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  • Haikonen, Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 1999)
  • Kinnunen, Aarne (Oikeuspoliittinen tutkimuslaitos, 2008)
    This doctoral thesis explores the development of drug markets and drug related crime in Finland since the mid 1990s, as well as public control measures aimed at solving problems related to drug crime. The research further examines the criminal career of persons having committed drug crime, as well as their socio-economic background. The period since the mid 1990s is, on the one hand, characterized by increasing use of drugs and increasingly severe drug problems. On the other hand, this period is also characterized by intensified drug control. Also criminality associated with drugs has increased and become more severe. During this period the prevention of drug problems became a focal issue for authorities, and resources were increased for activities geared towards fighting drugs. Along with this development, Finnish drug policy has been balancing between therapeutic activities and control. A focal point in this thesis is the question how society addresses drug problems, as well as how this differs from efforts to solve other problems. Why are criminal means so readily used when dealing with drug problems; why have the police received an extended mandate to use coercive force; and why has the field for imposing administrative sanctions been extended? How has the extension of drug control affected general thinking in criminal policy? The subject matter in this thesis is approached in a criminological and criminal policy perspective. The thesis is made up of four research articles and a Summary Article. In the Summary Article the studies were placed into the Finnish research context of drug criminality and drug control as well as criminal policy. Furthermore, the author has assessed his own research location as a drug control researcher. Applying the notion of risk, an analysis was made of threats posed by drugs to society. Theoretical perspectives were also brought to the fore on how society may regulate drug problems and threats associated with them. Based on research literature and administrative documents, an analysis was made of the relation between drug related social and health policy and criminal justice control. An account was also made of the development of drug control in Finland since the mid 1990s. There has been a strong increase in control by the criminal justice system since the mid 1990s. Penalties have been made more stringent, more efficient means have been developed to trace the financial gain from the offence, opportunities for money laundering have been prevented and the police has obtained ample new powers of inquiry. New administrative measures have been directed towards drug users, such as introducing drug tests in working life, checking the applicants criminal record for certain jobs, as well as the threat of losing one s driving licence in cases where a physician has established drug addiction. In the 1990s the prevention of drug crimes and their disclosure were made part of the police s control activities nationwide. This could clearly be seen in increased criminal statistics. There are humiliating elements associated with the police s drug control that should be eliminated for the benefit of everybody. Furthermore, the criminal control is directed towards persons in a weak socio-economic position. A drug verdict may set off a marginalization process that may be very difficult to halt. Drug control is selective and generates repressive practises. The special status accorded drug problems is also revealed in the way in which the treatment of drug addicts has developed.
  • Vesikansa, Sari-Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    FAMILIES AND SCHOOLS AND THE POLITICS OF RESPONSIBILITIES - a genealogical study on family and school as carers and educators of the child population in modern society This study aims to uncover the politics behind such discourses in the media which have claimed the family to be totally responsible for children and which ignore the various responsibilities accorded to the state in matters concerning the child population. Using Max Weber s and Michael Mann s theorizing on the history of power relationships, feminist social history on patriarchy and Foucauldian power analytic concept of dispositif the study traces two competing child policies which have influenced the historical formation of modern generational order in Western societies. One of them is based on the interests of the hegemonic bourgeois elite and the other on the interests of the non-elite population, which were expressed during the phase of building the welfare state in Finland in the 1960 1980 s. The central strategies of the bourgeois child policy are 1) to construct the childhood years as a time for preparation and formation of the individual according to the interests of the elite, 2) to construct the family as the sole site of holistic care and responsibility of children in society, and 3) compulsory schooling of children of the non-elite population in state organized schools. To implement these strategies the elite uses strategically patriarchal cultural formations/dispositifs in modernized versions. The result has been the formation of a sexually divided and hierarchical order of care and education, where, on the one hand, there is the less important feminine care of children done by mothers at home and, on the other, the real education of the school, where children are made the object of authoritarian shaping and where the needs and the personal experiences of the child are ignored. The welfare order of care and education is based on the ethos of welfare society, where the state and the families are seen to share the responsibility for the child population. In this vein, families and schools are seen as partners who both have a caring attitude to children s welfare and learning. The study shows that discourses and terminology in the mainstream educational policy texts in Finland create a chaotic linguistic game which makes it difficult to have a rational discussion about the roles of family and school in the holistic care and education of children. This has opened the door to political discourses where familist interpretations of the question of responsibility are claimed to be based on law.
