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  • Wrede-Jäntti, Matilda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Your money or your life? A qualitative follow-up study of the young unemployed from an actor perspective is a qualitative and longitudinal study following 36 unemployed young people in Helsinki over a span of ten years. The purpose of the study is to shed light on how a few young people view employment/unemployment and their lives and future, how they as unemployed perceive their encounters with society, and how society supports them. Four so-called key informants were followed at a finer level of empirical detail. They were chosen for the thematic interviews because of their different personalities, starting points and preferences. Although some differences were expected, what the results show is quite striking. The individual stories raise a number of questions about differences between young people, about society s view of the young unemployed, and about the principles behind the so-called activation policy and how society s support is distributed. The key informants descriptions underline that the group young unemployed does not consist of individuals who are alike but that life is complex, that paid work and unemployment can be perceived very differently, and that background and unofficial support can have consequences for self-perception and for ways of looking at the future, vocational choices, paid work and activation policy. Margaret S. Archer s theory of Morphogenesis and Barbara Cruikshank s theory of constructing democracies compose the study s theoretical framework. The key informants stories give a picture of a formal support system that, even though it puts part of the responsibility for unemployment on the individuals themselves, in the name of fairness and equality, treats them in an impersonal way, not giving their personal situation and wishes much weight. As a consequence, those who share the dominant values of society do well, while others who do not are faced with difficulties. The bigger the gap between society s and the individual s values, the bigger the risk to be met by little understanding and by penalties. And vice versa: Those who initially have the right values and know how to deal with authorities get heard and their opinions get accepted. The informants ask for a more personal encounter, which could improve both the atmosphere and the clients experiences of being heard. Still the risk of having a more individualistic system should be addressed, as a new system might generate new winners, but just as well give new losers. Finally, we have to ask if the so-called activation policy is looking for answers primarily to a macro-level problem on the micro-level. If it does not produce more jobs, its support for the unemployed will be insignificant. It is not enough to think about what to do at the grassroots level to make the system more functional and support job-seeking. If the current rate of unemployment endures, the quality of life of the unemployed should be addressed. A first step could be taken by placing less guilt on the unemployed. Instead of talking about activating the unemployed, discussion should be targeted at removing structural impediments to employment. If we want to have less polarisation between the those with paid work and those without, who often struggle with low incomes, we need to include the macro-level in the discussion. What does high unemployment mean in a work-based society, where the individual s self-perception and important social forms of support are linked to labour income? And what can be done at the macro-level to change this undesirable condition at the micro-level? Keywords: Unemployment, Youth, Public interventions, Activation policy, Individual actors, Qualitative, Longitudinal, Holistic, Helsinki, Finland
  • Lyytikäinen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This book examines Russian civil society and democratization from the perspective of the oppositional youth activists in Moscow and St. Petersburg. It takes the Russian youth movement Oborona (Defense) as its case study. Before its dissolution in 2011, the movement was an active participant in the political opposition movement and, thus, it is an interesting case study of the actually existing activist traditions in Russia. The research shows how in Russian political activism, the Soviet continuities and liberal ideas are entangled to create new post-socialist political identities and practices. The study s findings reflect the opportunities and restrictions for activism in Russia in general, and demonstrate the specificities of Russian liberal activism as well as the reasons for the lack of wider oppositional mobilization in the country. The research draws on sociological theories on identities, social performance, and politicization as well as class, gender and generation studies. The data is derived from thematic interviews, informal discussions, participant observations, and selected readings of central Internet and social media sites. The interview data consists of 38 interviews with the activists of youth movements and it was collected in Moscow and in St Petersburg during the period of 2009 2012. In the Oborona movement, the activist identity is constructed in the intersections of the Soviet intelligentsia and dissident traditions, and international influences. On the group level, the