Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 178-197 of 388
  • Tuomola-Karp, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Koivusalo-Kuusivaara, Raisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Characteristic of today s media environment is intensity and constant presence. The media also play a significant role in the lives of small children since they, on average, start regular following of media at the age of three. The contents, tools and social relations linked to the media do form an environment for the children by means of which they form their concepts of culture, society, social relations and build their identities. The research explains the interpretation of audiovisual media and the role of the media in the lives of Finnish, British and German children between four to six years of age. The aim of the research is to deepen the scientific knowledge on what kind of significance socially and culturally the media have in the lives of small children and how they interpret the media contents. In the study, the relationship between children and the media has been observed as a tool, as a social, symbolic and cultural interpretation environment. Additionally, the possibilities what the Theory of Symbolic Interactionism which is rarely used in communication research can offer in the observance of children s media relationship. Based on the international material collected in Finland, UK and Germany, also the cultural differences connected to the media between the comparison groups are examined. In spite of the relatively similar media environments between the countries compared, the study suggests cultural differences in the media interpretations. The media enable the development of a child s various skills and can thus create social, symbolic and cultural resources which have a significance in a child s development. The relation between a child and media is a two-way interrelationship and in the interpretation of media information, the earlier intellectual and social experiences are included. In his or her active media relationship, a child develops his or her vocabulary, perceptions, thinking and emotional life. Using the media as a social event, the social readiness of a child is, for its part, developed. Thus, for example, the rules and regulations concerning media uses guide how the family functions and define the position of a child within the family. The contents of the media and different supplementary products form, for their part, a child s cultural codes and categorizations. The study also demonstrates that the Theory of Symbolic Interactionism offers a rather interdisciplinary research reference setting for the study of children and the media and facilitates the studying and understanding of children s media relation as a proportion of different factors.
  • Nousiainen, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Kääriäinen, Aino (University of Helsinki, 2003)
    The primary task of this study is to clarify the significance of documentation in professional practices and information formation involved in social work concerning child protection. The document texts under study were examined from three angles: 1)How were the documents written? 2) What information did the documents contain? 3)Why were the documents written as they were? The research material consisted of information from a database of client information compiled from notes and custody decisions by social workers involved in child protection. Documents relating to twenty children of varying ages and their families were selected for this study, a total of 1613 pages. The texts are dated between 1989 and 2000. The method of study is discourse analytical and is based on a three-dimensional model developed by Fairclough (1997) in which discourse is defined as the interaction between texts, practices and socio-cultural environment. Discourse analysis consists of the portrayal, interpretation and explanation of these elements and the relationships between them. The model used for the analysis consists of rhetoric and thematic material as well as investigation from the pragmatic point of view. Categorizing the documents into speaker categories revealed the polyphony of the texts, text-structures including viewpoints and opinions of several people. The rhetorical analysis showed that documents pertaining to social work involving child protection contain a large amount of dynamic description of the work. The polyphony of the texts adds to their credibility and is one way to influence the meaning by using rhetoric. The thematic study showed that the content of the themes in the documents (dayto-day control, care of the child, usage of intoxicants and co-operation) and the empirical themes (concern, responsibility, co-operation and morals) repeat themselves as dynamically interchanging concentric and superimposed threads. Social workers introduce many simultaneous themes into their documents, which help them to form a professional judgement of the case at hand. Studying the documents from the pragmatic angle revealed the contextual dimensions of reading and writing and the process of information formation. The drawing up of documents is one of the practices employed in social work. It is also a crucial part of the creation and maintenance of professional understanding. Notes, custody decisions and legal texts are intertextual. Research of documents regarding child protection in social work have opened up new possibilities in understanding the compilation process, significance and role of documents in social work. The writing and reading of texts, information transfer,listening to the client and conversation transcription are inherent challenges in social work. The study aspires to open up understanding of the multitude of nuances and dynamics in document texts and day-to-day documentation of social work. The investigation facilitates the advancement of work, particularly social work, by improvement and measurement of the influence on the client. The dynamics of information forming that is revealed in documents originates in writing practices, and in the common areas of writing and reading and occupational practices. Keywords: social work, child protection, documentation, document, discourse analysis,information formation.
