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  • Alho, Arja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2004)
  • Mikkola, Tuula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Depending on you – A study of spousal care, everyday life and agency The present aim of the aging policy is to promote old peoples´ possibilities to live at their own home. It is also many elderly couples´ own wish. At home a persons spouse is the most natural care giver, if she or he is able to give care. Spousal care means living together, giving and receiving care and interdependency between the spouses. The aim of the policy is to support spousal care by paying financial support to a carer and arrang-ing formal home care services. The purpose of this research is to study the agency of care giving and receiving spouses as care givers and receivers and also as home care service users. The data of the study consist of the interviews of 21 elderly couples. Both spouses were interviewed seper-ately, with the exception of five couples who were interviewed together. In these inter-views a care receiver had difficulties in communicating by speaking and a spouse was her or his interpreter. The study is based on a social constructionistic and a discourse analytical view of con-struction of meanings in human communication. Talking is a social action: people achieve identities, realities, social order and social relationship through talking. In inter-pretating the spouses agency I have used of Harvey Sack´s method of Membership Categorization Device (MCD). The spouses construct social categories which made the meaning of their agency visible. Care changes the routines and actions of everyday life. The couples have to negotiate their duties and rights between each other. Care giving and receiving are both physical and emotional actions. In the end it becomes a part of the couples´ normal life. The pur-pose of couples´ action is to live together as long as possible. They want to strengthen both their own agency and their spouses´ agency. The living together depends on both of them. The spouses decided together what home care services they would like to use and on which conditions they have to use services. Spouses have different kind of agencies as service users which describe their relationship and confidency on formal home care support and services. Services must support the elderly couples´ shared life at home. They cannot be against the conditions on the spousal care. When you want to arrange services to elderly care giving and receiving couples, you have to consider their own wishes and the meanings of their own relationship and shared life.
  • Louheranta, Olavi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The doctoral dissertation, entitled Siperiaa sanoiksi - uralilaisuutta teoiksi. Kai Donner poliittisena organisaattorina sekä tiedemiehenä antropologian näkökulmasta clarifies the early history of anthropological fieldwork and research in Siberia. The object of research is Kai Donner (1888-1935), fieldworker, explorer and researcher of Finno-Ugric languages, who made two expeditions to Siberia during 1911-1913 and 1914. Donner studied in Cambridge in 1909 under the guidance of James Frazer, A. C. Haddon and W. H. R. Rivers - and with Bronislaw Malinowski. After finishing his expeditions, Donner organized the enlistment of Finnish university students to receive military training in Germany. He was exiled and participated in the struggle for Finnish independence. After that, he organized military offensives in Russia and participated in domestic politics and policy in cooperation with C. G. E. Mannerheim. He also wrote four ethnographic descriptions on Siberia and worked with the Scandinavian Arctic areas researchers and Polar explorers. The results of this analysis can be sum up as follows: In the history of ethnographic research in Finland, it is possible to find two types of fieldwork tradition. The first tradition started from M. A. Castrén's explorations and research and the second one from August Ahlqvist's. Donner can be included in the first group with Castrén and Sakari Pälsi, unlike other contemporary philologists, or cultural researcher colleagues, which used the method of August Ahlqvist. Donner's holistic, lively and participant-observation based way of work is articulated in his writings two years before Malinowski published his thesis about modern fieldwork. Unfortunately, Donner didn't get the change to continue his researche because of the civil war in Finland, and due to the dogmatic position of E. N. Setälä. Donner's main work - the ethnohistorical Siberia - encloses his political and anthropological visions about a common and threatened Uralic nation under the pressure of Russian. The important items of his expeditions can be found in the area of cultural ecology, nutritional anthropology and fieldwork methods. It is also possible to prove that in his short stories from Siberia, there can be found some psychological factors that correlate his early life history.