activists sense of solidarity relies on friendship and obshchenie (communication and being together) instead of a political connectedness. Also the movement practices tend to emphasize the sense of unity by silencing individual voices and political affiliations. The movement Oborona tries to find its own way between the western imported understanding of democracy and civil society and the dominant symbolic order of sovereign democracy . The book argues that both the state s official view on democracy and Oborona s liberal-democratically oriented interpretation are tied to the political symbols of nationalism and the strong state and its unifying leader, which can be seen as a continuation of the centralized power relationships of the Soviet state. Furthermore, Oborona s repertoire of action brings together the ideals and norms of the activist identity and discursive frameworks of the movement. The book argues that the protest and its actors remain distant from the audiences and this reflects the wider problems of the political opposition and especially the liberals in Russia. The research suggests that the same weakness of collective political identity, lack of common ideological goals, leader-centeredness, and personified power that the case study illustrates are found in the Russian liberal opposition in general. Key words: Russia, political opposition, protest, youth, activism
  • Lindqvist, Ann-Marie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The thesis describes how adults with learning disabilities are experiencing, creating and exercising their social citizenship. It concerns lived citizenship, understood as the meaning citizenship actually has in the persons lives and the ways in which the social and cultural background and material circumstances affect their lives as citizens. It is based on Ruth Lister's understanding of citizenship. The study approaches the following questions: How do people with learning disabilities experience their participation and how are obstacles and possibilities for their participation manifested in everyday life? What factors are important when people with learning disabilities are creating and exercising their citizenship in a housing context? The thesis posits itself within an ethnographic tradition and represents disability research where the users' and the professionals perspectives are highlighted. The thesis follows a tradition of research in social work that studies the living conditions for people in vulnerable positions and draws attention to their agency. Critical realism based on Roy Bhaskar and Berth Danermark gives the methodological guidelines for the thesis. To understand disability, critical realism and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provide the theoretical understanding with a focus on interaction between the individual and the environment. Knowledge production has been made in collaboration with a group of people with learning disabilities. The two empirical studies in the thesis are based on interviews with people with learning disabilities and professionals, participant observation and documents. The persons in the study exercise and create their citizenship in areas where they are dependent on how professionals view their work and their role. The study gives some evidence of the fact that both the professionals and the service users are trying to find new roles and new positions. The forums to exercise control over their everyday life are individual plans, formal face to face discussions and everyday informal discussions with staff. However, as service users the persons are unsure of their rights and obligations. Furthermore the persons are not always included in the discussions relating to them. Formulation of wishes and a positive self-relation can be seen as prerequisites when people create their citizenship. The size of the service units is relevant to the amount of control the service users can have over their lives, but what matters most is the professionals approach to work and spatial practice that takes into account opportunities for social interaction and privacy. In collective service units the professionals find it problematic to take into account all the service users´ individual needs while balancing between the rights and individual differences. Citizenship as status gives the rights and opportunities to get one s voice heard as an actor. But rights themselves are not sufficient. While the persons in the study have a will to control their lives they are on different levels, dependent on various degrees of support from the environment, in order to take an active role in the process of creating and exercising their citizenship. Negotiations on belonging and participation take place in interaction with the environment. The persons in the study benefit from supported decision making. It means being provided with information in a way that they understand and having professionals, who are familiar with alternative methods of communicating so as to reach a common understanding. The professionals reflective approach and the persons opportunity to receive support from professionals they have confidence in, make it possible to build up a joint reflection regarding processes where they actively create their citizenship. Key words: lived citizenship, people with learning disability, critical realism, everyday life experiences, ICF, participatory research.