  • Hänninen, Erja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The objective of this thesis is to study policy making in the Nepalese rural water supply and sanitation sector by analysing the process of national policy formulation and how the donors and their policies influence the national policies in aid recipient country, such as Nepal. It exposes the dynamics underlying the interaction between donors and the Nepalese water bureaucracies by focusing on the analysis of the roles, motives and interests of the sectoral actors in the making of policies. The study highlights the political side in the aid giving and receiving through making use of the politics of policy theoretical perspective. The rural water supply and sanitation sector was chosen as the framework for this study, because of the important role that water has for Nepal often presented as the blue gold of Nepal and the multiple and powerful donors that are active in the sector, for whom the water sector is also an important investment target. The policy making process is analysed through a case study, the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Policy, Strategy and Action Plan formulated in 2002-2004 and funded by the Asian Development Bank. The empirical evidence of this study is based on the mixed qualitative methods research done in Kathmandu, Nepal, in the summers of 2009 and 2010. The core data is based on the interviews of 89 people, as well as water supply and sanitation related policy documents draft versions, final policy documents and reports, prepared in the process of policy formulation. In addition, I have included a wide-ranging literature study. The research illuminates that policy making in the Nepalese rural water supply and sanitation sector is a game between donors and the water bureaucracies both having political and economic interests that they aim to secure in policy formulation. Based on these interests, the policy actors manoeuvre in the policy negotiations. The aim of the donors is to legitimate their aid towards the donor headquarters through influencing national policy making into their preferred direction in order to keep their business ongoing. Yet, even though the donors are able to influnce policy making, the study found out that the Nepalese water bureaucracies are not powerless in front of the donors, but they have successfully adopted several strategies in manoeuvring the donor influence. Thus, even though the aid relationship is inherently unequal, is not only the donors that have interests and power that drive policy making, but also the water bureaucracies have their own incentive structures that shape the policy processes. The donor involvement in the policy process can be characterised as a state of permanent negotiation, in which policy formulation is just a part of the further institutional entanglement by the donors.
  • Vitikainen, Annamari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Limits of Liberal Multiculturalism is a work in normative political philosophy. In particular, it is a work on liberal approaches to cultural diversity. The work assesses some of the benefits and limitations of liberal multiculturalism (broadly conceived) and develops a more individuated, yet culturally sensitive, approach to cultural diversity. The two main parts of the work discuss the normative justifications and rationales for differentiated rights within liberalism (Part I) and the more practical problems of applying these rights in practice (Part II). The first three chapters (Part I) analyse the so-called autonomy-, toleration- and equality-based approaches to cultural diversity as presented by Will Kymlicka, Chandran Kukathas and Brian Barry. This part argues that the autonomy-, toleration- and equality-based approaches provide frameworks within which the liberal responses to cultural diversity should reside, but fail to give any definitive guidance into how the liberal state should react to cultural diversity in particular circumstances. These approaches leave a substantive scope of variation to the cultural policies of the liberal state, including the possibility, albeit not a requirement, to grant differentiated rights. The three latter chapters (Part II) develop a more individuated, yet culturally sensitive, approach to cultural diversity by concentrating on the further issues of allocating differentiated rights. The first chapter (Ch. 4) highlights the difficulties of defining one s membership in a cultural group and argues that, in order to track their targets, the individually exercised differentiated rights should be allocated in accordance with need or self-identification. Chapter 5 develops the individual-centred approach further by concentrating on the issues of the right of exit, and the liberal state s responses to those who have decided to leave the contours of their group without rejecting their identity as a member. The final chapter (Ch. 6) focuses on the legal-theoretical debate on allowing cultural defence in criminal courts and gives an application of the individuated approach in the criminal justice system. The main claims of the work are that the liberal multiculturalists have been successful in clarifying the grounds upon which the liberal responses to cultural diversity should reside and in showing that the culturally differentiated rights (variously construed) are not necessarily incompatible with liberalism. The liberal multicultural theories do not, however, give any definitive guidance on how the liberal state should respond to cultural diversity, nor do they always take sufficiently into account the variations within (and without) cultural groups. The work rejects the common assumption of differentiated rights as specifically group-differentiated rights, and argues for a more individuated approach that, nevertheless, takes people s cultural commitments and their group identities seriously.
