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  • Hietala, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This doctoral thesis examines substance abuse services and professional help from the clients´ point of view. The aim is to increase an understanding of the prerequisites for receiving professional help for drinking problems. Even if the research question is focused on the meanings clients gave to public services and professional help, the clients´ point of view is not restricted to the use of the services but expanded to the everyday lives of people meeting at the clients´ café. The research field is a public detox and follow-up treatment clinic (A-clinic) in the city of Helsinki in the mid-1990s. The main field was an on the wagon -café for clients who wanted to take a distance from drinking. Drawing on the interpretive traditions of anthropology, the ethnography in this research is at the same time the theory structuring the research process and the methodology defining the relationship between the researcher and the object of the research. The data consists of the field notes gathered during eight months of fieldwork and a few interviews done in the beginning phase of the fieldwork. The starting point for interpreting the meanings clients gave to professional help is based on understanding the orienting logics of language and action in the café. These logics were structured within the frames of normalcy and hardship. The normalcy frame emphasized the modern individual who makes conscious choices, while the hardship frame was based on collective bonds, masculinity and communal hierarchy. Detoxification treatment appeared as a curative and corrective action in both frames. In the normalcy frame it provided an opportunity to become a patient and return to normal. In the hardship frame treatment was seen as a professional and technical action that relieved malaise and restored masculine competence weakened by drinking. The meanings given to follow-up treatment were more ambiguous. The normalcy frame emphasized the possibility of bolstering self-awareness with the support of therapists and other professionals.In the hardship frame follow-up treatment appeared to be either unclear in its intentions or it made sense in the context of relationships between professionals and clients, masculine hierarchy and personal struggle. The study provides professionals of substance abuse services in the 2000s a view of the collective and traditional worlds, which are quite alien to modern ideals of professional help. Keywords: Services for substance abusers, detox treatment, followup treatment, drinking problem, substance abuse, client culture, professionalism,masculinity, individual subject, normalcy, institutional ethnography
  • Heinilä, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    ABSTRACT The dissertation discusses how Harlem-based jazz dance was recognized in the mainstream press, meaning, non-African-American newspapers and magazines, between 1921 and 1943. The topic was examined by exploring how Harlem jazz dance was perceived in and outside Harlem. Harlem-based jazz dance refers to jazz and swing music dances like the Lindy Hop, the Charleston, and Tap dance, which were danced and promoted by Harlemites in and outside Harlem. In addition to the mainstream press, African-American newspapers, dancers’ interviews, articles about dancers, their memoirs, various studies and different materials in archives, were used for building up the picture of Harlem entertainment both in and outside Harlem. The study mainly analyzes dancers and dance groups like Bill Robinson, the Nicholas Brothers, John W. Sublett and Buck Washington, Whitey’s Lindy Hoppers and George Snowden. How they were seen in the mainstream press was examined by analyzing reviews and articles of the Broadway-connected plays, movies, the Harvest Moon Ball contest, other contests, and other performances. Harlem dancers were reported on in a variety of ways in the mainstream press. As far as the reviews of the Broadway-connected plays are concerned, they mostly received mixed reviews. Bill Robinson, in particular, was recognized mostly positively when compared to other Harlem dancers. Where movie reviews are concerned, Bill Robinson and others got mixed reviews. The dancers were recognized mostly for their dancing, with the exception of Bill Robinson whose acting skills were occasionally praised in the movie reviews. Overall, the critics seemed to appreciate African-American, dance-related values like good rhythm which differed positively from white dancers’ rhythm, and they occasionally recognized the Harlem dancers as rehearsed dancers. In other words, they were not considered stereotypically to be natural dancers. The mainstream press coverage differed among dancers. Bill Robinson was reported on to a great extent in the mainstream press when compared to other Harlem dancers. In addition to the discussion of his private life, he was even quoted as a ‘political advocate’, and he was sometimes described even as a “superhuman” person, where his dancing was concerned. He broke racial barriers in that sense. Although Robinson was distinguished from racial stereotypes, even he could not be fully distinguished from a stereotype of African-Americans as people who merely dance. Although the mainstream press reported on Harlem dancers positively and even sometimes stressed equality between races when publishing pictures of dancers, especially the Rockland Palace dance marathon in Harlem in 1928, the dancers were also occasionally dismissed. As far as the amount of pictures and articles, and sometimes dismissing tone of the articles are concerned, the mainstream press coverage of the Harvest Moon Ball underplayed Whitey’s Lindy Hoppers who participated successfully in the contest. A reason for that was possibly their success in the contest: They won the Lindy Hop/Jitterbug Jive division every year until 1942. The sponsor of the contest, Daily News, wanted to give other dancers an equal chance to win the Lindy Hop/Jitterbug Jive division in the Harvest Moon Ball. The Lindy Hop/Jitterbug Jive, which was the crucial dance in the Harvest Moon Ball because audiences acknowledged it as the number one dance in the contest, was recognized in a powerful way in the LIFE magazine article in 1943 where it was stated that the Lindy Hop was a national dance of the United States. Thus, Whitey’s Lindy Hoppers and George Snowden’s hard work to promote the Lindy Hop culminated in the article. George Snowden with his partner, Mattie Purnell, also created the Lindy Hop, one of the most successful dances in the 20th century, in the Rockland Palace dance marathon. This thesis also explores how political movements like the Civil Rights Movement used jazz music and jazz dance in their