  • Siivonen, Jonita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    The thesis The portrait interview as a newspaper genre. A qualitative close reading focussing on topical motifs, conventions of narration, and gender defines the portrait interview as a newspaper genre and analyses how the personalities in the portraits are constructed textually. The main body of material consists of 107 portrait interviews in two morning newspapers, Dagens Nyheter (published in Stockholm, Sweden) and Hufvudstadsbladet (published in Swedish in Helsinki, Finland), during two one-week periods (week 46/1999 and week 38/2002). There is also complementary material of 59 portraits from four magazines. The study is carried out within the research traditions of journalistic genre studies, gender and journalism, and critical text analysis. It is comprised of a qualitative close reading focussing on content (topical motifs or themes), conventions of narration, and gender. The methods used to carry out the study are qualitative close reading and quantitative content analysis. The analysis identifies the stylistic elements that differentiate the portrait genre from other journalistic genres, as well as from the autobiographical genre, and explores what opportunities and limitations these elements present for the inclusion of even more women protagonists in the portrait genre. The portrait interview is an exception from the critical mission of journalism in general, with its position as a genre of politeness. Since a typical characteristic of the portrait interview genre is that it pays tribute to the protagonist, the genre reveals the kind of personalities and lives that are seen as admirable in society. Four levels of portrait interview are defined: the prototype portrait, the pure portrait, the hybrid portrait and the marginal portrait. The prototype is a raw version of a portrait that fulfils the criteria but may be lacking in content and stylistics. The pure portrait does not lack these qualities and resembles an ideal portrait. The hybrid is a borderline case which relates to another genre or is a mixture between the portrait and some other genre, most commonly the news genre. The marginal portrait does not fulfil the criteria, and can therefore be seen as an inadequate portrait. For example, obituaries and caricatures are excluded if the protagonist s voice is never quoted. The analysis resulted in three factors that in part help to explain why the portrait interview genre has somewhat more female protagonists than journalistic news texts do in general. The four main reasons why women are presented somewhat more in the portrait genre than in other journalistic genres are: (i) women are shown as exceptions to the female norm when, for example, taking a typical male job or managing in positions where there are few women; (ii) women are shown as representing female themes ; (iii) use of the double bind as a story-generating factor; and (iv) the intimisation of journalism. The double bind usually builds up the narration on female ambiguity in the contradiction between private and public life, for example family and career, personal desire and work. The intimisation of journalism and the double bind give women protagonists somewhat more publicity also because of the tendency of portrait interviews to create conflicts within the protagonist, as an exception to journalism in general where conflicts are created or seen as existing between, for example, persons, groupings or parties. Women protagonists and their lives create an optimal narration of inner conflicts originating in the double bind as men are usually not seen as suffering from these conflicts. The analysis also resulted in gendered portrait norms: The feminine portrait norm and the masculine portrait norm or more concretely, professional life and family life as expectation and exception. Women are expected to be responsible parents and mediocre professionals, while men are expected to be professionals and in their free time engaging fathers. Key words: journalism, genre, portrait interview, gender, interview, newspaper, women s magazine.
  • Lämsä, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Riikka Lämsä Patient story. An ethnographic study of patienthood in the practices of a hospital ward Health care services are changing towards more client orientation, where the patient is identified as a lay-expert, consumer and participant. The purpose of this study is to examine what kinds of patienthood are constructed by the practices of a hospital ward. In accordance with ethnomethodology, the concept of patient is not determined beforehand or imposed from above; instead, patient is seen as an agent that arises through the daily practices of a hospital ward. The patient is multiple and, through the insight of science and technology studies, non-human agents, such as devices, can also enact patienthood. I study the concept of patienthood arising out of time, sound, and technology in a hospital ward as well as how it arises through interactions during ward rounds and through patient discharge negotiations. The study is ethnographic, and I collected the data in three internal medicine wards by observing events, by conversing with patients and staff, and by collecting written data. Qualitative content analysis was chosen as the method of analysis. Patienthood in a hospital ward will be described through five different kinds of dimensions. Stability describes the temporal stability of patienthood, i.e., the frequency of changes in practices. The telemetry method, which is an example of the constant development of technology in hospital wards, is changing