  • Ahlqvist, Kirsti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The aim of the study was to find out how the consumption of the population in Finland became a target of social interest and production of statistical data in the early 20th century, and what efforts have been made to influence consumption with social policy measures at different times. Questions concerning consumption are examined through the practices employed in the compilation of statistics on it. The interpretation framework in the study is Michael Foucault s perspective of modern liberal government. This mode of government is typified by pursuit of efficiency and search of equilibrium between economic government and a government of the processes of life. It shows aspirations towards both integration and individualisation. The government is based on freedom practices. It also implies knowledge-based ways of conceptualising reality. Statistical data are of specific significance in this context. The connection between the government of consumption and the compilation of statistics on it is studied through the theoretical, socio-political and statistical conceptualisation of consumption. The research material consisted of Finnish and international documentation on the compilation of statistics on consumption, publications of social programmes, and reports of studies on consumption. The analysis of the material focused especially on the problematisations related to consumption found in these documents and on changes in them over history. There have been both clearly observable changes and as well as historical stratification and diversity in the rationalities and practices of consumption government during the 20th century. Consumption has been influenced by pluralistic government, based at different times and in varying ways on the logics of solidarity and markets. The difference between these is that in the former risks are prepared for collectively while in the latter risks are individualised. Despite the differences, the characteristic that is common to these logics is certain kind of contractuality. They are both permeated by the household logic which differs from them in that it is based on the normative and ethical demands imposed on an individual. There has been a clear interactive connection between statistical data and consumption government. Statistical practices have followed changes in the way consumption has been conceptualised in society. This has been reflected in the statistical phenomena of interest, concepts, classifications and indicators. New ways of compiling statistics have in their turn shaped perceptions of reality. Statistical data have also facilitated a variety of rational calculations with which the consequences of the population s consumption habits have been evaluated at the levels of economy at large and individuals.
  • Mattila-Aalto, Minna (Kuntoutussäätiö, 2010)
    The main theme of the research centres on the idea that social inclusion can be analysed as inclusions and exclusions. The research is focused on the phenomenon of inclusion that is defined as widely understood social relationships and social binds emerging in a rehabilitation process. Information was gathered from 13 ex substance abusers, who had a background of heavy substance abuse for appr. 15 years and who have been sober for about 7 years. Also 34 persons who helped them to rehabilitate by the helped persons’ perspectives, were interviewed. The speciality of the research is that 5 of the ex abusers were also physically or mentally disabled. A Simmelian interaction process analysis was applied for the narrative analysis of the collected data. The aim of the analysis was to define different kinds of configurations of social relations and social binds. According to the research 3 different forms of inclusion are emerged in rehabilitation. At the early stage rehabilitation leans towards controlling the new sober life style (inclusion of life control). When people begin to rely on their temperance, they begin to make decisions about an own way of living (life political inclusion) and can also dissociate from the institutional thought patterns. People must also find a way into the circles of social relationships to develop own esteemed individual settings of codes for their action (inclusion of life orientation). The main result of the research represents the ‘mechanism of the social’ of rehabilitation. It is composed of the forms of inclusion mentioned above, their contents and the specific reflection mechanism of inclusion. It consists of the heavy structure of the disciplines of the rehabilitation system and the light structure of social worlds. Finally rehabilitation in the long run seems to lean on aesthetic of social relationships – how the person is connected to the circle of social relationships in this reflection. The conclusions are the following. The role of institutional disciplines is an important social resource for controlling life. Other institutions, i.e. the institutions of adult education offer opportunities to organize the abuser’s life. Unfortunately, the institutional rehabilitation seems to offer feeble help, especially to those who are actualising a kind of life orientation that does not comply with legitimated institutional thought patterns. If the helpers cannot define the need for aid in this situation, the helped easily becomes perversely socially excluded. In a discreet way the institutional rehabilitation is shaping subjectivities of the ex abusers by transferring responsibilities for them. This incident already increases the uncertainty of life of ex abuser, who is disposed towards feeling shame and inferiority. It is more secure to strengthen social binds with the institutional rehabilitation and its membership. Thus, getting individually responsible increases addictive behaviours.
