such alternative systems of urban land tenure produce different urban forms from those of private and public tenure systems? Drawing on original data collected from Thai cities, this appears to be the case. Thai Sangha law prohibits temples from selling their land. This religious land, then, is inalienable, acting as ‘urban commons’. The results of this dissertation are summarised as follows. Firstly, the study of a city government’s plan to reorganise public land aimed at removing street vending activities from streets and using these socially ‘purified’ streets as a magnet for attracting investors and tourists unmasks the harmful effects of implementing spatial order and discipline. Street vendors were evicted, tensions between the vendors and city authorities increased, and streets became unsafe. Secondly, in examining the uses of private land, the dissertation discusses residential segregation by income and the proliferation of gated communities in Bangkok. The findings illustrate that there exist gated communities in which the urban poor are the residents; amenities and club services in gated communities are available to non-residents as well; and, the residents of gated communities seek contact and socialise with outsiders. Thirdly, the results of the empirical study on the uses of religious land demonstrate a radically different urban form. While still maintaining their role as ‘landlords’, Thai Buddhist temple caretakers are not utility-maximising. Instead, they maintain their role as social and communal landlords by leasing their land for the urban poor to use for housing, vending, and farming with nominal rents being charged. In turn, in temple urban spaces, where the moral aspect of religious land and ethical considerations on land prevail, social marginalisation is minimal. Indeed, not only are residents decently housed, their livelihoods are far more certain and rewarding. This dissertation argues that how urban land in Bangkok is currently used is overbearingly based on exchange value rather than use value. Laws and regulations concerning land and real estate development have prioritised the development of private land over the uses of land for wealth and income redistribution and poverty eradication. Moreover, as this study shows, in managing the urban land, the city government of Bangkok has apparently failed to treat public land as a public good. These are forces that have led to the persistence of urban poverty, wealth and income inequalities, and marginalisation of the poor, which together represent the pressing urban problems concerning the uses of urban land by poor people. This dissertation calls for a type of urban policy that takes into consideration the rights, interests, and livelihoods of public land users and their contributions to the city. It also questions the usefulness of the Western gated community concept and points to the importance of emphasising local and historical conditions concerning land and housing development, highlighting social norms and practices, and zooming in on socio-spatial characteristics of the neighbourhood in which gated communities are situated when analysing enclosed residential spaces and the social relations in and around them. While clearly still problematic in the sense that gating creates a spatial tension between ‘modernity’ and ‘tradition’, a contrast which is often resolved by emphasising the former over the latter, appreciating local nuances within a wider global context can pave the way for alternatives. This dissertation encourages urban scholars to investigate further the existing types of urban land (non-private forms of urban land tenure such as communal land, collectively owned land, and other types of religious land) in other cities, which could be considered as alternatives to land commodification and financialisation.
  • Mykkänen, Marjaana (The Faculty of Social Sciences, 2020)
    This doctoral dissertation starts from the premise that the presence of and exposure to factual programming can have an indispensable effect on societies and individuals. The focus of the study is in the quality of and viewers’ engagement with small audience factual television programmes and programming in Finland. This dissertation explores the seemingly self-evident, quiet, uneventful television viewing, which, when examined more closely, is actually a multifaceted and rich part of factual audiences’ lives. It examines how factual programmes are experienced and connected with on an individual level and how both pleasure and public knowledge via public connection can be obtained. The vast empirical data stretches over two decades and is comprised of a large national media diary collection from 2001, a set of focus group discussions from 2006¬–2007 and social media comment samples from 2015, 2018 and 2019. The ontological focus is on the individual, private and cognitive aspects of the experiences of watching television. In this study, media ethnography and phenomenological-hermeneutic theory form a mindset for exploring and understanding the types of experiences the observed members of audiences have with factual television. When dealing with knowledge obtained through experience, the goal is not to generalise but to understand. The author of this study has pursued an understanding of audience needs and complacency from the professional position of a producer creating and transmitting media products to viewers. The study operates with the concepts of public connection, pleasure, quality, cultural property and cultivation. The analysis found that, although media penetrates all aspects of contemporary life and its use is often casual and mundane, much factual viewing can be conscious and attentive as well as selective and critical. The participants are aware and possessive of their media usage and its place in their lives. Factual viewing can be solitary, and audiences may value certain contents or genres more than those they pass more time with, since the reward for the time spent with the valued programmes can be worth more than the greater amounts of time spent with less appreciated but more popular programmes. The craving for content – for something to think about – often equals a craving for meaning and sense of coherence. An anticipated factual program can provide quality time and can be the highlight of the week. Being enlightened can also mean being delighted. Even if the media environments are dominated by change, factual reception is characterised by constancy. The findings from temporally and demographically varied datasets suggest that audiences’ core needs, expectations and engagement motives do not seem to have altered over the period examined. In search for a gratifying cultural or factual programme experience, viewers have turned to public service media where available. In Finland, Yleisradio (YLE) has been almost solely responsible for the factual supply and repertoire on television. The changes in legislation, the changes in research practices and approaches and the changes in strategic goals have resulted in significant changes in the amount and content of factual programming on YLE platforms. The volume and diversity of domestic factual production and programming have fallen significantly, and some genres have disappeared altogether. To ensure that the communication and cultural rights of all viewers are met with worthwhile choices and generic diversity, this study proposes a systematic and perpetual public consultation which offers audiences and stakeholders a layout for a television strategy and detailed program plans, including well founded factual program policies.