events. In particular, the American Communist Party with its affiliates and the NAACP were notable for this activity. This happened mostly to gather people to events like the Scottsboro case fundraisers and raising funds for different purposes. They did not promote actively Harlem jazz dance as a remarkable cultural achievement. The leaders of the NAACP were also active in the Harlem Renaissance Movement which neglected the Harlem jazz dances because it considered them mostly as ‘lower art forms’. As far as the Communists are concerned, they mainly preferred modern dance to the jazz dance. The study also examined how the Harlem riots in 1935 and in 1943 were connected to Harlem entertainment. It seems that the riots did not directly decrease the number of Harlem places of entertainment which mostly stayed intact after the riots. In addition, it explores how rising midtown, Manhattan entertainment venues competed with Harlem entertainment. It is possible that the rise in midtown and other Manhattan entertainment led to the decreased number of white people visiting Harlem places of entertainment, starting at the end of the 1930s. Thus, Harlem entertainment was challenged by this external entertainment. African-American jazz dance was also compared to other entertainment forms like American football and basketball. African-American jazz dance was fully integrated before these other remarkable entertainment forms. It is presumable that Harlem jazz dance played a significant part in the racial integration process in the United States. Recognition of Harlem-based jazz dance diversified the image of African-American dancers as multifaceted dancers.
  • Silvast, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    During the past ten years, a number of social scientists have emphasized the importance of material infrastructures like electricity supply as a research topic for the social sciences. The developing of such new perspectives concerning infrastructures also includes uncertainties and risks. This research analyzes the management of uncertainties in the Finnish electricity infrastructure by posing the following research question: how are electricity interruptions, or blackouts, anticipated in Finland and how are these interruptions managed as risks? The main research methodology of the work is multi-sited field work. The empirical materials include interviews with experts and lay people (33 interviews); participant observation in two electricity control rooms; an electricity consumer survey (115 respondents); and also a number of infrastructure and security policy documents and observations from electricity security seminars. The materials were primarily gathered between 2004 and 2008. Social science research often links risks with major current social changes or socio-cultural risk perceptions. In recent international social science discussions, however, a new research topic has emerged those styles of reasoning and techniques of governance that are deployed to manage risk as a practical matter. My study explores these themes empirically by focusing on the specific habitual practices of risk management in the Finnish electricity infrastructure. The work develops various also semi-ethnographic inquiries into infrastructure risk techniques like monitor screening of real-time risks in electricity control rooms; the management of risks in a liberalized electricity market; the emergence of Finnish reasoning about blackouts from a specific historical background; and the ways in which electricity consumers respond to blackouts in their homes. In addition, the work reflects upon the position of a risk researcher in those situations when the research subjects do not define their management of uncertainties by the concept of risk. The work argues based on recent studies and its results that risk discourse in national and military planning offers a substantial resource to consider infrastructures and their contemporary issues. It also considers the idea, prominent in recent studies concerning insurance in particular, that risk management is a way of combining both public and market logics of provision. Drawing on semi-ethnographic data, the author also discusses the compression of timescales in liberalized infrastructure provision and elaborates the metaphor of screening to consider how market devices like computer monitors affect risk management in a large distributed energy market.
  • Ropponen, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    This thesis is composed of an introductory chapter and four applications each of them constituting an own chapter. The common element underlying each of the chapters is the econometric methodology. The applications rely mostly on the leading econometric techniques related to estimation of causal effects. The first chapter introduces the econometric techniques that are employed in the remaining chapters. Chapter 2 studies the effects of shocking news on student performance. It exploits the fact that the school shooting in Kauhajoki in 2008 coincided with the matriculation examination period of that fall. It shows that the performance of men declined due to the news of the school shooting. For women the similar pattern remains unobserved. Chapter 3 studies the effects of minimum wage on employment by employing the original Card and Krueger (1994; CK) and Neumark and Wascher (2000; NW) data together with the changes-in-changes (CIC) estimator. As the main result it shows that the employment effect of an increase in the minimum wage is positive for small fast-food restaurants and negative for big fast-food restaurants. Therefore, it shows that the controversial positive employment effect reported by CK is overturned for big fast-food restaurants and that the NW data are shown, in contrast to their original results, to provide support for the positive employment effect. Chapter 4 employs the state-specific U.S. data (collected by Cohen and Einav [2003; CE]) on traffic fatalities to re-evaluate the effects of seat belt laws on the traffic fatalities by using the CIC estimator. It confirms the CE results that on the average an implementation of a mandatory seat belt law results in an increase in the seat belt usage rate and a decrease in the total fatality rate. In contrast to CE, it also finds evidence on compensating-behavior theory, which is observed especially in the states by the border of the U.S. Chapter 5 studies the life cycle consumption in Finland, with the special interest laid on the baby boomers and the older households. It shows that the baby boomers smooth their consumption over the life cycle more than other generations. It also shows that the old households smoothed their life cycle consumption more as a result of the recession in the 1990s, compared to young households.
