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  • Jäppinen, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Early in the post-Soviet years, domestic violence emerged as a social problem in Russia. In contemporary Russia, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) opened the first women s crisis centres, followed by the set up of public crisis departments inside social service centres. This study examines the work with survivors of violence carried out in such centres. Analysis of the assistance practices among women, children and families experiencing domestic violence opens up exciting views on the construction of social problems, reactions to them and the organisation of social services in post-socialist Russia. This study seeks to analyse the work practices of the crisis centres from the perspectives of problem definitions, the meanings acquired by gender and agency. I analyse the practices of the crisis centres utilising the theory of social problems work. In addition, I use the concepts of institutional ethnography in the analysis of extra-local relations which organise local-level practices. This study relies on the approach of feminist ethnography, with fieldwork data drawn from three public crisis departments and one NGO crisis centre in Izhevsk, Saratov and Sortavala. The formula story of domestic violence encountered in the crisis centres involves a drunken man battering his wife and children and forcing them out of the house. When defining domestic violence, professionals seek a balance between broad and specific understandings of violence. In my data analysis, I structured the interpretations of the interconnections between domestic violence and gender through the use of three approaches: gender-neutral, biological and gender-sensitive. Work within the crisis centres is distinctly completed by and with women. While men were present primarily discursively in the everyday workings of the centres, much talk at the centres focused on their role in violence work and the development of services for male perpetrators and survivors of domestic violence. Women survivors of violence seeking help from the crisis centres encountered a firm expectation of active, change-oriented agency. Much of the prospective responsibility towards solving the violent situation and preventing future acts of violence and, sometimes, partial responsibility for violence that already occurred was laid on the women. In practice, most clients left crisis centres to return to their husbands. This occurred not only because women forgave and decided to continue the relationship regardless of any violence, but also because they could not organise otherwise their housing. In spite of the scale of the problem, women and children experiencing domestic violence remain an invisible group in the legislation and welfare policies of the Russian Federation. The legal system insufficiently protects them and no functioning mechanisms for protecting their economic and housing situation exist. Keywords: Ethnography; Domestic violence; Gender violence; Work with vio-lence survivors; Social problems work; Agency; Russia
  • Kässi, Otto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis studies earnings differences and their dynamics empirically. It consists of an introductory chapter and three independent research papers. All of the three papers are done using Finnish registry data. Chapter two studies the evolution of income inequality from the end of 1980s until the year 2007. I present a statistical decomposition method, which is used to decompose earnings inequality into its permanent and transitory components and study their evolution through time. When the model is applied to Finnish earnings data, it turns out that the spread of earnings inequality over the observation period is driven by both permanent and transitory earnings component. It further turns out, that the earnings dynamics of men and women differ from one another considerably. Chapters three and four study earnings uncertainty within education groups. In chapter three, I compare earnings means and uncertainties among people who have completed a basic level education, secondary level education, lower and upper tertiary level education. I separate uncertainty related to education levels from individual unobserved heterogeneity by modelling selection into education levels with an ordered selection model. I find that education increases mean earnings and decreases earnings uncertainty. In addition, I find that the earnings uncertainties of men are higher than those of women in all levels of education. Chapter four compares the earnings uncertainties between university graduates from different fields of education. The fields are pooled into five fairly homogenous groups. These are: arts, law, business, engineering and natural sciences, and health. As in chapter three, I model the selection into a major to disentangle between uncertainty and heterogeneity, but the selection model is an unordered one. The main result of chapter four is that the differences in mean incomes between different majors are larger than the differences in uncertainties between majors. Taken together, the results of chapters three and four strongly suggest that education is a good investment; it increases earnings, and reduces earnings uncertainty.
  • Van der Vet, Freek (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Through interviews with 40 human rights practitioners, this dissertation broadens our knowledge as to how international litigation before the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) (a) contributes to finding remedies for victims of grave atrocities and (b) impacts on the compliance of Russia to the European Convention on Human Rights. In particular, this dissertation examines the work of a group of nongovernmental human rights organizations (NGOs), and the lawyers working for them, who litigate at the ECtHR on behalf of victims of the Russo-Chechen conflicts, discrimination based on ethnicity, or victims of torture and inhuman and degrading treatment during police detention. This research examines the diffusion of human rights by connecting four previously unconnected social processes of international human rights practice: claim-making, translation, implementation, and protection. First, the influence of the political context on litigation strategies, second, the translation of human rights from the claims of the victim to the Court and vice versa, and third, the contention surrounding the implementation and search for domestic remedies following litigation. A fourth process evaluates the issue of protection in Russia: how human rights defenders manage risk and practice advocacy in a dangerous environment. This dissertation contributes to socio-legal and human rights research by examining how Russian human rights lawyers use legalism and how they operate in transnational networks of human rights experts and activists. The author argues that lawyers do not only make legalistic claims to rights, but experiment with how rights can be used to expand their potential protection to their clients: by managing expectations of clients, expanding the scope of the European Convention, and developing novel ways of protecting themselves against government repression. This dissertation is based on semi-structured interview methodologies and deterritorialized human rights research on expert human rights practitioners working in the same network but in various places. The author conducted the interviews between 2009 and 2012 during various fieldwork trips in the Russian Federation, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Finland. The dissertation consists of four peer-reviewed articles and an introduction. Article 1, Holding on to Legalism: the Politics of Russian Litigation on Torture and Discrimination before the European Court of Human Rights , examines the position of the human rights practitioner between the State and the victim before and during litigation with the ECtHR. It observes how the human rights practitioner selects applicants, conducts public investigations, and uses international litigation as leverage in cooperation with the State to find suitable remedies for the applicant. In particular, the article argues that Russian lawyers do not simply have a belief in legalism, but use legalism as a political strategy. Article 2, Seeking Life, Finding Justice: Russian NGO Litigation and Chechen Disappearances before the European Court of Human Rights , analyzes the interaction between the ECtHR and the victim. The practitioner mediates in struggles that have no easy solution. The author specifically investigates the lawyers dilemma whether to discourage the expectation of relatives of the disappeared on finding their family member alive after their enforced disappearance. This expectation at times conflicts with the NGOs and Court s aim to presume the death of a disappeared person and establish a violation of the right to life. Article 3, Transitional Justice in Chechnya: NGO Advocacy for implementing Chechen Judgments of the European Court of Human Rights , presents the interplay between the ECtHR and the Russian State. In particular, this article argues that the judgments of the ECtHR inform processes of transitional justice. Moreover, it argues that favorable judicial attention to litigation is insufficient to implement a judgment at home. Instead, the judgments provide political leverage for NGO domestic advocacy campaigns promoting the implementation of the judgment, criminal prosecution of perpetrators, remedies for victims, and transitional justice in post-conflict Chechnya. The practitioner lobbies with the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (CoE) to promote the judgments domestic execution. Accordingly, the litigation process before the ECtHR does not end after a final judgment; instead, it prompts a series of broader political claims to ending impunity and truth seeking, informed by the NGOs strategies. Article 4, Violence and Human Rights in Russia: How Human Rights Defenders develop their Tactics in the Face of Danger, 2005-2013 (awaiting editorial decision) adds to the subject matter of the dissertation by revealing how human rights defenders respond to the curtailing legal measures by the Russian State. It analyzes how Russian human rights defenders take protective measures, practice advocacy under high-risk situations, and manage fear in dangerous situations. Moreover, it identifies how the State uses law to regulate the behavior of civil organizations and popular movements. This domestic struggle is vital to our understanding of human rights practice in Russia, since these human rights defenders are reliant on the government to guarantee their autonomy.
