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  • Peltola, Soili (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    In today s increasingly competitive and global economy, many claim that entrepreneurial attitudes and behavior are paramount for established firms to grow and survive. To deal with these demanding business environments, academic discussions have emphasized the status of corporate entrepreneurship (CE) as a legitimate and self-evident strategy that firms must adopt. In underscoring the hegemony of firm-level CE strategies, however, the dominant functionalist research paradigm of CE has neglected to explicate the evaluation and implementation of CE and the position of individual organizational actors as practitioners of CE within firms. The present dissertation therefore adopts a fundamentally different research approach to corporate entrepreneurship. By applying a micro social constructionist and interpretivist research paradigm, the study explores what kind of versions and practical applications of CE individual organizational actors as hired employees of their firms subjectively construct in the social context of their daily activities, and how their versions relate to theoretical conceptualizations of CE. The research material is drawn from individual interviews and meeting interaction recordings from three Finnish privately-owned business service firms in the metropolitan areas of Helsinki and Tampere during 2008-2011. The empirical designs make use of descriptive qualitative methods in generating and analyzing the research material. The present study highlights CE as a socially embedded phenomenon that does not unproblematically become grafted into practical firm operations or self-evidently fit into established organizational arrangements. The study indicates that CE is a concrete, observable phenomenon in organizations, not merely an abstract characteristic of firms or a behavioral concept that produces change and growth in isolation. Instead, CE is a process that individual organizational actors collectively bring about and shape in their everyday organizational interaction. Organizational actors jointly negotiate contextually sensitive and target-specific practical applications of CE, and establish intra- and inter-firm relationships that are necessary to sustain long-term economic behavior. However, not all negotiations necessarily lead to a uniform commitment to these applications. This dissertation further suggests that CE cannot be regarded as a permanent characteristic of firms, but is instead a process that requires continuous maintenance. The nature and practices of CE must be updated and renewed regularly as contexts and target groups in the firm s business environment change. Organizations can support the position of individual actors in actualizing these efforts through proactiveness that invites collaboration. However, institutional problems in implementing CE may emerge if top management permits internal competitive aggressiveness and the related short-term maximization of profits to undermine the ability of organizational actors to fully realize their entrepreneurial potential. This study presents a new, alternative perspective of entrepreneurship in the corporate setting by painting a context-specific, relational, and socially embedded picture of CE. Because CE is also a subtle communicative phenomenon between organizational actors and those in the market, the long-term maintenance of these relationships may critically contribute to how successfully firms are eventually able to legitimize and institutionalize CE for their benefit.
  • Lempiäinen, Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This doctoral dissertation examines the philosophy of José Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955), the foremost Spanish philosopher. I analyse the development, background and main themes of his thinking through the decades and demonstrate that Ortega is justifiably the key creator and developer of existentialist concepts. Many key concepts of existentialism, such as alienation, loneliness, angst and freedom, appeared in his writing as early as the 1920s. Ortega believes that all individuals must determine their relationship to their life and seek authenticity in it. According to Ortega, the lives of those who settle for inauthenticity remain unlived. The fundamental question then becomes: What is an individual life? For Ortega, finding the meaning of life is manifested in finding one s calling and carrying out one s duties, the most important of which is the quest for truth and living a life that is as truthful as possible. An important tool in understanding life is understanding history. The philosophy of history dominated Ortega s thought in the 1940s. He claimed that man does not have nature, but history. Ortega opined that one should not seek the answer to the question of the meaning of life outside oneself. For Ortega, philosophy became a genuine force for solving life s problems and instilling hope. When we relinquish religion, we discover a better way to be good. On the other hand, Ortega claimed that, had Christianity not become a religion, Christianity could have evolved into a valuable philosophy, and the message of Christianity could have been followed by thinking rather than believing. According to Ortega, philosophy must reformulate its research questions and return to the everyday problems of life. Philosophy must concentrate on life. Ortega criticised the academic philosophy of his time for forgetting life. He considered perspectivism the epistemological solution and emphasised that the only wrong perspective is one that recognises only a single perspective. My study focuses on Ortega s core ideas, but also deepens the themes of art, technology and religion. These themes are bound together by cultural and social criticism. Ortega presented a new interpretation of art, stating that art should be separated from the human. He defended modern art against traditional art, was the first to prepare a general presentation of a philosophy of technology, and pioneered the concept of a super-nature . He also developed his philosophy of technology simultaneously with Martin Heidegger, but ended up subscribing to a more optimistic view of the potential of technology. In his philosophy of religion, Ortega engaged in a bitter battle with Miguel de Unamuno, finding fundamental flaws in the very premises of Unamuno s thought.