  • Remes, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Social gradients in health, wherein each successive level of social position enjoys better health and lower mortality, have been observed in various health indicators within different societies. Social inequalities in infant and adult mortality are well documented, but previous findings on children, adolescents and young adults are less complete and less consistent. Death at a young age is increasingly rare in developed countries. Nevertheless, research on mortality can still provide valuable insights into health inequalities in that social differentials in ultimate health outcomes reflect differentials in many other acute and chronic health conditions that are more difficult to capture. The purpose of this study was to examine the social determinants of mortality at a young age. The findings are based on several measures of parental social background, and among older adolescents and young adults also on measures reflecting their own social position and current living arrangements. Extensive individual-level register data was obtained from Statistics Finland. Combining longitudinal population census and employment data from the period 1970 2007 with data on mortality and causes of death, the study data covered 80% of all deaths in 1990−2007. Social differentials in mortality in the age range 1−29 years were assessed in both absolute and relative terms, by calculating mortality rates and estimating Cox proportional hazards models. Mortality in childhood among both boys and girls was clearly associated with family type and parental socioeconomic factors. There were no differences in mortality between children in cohabiting-parent families and children of married parents, but children in single-parent families carried an excess risk. Both parental education and household income showed clear mortality gradients, with higher mortality among children of parents with lower levels of education and who earned less. The relationship between single parenthood and child mortality was, in fact, largely attributable to the associated low parental education and income. Mortality in late adolescence and early adulthood was higher among young men and women living in single- or cohabiting-parent families, as single parents themselves, alone, or with others than among those living in the parental home with married parents. Living independently with a partner was associated with lower mortality, especially among people in their late 20s. Following adjustment for childhood and current factors, the strongest excess mortality in early adulthood occurred among the less-highly educated and the non-employed. Leaving the parental home at a young age also remained an independent risk factor for premature death. The associations between parental social background and mortality were distinct but smaller, and were largely mediated by the current factors and age at leaving the parental home. Among children, social inequalities in mortality were strongest in early childhood, between the ages of one and four years, somewhat smaller between five and nine years, and with the exception of a weak association between mortality and parental education, non-existent at 10 14 years. Moreover, the associations between mortality and the current living arrangements and the main activity differed by age in late adolescence and early adulthood. The convergence of social differentials in mortality in late childhood, and their re-emergence in late adolescence related to changes in the most common causes of death during these life phases. Influenced by various factors, different causes of death are more or less likely to associate with social factors. Social differentials in mortality stemmed mostly from external causes, but deaths from diseases contributed to mortality differentials between the ages of one to four, and in early adulthood. Targeting support to high-risk groups in early childhood and in the transition to adulthood could prove to be effective in reducing health inequalities and preventing social exclusion not only among the young but also later in life.
  • Snell, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    The object of the dissertation is to analyse the concept of social responsibility in relation to research and development of new biotechnology. This is done by examining the relevant actors – researchers, administrators, decision-makers, experts, industry, and the public – involved in the Finnish governance of biotechnology through their roles and responsibilities. Existing practises of responsibility in biotechnology governance, as well as the discourses of responsibility – the actors’ conceptions of their own and others responsibilities – are analysed. Three types of responsibility that the actors have assumed are formulated, and the implications of these conceptions to the governance of new biotechnology are analysed. From these different types of responsibility adopted and used by the actors, theoretical models called responsibility chains are constructed. The notion of responsibility is under-theorised in sociology and this research is an attempt to create a mid-range theory of responsibility in the context of biotechnology governance. The research aims to increase understanding of the governance system from a holistic viewpoint by contributing to academic debates on science and technology policy, public understanding of science, commercialisation of research, and corporate social responsibility. With a thorough analysis of the concept of responsibility that is derived from empirical data, the research brings new perspectives into these debates by challenging many normative ideas embedded in discourses. For example, multiple roles of the public are analysed to highlight the problems of consumerism and citizen participation in practise, as well as in relation to different policy strategies. The research examines also the contradictory responsibilities faced by biotechnology researchers, who balance between academic autonomy, commercialisation of research, and reflecting social consequences of their work. Industries responsibilities are also examined from the viewpoint of biotechnology. The research methodology addresses the contradictions between empirical findings, theories of biotechnology governance, and policies in a novel way, as the study concentrates on several actors and investigates both the discourses and the practises of the actors. Thus, the qualitative method of analysis is a combination of discourse and content analysis. The empirical material is comprised of 29 personal interviews as well as documents by Finnish and multinational organizations on biotechnology governance.