  • Salminen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Abstract Environments where organizations operate and communicate are in a state of continuous flux due to technological development and global economy. The goal of my research was to find out how to evaluate communication directors expertise from the 2010s onwards and to understand the process how that expertise is developed. I have built my research on two premises on how organizations operate in more or less mediated fields of the public sphere and on the new dialogue model of workplace communication, in which everyone has communication responsibilities. The core of my research is based on theory as I compare educational, sociological as well as leadership and management theories to PR and corporate communications theories and points of view. Applying these theories I created a hypothesis of a postmodern model of the ideal expertise of a communications director in the business sector. I tested the model by determining the expectations of five different stakeholder groups: the communications directors and managers themselves, the managing directors and executives, the human relations and marketing directors and managers and journalists. During the whole research process I have utilized mixed methods thinking, which has made possible the combination of both qualitative and quantitative techniques. As a result of testing my hypothetical model against the views of different stakeholders and comparing it with the newest theories in PR and corporate communications I achieved a model of the ideal expertise of a communications director. I identified the core of strategic expertise every communications director must have. In addition to that core I identified a group of competencies, which are negotiable and dependent on the context in which the organization and its communications exist. In that sense the ideal model is always limited within a certain strategic context. My research also produced a concrete tool that can be used to evaluate and evolve the expertise of a communication director towards the ideal model. Alongside the ideal model I identified the process demanded to generate the expertise of a communication director, 8 views on communication directors competencies and 9 categories of competencies which make it easier to develop communications directors communication, leadership and management competencies. My premises reached only a partial conformation. Organizations can benefit from my research by linking the expertise of a communications director more closely to the strategic management of the company. Communications directors, and those who are interested in becoming one, can use my research as a tool to develop their own expertise and plan their career. The key words are: PR and corporate communications, communication, communication director, professional identity, expertise, competence, skill and professional role.
  • Parpola, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The use of Finland s national forests changed with World War II. During the 1940s and 1950s, the total cut tripled in relation to the area managed for timber production, and the area clear-cut increased six-fold. These new intensive logging practices became standard in the remote forests of eastern and northern Finland. This study explains how and why the agency governing the Finnish national forests, Metsähallitus, changed its operations during the years 1939 1970. These questions are answered in the vein of classical public administration theory by placing Metsähallitus in its social and governmental context and by analyzing the way in which Metsähallitus and its leaders interpreted expectations regarding national forest use. The starting point of the study is the social crisis created by the war, which in turn influenced expectations regarding the national forests and their use. The economic policy of the age emphasized the intensification of national resource use, and discourses on public administration favored effective and independent decision-making. Adhering to these paradigms, the foresters and officials of Metsähallitus changed the agency s operating model to facilitate intensified logging practices. The key figures in this change were Metsähallitus chief N.A. Osara and Forestry Professor Vilho Lihtonen. The new operating model for the national forests stressed maximizing the cut, but ignored the task of regenerating growth in the newly logged areas. As a result, both the volume and the growth of national forests plummeted during the 1950s. The subsequent regeneration of the northern and eastern national forests required a costly and protracted effort spanning the 1960s and 1970s. These changes in the agency s operating model constituted a narrowing of national forest use. Before World War II, the national forests had remained a largely untapped resource, which could serve multiple ends. The new operating model regarded the national forests primarily as a harvestable raw material for use by the pulp and paper industries. Reverting to a more diverse operating model proved difficult, as demonstrated by numerous conflicts with conservation groups during the 1970s and 1980s.