  • Vuorinen, Marja (SKS, 2011)
    An imagined nobleman Nobility as an enemy image and in-group identity in nineteenth-century Finland The focal point of this study is the difficult relationship between two seemingly very different 19th-century elite groups, the upwardly mobile bourgeois intelligentsia and the slowly declining traditional nobility. In the thinking of the bourgeois contender the two emerged as exact opposites, styled as conflicting ideal types: an outdated, exclusive, degenerate hereditary aristocracy versus a dynamic and progressive new force in society, recruited solely on the basis of personal merit, originating from the common people and representing the nation. The appearance of an important 19th-century novelty, print publicity, coincided with the emergence of the bourgeois intelligentsia. The institutions of the developing publishing industry were manned by the aspiring new group. The strengthening flow of progressive, democratic, nationalist ideas distributed via the printing presses carried an undercurrent of self-promotion. It transmitted to the developing readership the self-image of the new cultural bourgeoisie as the defender and benevolent educator of the nation. Having won the contest over the media, the intelligentsia was free to present its predecessor and rival as an enemy of the people. In its politics the nobility emerged as an ideal scapegoat, represented as the source for existing social evils, all if which would promptly go away after its disappearance. It also served as a black backcloth, against which the democratic, national, progressive bourgeois intelligentsia would shine more brightly. In order to shed light on the 19th-century process of (re)modelling the image of nobility as a public enemy I have used four different types of source materials. These include three genres of print publicity, ranging from popular historical and contemporary fiction to nonfictional presentations of national history and the news and political commentaries of the daily papers, complemented by another, originally oral type of publicity, the discussion protocols of the Finnish four-estate parliament. To counterpoint these I also analysed the public self-image of the nobility, particularly vis-à-vis the nationalist and democratic ethos of the modernising politics.
  • Kavonius, Ilja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This study is divided into two parts: a methodological part and a part which focuses on the saving of households. In the 1950 s both the concepts as well as the household surveys themselves went through a rapid change. The development of national accounts was motivated by the Keynesian theory and the 1940 s and 1950 s were an important time for the development of the national accounts. Before this, saving was understood as cash money or money deposited in bank accounts but the changes in this era led to the establishment of the modern saving concept. Separate from the development of national accounts, household surveys were established. Household surveys have been conducted in Finland from the beginning of the 20th century. At that time surveys were conducted in order to observe the working class living standard and as a result, these were based on the tradition of welfare studies. Also a motivation for undertaking the studies was to estimate weights for the consumer price index. A final reason underpinning the government s interest in observing this data regarded whether there were any reasons for the working class to become radicalised and therefore adopt revolutionary ideas. As the need for the economic analysis increased and the data requirements underlying the political decision making process also expanded, the two traditions and thus, the two data sources started to integrate. In the 1950s the household surveys were compiled distinctly from the national accounts and they were virtually unaffected by economic theory. The 1966 survey was the first study that was clearly motivated by national accounts and saving analysis. This study also covered the whole population rather than it being limited to just part of it. It is essential to note that the integration of these two traditions is still continuing. This recently took a big step forward as the Stiglitz, Sen and Fitoussi Committee Report was introduced and thus, the criticism of the current measure of welfare was taken seriously. The Stiglitz report emphasises that the focus in the measurement of welfare should be on the households and the macro as well as micro perspective should be included in the analysis. In this study the national accounts are applied to the household survey data from the years 1950-51, 1955-56 and 1959-60. The first two studies cover the working population of towns and market towns and the last survey covers the population of rural areas. The analysis is performed at three levels: macro economic level, meso level, i.e. at the level of different types of households, and micro level, i.e. at the level of individual households. As a result it analyses how the different households saved and consumed and how that changed during the 1950 s.