  • Kylliäinen, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    How did Søren Kierkegaard (1813 1855) situate the human subject into historical and social actuality? How did he take into consideration his own situatedness? As key for understanding these questions the research takes the ideal of living poetically that Kierkegaard outlined in his dissertation. In The Concept of Irony (1841) Kierkegaard took up this ideal of the Romantic ironists and made it into an ethical-religious ideal. For him the ideal of living poetically came to mean 1) becoming brought up by God, while 2) assuming ethical-religiously one s role and place in the historical actuality. Through an exegesis of Kierkegaard s texts from 1843 to 1851 it is shown how this ideal governed Kierkegaard s thought and action throughout his work. The analysis of Kierkegaard s ideal of living poetically not only a) shows how the Kierkegaardian subject is situated in its historical context. It also b) sheds light on Kierkegaard s social and political thought, c) helps to understand Kierkegaard s character as a religious thinker, and d) pits his ethical-religious orientation in life against its scientific and commonsense alternatives. The research evaluates the rationality of the way of life championed by Kierkegaard by comparing it with ways of life dominated by reflection and reasoning. It uses Kierkegaard s ideal of living poetically in trying to understand the tensions between religious and unreligious ways of life.
  • Suomala, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Hyvönen, Heli (Väestöntutkimuslaitos, 2009)
    Immigration is one of the most topical international issues of our time. Worldwide, the number of immigrants has doubled over the last twenty years, and migration patterns have become so diversified that they now constitute a kind of “chaos”. The number and significance of women as migrants has also increased, which is earning women growing attention among scholars. This study looks at the migration of women, in particular mothers of small children, in both directions between Finland and Estonia, following the latter’s re- independence. The data consists of in-depth interviews conducted in 2005 with 24 Finnish and 24 Estonian immigrant women. The focus was on the women’s expectations and experiences of their new country of residence, acculturation – i.e. adjusting to a new environment, social networks in the country of origin and the new country, and models of motherhood following immigration. The primary research question was formulated as follows: Which factors have influenced the formation of female immigrants’ social ties, thus contributing to the formation of motherhood strategies and afecting internal family dynamics in the new country? The research consists of four previously published independent articles as well as a summary chapter. The study’s findings indicate that Finnish and Estonian women migrated for diferent reasons and at diferent times, and that their migration patterns also difered. Estonian migration occurred mainly in the 1990s, and most immigrants intended to return later to their country of origin. Regardless of the reason for migrating that they gave to immigration officials, other key reasons often included the desire for a more stable living environment and better income. Only four of the Estonian women had immigrated together with an Estonian husband, while two- thirds came because of marriage to a Finnish man. Most of the Finnish women, on the other hand, migrated after 2000 and either came with their family as a result of a spouse’s job transfer, or came by themselves to further their studies. In most cases, the migration was a temporary solution intended to promote one’s own or one’s spouse’s career advancement. Because the reasons for migrating were diferent between Finnish and Estonian women, their expectations of the new country and their status in it were also diferent. In terms of both social and economic standing, the position of Finnish immigrants was categorically better. The reason for migrating had an impact on one’s orientation toward the receiving society. Estonian women and Finns who migrated for marriage or edu cational reasons became immediately active in forming institutional and social ties in the new society. Conversely, the women had migrated because of work had little contact with Estonian society, and their social networks consisted of other Finnish immigrants. Furthermore, they maintained strong institutional and social ties to Finland and therefore felt no need to anchor themselves to Estonian society. The Finnish and Estonian women who were better integrated into the receiving country also maintained strong social ties to their country of origin. Women who became integrated into the receiving country as a result of giving birth to children utilized various services directed at families with children. In part, such services conveyed to the women the conceptions that were prevalent in the surrounding society concerning the treatment of children and the expectations on mothers, both of which difer to some extent in Finland and Estonia. had an impact on strategies of motherhood, internal family dynamics, and gender Regardless of the reason for migrating, or the country of origin, immigration equality. Most Estonian women had to do without the child-care help provided by relatives; before immigrating, some women had even had daily child-care assistance from family members. However, Estonian women who were married to Finns did receive help from the spouse and sometimes also the spouse’s relatives. Conversely, Finnish women who had immigrated because of a spouse’s job transfer were faced with the opposite situation, in which they bore the main responsibility for domestic work and child care. They were, however, in a position to pay for domestic help. Hence, the women who had integrated into a new society had to construct their own perceptions of motherhood by reconciling the motherhood models of both the cause of a spouse’s job transfer found that being a stay-at-home mother challenged previously self-evident behaviors. Receiving country and the country of origin, whereas women who had migrated because of a spouse’s job transfer found that being a stay-at-home mother challenged previously self-evident behaviors.