the patterns of interaction between the patient and the staff. In contrast, the practice of ward rounds has remained relatively unchanged. As a result, in rooms shared by several patients, patients overhear information about other patients and adapt to the situation by behaving as if indifferent during the rounds. Focus describes the scale of patienthood. At times, the patient is identified with the microbe he or she has caught or with electrical impulses of the heart, while at times the focus is on the patient s life situation. Integration of these "different-scaled" forms of patient requires a lot of negotiating in the ward. The self-directed agency of a patient is constructed as "active passivity" when the doctor talks with other patients during ward rounds or as "minor agency" directed towards daily activities during the patient's free time. The patient's self-directed agency is very different from the patient's more passive agency as part of the hospital ward practices. Separateness describes the patient either as an individual or as a collective agent. Ward rounds in shared rooms construct a group of patients and, at the same time, violate the informational privacy of individual patients. The status of the patient as an inpatient or a patient to be discharged is the subject to continuous negotiation. The grounds for discharging a patient are often to do with the patient's functional capacity or life situation as well as with medical or administrative reasons. Discharge negotiations are fairly volatile because the purpose is also to decide in what kind of condition the patient can be discharged. The study provides a new kind of theoretical model on patienthood in hospital wards as well as proposals for the development of practices in hospital wards. In the future, the concealment of verbal patient information should be assured by improving the practice of ward rounds. The best way to improve the activity of the patient is to promote the patient's existing agency, i.e. the agency directed towards daily activities. Discharge negotiations can be improved by developing a set of transparent discharge criteria. Keywords: Hospital, patient, practices, ethnography
  • Yijälä, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    This dissertation research focused on the pre-migration stage of the migration process and, specifically, the action period, which starts from making a decision to move abroad and lasts until the actual move. The research further developed the concept of pre-acculturation, that is, the active process that voluntary migrants in particular go through during the preparatory stage of migration process. As studies on pre-acculturation are still rather scarce, the theoretical background of the research was formulated by applying both previous (mostly post-migration) acculturation and expatriate literature, and completing them with social psychological theories of intergroup relations, and organizational psychology. The present research concentrated on the pre-acculturation of two groups of skilled voluntary migrants preparing to move to Finland: ethnic (re)migrants and their family members from Russia and self-initiated foreign employees (SFEs) recruited to the European Chemicals Agency. The results of the research indicate that immigrant acculturation is a complex process that begins already at the pre-migration stage and involves at least four different dimensions of pre-migration adaptation among voluntary migrants. First, the research showed that integration was the most preferred pre-migration acculturation orientation among ethnic migrants. The following factors were associated with the formation of acculturation orientations: participants general well-being, degree of Russian identification, support for multicultural ideology, and perceptions of the acculturation expectations of future hosts. Second, it was shown that ethnic migrants pre-acculturative stress largely depended on their expectations of post-migration adaptation. These expectations were developed through direct and indirect pre-migration contact with, as well as knowledge about, the society of immigration. Third, it was shown that ethnic migrants anticipated socio-cultural adaptation was related to their familiarity with the country of immigration, the openness to change value, and perceived value congruence between migrants personal values and the perceived values of typical hosts. Finally, previous international work experience, perceived organizational prestige and support, as well as the quality of contact with Finns during recruitment simultaneously predicted various dimensions of SFEs pre-migration adaptation (psychological, socio-psychological and work adaptation). These connections were mediated by European identification, self-esteem and relocation stress. Altogether, the results point to the crucial role of early contact experiences of potential migrants with future home country nationals. According to the results, it is essential to identify the expectations and beliefs related to potential migrants pre-acculturation orientations and pre-migration adaptation, including stress reactions prior to migration. Moreover, the results speak to the importance of psychological resources and preparedness for a successful pre-acculturation. This dissertation research emphasizes that the pre-migration stage in general and pre-acculturation of voluntary migrants in particular should be given more attention in both acculturation and expatriate literature. A proper understanding of pre-acculturation is seen as a means of promoting the most adaptive acculturation profiles at the earliest stage of migration.