  • Tuomola-Karp, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Koivusalo-Kuusivaara, Raisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Characteristic of today s media environment is intensity and constant presence. The media also play a significant role in the lives of small children since they, on average, start regular following of media at the age of three. The contents, tools and social relations linked to the media do form an environment for the children by means of which they form their concepts of culture, society, social relations and build their identities. The research explains the interpretation of audiovisual media and the role of the media in the lives of Finnish, British and German children between four to six years of age. The aim of the research is to deepen the scientific knowledge on what kind of significance socially and culturally the media have in the lives of small children and how they interpret the media contents. In the study, the relationship between children and the media has been observed as a tool, as a social, symbolic and cultural interpretation environment. Additionally, the possibilities what the Theory of Symbolic Interactionism which is rarely used in communication research can offer in the observance of children s media relationship. Based on the international material collected in Finland, UK and Germany, also the cultural differences connected to the media between the comparison groups are examined. In spite of the relatively similar media environments between the countries compared, the study suggests cultural differences in the media interpretations. The media enable the development of a child s various skills and can thus create social, symbolic and cultural resources which have a significance in a child s development. The relation between a child and media is a two-way interrelationship and in the interpretation of media information, the earlier intellectual and social experiences are included. In his or her active media relationship, a child develops his or her vocabulary, perceptions, thinking and emotional life. Using the media as a social event, the social readiness of a child is, for its part, developed. Thus, for example, the rules and regulations concerning media uses guide how the family functions and define the position of a child within the family. The contents of the media and different supplementary products form, for their part, a child s cultural codes and categorizations. The study also demonstrates that the Theory of Symbolic Interactionism offers a rather interdisciplinary research reference setting for the study of children and the media and facilitates the studying and understanding of children s media relation as a proportion of different factors.
  • Nousiainen, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Kääriäinen, Aino (University of Helsinki, 2003)
    The primary task of this study is to clarify the significance of documentation in professional practices and information formation involved in social work concerning child protection. The document texts under study were examined from three angles: 1)How were the documents written? 2) What information did the documents contain? 3)Why were the documents written as they were? The research material consisted of information from a database of client information compiled from notes and custody decisions by social workers involved in child protection. Documents relating to twenty children of varying ages and their families were selected for this study, a total of 1613 pages. The texts are dated between 1989 and 2000. The method of study is discourse analytical and is based on a three-dimensional model developed by Fairclough (1997) in which discourse is defined as the interaction between texts, practices and socio-cultural environment. Discourse analysis consists of the portrayal, interpretation and explanation of these elements and the relationships between them. The model used for the analysis consists of rhetoric and thematic material as well as investigation from the pragmatic point of view. Categorizing the documents into speaker categories revealed the polyphony of the texts, text-structures including viewpoints and opinions of several people. The rhetorical analysis showed that documents pertaining to social work involving child protection contain a large amount of dynamic description of the work. The polyphony of the texts adds to their credibility and is one way to influence the meaning by using rhetoric. The thematic study showed that the content of the themes in the documents (dayto-day control, care of the child, usage of intoxicants and co-operation) and the empirical themes (concern, responsibility, co-operation and morals) repeat themselves as dynamically interchanging concentric and superimposed threads. Social workers introduce many simultaneous themes into their documents, which help them to form a professional judgement of the case at hand. Studying the documents from the pragmatic angle revealed the contextual dimensions of reading and writing and the process of information formation. The drawing up of documents is one of the practices employed in social work. It is also a crucial part of the creation and maintenance of professional understanding. Notes, custody decisions and legal texts are intertextual. Research of documents regarding child protection in social work have opened up new possibilities in understanding the compilation process, significance and role of documents in social work. The writing and reading of texts, information transfer,listening to the client and conversation transcription are inherent challenges in social work. The study aspires to open up understanding of the multitude of nuances and dynamics in document texts and day-to-day documentation of social work. The investigation facilitates the advancement of work, particularly social work, by improvement and measurement of the influence on the client. The dynamics of information forming that is revealed in documents originates in writing practices, and in the common areas of writing and reading and occupational practices. Keywords: social work, child protection, documentation, document, discourse analysis,information formation.