  • Malmelin, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The research in this thesis addresses the question of corporate legitimation and values. It studies moral speech in Finnish companies' social responsibility reports and annual reports. The managerial rhetoric has been examined as a means of building and maintaining legitimacy. The companies studyed are the ten biggest companies that repordted on social responsibility in 2004, and the analysed data consists of the companie's reporting from 1998 to 2008. The theoretical and analytical framework is provided by Luc Boltanski's and Laurent Thévenot's theory of justification. The theory is focused on systems of moral thinking and argumentation, so called "orders of worth". The study shows how these moral schemes were used in the legitimation process. Special attention is paid on the ways that compromises are made between different orders of worth, such as the market, civic and green order. The study shows that the focus of legitimation has shifted towards societal and environmental themes. The values of market and industry, profits and efficiency, however, remain the strongest basis for organizational legitimation in Finnish companies. The economic crisis of 2008 had a visible impact on the moral rhetoric, especially in the Finnish forestry sector. Large layoffs questionned the companies' traditional role and made companies adopt a more market-centered and project-based moral rhetoric. New inspirational and project-centered moral speech emerged as the companies were less able to present themselves as nation-based, traditional actors in the Finnish society.
  • Poikela, Ritva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The research focuses on client plan in the field of health care and social work on families with children. The purpose of the plan is to create objectives for helping the client and to assist in coordinating the ever-increasing multi-professional work. In general, the plan is understood in terms of assignments and as a contract specifying what to do in client cases. Taking this into consideration, the plan is outsourced into a written document. Instead of understanding the plan as a tool that stabilizes the objectives of action, documents it and facilitates evaluation, the client plan is conceptualized in this study as a practice. This kind of practice mediates client work as being itself also a process of action that focuses on an object whose gradual emergence and definition is the central question in multi-professional collaboration with a client. The plan is examined empirically in a non-stabilized state which leads to the research methodology being based on the dynamics between stabilization and emerging, non-stabilized entities the co-creation and formulation of practice and context. The theoretical approach of the research is the micro analytic approach of activity theory (Engeström R. 1999b). Grounding on this, the research develops a method of qualitative analysis which follows an emerging object with multiple voices. The research data is composed of the videotaped sessions from client meetings with three families, the interviews with the client and the workers as well as client documents that are used to follow up on client processes for at least one year. The research questions are as follows: 1) How is the client plan constructed between the client and different professional agents? 2) How are meanings constructed in a client-centred plan? 3) What are the elements of client-employee relationships that support the co-configuration necessitated by the changes in the client s everyday life? The study shows that the setting of objectives were limited by the palette of institutional services, which caused that the clients interpretations and acts of giving meaning to the kinds of help that was required were left out of the plan. Conceptually, the distinctions between client-centred and client-specific ways of working as well as an action-based working method are addressed. Central to this action-based approach is construing the everyday life of the client, recognizing different meanings and analyzing them together with the client as well as focusing attention on developing the prerequisites for social agency of the clients. The research portrays the elements for creating an action-based client plan. Key words: client plan, user perspective, multi-voiced meaning, multi-professional social work with children and families, agency
  • Hänninen, Teemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The concept of an atomic decomposition was introduced by Coifman and Rochberg (1980) for weighted Bergman spaces on the unit disk. By the Riemann mapping theorem, functions in every simply connected domain in the complex plane have an atomic decomposition. However, a decomposition resulting from a conformal mapping of the unit disk tends to be very implicit and often lacks a clear connection to the geometry of the domain that it has been mapped into. The lattice of points, where the atoms of the decomposition are evaluated, usually follows the geometry of the original domain, but after mapping the domain into another this connection is easily lost and the layout of points becomes seemingly random. In the first article we construct an atomic decomposition directly on a weighted Bergman space on a class of regulated, simply connected domains. The construction uses the geometric properties of the regulated domain, but does not explicitly involve any conformal Riemann map from the unit disk. It is known that the Bergman projection is not bounded on the space L-infinity of bounded measurable functions. Taskinen (2004) introduced the locally convex spaces LV-infinity consisting of measurable and HV-infinity of analytic functions on the unit disk with the latter being a closed subspace of the former. They have the property that the Bergman projection is continuous from LV-infinity onto HV-infinity and, in some sense, the space HV-infinity is the smallest possible substitute to the space H-infinity of analytic functions. In the second article we extend the above result to a smoothly bounded strictly pseudoconvex domain. Here the related reproducing kernels are usually not known explicitly, and thus the proof of continuity of the Bergman projection is based on generalised Forelli-Rudin estimates instead of integral representations. The minimality of the space LV-infinity is shown by using peaking functions first constructed by Bell (1981). Taskinen (2003) showed that on the unit disk the space HV-infinity admits an atomic decomposition. This result is generalised in the third article by constructing an atomic decomposition for the space HV-infinity on a smoothly bounded strictly pseudoconvex domain. In this case every function can be presented as a linear combination of atoms such that the coefficient sequence belongs to a suitable Köthe co-echelon space.