  • Simonen, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    One of the greatest changes in the Finnish drinking culture in recent years is that women are drinking more than before. Increasing alcohol consumption and binge drinking among women have often been interpreted as a convergence of feminine and masculine drinking and, specifically, as women becoming more masculine in their drinking. This study aims to examine and assess this view in more depth. The research question is whether the increasing drinking among women can be interpreted to mean that women are drawing closer to masculine drinking also in qualitative terms and that they are adopting characteristics of the masculine drinking culture. By examining the alcohol attitudes of women and men of different ages, the study aims to explore how the two genders and women especially construct and express their gender in drinking, and how this affects the assumption that feminine and masculine drinking styles are converging. The study approaches the theme by analysing how women and men of different ages and of different educational backgrounds discuss their attitudes towards alcohol, the values and norms they associate with drinking, as well as the feminine and masculine traits they assign to alcohol use. The theoretical framework of the study is that gender roles are socially, not biologically, constructed. Following the relational theory of gender, studies on gender representations of alcohol use and thereby discussions on the suggested convergence of feminine and masculine drinking take into account the significance of several factors, such as age, educational background and certain historical context, on the construction of gender (cf. Connell 2012). This study approaches alcohol use not as individual drinking but as collectively shared cultural models of drinking that include culture-specific values and norms guiding alcohol use and that also give a channel for expressing gender in a culturally understandable way (Tigerstedt & Törrönen 2005). The main data for the study consists of focus group interviews carried out in Finland (N = 16) and Sweden (N = 19) with women and men representing four different age groups (women and men born in 1943 - 1950, 1959 - 1966, 1975 - 1982, and 1983 - 1990) and two educational levels. The comparative evaluation of alcohol attitudes in different age groups aims to clarify how the gender convergence approach applies to women and men of different ages. The attention to age groups will also show whether women and men have collectively shared attitudes towards alcohol which could be interpreted as generational experiences of drinking. The study gives both an affirmative and a negative answer to the initial question of whether feminine and masculine drinking habits are converging and whether this development can be interpreted as women adopting more masculine drinking styles. The affirmative answer applies, with certain restrictions, to the youngest age groups of women. It is associated with young women adopting masculine drinking such as binge drinking. However, masculine influences are merging with feminine styles and contexts, resulting in a mix of feminine and masculine traits of drinking that diversifies also the masculine drinking traditions. The negative answer applies to the oldest age group of women. The traditionally feminine values and practices of older women with regard to drinking are in opposition to the assertion of increasing masculinity. These observations indicate that feminine drinking habits have multiple layers. They also reveal the level of challenge and complexity in the debate about the convergence of feminine and masculine drinking. The study shows that there are generational differences in women's drinking habits but not in men's. The oldest and the youngest groups of women in the study are living in different worlds of drinking and have different kinds of generational experiences concerning drinking. Compared to women, men have more uniform drinking attitudes across age groups. While there are no generational differences in masculine drinking habits, there are, nevertheless, differences stemming from educational background that are apparent among both the more educated and the less educated. As a whole, examining potential differences in drinking habits within and across gender groups introduces nuances to the debate about feminine and masculine drinking where gender categories are often perceived as opposite and one-dimensional. This study indicates a blending of feminine and masculine drinking habits. It also shows that there are variations of masculine and feminine gender representations of drinking and increasingly diversified means of expressing gender in drinking.