  • Hinkkanen , Reea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This study Someone to Welcome you home: Infertility, medicines and the Sukuma-Nyamwezi , looks into the change in the cosmological ideology of the Sukuma-Nyamwezi of Tanzania and into the consequences of this change as expressed through cultural practices connected to female infertility. This analysis is based on 15 months of fieldwork in Isaka, in the Shinyanga area. In this area the birth rate is high and at the same time infertility is a problem for individual women. The attitudes connected to fertility and the attempts to control fertility provide a window onto social and cultural changes in the area. Even though the practices connected to fertility seem to be individualized the problem of individual women - the discourse surrounding fertility is concerned with higher cosmological levels. The traditional cosmology emphasized the centrality of the chief as the source of well-being. He was responsible for rain and the fertility of the land and, thus, for the well-being of the whole society. The holistic cosmology was hierarchical and the ritual practices connected to chiefship which dealt with the whole of the society were recursively applied at the lower levels of hierarchy, in the relationships between individuals. As on consequence of changes in the political system, the chiefship was legally abolished in the early years of Independence. However, the holistic ideology, which was the basis of the chiefship, did not disappear and instead acquired new forms. It is argued that in African societies the common efflorence of diviner-healers and witchcraft can be a consequence of the change in the relationship between the social reality and the cosmological ideology. In the Africanist research the increase in the numbers of diviner-healers and witchcraft is usually seen as a consequence of individualism and modernization. In this research, however, it is seen as an altered form of holism, as a consequence of which the hierarchical relations between women and men have changed. Because of this, the present-day practices connected to reproduction pay special attention to the control of women s sexuality.
  • Muuri, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This research analyses opinions on the system of social welfare services from the point of view of clients and the public in general in Finland. The approach is quantitative, drawing on theories of the welfare-state tradition. The data used comes from the comprehensive Welfare and Services in Finland survey compiled by STAKES. While previous research on the welfare state has predominantly focused on surveying public opinion on social protection, this research focuses on social welfare services. The main focus of this research is on publicly funded care provided by municipal social welfare services. In this research, social welfare services include child day care, services for people with disabilities, home-help services, counselling by social workers and social assistance. The research considered in particular whether the clients or the population has different opinions towards social welfare services or social benefits. In addition, the research partly covers areas of informal care provided by family and friends. The research material consisted of the STAKES Welfare and Services in Finland survey. The data was compiled in 2004 and 2006 by Statistics Finland. The research comprises five articles. Additional data have been extracted from social welfare statistics and registers. Multiple approaches were applied in the survey on welfare and services the methods in this research included interviews by phone and mail, and register data. The sample size was 5 810 people in 2004 and 5 798 in 2006. The response rates were 82.7% and 83.7%, respectively. The results indicate that a large majority (90%) of the Finnish population is of the opinion that the public sector should bear the main responsibility for organising social and health services. The system of social welfare services and its personnel have strong public support 73% and 80% respectively. However, new and even negative tones have emerged in the Finnish debate on social welfare services. Women are increasingly critical of the performance of social welfare services and the level of social protection. Furthermore, this study shows that women more often than men wish to see an increase in the amount of privately organised social welfare services. Another group critical of the performance of social welfare services are pensioners. People who had used social welfare services were more critical than those who had not used them. Thus, the severest criticism was received from the groups who use and gain most from public services and benefits. However, the education and income variables identified in earlier studies no longer formed a significant dividing line, although people with higher education tend to foster a more positive view of the performance of social welfare services as well as the level of social protection. Income differences did not bear any significance, that is, belonging to a high or low income group was not a determining factor in the attitude towards social welfare services or social benefits. According to the research, family and friends still form an informal yet significant support network in people's everyday lives, and its importance has not been diminished by services provided by the welfare state. The Finnish public considers child day care the most reliable form of social welfare services. Indeed, child day care has become the most universal sector of our system of social welfare services. Other services that instil confidence included counselling by social workers and services for people with disabilities. On the other hand, social assistance and home-help services received negative feedback. The negative views were based on a number of arguments. One argument contends that the home-help service system, which was originally intended for universal use, is crumbling. The preventive role of home-help services has been reduced. These results mirror the increasingly popular opinion that social welfare services are not produced for all those who need them, but to an increasing extent for a select few of them. Municipalities are struggling with their finances and this, combined with negative publicity, has damaged the public's trust in some municipal social welfare services. A welfare state never achieves a stable condition, but must develop over time, as the world around it changes. Following the 1990's recession, we are now in a position where we can start to develop a system that responds to the needs of the next generation. Study results indicating new areas of dissatisfaction reflect the need to develop and improve the services provided. It is also increasingly essential that social welfare services pay attention to the opinions of clients and the public. Should the gap between opinions and actual activities increase, the legitimacy of the whole system would be questioned. Currently, the vast majority of Finns consider the system of social welfare services adequate, which provides us with the continuity required to maintain and improve client-oriented and reasonably priced social welfare services. Paying attention to the signals given by clients and the general public, and reacting to them accordingly, will also secure the development and legitimacy of the system in the future.