  • Sakki, Inari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    The economic, political and social face of Europe has been changing rapidly in the past decades. These changes are unique in the history of Europe, but not without challenges for the nation states. The support for the European integration varies among the countries. In order to understand why certain developments or changes are perceived as threatening or as desired by different member countries, we must consider the social representations of the European integration on the national level: how the EU is represented to its citizens in media and in educational systems, particularly in the curricula and textbooks. The current study is concerned with the social representations of the European integration in the curricula and school textbooks in five European countries: France, Britain, Germany, Finland and Sweden. Besides that, the first volume of the common Franco-German history textbook was analyzed, since it has been seen as a model for a common European history textbook. As the collective representations, values and identities are dominantly mediated and imposed through media and educational systems, the national curricula and textbooks make an interesting starting point for the study of the European integration and of national and European identities. The social representations theory provides a comprehensive framework for the study of the European integration. By analyzing the curricula and history and civics textbooks of major educational publishers, the study aimed to demonstrate what is written on the European integration and how it is portrayed how the European integration is understood, made familiar and concretized in the educational context in the five European countries. To grasp the phenomenon of the European integration in the textbooks in its entirety, it was investigated from various perspectives. The two analysis methods of content analysis, the automatic analysis with ALCESTE and a more qualitative theory-driven content analysis, were carried out to give a more vivid and multifaceted picture of the object of the research. The analysis of the text was complemented with the analysis of visual material. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative methods, the contents, processes, visual images, transformations and structures of the social representations of European integration, as well as the communicative styles of the textbooks were examined. This study showed the divergent social representations of the European integration, anchored in the nation states, in the five member countries of the European Union. The social representations were constructed around different central core elements: French Europe in the French textbooks, Ambivalent Europe in the British textbooks, Influential and Unifying EU in the German textbooks, Enabling and Threatening EU in the Finnish textbooks, Sceptical EU in the Swedish textbooks and EU as a World Model in the Franco-German textbook. Some elements of the representations were shared by all countries such as peace and economic aspects of the European cooperation, whereas other elements of representations were found more frequently in some countries than in others, such as ideological, threatening or social components of the phenomenon European integration. The study also demonstrated the linkage between social representations of the EU and national and European identities. The findings of this study are applicable to the study of the European integration, to the study of education, as well as to the social representation theory.
  • Kashaga, Frateline (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    ABSTRACT This thesis explores the extent to which the current Tanzanian Social Policy takes into consideration indigenous African cultural sensibilities for the social security of the elderly in a rural setting. This has been addressed in four scientific papers, which build on the first hand ethnographic data I gathered from Bukoba rural district over a period of six months 2010/2011. The first article discusses African Indigenous Knowledge and Social Security of the Elderly in Rural Tanzania: The Case of Bukoba Rural District. This article examines the development of social policy in Tanzania since the country got her independence in 1961. However, the article indicates that the development of social policy in Tanzania has been determined by economics and politics (Tungaraza, 1990; Mchomvu at el, 1998) as opposed to social considerations that take into account traditional knowledge and viability of traditional livelihood options for groups, including the elderly.The second article illustrates how the elderly struggle to negotiate their cultural space through symbols, rituals and traditional practices. I have problematized the concept of cultural space in relation to the Haya-African livelihood of the elderly. As part of my contribution to the social sciences, I have critically interrogated the concept of cultural space to highlight inter-generational conflicts and tensions between Hayan elders and their young generation. In doing so the second article demonstrates the extent to which inter-generational tensions are (re)producing the space that supports the livelihoods of the Hayan elderly in a globalizing world. As a result, the indigenous social safety nets need revitalized. The third article deals exclusively with traditional agricultural practices within the mainstream policy framework of neo-liberalism and the welfare of the elderly. The fourth paper addresses issues around indigenous language, specifically Ruhaya and its relevance to both the ontological and epistemological roots of indigenous knowledge. The policy makers in Tanzania as in many other post-colonial African countries have neglected, and sometimes completely ignored, the significance of indigenous knowledge as preserved in rural communities that constitute over 70 percent of the population. As a result, the policy framework of the country lacks input from grassroots communities specifically on issues around old age and social insecurity. Accordingly, indigenous livelihood options and traditional social safety nets, which have sustained rural African communities for years, have suffered greatly. This is a result of policy formulations, exclusively based on alien culture in relation to local people in villages. Most of these social policies have tried for several decades to implement the modernization project which has marginalized all forms of traditional practices and local knowledge since its inception in western countries. The main intention of the