  • Valkeapää, Annukka (2014)
    This study focuses on the values, fairness, and legitimacy of forest-related decision-making in Finland. This context can be described with the opposing values of the intensive use of forests and biodiversity conservation. Further, the legitimacy of decision-making processes in the field has been questioned by various stakeholder groups. The purpose of forest policy in Finland is to enhance the sustainable production of benefits derived from forests to serve the needs of all citizens. To meet this purpose, citizens opinions concerning forests and decision-making are crucial. The first aim of this study is to investigate how forest values make their way into the decision-making process; as such, the forest values of citizens, Members of Parliament (MPs) and forest professionals are compared. The second aim is to suggest speed of decision-making as one principle that people use when evaluating the fairness of an overall decision-making process. The third aim is to develop a model of legitimacy for a hypothetical political sector and test it in the forest policy context, and further, to examine how certain personal factors affect the evaluation fo legitimacy. The fourth aim is practical; to bring out citizen opinions for the basis of policy-making. Three survey samples were used: citizens (N=1260), MPs (N=80), and forest professionals (N=1016). These samples were analyzed in the five quantitative sub-studies of this dissertation using statistical methods, such as regression modelling, analysis of variance, mediation analysis, and structural equation modelling. The examination of forest values revealed remarkable difference between the three groups: citizens emphasized more biodiversity conservation value than economic value, while for MPs these values were almost equal in importance, and for forest professionals, economic value was most emphasized. This partly explains the persistence of forest-related conflicts in Finland. The idea of using speed in decision-making as one fairness criterion is drawn from, and built on, uncertainty management model. The effect of speed on legitimacy was mediated through procedural fairness and the effect was curvilinear. Very fast and very slow decision-making processes were perceived to be less fair, probably because they include more uncertainty than moderate processes. The perceived legitimacy of Finnish forest related decision-making was explained by procedural justice and forestry practices; for non-owners, power relations also had an effect. The policy as a whole was perceived as rather legitimate but the two elements raised notable criticism: the treatment of different points of view was considered to be unfair and the main forestry practice, clearcutting, was generally met with disapproval. System justification theory claims that people are motivated to believe that existing social arrangements are legitimate, justifiable and even necessary especially if the possibilities to influence it are limited. The findings confirm this: the lower a citizen s competence in forest issues, the more the evaluation was perceived as legitimate. This study challenges forest policymakers to acknowledge citizens opinions and focus on procedural justice in decision-making. At the end of this study, the practical implications and possibility of change in the context are discussed.
  • Janzon, Max (Max Janzon, 2014)
    Abstract The study offers a strong constructivist reading on Finnish border security. The objective of the study is to realize border security culture. Realizing Finnish border security culture implies constructing Finnish border territoriality and its social meanings thereof, and reconstructing the patterns of valorization. The first research objective is to construct the shared ideas and assumptions of Finnish border security by constructing border territoriality. The second research objective is to define socially constructed spatial strategy. The third research objective is to realize border security culture and implies framing the social practices that confirm social meanings and patterns. Accordingly, the study has three research objectives and three research questions. The first research question is about how Finnish border security is socially constructed. The second research question concerns Finnish socially constructed border strategy. The third research question asks the question of what about border security culture is realized. The empirical agenda of the study is concluded with a main empirical argument regarding border security culture realized. Border security culture is regarded constructivist and thus as a holistically embedded social structure, which by social constructivism is made known, obvious and then understandable. Social constructivism is treated as a metapractice of border security culture and derives its character from the perceived logical and pragmatic relationship to its object of inquiry. Scientific realism in this study is understood in terms of constitutive realism. Constitutive realism draws from the assumption that there is social knowledge and that this social knowledge is expressed in and by social structures. The epistemological position argues for a constitutive framing of Finnish border security that draws from practical knowledge and its contextual horizon. For empirical purposes, the study applies constitutive framing. The act of constitutive framing produces specific frames by organizing and interpreting the language used to communicate border security meaning, patterns, and practices. A total of twenty Finnish border security professionals in senior or executive positions were interviewed for the study. Border security culture in this study is understood to constitute spatial strategy and bordering practices shared by border security professionals. For the purpose of realizing border security culture, the study develops a constructivist argument according to which constructing border security is by application of securitization theory wedded to border security professionals and by using territorialization theory rooted in how border security professionals construct territoriality. Rooted in the social ontology of international border security, the social constructivist argument forms a territorial political sociology that develops by combining the securitizing practices of border security agents and their shared territoriality. According to the empirical agenda, the master constructs of Finnish border security are Eastborderness, Schengenization, Integration, and Cooperation. Eastborderness and Schengenization are acts for communicating territoriality while integrated and cooperational borderwork are acts for enforcing territoriality. The two patterns of valorization that emerge are territorial consciousness and (securitized) spatial order. The pattern of territorial consciousness constitutes pragmatic and constructive territoriality. The pattern of securitized spatial order constitutes coherent and coordinated spatial order. While pragmatic and constructive territoriality are influential acts for communicating border territoriality, coherent and coordinated spatial order are influential acts for enforcing territoriality. Such influential territoriality constitutes effectively a socially constructed convincing border strategy. Border security culture is then realized by the practices that confirm shared meanings and shared patterns. The practices of eastbordering, social bordering, and spatial bordering confirm Finnish border strategy. Further, these bordering practices constitute influential bordering culture and Finnish (and European) border security culture realized. The main empirical argument regarding a border security culture realized is as follows. Rooted in convincing border strategy, the practices of eastbordering, social bordering, and spatial bordering inhere in and constitute an influential bordering culture, and thereby Finnish (and European) border security culture is realized. Eastbordering refers to the practices of Finnish-Russian border security cooperation, while social bordering constitutes Frontex-like border security. Spatial bordering practices define networked border security. Finnish-Russian border security cooperation, Frontex-like border security, and networked border security constitute influential border security culture, while inhering acts for communicating and enforcing territoriality effectively influence interactions at the security borders.