  • Toppinen, Teemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation consists of five articles plus an introductory essay, the overarching goal being that of defending an expressivist view about normative thought and talk. According to expressivism, the meaning of normative sentences (e.g. 'We ought to cut down on our greenhouse gas emissions,' 'There is more to good life than enjoyment') is to be explained by their expressing broadly practical, 'desire-like,' states of mind, rather than by what they are about, or by their truth-conditions. To think that eating factory farmed meat is wrong is, then, to be in the relevant practical state to disapprove of eating factory farmed meat, say. The prevalent rival view, according to which the meaning of normative sentences and the nature of normative thought should rather be explained with reference to the way they represent the world to be, is often called 'cognitivism.' Understanding the nature and meaning of normative judgment is important if we are to make sense, for example, of the way in which the demands of morality may be objective, or of the nature of ethical disagreement. However, philosophers are increasingly finding analogous issues to be of interest also to debates in epistemology and philosophy of language and mind due to the possibility that concepts such as knowledge, evidence, meaning, and belief are "fraught with ought," that is, normative concepts of sorts. Expressivism is commonly agreed to be attractive thanks to its making sense of the distinctive features of normativity and normative thought e.g. its practical function, and the resistance of normative properties and claims to reductive analysis in naturalistic terms within a broadly naturalistic understanding of the world. But of course this view faces a number of big challenges. The introductory essay offers a brief overview of what metaethics is all about and, in particular, of the widely acknowledged successes and problems of expressivism and its competitors. (A very brief exploration of what may be some of the historical roots of expressivism is also included.) In Essay 1, "Believing in Expressivism," I outline a form of expressivism which I call the higher-order state view. According to ecumenical expressivism, defended e.g. by Michael Ridge, normative sentences express complex states consisting of certain desire-like states and descriptive beliefs. On the higher-order state view, normative sentences rather express higher-order states of having some appropriately related desires and beliefs. I argue that the higher-order state view can exploit the resources that ecumenical expressivism is sometimes supposed to have for dealing with the so-called Frege-Geach problem, and yet avoid the problems associated with the ecumenical view regarding validity, expression relation, and disagreement. In Essay 2, "Expressivism and the Normativity of Attitudes," I defend the idea that expressivism is compatible with (NA), which says that claims about propositional attitudes (such as expressivism itself) are themselves normative judgments. I also suggest that in order for this to be true, James Dreier's influential response to the problem of creeping minimalism must be slightly revised. In Essay 3, "Moral Fetishism Revisited," I defend the 'moral fetishism' argument against motivational externalism, originally presented by Michael Smith. I argue that only the internalist views on the relation of moral judgment and motivation to some of which expressivists plausibly are committed can combine two attractive theses: first, that the morally admirable are motivated to act on the reasons they take to ground actions' being right, and second, that their virtuousness need not be diminished by their acting on their thinking that performing some action would be the right thing to do. In Essay 4, "Pure Expressivism and Motivational Internalism," I examine the prospects of pure expressivism (the view that some normative sentences express only desire-like states) with regard to capturing the truth of an internalist thesis, (PRACTICALITY), which says that, necessarily, if one judges that φ-ing would be desirable, then, if one is rational, one is thereby also motivated to φ. I argue that some forms of pure expressivism explain (PRACTICALITY) neatly, while others fail and should thereby be rejected. In Essay 5, "Goading or Guiding? Cognitivism, Non-cognitivism, and Practical Reasoning," I develop a challenge for all stripes of cognitivists, and identify a reason for preferring expressivism over cognitivism. One of my main goals here is to introduce the idea that a metaethical theory of the nature of normative judgment must be compatible with a plausible account of the reasons for which we act when we act on the basis of our normative judgments. Another main goal of the paper is to argue that when we try to satisfy this desideratum for a metaethical theory, we notice that cognitivism faces a challenge that at least some forms of expressivism elegantly sidestep. If cognitivism is true, then it is hard to explain how someone could perform an action, φ, on the basis of her judgment that she ought to φ, and thereby for the reasons that one might sensibly take to explain why she ought to φ. If we accept expressivism or, more precisely, either the ecumenical or the higher-order state view no similar problem arises.