  • Tapola-Haapala, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    In Finland, specialized studies in social work (professional licentiate education) were begun in the year 2000. The education is targeted at experienced social workers and leads to a licentiate degree (a degree between master s and doctorate). In this study, the experiences of members of the first study cohort, specializing in social work with children and young people, are examined. The study s theoretical frame of reference is based on the morphogenetic approach, developed by British sociologist Margaret Archer. In it, the potential powers of both an agent as well as social and cultural structures are considered important and worth taking into account. Archer sees reflexivity, a person s ability to analyze herself/himself, as an essential starting point for agency. Thanks to reflexivity, people are able to engage in internal conversations , discuss the concerns that are important to them and form agential projects . In Archer s theory, the social structures and traits of the cultural system are seen as having potential power in relation to people s agential projects; these powers can enable but also restrain the realization of the projects. On the other hand, individuals can try to review the factors affecting their agential projects and find ways of action that facilitate them. The research task is to study the self-understanding of social work professionals in the 21st century, the issues and goals professionally important for them, as well as the contexts framing the realization of these goals. The research questions are as follows: 1) What kind of internal conversations, concerns and agential projects related to their work did the professionals taking part in licentiate education bring to light? 2) What kind of enabling and restraining factors can be identified in their situations? And 3) What kind of social structures and traits related to the cultural system are connected to these factors? The research material was collected by interviewing the students in different phases of their education. In 2001 and 2004 all members of the study group (n = 25) were interviewed. In 2007, 13 students took part. The themes of the internal conversations brought to light in the interviews were divided into four broad thematic categories: professional development, the position of children in social work, multiprofessional work and structural social work. In relation to these themes the students formed different kinds of agential projects. In addition, the study reveals several cultural and social structures that have enabled but also restrained the realization of the agential projects. These structures are linked, for example, to the relations between employees and employers, students and teachers, children and adults as well as between the representatives of different professions. Working conditions which social workers often consider weak are discussed as a focal issue related to many themes. These working conditions become evident, for example, in the great imbalance which exists between the professional tasks and the amount of time that social workers have for them. Difficult situations arise when social workers feel they cannot reach the goals that are professionally important to them because of the strict external conditions of the work.
  • Korvola, Timo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
  • Pahkin, Krista (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The overarching aim of the thesis was to identify work-related and personal factors which support employee well-being during working career and organizational restructuring. The empirical part of this thesis was based on a prospective cohort study of employees in the Finnish forest industry. Data included responses to questionnaires (N up to 4279) and records from organizational and national registers, all collected between 1986 and 2009. The data covered a period of stable growth, strong international expansion and organizational downsizing. The findings first of all show that the level of employee well-being was relatively stable over time. Employees who reported feeling unwell at work at follow-up worked in considerably worse working conditions (compared to people with good well-being) already 10 years before the follow-up. Their personal resources were weaker both at the 10-year follow-up and at baseline. Furthermore, the resources seemed to increase among those feeling well, whereas the development trend was vice versa among those feeling less well. There was an overall trend of decreasing mental well-being through the restructuring process, irrespective of the type of changes. The findings showed that the same factors which helped individuals to stay well over the long run also helped them during the turbulence of work life. Strong sense of coherence and strong social support were also associated with indices of employee well-being during organizational restructuring as well as a more positive view of the restructuring and its consequences. However, pre-change social support from co-workers did not provide a buffer against the detrimental effect of negative change experience on employee well-being. There was an association between the change appraisal and employee well-being, both health and mental well-being, during organizational restructuring: A negative appraisal of the restructuring process increased the risk of lower employee well-being. The findings showed that also the positive, motivational aspects of mental well-being can be damaged if the change appraisal is negative. Finally, the findings showed that by offering opportunities to participate in the planning of the changes related to one s own work and through the actions of top management and the immediate superior s organizations can support the development of positive change experience.