  • Gritsenko, Daria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation aims at clarifying how multiple public and private decision-making actors co-exist in the governing of shipping quality in the Baltic Sea, and which mechanisms allow these multiactor arrangements to proliferate and sustain themselves. Acknowledging that collective action problems undermine quality governance, this research sought to collect empirical evidence documenting the role of polycentricity, which implies the existence of overlapping and competing centers of decision making embedded within multiple interdependent and often conflicting contexts, for quality shipping and the way it is conceptualized, operationalized, and practiced. A key argument in this thesis is that whereas the shipping industry is global, quality shipping governance is not; therefore, quality shipping governance takes a form of contextually-bound steering. Quality shipping is defined in this research as shipping that aims at safety and environmental protection, while still maintaining economic sustainability. The two central aspect of quality in shipping safety and environmental were used to empirically grasp and operationalize quality shipping in four individual studies conducted within this dissertation project. The individual empirical studies do not build upon each other directly, however they are linked thematically, conceptually, and methodologically, and allow for interconnected, though varying insights on the emergence and development of collective action by revealing how the practices associated with quality shipping were defined and materialized. The empirical research was built upon reconstructing the governance process on the basis of methodological localism , that is, focusing on actors who are involved in the process of steering, their interactions, and how institutions structure the interaction within multiple interconnected contexts in which interactions are embedded. This thesis relates to the wider body of research on governance by focusing on how quality shipping governance cuts across different levels and jurisdictions and penetrates the grey zones in which neither markets nor states can solely solve collective action problems. Reflecting on the impact of multiactor interaction that connects different functionalities and localities, it contributes to four interconnected theoretical debates on governance: on the role of politics and power, on the territorial dimension of boundary-spanning governance, on the new role images and dilemmas, and on governing of governance, or metagovernance. This dissertation makes an empirical argument to support the proposition that quality shipping governance is not a technical depoliticized process of problem-fixing, but a battlefield overrun with power struggles and conflicts over resources, images, and institutions. The four individual studies portray much of the interaction in existing quality shipping governance as informal and ad hoc, and emphasize that everyday inter-organizational exchanges constitute the larger part of interactions between shipping actors in governance of quality shipping. It further speculates about the role of metagovernance and interactions that allow actors to establish mechanisms that link vertical (hierarchical) and horizontal (market and network) dimensions of governance. The thesis claims that if we want more quality shipping, we need to be able to explain and master the connecting relation between actors and institutions that enhance multiactor coordination and make collaboration work. The practical contribution of this study is in elaborating a framework for formulation and implementation of socio-economic innovation for balanced development and public well-being in polycentric contexts using the example of quality shipping governance. The focus on concrete instances of collective action in quality shipping governance in the Baltic Sea demonstrates that interactions, institutions and mechanisms vary in time and space. This finding has important implications for solving social and environmental challenges in arenas other than shipping, because it shows that collective action is contextually-bound and that local solutions can be found to problems conventionally identified as global.
  • Ranta, Eija M. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This is an ethnographic study of the politics of indigeneity in the contemporary Bolivian state transformation process. It is a story of an attempt to transform the state through indigenous ideas in a poor and ethnically heterogeneous country in the Global South. By following the notion of vivir bien, good life, a term that has emerged in Bolivia s political and policy discourses since the election of Evo Morales as the first indigenous president of the country in December 2005, it examines contested articulations between policy, politics, and power. Through ethnographic examination of what is said and done in the name of good life by key policy actors such as ministers, public servants, development experts, and indigenous activists, this study aims to develop a critical understanding of the notion of good life both as a democratizing discursive construction and as a contested practice. It pretends to unveil the multiple and intricate ways in which power works is articulated and contested not solely between the governing regime and its political opposition but also within the ruling political party, within the state bureaucracy, and between and within local social movements. Methodologically, this study is a response to the challenge of the changing circumstances of indigenous peoples in contemporary Bolivia: if representatives of social movements, indigenous organizations, and peasant unions have shifted from rural communities to the presidential palace and ministerial cabinets, the methodological choices of those who study indigenous peoples have to respond to this situation. In line with this, this study discusses how the bureaucratic context of the state in which new indigenous policy ideas circulate can be grasped, ethnographically, by tracking the notion of vivir bien. Additionally, it asks what comparative advantage an ethnographic approach brings to the examination of policy making and state formation amidst processes of social change. The data is based on a six-month ethnographic fieldwork in La Paz between 2008 and 2009. Additional insights are drawn from earlier stays in Bolivia for a total of 13 months. Amidst global inequalities, there is an urgent demand for the examination of critical political alternatives and perceptions of new kinds of development , which are emerging in the Global South in response to and often opposed to the global capitalist political economy. The examination of the notion of vivir bien in contemporary Bolivian state transformation process pretends to make a contribution to this end. Consequently, this study examines theoretically how discourses and practices of social change are produced; how the state works in processes of change; and, how power and rule operate in the context of indigenous challenge to state formation. It makes a case for the utility of moving at the intersections of social anthropology, political science and development studies; and, from a theoretical perspective, at the intersections of postcolonial critique, postmodern Foucauldian approaches and political economy. Although global and local processes are crucial to indigenous experience, this study indicates that the state is, and has increasingly become, an important reference point for indigenous peoples and social movements. The Bolivian state is the object of transformation through the application of indigenous policy and the provision of political alternatives but it is also the subject through which changes are executed. The politics of indigeneity is perceived as a contested combination of identity concerns and resource struggles. Today, the battles are also fought through state policy, which is a heterogeneous and contingent assemblage that produces and articulates diverse forms of power and governance. In the process of indigenous change, as this study illuminates, the state has become a battlefield between three kinds of historically constructed governmental schemes of improvement. Indigenous, neoliberal, and state-led models for social change articulate and often conflict with each other, illustrating the insight that the state works in complex and articulated ways. Furthermore, indicates the study, various forms of power and rule overlap and collide with each other. This conflictive interaction between governmental, disciplinary, and authoritarian forms of power and rule seems to impede and challenge the potential of radically democratizing indigenous ideas by hampering their translation into bureaucratic practice. This has implications for the more normative question of the feasibility of radical political alternatives that aim to counteract economic globalization and the universalism of development ideas through the politics of indigeneity. Key words: vivir bien, decolonization, plurinationalism, sovereignty, indigeneity, development policy, state formation, politics, power, ethnography, governmentality, postcolonial critique, Bolivia.