  • Valdur, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis is an ethnographic study of how various insecurities and vulnerabilities are produced and maintained, such as the health risks of informal abortion in a context where abortion is legal. Throughout this thesis I suggest that the answer to this question has to do with particular and gendered forms of governance rather than individual experiences of the general stigmatisation of abortion. I first unfold this by taking up the concept of biopolitics and its prevalence in the anthropology of reproduction: in studying reproductive technologies, the subdiscipline has been shifting towards harvesting temporal and discursive ruptures, which is often paired with the framework of biopolitics. While biopolitics remains bound to the life of an individual, and through this to the governance of imagined wholes like populations, this study shows that when it comes to abortion and reproductive health in Ulaanbaatar, there are a number of competing conceptualisations of life at work, several of which surpass the individual lifespan. Therefore, the thesis provides a different perspective of governance as dependent on the time and place in which it occurs. I study six relevant and overlapping spaces in Ulaanbaatar: the nation state and macropolitics; religion, medicine and kinship; care and motherhood; sexuality and knowledge; biomedicine; and the medication market. Gender appears at the core of these forms of governance: for instance, through the establishment of biomedicine as a predominantly feminine sector, and reproductive healthcare as synonymous with women’s healthcare. Moving beyond ‘public’ and ‘private’, and ‘formal’ and ‘informal’, I propose that ‘doctor’ in the Mongolian reproductive healthcare system can be viewed as 'usufruct', as a type of temporary ownership: the credentials are provided by the state, but these can be used to seek profits and practice beyond what a doctor’s work involves on paper. Meanwhile, the informal abortion medication market reveals that the prevalence of informal abortion is shaped by a range of socioeconomic and healthcare system specific considerations. In this context, the seeking of trustworthy information and services draws on people as infrastructure rather than any ‘formal’ structures. This thesis is post-biopolitical in the sense that it recognises the core relevance of ethnography, gender and the need for more nuanced approaches to governance as directly and indirectly linked to reproductive health.
  • Bankovska, Agnese (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study explores the everyday work, ideals and values of the Latvian organic food movement known as tiešā pirkšana (TP, meaning ‘direct purchasing’), an initiative which aims to shorten the physical and symbolic distance between producers and consumers; producers, market and regulating policies; and consumers and food. Drawing on the empirical material obtained through long-term ethnographic fieldwork, and theoretical discussions in social and food research, the concept of ‘reconnection’ was chosen to analyse the process of shortening the distance between the different actors involved in one small-scale food provisioning system. By focusing on the notion that there is a link between the reconnection process and the ethics and practice of care, the thesis analyses different forms of care in the various stages of food provisioning in the TP movement. Special attention in the dissertation is paid to care acts that are performed to keep the TP movement running on different levels. By suggesting that care acts in food provisioning, such as dishwashing and cooking, are ‘care not-work’, the study engages with the discussion about the relationship between recognition, acknowledgement and care acts, critically contributing to the wider debate about invisible, routine care work. Furthermore, it is proposed that care acts in the course of farm production that depend on the management of time through tempos and rhythms involve a tinkering between creativity, embodied skills and routinised repetition. The care acts on farms, households and onsite in TP’s branches are performed by and exchanged between care actors that are not just producers and consumers, but also non-human actors as well as the materialities and environments that are involved in performing the care acts. The study is based on long-term ethnographic fieldwork in 2015 and 2016 during which the different stages of organic food provisioning in Latvia were examined. In the multi-sited fieldwork (farms, TP distribution locations, consumer households, educational seminars) methods of participant observation, semistructured interviews, conversations and photo diaries were applied. Research from the Global North provides well-explored claims that reconnection through care in alternative food provisioning implies a combination of nostalgia and constant adaptation to the present and future. This thesis builds on and revisits these implications by particularising the reconnection through care within the contextual specifics of Latvia as a country with a rather patchworked historical provenance.

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