  • Hänninen, Erja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The objective of this thesis is to study policy making in the Nepalese rural water supply and sanitation sector by analysing the process of national policy formulation and how the donors and their policies influence the national policies in aid recipient country, such as Nepal. It exposes the dynamics underlying the interaction between donors and the Nepalese water bureaucracies by focusing on the analysis of the roles, motives and interests of the sectoral actors in the making of policies. The study highlights the political side in the aid giving and receiving through making use of the politics of policy theoretical perspective. The rural water supply and sanitation sector was chosen as the framework for this study, because of the important role that water has for Nepal often presented as the blue gold of Nepal and the multiple and powerful donors that are active in the sector, for whom the water sector is also an important investment target. The policy making process is analysed through a case study, the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Policy, Strategy and Action Plan formulated in 2002-2004 and funded by the Asian Development Bank. The empirical evidence of this study is based on the mixed qualitative methods research done in Kathmandu, Nepal, in the summers of 2009 and 2010. The core data is based on the interviews of 89 people, as well as water supply and sanitation related policy documents draft versions, final policy documents and reports, prepared in the process of policy formulation. In addition, I have included a wide-ranging literature study. The research illuminates that policy making in the Nepalese rural water supply and sanitation sector is a game between donors and the water bureaucracies both having political and economic interests that they aim to secure in policy formulation. Based on these interests, the policy actors manoeuvre in the policy negotiations. The aim of the donors is to legitimate their aid towards the donor headquarters through influencing national policy making into their preferred direction in order to keep their business ongoing. Yet, even though the donors are able to influnce policy making, the study found out that the Nepalese water bureaucracies are not powerless in front of the donors, but they have successfully adopted several strategies in manoeuvring the donor influence. Thus, even though the aid relationship is inherently unequal, is not only the donors that have interests and power that drive policy making, but also the water bureaucracies have their own incentive structures that shape the policy processes. The donor involvement in the policy process can be characterised as a state of permanent negotiation, in which policy formulation is just a part of the further institutional entanglement by the donors.
  • Vitikainen, Annamari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Limits of Liberal Multiculturalism is a work in normative political philosophy. In particular, it is a work on liberal approaches to cultural diversity. The work assesses some of the benefits and limitations of liberal multiculturalism (broadly conceived) and develops a more individuated, yet culturally sensitive, approach to cultural diversity. The two main parts of the work discuss the normative justifications and rationales for differentiated rights within liberalism (Part I) and the more practical problems of applying these rights in practice (Part II). The first three chapters (Part I) analyse the so-called autonomy-, toleration- and equality-based approaches to cultural diversity as presented by Will Kymlicka, Chandran Kukathas and Brian Barry. This part argues that the autonomy-, toleration- and equality-based approaches provide frameworks within which the liberal responses to cultural diversity should reside, but fail to give any definitive guidance into how the liberal state should react to cultural diversity in particular circumstances. These approaches leave a substantive scope of variation to the cultural policies of the liberal state, including the possibility, albeit not a requirement, to grant differentiated rights. The three latter chapters (Part II) develop a more individuated, yet culturally sensitive, approach to cultural diversity by concentrating on the further issues of allocating differentiated rights. The first chapter (Ch. 4) highlights the difficulties of defining one s membership in a cultural group and argues that, in order to track their targets, the individually exercised differentiated rights should be allocated in accordance with need or self-identification. Chapter 5 develops the individual-centred approach further by concentrating on the issues of the right of exit, and the liberal state s responses to those who have decided to leave the contours of their group without rejecting their identity as a member. The final chapter (Ch. 6) focuses on the legal-theoretical debate on allowing cultural defence in criminal courts and gives an application of the individuated approach in the criminal justice system. The main claims of the work are that the liberal multiculturalists have been successful in clarifying the grounds upon which the liberal responses to cultural diversity should reside and in showing that the culturally differentiated rights (variously construed) are not necessarily incompatible with liberalism. The liberal multicultural theories do not, however, give any definitive guidance on how the liberal state should respond to cultural diversity, nor do they always take sufficiently into account the variations within (and without) cultural groups. The work rejects the common assumption of differentiated rights as specifically group-differentiated rights, and argues for a more individuated approach that, nevertheless, takes people s cultural commitments and their group identities seriously.
  • Kylliäinen, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    How did Søren Kierkegaard (1813 1855) situate the human subject into historical and social actuality? How did he take into consideration his own situatedness? As key for understanding these questions the research takes the ideal of living poetically that Kierkegaard outlined in his dissertation. In The Concept of Irony (1841) Kierkegaard took up this ideal of the Romantic ironists and made it into an ethical-religious ideal. For him the ideal of living poetically came to mean 1) becoming brought up by God, while 2) assuming ethical-religiously one s role and place in the historical actuality. Through an exegesis of Kierkegaard s texts from 1843 to 1851 it is shown how this ideal governed Kierkegaard s thought and action throughout his work. The analysis of Kierkegaard s ideal of living poetically not only a) shows how the Kierkegaardian subject is situated in its historical context. It also b) sheds light on Kierkegaard s social and political thought, c) helps to understand Kierkegaard s character as a religious thinker, and d) pits his ethical-religious orientation in life against its scientific and commonsense alternatives. The research evaluates the rationality of the way of life championed by Kierkegaard by comparing it with ways of life dominated by reflection and reasoning. It uses Kierkegaard s ideal of living poetically in trying to understand the tensions between religious and unreligious ways of life.