  • Rintala, Ohto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The study examines the U.S. State Department s postwar foreign policy planning concerning Finland, Romania and Hungary in years 1942-1945. When Germany launched an attack against the Soviet Union in June 1941 these countries took part in the coalition of Germany, while the United States and Stalin s Soviet Union were allies in the war against Hitler s Germany. Finland, Romania and Hungary located at the borderlands of Europe, between Germany and the Soviet Union, and were in a geopolitically unstable position. The State Department s extensive postwar foreign policy planning started at the beginning of 1942 partly as a consequence of the rise of the United States as a global superpower in the course of the Second World War. This study uses comparative historical approach but in a practical manner. The research material consists of the State Department s plans. In the analysis five themes were investigated: 1) border questions, especially with respect to Finland s, Romania s and Hungary s border with the Soviet Union; 2) regional cooperation between Eastern and Northern Europe; 3) internal political and societal conditions; 4) relations with the Soviet Union; and 5) plans concerning Finland, Romania and Hungary as a part of the administrative planning process. Two key concepts were used in the study. The first one dealt with how the foreign policy planners signified Finland, Romania and Hungary as enemies in the Second World War ( enemy image ), and the second one dealt with the more long-term political and societal development of these countries between the world wars ( history image ). The study shows that the U.S. postwar planners understood the international positions of Finland, Romania and Hungary as attached to the broader question of the Soviet Union s influence on its western border regions. Even though the interests of the Soviet Union in these regions were approved, the State Department s foreign policy planners were seeking compromises in order to stabilize the postwar international system. Stability was also seen as a best way to ensure the global political and economic interests of the United States. The study also shows that the enemy images of Finland, Romania and Hungary were vague especially if compared to Germany and Japan. In the previous research, Finland is often presented as a kind of special case in the U.S. foreign policy during the Second World War. This study supports the claim and shows that in the history images Finland was treated differently compared to Romania and Hungary. This treatment was linked to the strengthened Nordic democratic process during the 1930 s, while profound political and societal reforms were recommended to Romania and Hungary to ensure more stable regional development on the Eastern Europe after the Second World War.
  • Maunu, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Social and cultural studies have drawn a picture of Finland as an urbanizing and globalizing society since the 1980's. A main thread in this discussion has dealt with a shift from a collectivist and relatively conformist way of life towards a more individualist one ‒ much like in other Western countries. This is well embodied in Finnish bar and partying studies. According to them, 1980's suburban pubs were crowded by the descendants of the traditionalist, conformist culture, whereas the partygoers of the 2000's stroll in the night searching for unique, individual experiences to construct their unique, personal identity. However, this story probably pertains only to some small elite groups. It does not depict the so-called average partygoers who actually fill the Finnish nightclubs and keep them going. In addition, social and cultural studies in the 2000's claim that individualist hedonism and other sensation seeking has made room for neo-traditionalist neo-collecitivism that prefers traditional, down-to-earth values. Recent studies also suggest that social and cultural one-sidedness ‒ whether it was traditional collectivism or late modern individualism ‒ has vanished in contemporary way of life which is rather characterized by social and cultural omnivorousness. In this study I examine the types or forms of sociability that the so-called average partygoers of the 2000's pursue and express in their nightclub partying. Average partygoers are represented by 23‒35-year-old young white adults who live in Helsinki metropolitan area, work in socioeconomic middle positions and identify themselves as culturally ordinary, average Joes and Janes. I ask if they search for individual enjoyment or other individual experiences in their partying, or if they rather follow the ideals of neo-traditional neo-collectivity. On the other hand, I ask if social omnivorousness is important for them, and if it is, what elements it contains and what motivates it. The main data of the study is ethnographic observation in 13 nightclubs in Helsinki city center. I spent 100 hours during five years in different party spots in order to find out what kind of sociability they embody and offer. To understand average partygoers' own perspectives and experiences, I analyze their interviews on partying and nightclubs (117 thematic interviews and 7 focus group interviews) as well as their diary narratives (altogether 316 diary accounts) in which they describe their real nights out in their own words. The methodological framework of the study is analytic ethnography, and as analytic tools I apply perspectives offered by ritual analysis. The study shows that average young adult Finns' partying or their way of life more generally cannot be characterized by a clear-cut shift from collectivism to individualism. Instead, both moralities are well represented. On the one hand, their world is strongly collectivistic: they do not want to be self-sufficient individual atoms but prefer strong and binding communities. On the other hand, the world of average partygoers is individualistic. They are independent and autonomous actors, and they want to choose the course of their life by themselves. However, they use their personal freedom and competence to pursue strong and binding social experiences. The reason for this is that without active pursuing their life-world does not offer such strong feelings of togetherness. In other words, the partying of young, average Finns satisfies social needs their everyday life does not otherwise satisfy. The study also shows that the communities of average young urban Finns are relatively loose and changing. They allow and also require that their members belong also to other communities because no single community can fulfil its members' all social needs. It follows that the sociability of young, average Finns is versatile and omnivorous, and that omnivorousness is motivated by a wish to become attached to social reality through rich and versatile bonds. Social versatility, by turn, requires active individual contribution and good social skills from these young average Finns so that they are able to maintain their communities and group memberships in the first place. The study then describes and interprets their partying as a true ritual, a technique of togetherness that turns these abstract moral principles into concrete actions.
  • Lindqvist, Ann-Marie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The thesis describes how adults with learning disabilities are experiencing, creating and exercising their social citizenship. It concerns lived citizenship, understood as the meaning citizenship actually has in the persons lives and the ways in which the social and cultural background and material circumstances affect their lives as citizens. It is based on Ruth Lister's understanding of citizenship. The study approaches the following questions: How do people with learning disabilities experience their participation and how are obstacles and possibilities for their participation manifested in everyday life? What factors are important when people with learning disabilities are creating and exercising their citizenship in a housing context? The thesis posits itself within an ethnographic tradition and represents disability research where the users' and the professionals perspectives are highlighted. The thesis follows a tradition of research in social work that studies the living conditions for people in vulnerable positions and draws attention to their agency. Critical realism based on Roy Bhaskar and Berth Danermark gives the methodological guidelines for the thesis. To understand disability, critical realism and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provide the theoretical understanding with a focus on interaction between the individual and the environment. Knowledge production has been made in collaboration with a group of people with learning disabilities. The two empirical studies in the thesis are based on interviews with people with learning disabilities and professionals, participant observation and documents. The persons in the study exercise and create their citizenship in areas where they are dependent on how professionals view their work and their role. The study gives some evidence of the fact that both the professionals and the service users are trying to find new roles and new positions. The forums to exercise control over their everyday life are individual plans, formal face to face discussions and everyday informal discussions with staff. However, as service users the persons are unsure of their rights and obligations. Furthermore the persons are not always included in the discussions relating to them. Formulation of wishes and a positive self-relation can be seen as prerequisites when people create their citizenship. The size of the service units is relevant to the amount of control the service users can have over their lives, but what matters most is the professionals approach to work and spatial practice that takes into account opportunities for social interaction and privacy. In collective service units the professionals find it problematic to take into account all the service users´ individual needs while balancing between the rights and individual differences. Citizenship as status gives the rights and opportunities to get one s voice heard as an actor. But rights themselves are not sufficient. While the persons in the study have a will to control their lives they are on different levels, dependent on various degrees of support from the environment, in order to take an active role in the process of creating and exercising their citizenship. Negotiations on belonging and participation take place in interaction with the environment. The persons in the study benefit from supported decision making. It means being provided with information in a way that they understand and having professionals, who are familiar with alternative methods of communicating so as to reach a common understanding. The professionals reflective approach and the persons opportunity to receive support from professionals they have confidence in, make it possible to build up a joint reflection regarding processes where they actively create their citizenship. Key words: lived citizenship, people with learning disability, critical realism, everyday life experiences, ICF, participatory research.