  • Valkila, Joni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The objective of this dissertation is to study the opportunities and challenges of the Fair Trade certification system in altering conditions of coffee production in Nicaragua. The aim is to analyze the advantages as well as the constraints of Fair Trade in assisting farmers and their cooperatives, involving them in the governance of coffee value chains and improving labor conditions. The study highlights the context of increased globalization, deregulation of coffee markets, and declining and volatile coffee prices. The research methods utilized were primarily qualitative. Seven months of fieldwork was carried out in Nicaragua in 2005-2006 and 2008 to interview and observe a wide range of actors in Fair Trade and conventional coffee production and trade. Value chain analysis and convention theory were utilized as theoretical frameworks to understand if Fair Trade can improve the position of small-scale farmers and hired workers as participants in the global economy. Through the lenses of value chain analysis Fair Trade is seen as a governance mechanism where multiple actors with diverse interests influence each other in their interactions in establishing rules and norms for conditions of production. The results indicate that Fair Trade has supported certified producer organizations particularly during the extremely low coffee prices in 2000-2004. However, Fair Trade is a limited market existing parallel to conventional trade. This results in farmers and cooperatives selling a large part of their production to conventional markets and market prices having a greater importance for them than Fair Trade-regulated prices. Since 2005, market prices have frequently been above or close to Fair Trade minimum prices, reducing the significance of Fair Trade- controlled prices. Certified farmers are vulnerable to price volatility also because when market prices are higher than Fair Trade minimum prices, the price volatility is the same for Fair Trade and conventional coffee. Fair Trade does not require that higher than market prices be paid to certified farmers. Prices and services offered by Fair Trade certified cooperatives to farmers have not remarkably exceeded those offered by conventional actors in Nicaragua. Although the minimum price system is a safety net in case of a future price collapse, the results of this research indicate that challenges exist in distributing benefits equally between and within producer organizations. The implementation of minimum prices also involves other practical challenges such as to what level prices should be set under constantly changing market prices. The physical quality characteristics of coffee affect its price and, because they are so varied, it is impossible to create a pricing system taking all these characteristics into consideration. The Fair Trade premium for social development has provided financing for cooperatives and farmers. While some of these funds have been targeted to pressing social needs, a large part of the funds have been used to finance improvements in producer organizations and to pay for certification fees, undermining the ability of these funds to focus on social issues. In addition to the Fair Trade social premium, cooperatives and farmers have been assisted by numerous development projects. As a result, infrastructure in cooperatives has improved. A possibility for making Fair Trade pricing more transparent for all actors in the value chain would be to make the social premium a percentage of retail price of Fair Trade products and to document more carefully its use in improving cooperative and farm infrastructure and management as well as its use to improve social conditions in coffee producing communities. Fair Trade has not significantly altered the working conditions of hired labor in coffee production in Nicaragua. Because the advantages Fair Trade offers to farmers and cooperatives are limited and vary in different contexts, the system cannot present strict demands on improved working conditions. The participation of farmers and workers in formulating Fair Trade policies is narrow, as evidenced by most of the interviewed farmers and hired laborers not knowing they were involved in producing Fair Trade coffee and what this entailed. Despite changes aimed at involving producer organizations in Fair Trade governance, Northern actors exercise the greatest control of the system. Approximately half of Fair Trade certified farmers are also organically certified, globally and in Nicaragua. Although the Fair Trade/organic farmers receive price premiums, the benefits of Fair Trade are not clear-cut. As experienced by the interviewed farmers, organic farming has lower yields, especially when higher intensity management systems are compared. As a result, price premiums do