  • Joronen, Tuula (Helsingin kaupungin tietokeskus, 2012)
    The purpose of the study was to examine the development of entrepreneurial activities amongst immigrants, the factors affecting this development and the success of businesses in Finland. The study examines the opportunity structures that Finland has offered immigrants as well as factors affecting the offering of entrepreneurship, such as motives towards entrepreneurship and the resources of immigrants. The study is based on many types of materials. The analysis of the operating environment and the development of the number and structure of entrepreneurial activities of immigrants are based on statistics and previous studies. Differences affecting the entrepreneurial activities of immigrants from different regions and different nationalities, the prevalence of forced entrepreneurship and the success of entrepreneurial activities in terms of employment and survival of companies were studied using register data. Motives for entrepreneurship, methods of operation and success in terms of financial livelihood were studied by means of questionnaires and interviews. A central finding of this study is that while forced entrepreneurship is more common than average among immigrant entrepreneurs, they have succeeded in finding employment and staying in business as commonly as entrepreneurs from the Finnish original population. Although shutting down the business is linked with a higher risk of unemployment among immigrant entrepreneurs than among Finnish entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship has been a channel for finding employment for some immigrants as well. The methods of operation of immigrant entrepreneurs were quite similar to those of Finnish entrepreneurs. The differences found were related more to the situation of immigration and the choice of business sector than to the ethnic culture of immigrant entrepreneurs. Keywords: Immigrant, entrepreneur, forced entrepreneurship, ethnic resources, ethnic market.
  • Karttunen, Marie-Louise (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Tontti, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Salovaara-Moring, Inka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Uusihakala, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Memory Meanders is an ethnographic analysis of a postcolonial migrant community, white former Rhodesians, who have emigrated from Zimbabwe to South Africa after Zimbabwe s independence in 1980. An estimated 100 000 whites left the country during the first years of independence. Majority of these emigrants settled in South Africa. In recent years President Mugabe s land redistribution program has inflicted forced expulsions and violence against white farmers and black farm workers, and instigated a new wave of emigration. Concerning the study of Southern Africa, my research is therefore very topical. In recent years there has been a growing concern to study postcolonialism as it unfolds in the lived realities of actual postcolonies. A rising interest has also been cast on colonial cultures and white colonials within complex power relationships. My research offers insight to these discussions by investigating the ways in which the colonial past affects and effects in the present activities and ideas of former colonials. The study also takes part in discussing fundamental questions concerning how diaspora communities socially construct their place in the world in relation to the place left behind, to their current places of dwelling and to the community in dispersal. In spite of Rhodesia s incontestable ending, it is held close by social practices; by thoughts and talks, by material displays, and by webs of meaningful relationships. Such social memory practices, I suggest, are fundamental to how the community understands itself. The vantage points from which I examine how the ex-Rhodesians reminisce about Rhodesia concern ideas and practices related to place, home and commemoration. I first focus on the processes of symbolic investment that go into understanding place and landscape in Rhodesia and ask how the once dwelled-in places, iconic landscapes and experiences within places are reminisced about in diaspora. Secondly, I examine how home both as a mundanely organized sphere of everyday lives and as an idea of belonging is culturally configured, and analyze how and if homes travel in diaspora. In the final ethnographic section I focus on commemorative practices. I first analyze how food and culturally specific festive occasions of commensality are connected to social and sensual memory, considering the unique ways in which food acts as a mnemonic trigger in a diaspora community. The second example concerns the celebration of a centenary of Rhodesia in 1990. Through this case I describe how the mnemonic power of commemoration rests on the fact that culturally meaningful experiences are bodily re-enacted. I show how habitual memory connected to performance is one example of how memory gets passed-on in non-textual ways.