  • Egerer, Michael (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The concept of addiction is increasingly applied in order to understand various problematic behaviours. However, this inclusion remains disputed. The study examines the conceptualisation of addictions by analysing stimulated group discussions of general practitioners and social workers in Finland and France on the topics of alcoholism, pathological gambling and eating disorders. The dissertation consists of one methodological working-paper (I.), three empirical sub-studies (II., III., and IV.) and a summary article. Sub-study III. was written together with Matilda Hellman and Pekka Sulkunen. The study builds on the assumption that social reality is constructed and taken-for-granted. Concepts develop in a certain cultural context. Culture in its different occurrences is the framework for thinking and acting. This study is particularly concerned with institutions as one occurrence of culture. The empirical bases of the enquiry are 27 Reception Analytical Group Interviews, which challenged the participants to question their taken-for-granted understanding of addiction by presenting them with short film clips. Finnish informants focus on the harm done towards the family and society and therefore follow the traditional Finnish non-medical model. French participants by contrast laid emphasis on the suffering of the individual addict and consequently express characteristics of the medical model (II., III., and IV.). Secondly, Finnish social workers understand all three problem behaviours similarly as social problems, whereas their French colleagues understand alcohol and eating problems as individual issues. A common denominator in both countries is a functional explanation of all three problem behaviours as a form of poor coping with life s hardships (except for gambling in France) (III. and IV.). Finally the study shows that in the context of the modern Finnish welfare state the importance of citizens autonomy allows individual excess to some extent, as long as innocent others are not harmed (III.). This study traced the influence of institutions on images of addiction. It suggests considering addiction as culture-level bound. Beside the traditional concept of addiction other institutional settings also have an impact on the images of addiction. Due to the complexity of the contexts involved, this dissertation recommends cautiousness when including behavioural excesses under the umbrella of addiction. Treatment research should take into account institutionally embedded understandings of addictions when implementing new treatment strategies and policy approaches from other cultural contexts. This dissertation asks for a layered concept of culture, which can account for the multifarious influences of the social context on the concept of addiction.
  • Smith, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Abstract This dissertation addresses the difficulties encountered in international relations between Russia and the West, specifically Europe, in spite of their cultural and geographical proximity and the expectation that Russia and Europe would share values and interests following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The problem is addressed through focussing on a particular aspect of Russia s national and state identity greatpowerness . Greatpowerness - the self-perception that Russia always has been and still is a great power - is a significant part of Russia s self identity. The effects of Russian greatpowerness are examined through investigation of Russia s relations with three European international organisations the Council of Europe, the European Union, and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe from the early 1990s through to 2004. The particular issue through which these relationships are explored are the two Chechen wars of 1994-1996 and 2000-2004. Russian actions in Chechnya provoked frequent criticisms from the West, but were seen in Russia in the 1990s as an internal matter, and as part of the international war on terrorism in the 2000s. In both cases, they reflected in part Russia s great power aspirations. There were particular sets of expectations from the Russian side based on its self-perception in each case. It is argued in the dissertation that this plays a part in understanding the difficulties and apparent inconsistencies encountered in Russia s relationship with the West. The dissertation contributes to explaining inconsistencies in Russian foreign policy behaviour towards the West which are not adequately accounted for by existing empirical and theoretical approaches. It begins with a discussion of definitions of being a Great Power and understandings of greatpowerness as an issue of self-perception in state identity. It then looks at Russian understandings of international relations, different Russian foreign policy schools and a series of factors which are persistent in Russian greatpowerness: sovereignty, ressentiment, isolationism, expansionism, imperialism, multilaterism and multipolarity. Next it sets the course of the two Chechen wars in the context of Russian political and international development. The main empirical section of the dissertation is taken up by the three case studies of the Council of Europe, the European Union, and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, noting similarities and distinctions in each case as to how Russia experienced interaction with the three different organisations. The Council of Europe has adopted a rather pragmatic approach in its cooperation with Russia and hence, in spite of some difficulties, the relationship has been the best of the three. This cooperation has challenged Russian greatpowerness the least and expectations came closest to outcomes. Cooperation with the EU has been of a different nature since Russia is not a member state. Here the relationship has had good and bad periods, which have very much depended on how Russia has felt about its level of expectations met by outcomes. The Russian relationship to the OSCE was also full of ups and downs always with strongly power political reasons. Russian expectations were highest in regards to the OSCE. However it challenged Russian greatpowerness most and caused biggest disappointment. In conclusion, it is shown that Russian self-perception of greatpowerness and the aspiration to have its status as a Great Power recognised internationally provides one part of the explanation of the apparent inconsistencies while showing a form of consistency in Russia s relationship with the West.