project is to modernize the rural African communities for poverty eradication and to improve socio-economic development. Yet the situation of rural African societies has deteriorated greatly and villagers are stuck in a cycle of abject poverty, which defies the logic of many years of development aid and the efforts of aid workers from western countries. The rural African elderly have suffered the most. Numerous studies have been carried out to learn about the predicament of rural peasants in Africa, yet the situation leaves much to be desired. This is partly attributed to the fact that, most of the studies have used perspectives, which view African societies largely from the western frame of reference. As a contribution to the body of knowledge of rural studies in contemporary African societies, the author of this PhD uses the African perspectives of rural studies and provides a different theoretical perspective rooted in indigenous African cultural sensibility of welfare programs for the elderly. This perspective recognizes the ideological theoretical approach in the effort to revitalize an experience from the historical period in which national romantic ideas influenced strongly the creation of national identities. It is assumed to have relevance since the Tanzanian nation misinterpreted its initial ideal efforts to build on its own heritage of Ujamaa, which drew some ideas from the cultural heritage of indigenous societies. In a similar vein, the author locates the theoretical insights within the recent academic debates, which several scholars have described as African Moral Economy . Here this thesis contributes by showing the potential vitality of rural economies as they have proven to be resilient to the on-going global economic crisis. It has shown the re-emergence of a similar type of economy in various parts of the world, such as South Brazil, USA, Philippines and in some member states of European Union. What has changed is what conceptual historians describe as conceptual change. The concept recently introduced in western academic literature is social economy . In addition to the above theoretical reflections, the thesis discusses whether public funded welfare programs for old people in developing countries are the best option, or private welfare programs are a feasible option. Drawing upon experiences and examples of Haya-Africans, the author argues in favour of introducing public funded welfare programs, cash transfer model for the elderly in rural communities. The Haya society, like many other ethnic groups in Tanzania, practices provides traditional livelihood such as traditional fishing, agricultural practices, community business activities and indigenous environmental conservation methods. These indigenous livelihood options can be supported by right government policies, incentives, legislations and transformed into semi-formal traditional welfare schemes. In doing so the indigenous livelihood options conform to the requirements of public financed welfare programs. Moreover, the thesis reveals in the empirical findings that indigenous knowledge is an indispensable asset for meaningful and sustainable rural development in contemporary African societies. In Conclusion, the thesis postulates that utilization of indigenous knowledge in social policy development in Tanzania is possible. But the author urges more research on indigenous societies in Tanzania for easy consumption and utilization by policy makers. The author urges also the government to mainstream indigenous knowledge to national educational system.
  • Koivula, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This study was carried out in a Finnish steel company. It had two main goals. First, the structure of values postulated by S. H. Schwartz’s value theory was examined among the company employees (N=1314). The values of manual workers were of special interest, given that people with little education have seldom been studied in value research. Second, the association of value priorities with attitudes towards organisational change and knowledge sharing were examined both at the individual and at the workplace level. Value priorities were measured by means of the 40-item Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ). Multidimensional scaling and transformation analysis were used to test the universality of the value structures among manual workers and white-collar workers. The validity of the instrument was confirmed by comparing the steel worker sample with Finnish university student samples. The value structures of the white-collar employees and of the manual workers were similar and in line with Schwartz’s model with the exception of security, which was located within self-transcendence values in both groups. The measures for attitudes towards organisational change and knowledge sharing were constructed for the present research by means of a qualitative study. Attitudes towards organisational change were weakly predicted by self-transcendence (+), tradition (-), and hedonism (-). Stronger results were obtained starting from the assumption that positive attitudes were the company norm and that conformity values partly determine whether attitude is guided by social norms or by other values. When the associations were examined separately for employees high on conformity on the one hand and those low on conformity on the other, the values largely failed to predict attitudes among the high conformity respondents, but among those low on conformity, universalism and benevolence were positively and power negatively associated with the attitudes. Interestingly, achievement predicted positive change attitudes among employees high on conformity, but negative change attitudes among those low on conformity. For knowledge sharing, self-direction predicted less favourable perceptions of change, while benevolence and conformity predicted more positive perceptions. Achievement was associated with sharing only when conformity was high. When mean scores for workplaces (N=19) were used, workplaces high on self-transcendence and conformity and low on self-enhancement values showed higher levels of sharing. The sample was divided into three occupational environments: conventional, realistic, and enterprising. Differences between the environments were explained by age, gender, and education. Independently, no differences were found between the first two. An enterprising environment stood out as valuing power, self-direction, and achievement more than a realistic environment. For a realistic environment, tradition and hedonism values were more important than for an enterprising environment.