  • Ahvenniemi, Rasmus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The thesis consists of an introduction and 3 essays presenting stochastic dynamic optimization models concerning decision making in the banking sector. The first two essays consider individual banks in an environment where financial crises may occur. The third essay considers the whole banking sector as one entity which is a part of the economy, and thereby the process of money creation in the banking system becomes a central issue. The first essay presents a model for analyzing the optimal dynamic decision making of a bank, which adjusts the size and composition of its balance sheet over time. The model considers the development of the bank's balance sheet in a situation involving the risk of a financial crisis which may or may not materialize, and the timing of which is uncertain. The crisis may involve defaulting of loans and a reduction in the availability of funding. The maturing of loans and deposits taking place in each period is explicitly modeled, assuming maturity mismatch. The outcomes of the model show e.g. a tendency of the bank to deleverage its balance sheet in preparation for an anticipated financial crisis, as well as a tendency to accumulate cash reserves in order to maintain sufficient liquidity. The second essay presents a portfolio model for analyzing a bank making decisions over time in a stochastic environment. The bank is assumed to make decisions regarding the amount of new loans given out in each period, thus affecting the allocation of its funds between liquid cash and non-liquid loans. The model involves maturity mismatch and the risk of a liquidity crisis during which the availability of new funding is restricted. Simulations of the model show that a positive amount is allocated to cash even though cash pays zero returns and no credit risk or investment risk is present in the model, as long as maturity mismatch and the risk of a liquidity crisis are both present. The third essay presents a model of an economy consisting of a central bank, a commercial banking sector, and a real economy experiencing stochastic productivity shocks. A stochastic dynamic programming model is formulated for modeling the policy decisions of the central bank, which dynamically adjusts the size of the monetary base, attempting to keep inflation close to a target. It is assumed that reserve requirements may or may not be binding at a given time. When reserve requirements are not binding, money creation is endogenous, i.e. determined by lending decisions of commercial banks. These lending decisions are affected by the condition of the real economy and, to some extent, by central bank policies acting through transmission channels such as the portfolio rebalance effect. Lending stimulates the real economy while also accelerating inflation as it causes the money supply to grow. The outcomes show that during a recession lending by commercial banks is reduced, deflation prevails, and the central bank carries out expansionary monetary policy. When the recession ends, lending increases and there is a period of increased inflation, while at the same time contractionary monetary policy is carried out.
  • Roman-Lagerspetz, Sari (Sari Roman-Lagerspetz, 2009)
    This study analyses the Hegelian roots of the subject-theory and the political theory of Judith Butler. Butler can be seen as the author of "gender performativity". Butler claims that subject's identities are linquistic "terms". Linquistic identities are performative and normative: they produce, according to cultural rules, the identities which they just claim to describe. Butler's theory of the performativity of identities is based on her theory of identities as "ek-static" constructions. This means that there is a relation between the self and the Other in the heart of identities. It is claimed in this study that Butler's theory of the relation between the self and the Other, or, between the subject and the constitutive outside, is based on G.W.F. Hegel's theory of the dialectics of recognition in The Phenomenology of Spirit. Especially the sections dealing with the relation between "Lord" and "Bondsman" set the theoretical base for Butler's theory. Further, it is claimed that Hegel's own solution for the enslaving and instrumentalizing relation between the self and the Other, reciprocal recognition, remains an important alternative to the postmodernist conception supported by political theorists like Butler. Chapter 2, on Hegel, goes through the dialectics of recognition between the self and the Other in The Phenomenology of Spirit up until the ideal of reciprocal recognition and absolute knowledge. Chapter 3 introduces two French interpretations of Hegel, by Alexandre Kojéve and Louis Althusser. Both of these interpretations, especially the Kojevian one, have deeply influenced the contemporary understanding of Hegel as well as the contemporary thought - presented e.g. in the postmodern political thought - on the relations between the self and the Other. The Kojévian Marxist utopia with its notion of "the End of History" as well as the Althusserian theory of the Interpellative formation of subjects have influenced how Hegel's theory of the self and the Other have travelled into Butler's thought. In chapter 5 these influences are analyzed in detail. According to the analysis, Butler, like numerous other poststructuralist theorists, accepts Kojéve's interpretation as basically correct, but