  • Garský, Salla (Salla Garský, 2014)
    This dissertation addresses the institutionalization of the International Criminal Court (ICC). In July 1998, the US suffered a diplomatic defeat as 120 states voted for the establishment of an ICC that is fairly independent from the United Nations. During the negotiations on the ICC, the US had tried to secure control over the new institution through, amongst other things, its veto power at the UN Security Council, but a coalition of states, steered by European countries, axed the plan. When the G. W. Bush Administration came into power, it started to prevent states from supporting the ICC with economic coercion. At the same time, the EU launched a global campaign for the universalization of the court. Scholars of international law and international relations tend to handle the ratification of human rights treaties as the discretion of a nation state. I argue that exogenous pressure exercised by the EU and the US influenced states commitment to the ICC. Hence, I explain the emergence of the ICC with a novel theoretical concept, normative binding. Normative binding is a foreign policy strategy that aims at tying down unilateral politics of actors that do not prefer to cooperate. The idea is to promote multilateral institutions, because they have the prospect to become binding even on unilateralist actors if the majority adheres to their rules and norms. I test the normative binding argument with qualitative and quantitative analysis and start with case studies on Germany, the US, and the EU. By using primary sources, I seek to answer the question: What explains the establishment of the ICC? With the method of process tracing, I create historical patterns and test the hypothesis of normative binding by contrasting it to alternative theoretical explanations. I find that due to generational changes and European integration, Germany, the aggressor of the WWII, has become a normative binder. US policy, in turn, has not changed much in the last 100 years and follows national interests that favor a selective approach to international justice. The EU s policy on the ICC developed as a response to the negative US stance. In addition to its successful coalition building during the negotiations on the ICC, the EU has employed normative binding tactics, in particular persuasion and issue-linkages, in its universal ratification campaign. The large-N quantitative analysis asks: What explains late ratifications to the Rome Statute? Qualitatively, I seek to answer the same question with case studies on an underanalyzed region, Southeast Asia. In the case studies on the Philippines and Indonesia, I test the hypothesis of exogenous pressure by systematically analyzing alternative explanations, e.g. legal and political factors, the human rights situation, norm diffusion, and common identities. I find that for years US coercion hindered the Philippines ratification and the EU s normative binding attempts had no real effect until US pressure eased. Once the Philippines joined the ICC, rational calculations guided the commitment as only a few months after the ratification the Philippines had something that it had desired for years: an international judge of its own. In Indonesia, the US and EU claims found little response. Indonesia s foreign policy agenda has traditionally emphasized state sovereignty and territorial integrity, values that do not fit well with the norms of the ICC. Thus, instead of promoting international justice, it preferred lucrative oil deals with Sudan. In general, the institutionalization of the ICC was a multifaceted process that constantly moved between international and national spheres: domestic actors shaped multilateral negotiations and when states considered committing to the ICC, international interests interfered. Thus, the emergence of international institutions should be examined with approaches that take into account both endogenous and exogenous influences.
  • Linkala, Minna-Kristiina Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    ABSTRACT In this doctoral thesis Finnish theatre criticism and its writers are examined during the period of twenty years; the focus of the dissertation is alteration in the theatre criticism. The background material of the thesis comprises fifteen theatre criticisms published in five Finnish daily newspapers (Helsingin Sanomat, Kaleva, Kansan Uutiset, Aamulehti and Hufvudstadsbladet) in the years 1983, 1993 and 2003. The primary material of the study is dual consisting of sixteen theme interviews made in the years 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2009 with the Finnish theatre critics who have written their criticism in popular publicity (popular mass media) and secondly 185 editorials of the Finnish theatre magazine Teatteri published in elite publicity (for the theatre-interested-people) during the years 1983 - 2003. In the study qualitative methods are applied. The theatre criticisms are described and interpreted by using the method of content analysis and classical pattern of the criticism. Further, the interviews of the critics and the editorials of the theatre magazine are examined by using the method of thematic text analysis and with help of the concepts of Pierre Bourdieu. The study belongs to the field of communication studies focusing on cultural journalism and mass communication. The centre of the period enquired is the year of 1993 when Finland experienced a deep recession. The year 1993 is regarded as a clear landmark in the alteration of theatre criticism in both economic and social sense. The analysis demonstrates that the contents of theatre criticism have been changed during the period inquired: theatre criticisms have been shortened and their literary style has been changed towards journalistic writing style. Similarly, public discussion around theatre in popular publicity has been reduced or even disappeared. In Bourdieu´s concepts,the contents of theatre criticism have mostly been influenced by the field of the economy although its influence has not been apparent. The financial difficulties of the media companies have leaded up to a situation in which theatre critics are forced to be satisfied with scantier criticism than earlier.
  • Valkendorff, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The thesis, which consists of four original articles and a summarizing chapter, aims to study meanings of food and eating in contemporary society. While for a long time the meaning of food has been equivalent to its sufficient quantity, nowadays the meanings are far more complex. They include, for example, different esthetical, ethical, moral, political, health-oriented and medical aspects. In addition, eating has become a problem, which is reflected by the public discourse on eating disorders and fatness. The research questions are: What kinds of meanings are assigned to eating and body in contemporary society? How and why do eating and the body develop into problems? The focus of the thesis is on eating-related lifestyles and problems: the study examines discussions of eating disorders, healthy and unhealthy lifestyles and fatness. The purpose of the study is to examine the problematized nature of eating and to make the phenomenon more understandable through the theoretical perspectives. The theoretical frame consists of body studies. Other theoretical viewpoints are the sociology of health, religion theory and governmentality. The viewpoint of the study is sociological and based on social constructionism. The interest is on how lay-people discuss eating and the body, and what kind of information they produce. The research material consists of internet discussions from the years 2004 2010. The discussions included in the material deal with eating disorders, orthorexia and healthy eating, as well as fatness as a self-induced problem. The material is analyzed through qualitative content and discursive analysis. In the study, eating is interpreted as an embodied phenomenon: by eating right, it is possible to pursue an ideal body, while the wrong kind of bodies are seen as resulting from a bad diet. The results of the research continue to show that the meanings of food and body are categorical. This becomes apparent in the ideals of thinness and health, and in their opposites, the problems of unhealthiness and fatness. According to the study, the cultural ideals of health and thinness can take extreme forms in two directions: excessive pursuit of ideals on the one hand, and stigmatization of people who fail to meet the ideals on the other. In excessive pursuit of ideals, thinness and health can become an imperative, life-determining content of life. This is expressed in the spectrum of eating disorders and problems, in the core of which may lie pursuit of thinness or, nowadays, striving for health or orthorexic symptoms. These lifestyles and problems can become a life-determining issue that resembles religion. As the significance of traditional religions has dimin-ished, bodily ideals may represent something secularly holy to people. As a consequence, the pursuit of the right kind of body can become compulsive, so that control over one s body turns into an addiction. While it is important in our culture to pursue an ideal body, its opposite, obesity, has begun to be interpreted as a problem. Obesity is defined as the wrong kind of body, re-sponsibility for which lies with the individual, and as certain kind of cultural dirt , which is targeted by hate speech. Bodies change, and therefore it is crucial to be in a constant process towards the ideal, which is defined by the continuous social discussion. As a conclusion, the study claims that the meaning of eating is not primarily nutritional, but eating is an embodied demarcation.