  • Leppo, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Since the 1970s alcohol and drug use by pregnant women has become a target of political, professional and personal concern. The present study focuses on prenatal substance use and the regulation of risks by examining different kinds of societal responses to prenatal alcohol and drug use. The study analyses face-to-face encounters between professionals and service users at a specialised maternity clinic for pregnant women with substance abuse problems, medical and political discourses on the compulsory treatment of pregnant women as a means of FAS prevention and official recommendations on alcohol intake during pregnancy. Moreover, the study addresses the women s perspective by asking how women who have used illicit drugs during pregnancy perceive and rank the dangers linked to drug use. The study consists of five empirical sub-studies and a summary article. Sub-study I was written in collaboration with Dorte Hecksher and Sub-study IV with Riikka Perälä. Theoretically the study builds on the one hand, on the socio-cultural approach to the selection and perception of risks and on the other on governmentality studies which focus on the use of power in contemporary Western societies. The study is based on an ethnographic approach and makes use of the principles of multi-sited ethnography. The empirical sub-studies are based on three different types of qualitative data: ethnographic field notes from a maternity clinic from a period of 7 months, documentary material (medical journals, political documents, health education materials, government reports) and 3) interviews from maternity clinics with clients and members of staff. The study demonstrates that the logic of the regulation of prenatal alcohol use in Finland is characterised by the rise of the foetus , a process in which the urgency of protecting the foetus has gradually gained a more prominent role in the discourses on alcohol-related foetal damage. An increasing unwillingness to accept any kinds of risks when foetal health is at stake is manifested in the public debate on the compulsory treatment of pregnant women with alcohol problems and in the health authorities decision to advise pregnant women to refrain from alcohol use during pregnancy (Sub-studies I and II). Secondly, the study suggests that maternity care professionals have an ambivalent role in their mundane encounters with their pregnant clients: on the one hand professionals focus on the well-being of the foetus, but on the other, they need to take into account the women s needs and agency. The professionals daily encounters with their clients are thus characterised by hybridisation: the simultaneous use of technologies of domination and technologies of agency (Sub-studies III and IV). Finally, the study draws attention to the women s understanding of the risks of illicit drug during pregnancy, and shows that the women s understanding of risk differs from the bio-medical view. The study suggests that when drug-using pregnant women seek professional help they can feel that their moral worth is threatened by professionals negative attitudes which can make service-use challenging.
  • Kohonen, Anssi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis consists of four chapters: an introduction and three independent research papers. The red line in the thesis is to study with time series methods how financial markets propagate financial shocks both across countries and from the financial sector to the real sector of an economy. The introductory chapter presents the three main themes of the thesis contagion, volatility spillovers and real effects of uncertainty and introduces the basic models that the thesis applies. These models are structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) model and (multivariate) generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model. The introduction also discusses the identification of the SVAR models which is also an important theme in the thesis. Chapter 2 considers volatility spillovers in the Eurozone during the beginning of the recent euro crisis, in the years 2010-2011. The chapter proposes a way to identify a structural model which explains volatility spillovers being a result of information asymmetries between investors. The identification of the model is based on recent ideas of using particularities of residual distribution and, as a novelty, Google trends data, not parameter restrictions, to identify a SVAR model. The empirical results confirm the existence of volatility spillovers between the euro countries of the sample (Greece, Italy, Germany, Ireland and Spain). Especially, we find that stock market volatility shocks in large countries have significant effects in all countries but those in the small countries mainly affect only other small countries. Chapter 3 extends an existing SVAR model in multiple ways to study the interdependencies between the government bond spreads over the German bond of the main crisis countries of the Eurozone (Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Italy). We are especially interested in studying the possibility of contagion of government default risk between the countries. The identification of the SVAR model is again based on non-normalities and heteroskedasticity in the residual distribution of the model. The results of the paper suggest that contagion explains a great part of the increases in the spreads during 2010-2012. However, there are substantial differences between the countries. For Ireland, Italy and Spain also the idiosyncratic risk factors seem to play an important role. Also, perhaps contrary to the common belief, there is evidence of substantial contagion from the spreads of the other countries to the Greek and Portuguese spreads. Chapter 4 considers the real economic effect of uncertainty. The data include the monthly change in the US industrial production and the monthly US stock market return. As a measure of uncertainty we consider the volatility of the stock market return, and to study its effect on the growth rate of the industrial production, we consider a bivariate vector autoregressive (VAR) model with GARCH-effect in the residuals and where volatility is allowed to affect the conditional means (GARCH-in-mean-model). The data cover the years 1919-2013, and we find that stock market volatility has a statistically significant, counter-cyclical effect on the growth rate of the industrial production.