rejects his vision of "the End of History" as static and totalitarian. Kojéve's utopian philosophy of history is replaced by the paradoxical idea of an endless striving towards emancipation which, however, could not and should not be reached. In chapter 6 Butler's theory is linked to another postmodern political theory, that of Chantal Mouffe. It is argued that Mouffe's theory is based on a similar view of the relation of the self and the other as Butler's theory. The former, however, deals explicitly with politics. Therefore, it makes the central paradox of striving for the impossible more visible; such a theory is unable to guide political action. Hegel actually anticipated this kind of theorizing in his critique of "Unhappy Consciousness" in the Phenomenology of Spirit. Keywords: Judith Butler, G.W.F. Hegel, Chantal Mouffe, Alexandre Kojéve, Postmodernism, Politics, Identities, Performativity, Self-consciousness, Other
  • Erästö, Panu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
  • Nyberg, Henri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    This thesis studies binary time series models and their applications in empirical macroeconomics and finance. In addition to previously suggested models, new dynamic extensions are proposed to the static probit model commonly used in the previous literature. In particular, we are interested in probit models with an autoregressive model structure. In Chapter 2, the main objective is to compare the predictive performance of the static and dynamic probit models in forecasting the U.S. and German business cycle recession periods. Financial variables, such as interest rates and stock market returns, are used as predictive variables. The empirical results suggest that the recession periods are predictable and dynamic probit models, especially models with the autoregressive structure, outperform the static model. Chapter 3 proposes a Lagrange Multiplier (LM) test for the usefulness of the autoregressive structure of the probit model. The finite sample properties of the LM test are considered with simulation experiments. Results indicate that the two alternative LM test statistics have reasonable size and power in large samples. In small samples, a parametric bootstrap method is suggested to obtain approximately correct size. In Chapter 4, the predictive power of dynamic probit models in predicting the direction of stock market returns are examined. The novel idea is to use recession forecast (see Chapter 2) as a predictor of the stock return sign. The evidence suggests that the signs of the U.S. excess stock returns over the risk-free return are predictable both in and out of sample. The new "error correction" probit model yields the best forecasts and it also outperforms other predictive models, such as ARMAX models, in terms of statistical and economic goodness-of-fit measures. Chapter 5 generalizes the analysis of univariate models considered in Chapters 2 4 to the case of a bivariate model. A new bivariate autoregressive probit model is applied to predict the current state of the U.S. business cycle and growth rate cycle periods. Evidence of predictability of both cycle indicators is obtained and the bivariate model is found to outperform the univariate models in terms of predictive power.
  • Kässi, Otto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis studies earnings differences and their dynamics empirically. It consists of an introductory chapter and three independent research papers. All of the three papers are done using Finnish registry data. Chapter two studies the evolution of income inequality from the end of 1980s until the year 2007. I present a statistical decomposition method, which is used to decompose earnings inequality into its permanent and transitory components and study their evolution through time. When the model is applied to Finnish earnings data, it turns out that the spread of earnings inequality over the observation period is driven by both permanent and transitory earnings component. It further turns out, that the earnings dynamics of men and women differ from one another considerably. Chapters three and four study earnings uncertainty within education groups. In chapter three, I compare earnings means and uncertainties among people who have completed a basic level education, secondary level education, lower and upper tertiary level education. I separate uncertainty related to education levels from individual unobserved heterogeneity by modelling selection into education levels with an ordered selection model. I find that education increases mean earnings and decreases earnings uncertainty. In addition, I find that the earnings uncertainties of men are higher than those of women in all levels of education. Chapter four compares the earnings uncertainties between university graduates from different fields of education. The fields are pooled into five fairly homogenous groups. These are: arts, law, business, engineering and natural sciences, and health. As in chapter three, I model the selection into a major to disentangle between uncertainty and heterogeneity, but the selection model is an unordered one. The main result of chapter four is that the differences in mean incomes between different majors are larger than the differences in uncertainties between majors. Taken together, the results of chapters three and four strongly suggest that education is a good investment; it increases earnings, and reduces earnings uncertainty.