  • Lehtinen, Vilma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Contemporary social scientists describe the current societal circumstances as the late modern era, which is characterized by an abundance of both options and uncertainties. Theorists sometimes associate these characteristics with the development of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Some argue that computer-mediated, networked interaction reinforces the fragmented conditions of late modernity. Others emphasize ICTs as the ultimate opportunity to participate in global networks of interaction. To contribute to the discussion on how the development of ICTs and the conditions of late modernity are intertwined, the discussion in this dissertation presumes that online interaction provides a way to create meaningfulness and continuity in late modern life. The context of the research is the phenomenon of social network sites (SNSs): the vastly popular online services whose central feature is the public performance of connection. Building on the tenets of symbolic interactionism, I argue that the performance of connection creates shared understandings of individuals interpersonal relationships. This dissertation examines what kinds of performances of interpersonal relationships take place in online settings, what kind of challenges people attribute to these performances and how they attempt to solve those challenges. The observed practices and interpretations are then contrasted with the results of a literature review covering the conceptualizations of mediated community in academic research, to suggest future directions in investigation of the creation of shared understandings of interpersonal relationships in online settings. The research problem is assessed through the use of qualitative methods, which permit the analysis of the expressions that the participants themselves used to describe the novel opportunities and challenges that online interaction offers for the performance of interpersonal relationships. On the basis of the four individual studies included in this dissertation, I argue that 1) people engage in a variety of creative but repetitive practices of constructing shared understandings of interpersonal relationships in online settings, 2) SNSs create a new interpretational frame and impose new challenges for the creation of shared understandings, 3) people engage in collaborative efforts to resolve these challenges, and 4) extending the analysis to the intergroup level would broaden our understanding of social bonds in the networked settings of late modernity. These findings portray the performance of interpersonal relationships in online settings as creative and collaborative attempts to construct shared understandings, continuity, and coherence for transient social bonds.
  • Leinonen, Taina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Socioeconomic factors are major predictors of disability retirement. Socioeconomic position and other socio-demographic factors also shape the retirement process, thereby modifying health outcomes after the transition. This study focuses on the socioeconomic differences in disability retirement and the influences of socio-demographic factors on mental health and mortality in relation to the transition. The study was based mainly on longitudinal register data on a representative sample of the Finnish population, but also included survey data on a municipal employee cohort linked to register data. Cox proportional hazard and linear regression models were used in the analyses. Low education and occupational social class were more strongly associated with disability retirement than a low level of income. Part of the effect of each of these three socioeconomic factors was explained by or mediated through the other two. Education, social class and income therefore have both independent and interdependent pathways to disability retirement. Social-class differences were particularly large in retirement due to musculoskeletal diseases. The association between social class and disability retirement was mediated largely through physical working conditions and partly also through job control. The contribution of health behaviours to the association was modest. Improvements in working conditions among those in lower social classes could reduce socioeconomic differences as well as the overall incidence of disability retirement in the population. Depressive morbidity measured via purchases of antidepressant medication decreased after disability retirement, following a pre-retirement increase. Such changes were more pronounced in retirement due to mental disorders, particularly depression. Compared to the general population, those who retired due to depression and other mental disorders had a high mortality risk, particularly from unnatural and alcohol-related causes. Socioeconomic position and family ties had only limited protective influence on mental ill-health and mortality after disability retirement. Among young adults disability retirement was particularly strongly associated with prolonged mental-health problems and a high risk of mortality, especially from unnatural causes. Particular attention should therefore be paid to younger adults in terms of mental ill health, work disability and other social problems.
  • Kalalahti, Mira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Positioned between social and public policy, sociology of education and educational sciences, this doctoral thesis focuses on the boundaries and limits that society, families and schools set for educational achievements. The thesis consists of four scientific articles and a summary that also contains supplementary analysis. The following two research questions are examined: (1) How do definitions of equality of opportunities change with time? and (2) How are school achievements connected to social position and experiences of social security in homes and schools? The youth study dimension of the thesis relies on the Health and Well-being in Youth − Comparison of 15-year-olds in Helsinki and Glasgow (HelGla) research project and the data that has been collected during the years 1998, 2004 and 2010. The questionnaire-based survey was targeted at 9th grade pupils (n ~ 2500 / data). This data is the main empirical corpus, where social position, school achievements and school experiences were analysed with statistical methods. The thesis is also part of the research project Parents and School Choice. Family Strategies, Segregation and School Policies in Chilean and Finnish Basic Schooling (PASC). The sociology of education dimension is framed using documentary data collected for this project by analysing discourses and practices concerning equality of educational opportunities. Changes in the opportunity structures in the thesis were uncovered by analysing the empirical and conceptual changes in the possibilities to choose schools. The analysis comes to the conclusion that there are two distinctive liberal interpretations of individual freedom of choice. Viewed from the comprehensive school choice policies, the education systems simultaneously promote educational rights and equal possibilities within the welfare liberalism and neoliberalism traditions. The associations between school achievements and family background are examined through the lens of school achievement. School achievement is analysed as a unity of educational orientation and habits that are emergent in school grades and attitudes towards school, and is associated with social position. First, in Pierre Bourdieu s conceptual terms, the associations between cultural capital ‒ the educational level of the parents in the thesis ‒ and school achievements is analysed. Second, the social position is analysed as social capital, especially following James Coleman s theory of social trust. The thesis concludes that school achievements associate with social hierarchies in many ways. Good achievement at school intertwines with both forms of capital. The odds of a young person having good school grades is tightly linked to the education level of his/her family, but a positive attitude towards school requires or can be also explained by strong social resources; i.e., a socially safe position to grow and develop.