  • Hankonen, Nelli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Background: The onset of many chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented by changes in diet, physical activity and obesity. Known predictors of successful behaviour change include psychosocial factors such as selfefficacy, action and coping planning, and social support. However, gender and socioeconomic differences in these psychosocial mechanisms underlying health behaviour change have not been examined, despite well-documented sociodemographic differences in lifestyle-related mortality and morbidity. Additionally, although stable personality traits (such as dispositional optimism or pessimism and gender-role orientation: agency and communion) are related to health and health behaviour, to date they have rarely been studied in the context of health behaviour interventions. These personality traits might contribute to health behaviour change independently of the more modifiable domain-specific psychosocial factors, or indirectly through them, or moderated by them. The aims were to examine in an intervention setting: (1) whether changes (during the three-month intervention) in psychological determinants (self-efficacy beliefs, action planning and coping planning) predict changes in exercise and diet behaviours over three months and 12 months, (2) the universality assumption of behaviour change theories, i.e. whether preintervention levels and changes in psychosocial determinants are similar among genders and socioeconomic groups, and whether they predict changes in behaviour in a similar way in these groups, (3) whether the personality traits optimism, pessimism, agency and communion predict changes in abdominal obesity, and the nature of their interplay with modifiable and domain-specific psychosocial factors (self-efficacy and social support). Methods: Finnish men and women (N = 385) aged 50 65 years who were at an increased risk for type 2 diabetes were recruited from health care centres to participate in the GOod Ageing in Lahti Region (GOAL) Lifestyle Implementation Trial. The programme aimed to improve participants lifestyle (physical activity, eating) and decrease their overweight. The measurements of self-efficacy, planning, social support and dispositional optimism/pessimism were conducted pre-intervention at baseline (T1) and after the intensive phase of the intervention at three months (T2), and the measurements of exercise at T1, T2 and 12 months (T3) and healthy eating at T1 and T3. Waist circumference, an indicator of abdominal obesity, was measured at T1 and at oneyear (T3) and three-year (T4) follow-ups. Agency and communion were measured at T4 with the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). Results: (1) Increases in self-efficacy and planning were associated with three-month increases in exercise (Study I). Moreover, both the post-intervention level and three-month increases (during the intervention) in self-efficacy in dealing with barriers predicted the 12-month increase in exercise, and a high postintervention level of coping plans predicted the 12-month decrease in dietary fat (Study II). One- and three-year waist circumference reductions were predicted by the initial three-month increase in self-efficacy (Studies III, IV). (2) Post-intervention at three months, women had formed more action plans for changing their exercise routines and received less social support for behaviour change than men had. The effects of adoption self-efficacy were similar but change in planning played a less significant role among men (Study I). Examining the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), psychosocial determinants at baseline and their changes during the intervention yielded largely similar results. Exercise barriers self-efficacy was enhanced slightly less among those with low SES. Psychosocial determinants predicted behaviour similarly across all SES groups (Study II). (3) Dispositional optimism and pessimism were unrelated to waist circumference change, directly or indirectly, and they did not influence changes in self-efficacy (Study III). Agency predicted 12-month waist circumference reduction among women. High communion coupled with high social support was associated with waist circumference reduction. However, the only significant predictor of three-year waist circumference reduction was an increase in health-related self-efficacy during the intervention (Study IV). Conclusions: Interventions should focus on improving participants self-efficacy early on in the intervention as well as prompting action and coping planning for health behaviour change. Such changes are likely to be similarly effective among intervention participants regardless of gender and educational level. Agentic orientation may operate via helping women to be less affected by the demands of the self-sacrificing female role and enabling them to assertively focus on their own goals. The earlier mixed results regarding the role of social support in behaviour change may be in part explained by personality traits such as communion.