  • Mäntyniemi, Samu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    In this thesis the use of the Bayesian approach to statistical inference in fisheries stock assessment is studied. The work was conducted in collaboration of the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute by using the problem of monitoring and prediction of the juvenile salmon population in the River Tornionjoki as an example application. The River Tornionjoki is the largest salmon river flowing into the Baltic Sea. This thesis tackles the issues of model formulation and model checking as well as computational problems related to Bayesian modelling in the context of fisheries stock assessment. Each article of the thesis provides a novel method either for extracting information from data obtained via a particular type of sampling system or for integrating the information about the fish stock from multiple sources in terms of a population dynamics model. Mark-recapture and removal sampling schemes and a random catch sampling method are covered for the estimation of the population size. In addition, a method for estimating the stock composition of a salmon catch based on DNA samples is also presented. For most of the articles, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation has been used as a tool to approximate the posterior distribution. Problems arising from the sampling method are also briefly discussed and potential solutions for these problems are proposed. Special emphasis in the discussion is given to the philosophical foundation of the Bayesian approach in the context of fisheries stock assessment. It is argued that the role of subjective prior knowledge needed in practically all parts of a Bayesian model should be recognized and consequently fully utilised in the process of model formulation.
  • Sillanpää, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2000)
  • Onodera, Henri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This is an ethnographic study of the lived experiences of young activists during the last years of Mubarak s presidency in Egypt. Its general aim is to provide an understanding of what it was like to be involved in opposition politics during a period when the eventual end of Mubarak s rule in 2011 was little more than a collective aspiration. Drawing on different strands of qualitative social science, including anthropology, sociology and youth research, the study is based on 12 months of fieldwork in Cairo, conducted between 2007 and 2011. It makes use of political engagement as an open analytic that enables the examination of different activities that were oriented towards, but not exclusive to, public political processes and formal avenues to political participation. In this vein, the study explores the activities that the young activists regarded as meaningful in terms of challenging the status quo, and how being young in itself shaped their ways of participating in public political life. While it focuses on the experiences of young Cairenes who were predominantly male and aged in their 20s, it is acknowledged that important differences existed among them that conditioned their efforts to acquire new visibilities and political roles, including social differences such as class, gender and global connectedness. In order to explore the diversity of their political experiences, the study discusses four principal areas of analysis and related topics: namely, generational consciousness, tactical practice, friendship relations and ethical reflections. It is demonstrated that, firstly, the new forms of youth activism in the 2000s promoted a critical generational consciousness as a disenfranchised social location in the intergenerational order, while also providing reinvigorated meanings to youth as a subversive political category, and in some ways a privileged experiential realm, ready to conduct public political dissent on its own terms. The new youth movements, such as Youth for Change and April 6 Youth that emerged on the fringes of larger processes of contentious politics, assumed new roles in public political life and merged, at least temporarily, young Egyptians from different backgrounds and affiliations into collective actions: forging alliances, largely beyond the formal political institutions. Secondly, the young activists resorted to a number of tactical practices in order to reach out to wider publics via both offline and online avenues. Their operating preferences lay in organizing unlicensed street protests in the popular, lower-class residential areas and tapping into the subversive potential of the new information and communication technologies, including blogs and social media. Although these forms of public dissent expanded their otherwise narrow political opportunities, their adoption was not, however, equally available to everyone. Some either had the necessary social networks in place, including family support, or the available time and the economic means to do so, while those, who were less equipped for public dissent, could nonetheless acquire new combinations of practical skills, knowledge and social connections that enabled them to enact their sense of meaningful political action. At the same time, the efforts to build youth coalitions faced a number of challenges, one of which was internal factionalism, which, coupled with the growing use of social media, diversified the scope of youth activism in the run-up period to the 2011 uprisings. Thirdly, being a young activist in the late 2000s provided much more varied everyday experiences than merely the acts of public political dissent. It also involved absorbing pre-existing oppositional culture and adopting dissident lifestyles that were filled with shared moments of being and doing things with others on a daily basis. In the absence of representative political institutions, the experiences of having friends and being a friend to others offered intimate avenues to public political life that stretched beyond kin ties and formal organizations. Although oppositional youth activism was divided along lines of class, gender and political affiliation, the young could forge mutual grounds for friendship relations on the basis of their shared experiences and stories of contention, while frequenting downtown Cairo as the main hub of their everyday trajectories. Although friendship relations were at times volatile in the contested field of politics, safeguarding the bonds of trust, belonging and everyday solidarity represented highly relevant everyday activities. Fourthly, the young Cairenes were faced with a number of ethical reflections on the meaningfulness of their own dissent practices, not the least due to the personals risks that opposition politics involved in authoritarian settings. While the prospect of impoverishment did not generally motivate their political engagements, they shared a sense of injured patriotism that prevailed in the wider prodemocracy movement, and aspired to greater recognition as rightful citizens. At the same time, they operated on an ambivalent moral terrain that required positioning one s self and others in relation to normative claims to the common good; furthermore, they had to contend with popular suspicion about the impact of their public political dissent and about possible motives for their activism, such as the pursuit of social status and personal wellbeing. Despite the differences that existed among the activist youth in terms of class and gender, however, they could in part challenge these types of speculations by enacting the prevailing ideals of personhood in terms of bravery, righteousness and self-sacrifice. Meanwhile, although the young Cairenes were embedded in the moral worlds of prodemocracy mobilization, they were also compelled to balance their political engagements in terms of multiple life transitions, especially in terms of balancing their activism with the requirements of gaining a livelihood. While there were multiple ways of being or becoming an activist in the late Mubarak era, the young Cairenes political engagements were connected to their collective pursuit of playing a meaningful role in what happened in the present, while acknowledging that Egypt s future was intimately tied to their own life trajectories.