  • Suomala, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Hyvönen, Heli (Väestöntutkimuslaitos, 2009)
    Immigration is one of the most topical international issues of our time. Worldwide, the number of immigrants has doubled over the last twenty years, and migration patterns have become so diversified that they now constitute a kind of “chaos”. The number and significance of women as migrants has also increased, which is earning women growing attention among scholars. This study looks at the migration of women, in particular mothers of small children, in both directions between Finland and Estonia, following the latter’s re- independence. The data consists of in-depth interviews conducted in 2005 with 24 Finnish and 24 Estonian immigrant women. The focus was on the women’s expectations and experiences of their new country of residence, acculturation – i.e. adjusting to a new environment, social networks in the country of origin and the new country, and models of motherhood following immigration. The primary research question was formulated as follows: Which factors have influenced the formation of female immigrants’ social ties, thus contributing to the formation of motherhood strategies and afecting internal family dynamics in the new country? The research consists of four previously published independent articles as well as a summary chapter. The study’s findings indicate that Finnish and Estonian women migrated for diferent reasons and at diferent times, and that their migration patterns also difered. Estonian migration occurred mainly in the 1990s, and most immigrants intended to return later to their country of origin. Regardless of the reason for migrating that they gave to immigration officials, other key reasons often included the desire for a more stable living environment and better income. Only four of the Estonian women had immigrated together with an Estonian husband, while two- thirds came because of marriage to a Finnish man. Most of the Finnish women, on the other hand, migrated after 2000 and either came with their family as a result of a spouse’s job transfer, or came by themselves to further their studies. In most cases, the migration was a temporary solution intended to promote one’s own or one’s spouse’s career advancement. Because the reasons for migrating were diferent between Finnish and Estonian women, their expectations of the new country and their status in it were also diferent. In terms of both social and economic standing, the position of Finnish immigrants was categorically better. The reason for migrating had an impact on one’s orientation toward the receiving society. Estonian women and Finns who migrated for marriage or edu cational reasons became immediately active in forming institutional and social ties in the new society. Conversely, the women had migrated because of work had little contact with Estonian society, and their social networks consisted of other Finnish immigrants. Furthermore, they maintained strong institutional and social ties to Finland and therefore felt no need to anchor themselves to Estonian society. The Finnish and Estonian women who were better integrated into the receiving country also maintained strong social ties to their country of origin. Women who became integrated into the receiving country as a result of giving birth to children utilized various services directed at families with children. In part, such services conveyed to the women the conceptions that were prevalent in the surrounding society concerning the treatment of children and the expectations on mothers, both of which difer to some extent in Finland and Estonia. had an impact on strategies of motherhood, internal family dynamics, and gender Regardless of the reason for migrating, or the country of origin, immigration equality. Most Estonian women had to do without the child-care help provided by relatives; before immigrating, some women had even had daily child-care assistance from family members. However, Estonian women who were married to Finns did receive help from the spouse and sometimes also the spouse’s relatives. Conversely, Finnish women who had immigrated because of a spouse’s job transfer were faced with the opposite situation, in which they bore the main responsibility for domestic work and child care. They were, however, in a position to pay for domestic help. Hence, the women who had integrated into a new society had to construct their own perceptions of motherhood by reconciling the motherhood models of both the cause of a spouse’s job transfer found that being a stay-at-home mother challenged previously self-evident behaviors. Receiving country and the country of origin, whereas women who had migrated because of a spouse’s job transfer found that being a stay-at-home mother challenged previously self-evident behaviors.