  • Ehrling, Leena-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    In the field of psychiatry semi-structured interview is one of the central tools in assessing the psychiatric state of a patient. In semi-structured interview the interviewer participates in the interaction both by the prepared interview questions and by his or her own, unstructured turns. It has been stated that in the context of psychiatric assessment interviewers' unstructured turns help to get focused information but simultaneously may weaken the reliability of the data. This study examines the practices by which semi-structured psychiatric interviews are conducted. The method for the study is conversation analysis, which is both a theory of interaction and a methodology for its empirical, detailed analysis. Using data from 80 video-recorded psychiatric interviews with 16 patients and five interviewers it describes in detail both the structured and unstructured interviewing practices. In the analysis also psychotherapeutic concepts are used to describe phenomena that are characteristic for therapeutic discourse. The data was received from the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study (HPS). HPS is a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of four forms of psychotherapy in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. A total of 326 patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: solution-focused therapy, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy, and long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. The patients assigned to the long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy group and 41 patients self-selected for psychoanalysis were included in a quasi-experimental design. The primary outcome measures were depressive and anxiety symptoms, while secondary measures included work ability, need for treatment, personality functions, social functioning, and life style. Cost-effectiveness was determined. The data were collected from interviews, questionnaires, psychological tests, and public health registers. The follow-up interviews were conducted five times during a 5-year follow-up. The study shows that interviewers pose elaborated questions that are formulated in a friendly and sensitive way and that make relevant patients' long and story-like responses. When receiving patients' answers interviewers use a wide variety of different interviewing practices by which they direct patients' talk or offer an understanding of the meaning of patients' response. The results of the study are two-fold. Firstly, the study shows that understanding the meaning of mental experiences requires interaction between interviewer and patient. It is stated that therefore semi-structured interview is both relevant and necessary method for collecting data in psychotherapy outcome study. Secondly, the study suggests that conversation analysis, enriched with psychotherapeutic concepts, offers methodological possibilities for psychotherapy process research, especially for process-outcome paradigm.
  • Arppe, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Smolander, Sampo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    This work develops methods to account for shoot structure in models of coniferous canopy radiative transfer. Shoot structure, as it varies along the light gradient inside canopy, affects the efficiency of light interception per unit needle area, foliage biomass, or foliage nitrogen. The clumping of needles in the shoot volume also causes a notable amount of multiple scattering of light within coniferous shoots. The effect of shoot structure on light interception is treated in the context of canopy level photosynthesis and resource use models, and the phenomenon of within-shoot multiple scattering in the context of physical canopy reflectance models for remote sensing purposes. Light interception. A method for estimating the amount of PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) intercepted by a conifer shoot is presented. The method combines modelling of the directional distribution of radiation above canopy, fish-eye photographs taken at shoot locations to measure canopy gap fraction, and geometrical measurements of shoot orientation and structure. Data on light availability, shoot and needle structure and nitrogen content has been collected from canopies of Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Shoot structure acclimated to light gradient inside canopy so that more shaded shoots have better light interception efficiency. Light interception efficiency of shoots varied about two-fold per needle area, about four-fold per needle dry mass, and about five-fold per nitrogen content. Comparison of fertilized and control stands of Norway spruce indicated that light interception efficiency is not greatly affected by fertilization. Light scattering. Structure of coniferous shoots gives rise to multiple scattering of light between the needles of the shoot. Using geometric models of shoots, multiple scattering was studied by photon tracing simulations. Based on simulation results, the dependence of the scattering coefficient of shoot from the scattering coefficient of needles is shown to follow a simple one-parameter model. The single parameter, termed the recollision probability, describes the level of clumping of the needles in the shoot, is wavelength independent, and can be connected to previously used clumping indices. By using the recollision probability to correct for the within-shoot multiple scattering, canopy radiative transfer models which have used leaves as basic elements can use shoots as basic elements, and thus be applied for coniferous forests. Preliminary testing of this approach seems to explain, at least partially, why coniferous forests appear darker than broadleaved forests in satellite data.