  • Faraco, Daniel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2002)
  • Ekholm, Laura Katarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The aim of this study is to analyze how ethnic-boundary drawing has been influenced in the urban context by the turbulent events of twentieth-century Europe. The analysis is specifically applied to the social boundaries of the small Helsinki Jewish community from the early twentieth century until the 1970s. In the period covered by this research, Helsinki evolved from a multilingual and heterogeneous military town of the Russian empire into the capital of an independent nation. As one of the few Eastern European Orthodox Jewish communities not destroyed in the Holocaust, the history of the Helsinki Jewish community offers a different set of spatial contexts that make this history an empirical case study of changing ethnic relations from one generation to another. My study suggests that empirical materials can be used as clues for teasing into existence the long-vanished practices of boundary-drawing done at various times in the past. Collecting and organizing information in archives is always guided by decisions that reflect the contemporary ideas of relevant and meaningful social categories. Consequently, as Jews in Finland became Finnish Jews, the ethnic background subsequently lost its distinction in the archival material; in short, the sources gradually became mute in this respect. My research strategy is to focus on questions concerning the economic aspects of social boundaries, for example, whether the members of the Helsinki Jewish congregation were entrepreneurs or were self-employed. I have operationalized occupational status to analyze changes in the social position of the community. The occupational titles were collected from three different cross-section years and organized by using a Historical International Classification of Occupations (HISCO) Scheme. By combining the occupational titles with the data on the Jewish-owned companies, I have established a set of descriptive statistics. Supported by the findings of this empirical material, my study analyzes how the concept of Finnish Jews has taken shape over the entire period of this study. Contemporaries writing about the Jews of Finland did not use concepts of ethnic boundaries, but nevertheless considered questions related to economic aspects as the key elements in modern societies. Such questions were a constant theme in modern economic antisemitism with a major influence on Jewish policies, such as the restriction of Jewish occupations in Finland until 1918, which in turn influenced the (counter-)narratives of Jewish business. This is what makes the Jewish occupations so interesting and also makes discussing them such a sensitive issue. The community is an important part of the history of Helsinki, but it has only been accepted as a part of the larger Finnish society since the Second World War. During this process, Jews were clearly less frequently categorized as Jews and more frequently categorized by the professions they represented. In this study I have contextualized different aspects of what has been selected and written down as Finnish-Jewish history. This involves discovering the political positions of its various authors. All histories on the Finnish Jews have been written during the post-Second World War period and, in consequence, are unavoidably viewed through post-Shoah/Cold War lenses. In these writings, the national and transnational aspects are totally severed and become, indeed, mutually exclusive. The Jewish history of Helsinki is often told as a collective story, where each generation faces similar challenges and options. In this way, the past has been described as a joint striving for all Finnish Jews. In reality, wide economic differences have played an important role in what is ultimately a business-oriented community. In this narrative, the Jewish history has been reduced to a bare minimum in order to serve as a collective story. Consequently, in the histories of the city of Helsinki, Jews have either been described as poor, or they have not been remembered at all.
  • Heikkilä, Riie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    The aim of my thesis, which consists of five original articles and a summarizing chapter, is to study the identity, lifestyle and cultural taste of the Finnish Swedes, i.e. the Swedish-speaking language minority in Finland, from a qualitative point of view. The Finnish Swedes are a somewhat special minority, first of all because of their wide-ranging language rights guaranteed by the constitution, and secondly because of the common image that Finnish Swedes represent a more legitimate or better lifestyle and taste than the Finnish-Speaking Finns. This conception is corroborated by the fact that, in comparison to the language majority, the Swedish-speakers have better health, employment, income and so on according to a number of quantitative studies. My research data is composed of twenty-six focus group interviews conducted among a geographically and socio-economically wide range of Swedish-speaking Finns. Group sizes ranged from 3 to 11 people. In the interviews, culture was approached through a framework of seven topics: music, cinema, television, arts, reading, eating and clothing. In each focus group interview, two subfields of culture were discussed along with a short section about cultural events and participation and definitions on good and bad taste. After discussing culture and taste, there was a final discussion on the Finnish Swede identity. The main theoretical framework of my thesis comes from Pierre Bourdieu (1979) and his followers: I am asking whether the status of being a Swedish-speaker can be used as a means of distinction. The main research questions are the following: (1) How does the Swedish-speaking minority look studied in the light of extensive qualitative data and in a framework of lifestyle and taste? (2) What kind of differences in lifestyle, taste and linguistic identity are there between different Finnish Swedes and how do those connect with socio-economical position, place of residence or age? I also ask how belonging to the language minority might work as a tool for cultural distinction and how different Swedish-speaking groups take use of it. My main research question is (3) whether mother tongue is a remarkable factor of lifestyle or cultural taste in contemporary Finland.