  • Simonen, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    One of the greatest changes in the Finnish drinking culture in recent years is that women are drinking more than before. Increasing alcohol consumption and binge drinking among women have often been interpreted as a convergence of feminine and masculine drinking and, specifically, as women becoming more masculine in their drinking. This study aims to examine and assess this view in more depth. The research question is whether the increasing drinking among women can be interpreted to mean that women are drawing closer to masculine drinking also in qualitative terms and that they are adopting characteristics of the masculine drinking culture. By examining the alcohol attitudes of women and men of different ages, the study aims to explore how the two genders and women especially construct and express their gender in drinking, and how this affects the assumption that feminine and masculine drinking styles are converging. The study approaches the theme by analysing how women and men of different ages and of different educational backgrounds discuss their attitudes towards alcohol, the values and norms they associate with drinking, as well as the feminine and masculine traits they assign to alcohol use. The theoretical framework of the study is that gender roles are socially, not biologically, constructed. Following the relational theory of gender, studies on gender representations of alcohol use and thereby discussions on the suggested convergence of feminine and masculine drinking take into account the significance of several factors, such as age, educational background and certain historical context, on the construction of gender (cf. Connell 2012). This study approaches alcohol use not as individual drinking but as collectively shared cultural models of drinking that include culture-specific values and norms guiding alcohol use and that also give a channel for expressing gender in a culturally understandable way (Tigerstedt & Törrönen 2005). The main data for the study consists of focus group interviews carried out in Finland (N = 16) and Sweden (N = 19) with women and men representing four different age groups (women and men born in 1943 - 1950, 1959 - 1966, 1975 - 1982, and 1983 - 1990) and two educational levels. The comparative evaluation of alcohol attitudes in different age groups aims to clarify how the gender convergence approach applies to women and men of different ages. The attention to age groups will also show whether women and men have collectively shared attitudes towards alcohol which could be interpreted as generational experiences of drinking. The study gives both an affirmative and a negative answer to the initial question of whether feminine and masculine drinking habits are converging and whether this development can be interpreted as women adopting more masculine drinking styles. The affirmative answer applies, with certain restrictions, to the youngest age groups of women. It is associated with young women adopting masculine drinking such as binge drinking. However, masculine influences are merging with feminine styles and contexts, resulting in a mix of feminine and masculine traits of drinking that diversifies also the masculine drinking traditions. The negative answer applies to the oldest age group of women. The traditionally feminine values and practices of older women with regard to drinking are in opposition to the assertion of increasing masculinity. These observations indicate that feminine drinking habits have multiple layers. They also reveal the level of challenge and complexity in the debate about the convergence of feminine and masculine drinking. The study shows that there are generational differences in women's drinking habits but not in men's. The oldest and the youngest groups of women in the study are living in different worlds of drinking and have different kinds of generational experiences concerning drinking. Compared to women, men have more uniform drinking attitudes across age groups. While there are no generational differences in masculine drinking habits, there are, nevertheless, differences stemming from educational background that are apparent among both the more educated and the less educated. As a whole, examining potential differences in drinking habits within and across gender groups introduces nuances to the debate about feminine and masculine drinking where gender categories are often perceived as opposite and one-dimensional. This study indicates a blending of feminine and masculine drinking habits. It also shows that there are variations of masculine and feminine gender representations of drinking and increasingly diversified means of expressing gender in drinking.
  • Joronen, Tuula (Helsingin kaupungin tietokeskus, 2012)
    The purpose of the study was to examine the development of entrepreneurial activities amongst immigrants, the factors affecting this development and the success of businesses in Finland. The study examines the opportunity structures that Finland has offered immigrants as well as factors affecting the offering of entrepreneurship, such as motives towards entrepreneurship and the resources of immigrants. The study is based on many types of materials. The analysis of the operating environment and the development of the number and structure of entrepreneurial activities of immigrants are based on statistics and previous studies. Differences affecting the entrepreneurial activities of immigrants from different regions and different nationalities, the prevalence of forced entrepreneurship and the success of entrepreneurial activities in terms of employment and survival of companies were studied using register data. Motives for entrepreneurship, methods of operation and success in terms of financial livelihood were studied by means of questionnaires and interviews. A central finding of this study is that while forced entrepreneurship is more common than average among immigrant entrepreneurs, they have succeeded in finding employment and staying in business as commonly as entrepreneurs from the Finnish original population. Although shutting down the business is linked with a higher risk of unemployment among immigrant entrepreneurs than among Finnish entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship has been a channel for finding employment for some immigrants as well. The methods of operation of immigrant entrepreneurs were quite similar to those of Finnish entrepreneurs. The differences found were related more to the situation of immigration and the choice of business sector than to the ethnic culture of immigrant entrepreneurs. Keywords: Immigrant, entrepreneur, forced entrepreneurship, ethnic resources, ethnic market.