  • Nikkonen, Ahti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2005)
  • Janzon, Max (Max Janzon, 2014)
    Abstract The study offers a strong constructivist reading on Finnish border security. The objective of the study is to realize border security culture. Realizing Finnish border security culture implies constructing Finnish border territoriality and its social meanings thereof, and reconstructing the patterns of valorization. The first research objective is to construct the shared ideas and assumptions of Finnish border security by constructing border territoriality. The second research objective is to define socially constructed spatial strategy. The third research objective is to realize border security culture and implies framing the social practices that confirm social meanings and patterns. Accordingly, the study has three research objectives and three research questions. The first research question is about how Finnish border security is socially constructed. The second research question concerns Finnish socially constructed border strategy. The third research question asks the question of what about border security culture is realized. The empirical agenda of the study is concluded with a main empirical argument regarding border security culture realized. Border security culture is regarded constructivist and thus as a holistically embedded social structure, which by social constructivism is made known, obvious and then understandable. Social constructivism is treated as a metapractice of border security culture and derives its character from the perceived logical and pragmatic relationship to its object of inquiry. Scientific realism in this study is understood in terms of constitutive realism. Constitutive realism draws from the assumption that there is social knowledge and that this social knowledge is expressed in and by social structures. The epistemological position argues for a constitutive framing of Finnish border security that draws from practical knowledge and its contextual horizon. For empirical purposes, the study applies constitutive framing. The act of constitutive framing produces specific frames by organizing and interpreting the language used to communicate border security meaning, patterns, and practices. A total of twenty Finnish border security professionals in senior or executive positions were interviewed for the study. Border security culture in this study is understood to constitute spatial strategy and bordering practices shared by border security professionals. For the purpose of realizing border security culture, the study develops a constructivist argument according to which constructing border security is by application of securitization theory wedded to border security professionals and by using territorialization theory rooted in how border security professionals construct territoriality. Rooted in the social ontology of international border security, the social constructivist argument forms a territorial political sociology that develops by combining the securitizing practices of border security agents and their shared territoriality. According to the empirical agenda, the master constructs of Finnish border security are Eastborderness, Schengenization, Integration, and Cooperation. Eastborderness and Schengenization are acts for communicating territoriality while integrated and cooperational borderwork are acts for enforcing territoriality. The two patterns of valorization that emerge are territorial consciousness and (securitized) spatial order. The pattern of territorial consciousness constitutes pragmatic and constructive territoriality. The pattern of securitized spatial order constitutes coherent and coordinated spatial order. While pragmatic and constructive territoriality are influential acts for communicating border territoriality, coherent and coordinated spatial order are influential acts for enforcing territoriality. Such influential territoriality constitutes effectively a socially constructed convincing border strategy. Border security culture is then realized by the practices that confirm shared meanings and shared patterns. The practices of eastbordering, social bordering, and spatial bordering confirm Finnish border strategy. Further, these bordering practices constitute influential bordering culture and Finnish (and European) border security culture realized. The main empirical argument regarding a border security culture realized is as follows. Rooted in convincing border strategy, the practices of eastbordering, social bordering, and spatial bordering inhere in and constitute an influential bordering culture, and thereby Finnish (and European) border security culture is realized. Eastbordering refers to the practices of Finnish-Russian border security cooperation, while social bordering constitutes Frontex-like border security. Spatial bordering practices define networked border security. Finnish-Russian border security cooperation, Frontex-like border security, and networked border security constitute influential border security culture, while inhering acts for communicating and enforcing territoriality effectively influence interactions at the security borders.
  • Liimakka, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The body relation of many contemporary Western young women involves experiences and practices of body dissatisfaction, habitual body monitoring and appearance management. This doctoral dissertation explores young Finnish women s body experiences and possibilities for embodied agency within or despite the constraints of their given socio-cultural surroundings. By drawing from Merleau-Ponty s phenomenology of the body, Bourdieu s reflexive sociology and feminist appropriations of these, both the stability of habitual body experience and the possibilities of transforming it are explored. The study focuses on the body experiences of young Finnish women who study in upper secondary school or university. The study is comprised of three sub-studies that explored the accounts of upper secondary school students, students of social sciences and students of women s studies. In order to explore the relationships between an individual, social groups and society as manifesting in the individual s body experience, the study analysed both collectively and individually produced accounts of body experience, focus group discussions and individually written accounts, and utilized in their analysis grounded theory-inspired coding and interpretative phenomenological analysis. The dissertation shows that the common experiences of self-critical body surveillance and body anxiety among contemporary young women rise from the experience of a representational self, constructed by a culture of appearances. In this study, young women s body experiences were constructed within contradictory demands posed by current cultural beauty and health imperatives and the current cultural self imperative requiring individual, resistant agency in not surrendering to the cultural body imperatives. The young women typically utilized a strategy defined in this study as Cartesian agency, emphasizing the young woman s independence from culture, other people and her own body. Yet Cartesian agency mainly maintained a state of bodily alienation. Through new corporeal experiences, in combination with critical (feminist) reflexivity, some of the young women were able to inhabit their bodies in new and more empowering ways. The agency of the body itself in acquiring new ways of being, thus enabling the young women to re-embody themselves, helped to cause a rupture in their previous socialization of disembodied selves inhabiting objectified and problematic bodies.