  • Hoppania, Hanna-Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This dissertation investigates the politics of care. Providing care, particularly for the elderly, is becoming a major problem in many European countries. Dependency ratios are weakening while resources for the welfare state appear to be limited in the prevailing economic conditions. In this research I analyze how this situation was acknowledged and addressed in Finland through the Act on Care Services for Older People (Act on Supporting the Functional Capacity of the Older Population and on Social and Health Care Services for Older Persons [980/2012]) which came into force in 2013. The research explores the subtext and roots of the issue, and examines why the law turned out the way it did by analyzing the processes whereby the Act was initiated, drafted and finally passed. It considers how care and the problems around it were represented in the political process following media scandals which highlighted serious problems regarding the quality of elder care. This case study is situated in its wider historical context, and the nature of the subject matter itself care is investigated to illuminate what is at stake in the reforms of elder care service provision. I argue that this reform project, and the situation it stemmed from, presented a moment of political openness to debate, and an opportunity to transform the societal commitments regarding elder care. This potential however was lost. A problem which was largely about resource scarcity became one of regulation, thus limiting the issues on the political agenda and the scope of the legislation passed. A seemingly apolitical governance of care is becoming the key site in which power over care relations is exercised, effectively undermining democratic control of care policy. Theoretically and methodologically the research links Nancy Fraser s framework of recognition, redistribution and representation and Michel Foucault s concept of governmentality with a post-structuralist discourse approach. It also draws from multidisciplinary feminist care research. Through the deployment of this multidimensional perspective in the analysis of elder care politics in Finland, a discussion of care is brought into the discipline of politics where to date it has not received much attention. The complex character of care is moved from the somewhat abstract ethics of care literature into the specific question of how care is understood and managed in the political process. This research explains how an issue which appeared to have widespread societal support bypassed the central question of redistribution, preventing the Act from leading to any transformative changes in elder care. The nodal points of dwindling resources and the bureaucratic division of labour functioned to limit the scope of the law. The imprecise content of various floating signifiers, such as quality of care, meant that these were understood differently by the various actors involved in the process. Through the functioning of a logic of difference, alternative or challenging framings of the issue at hand were sidelined and contained during the process and within the Act. When finalized, the Act only led to an affirmation of existing levels of care provision albeit with new regulatory procedures. Symbolic recognition, procedural clarifications and preventative measures were emphasized at the expense of securing better resourcing. Despite a rhetorical commitment to welfare state principles across the political spectrum, in the background neoliberal policies were pushed ahead as the solution to the challenges of care. These programmes and schemes, however, rely on the maintenance and reproduction of unequal, gendered care relations.
  • Pöyhönen, Samuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The articles comprising this dissertation concern classification and concept formation in the social and behavioral sciences. In particular, the emphasis in the study is on the philosophical analysis of interdisciplinary settings created by the recent intellectual developments on the interfaces between the social sciences, psychology, and neuroscience. The need for a systematic examination of the problems of conceptual coordination and integration across disciplinary boundaries is illustrated by focusing on phenomena whose satisfactory explanation requires drawing together the theoretical resources from a variety of disciplines. In philosophy, questions regarding the nature of scientific concepts have often been framed in terms of theories of natural kinds. For this reason, analysis of the notion of natural kind as well as examination of how theories of natural kinds should be connected to recent philosophical accounts of scientific explanation and mechanisms form the core of the study. Building on contemporary discussions on these topics in the philosophy of biology, the philosophy of cognitive science, and the philosophy of the social sciences, the articles develop a mechanistic theory of natural kinds in the social and behavioral sciences, and scrutinize its applicability and usefulness as a theory of conceptual change in interdisciplinary settings. The study suggests that, although the mechanistic theory cannot account for the functioning of the whole range of scientific concepts, interweaving biological, cognitive, and social mechanisms in the manner suggested by the mechanistic theory offers a naturalistic and non-reductionist basis for conceptualizing epistemic coordination across disciplinary boundaries.
  • Mäkelä, Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The doctoral dissertation Collective Responsibility: Against Collectivism offers an indirect defence of the individualist position in the debate concerning collective moral responsibility. As such it swims against the general tide as it were. However, the individualism defended in the dissertation is of a rather weak kind, allowing a range of collective entities. The main claim of the thesis is that only human agents qualify as moral agents, and thus moral responsibility, either individual or collective, is to be ascribed to individual agents either individually or collectively. The thesis consists of four articles. A major part of my thesis consists of critical evaluations of some available versions of the collectivist position with respect to collective moral responsibility, the position according to which collectives in their own right are, at least in some cases, capable of bearing moral responsibility independently of the individual members of the collective. My approach in the articles is to argue that collectives in their own right are not capable of bearing moral responsibility and thus the collectivist rendering of collective moral responsibility is not a viable option. I argue herein that collectives, even if acceptable as agents, cannot satisfy conditions of moral responsibility in the way that would make it fair to hold collective agents morally responsible in their own right.