  • Sund, Reijo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The resources of health systems are limited. There is a need for information concerning the performance of the health system for the purposes of decision-making. This study is about utilization of administrative registers in the context of health system performance evaluation. In order to address this issue, a multidisciplinary methodological framework for register-based data analysis is defined. Because the fixed structure of register-based data indirectly determines constraints on the theoretical constructs, it is essential to elaborate the whole analytic process with respect to the data. The fundamental methodological concepts and theories are synthesized into a data sensitive approach which helps to understand and overcome the problems that are likely to be encountered during a register-based data analyzing process. A pragmatically useful health system performance monitoring should produce valid information about the volume of the problems, about the use of services and about the effectiveness of provided services. A conceptual model for hip fracture performance assessment is constructed and the validity of Finnish registers as a data source for the purposes of performance assessment of hip fracture treatment is confirmed. Solutions to several pragmatic problems related to the development of a register-based hip fracture incidence surveillance system are proposed. The monitoring of effectiveness of treatment is shown to be possible in terms of care episodes. Finally, an example on the justification of a more detailed performance indicator to be used in the profiling of providers is given. In conclusion, it is possible to produce useful and valid information on health system performance by using Finnish register-based data. However, that seems to be far more complicated than is typically assumed. The perspectives given in this study introduce a necessary basis for further work and help in the routine implementation of a hip fracture monitoring system in Finland.
  • Vaara, Lauri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The Land of Forester Corps. The Study on Corporatism in Finnish Forestry The study explains the control of forestry entrepreneurship by forest organizations. The study material consists of other related studies, statutes, articles and own observations. In the turn of the 19th and 20th century the state started to form the administration of forestry. This action complied the general attitudes related to forester culture at the era. These attitudes formed among state forest officials were anti-agriculture opinions, low competence in business economics and poor consideration of societal aspects. Forest Management Society Tapio was established in 1908 as a state-external central agency for the extension of private forest owners under a pressure the existing forester culture. Its position was strategic in order to steer the forestry extension towards the forms desired by the forester corps. The forester corps gained also a strategic position in the future enforcement of the forest laws, when superior enforcement of the Forest Act of 1917 was allocated to the State Forest Service. The goal of the forester corps has been an independent forestry within the public administration and in forestry as a business. This goal has been in conflict with prevailing landownership, industries and natural conditions in Finland. State governance of forestry was replaced by the corporative governance of Forestry Boards in 1928. They were given, in addition to law enforcement, also the extension of private forest owners. In 1950 the Forest Management Associations, which had also acted as the trustees of the private forest owners since 1942, were made the official local agencies of the Forestry Boards. In 1987 the Forestry Boards were given the entitlement to allocate state subsidies. This combination of remits fullfills the characteristics of a centralizet administrative authority where power of sanctioning and rewarding, attidute control and even the control of the trustee organizations is centralized to the same organization. At meanwhile the control of the administrative authority is eliminated. The afore mentioned arrangements have eliminated political surveillance, trusteeship of private forest owners, surveillance of judiciary and media as well as critical forest research. As a result is a system where there is almost no restrictions for the actions of the organizations controlling private forest owners. Also free markets are eliminated from forestry. Entrepreneurs and competition do not exist and efficiency ia measured according to quantity instead of costs. Forestry work services are produced by monopoly organizations. Forest Management Associations in wood production and forest industry entreprises in wood harvesting. The works of forestry have been arranged as a collective economy lead by these organizations. The end result of the arrangements is a totalitarian corporatism where governance resembles a centralized state administration and the economic system a centralized planned economy. The forestry practiced inside these frames is in a state of chaos what comes to production activity, livelihood-circumstances and also management of forest ecosystems. The chaos is hidden by massive PR-activities and demonstrations of technically effective harvesters.