not necessarily lead to higher income compared to alternatives. Inequalities in the distribution of value creation are estimated to be higher in Fair Trade than conventional coffee in the case of coffee trade from Nicaragua to Finland. In absolute terms, Fair Trade has offered slightly higher prices to producer organizations particularly when Fair Trade minimum price has exceeded market prices. In view of the many difficulties coffee production has faced in Nicaragua in recent decades, Fair Trade certified cooperatives have been successful. Fair Trade can provide financing for development and reduce price risk. However, many other risks exist for farmers and cooperatives including loss of crops due to diseases or adverse weather conditions. If small-scale coffee production in cooperatives is to thrive, well-managed cooperatives and farms are needed. Many Fair Trade certified farmers produce low volumes of coffee. While price premiums are welcome, income from small quantity of coffee remains meager. As a result, some Fair Trade farmers are trapped in poverty.
  • Kajanus, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This study combines anthropology with migration studies to examine the increase of familial investment in daughters education as part of a wider transformation of the social and moral landscape of China. The focus is on urban single-child families who take on the substantial financial burden of sending their child abroad to study. The research involved 17 months of ethnographic fieldwork in China, as well as interviews in Europe and two survey studies. Chinese families have traditionally invested in sons education and future, as the patrilineal and patriarchal kinship principles have vested sons with the main responsibility of taking care of the ageing parents. The gendered family roles have been visible in the demographics of the Chinese migration flows. While men have taken the active role of migrating abroad to work and to study, women have played the supporting roles, being the left-behind wives or following male family members abroad. This pattern has changed as overseas study has become a major part of Chinese migration. Between 1978 and 2013 a staggering 2.6 million Chinese students went abroad to study. During this time, the proportion of women increased fivefold, and they now constitute half of the student migrant population. Be it a son or a daughter, most urban parents now do everything they can to support the education of their only child. Yet gender simultaneously operates on multiple scales. While a generation of young women have been educated in an environment that fosters individual achievement and competition, they must eventually find their place in the marriage and job markets that are highly gendered. Women are directed to certain, less demanding, career paths, and excessive success can stand in a way of marriage. The current student migrants also belong to the first generation who must make the transition from being the centre of the family to being the sacrificing parent. In this role, both women and men are expected to put the child's well-being and the future before their personal interests. The difference is that a father s contribution is more in line with his upbringing as the only child, than the mother s. It is the mothers who are expected to use time and energy to nurture and to educate the child, while a father s main contribution is through his personal career success. These dynamics create a paradoxical situation where women as daughters are supported to succeed but women as wives and mothers are not. Both female and male student migrants draw from their cosmopolitan experiences and symbolic resources, and their access to wider marriage and job markets, when negotiating this difficult position. Through their individual journeys of migration, they are at the forefront of the current transformation of the Chinese symbolic markets.
  • Saxell, Tanja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis consists of three essays on the industrial organization of pharmaceutical markets. In Chapter 1, I introduce the three essays and present the main results. In Chapter 2, I measure how uncertainty and learning through experimentation affect the medical decision-making by physicians. I estimate a dynamic model of demand where physicians may learn the effectiveness or side effects of drug treatments from their prescription experiences. In the model, physicians may want experiment new drugs for their patients to get valuable information for their future drug choices. At the same time, risk aversion can make physicians reluctant to try less well-known, but potentially superior products for their patients. Using data from the Finnish market for cholesterol drugs, I find that medical decision-making is characterized by habit persistence and heterogeneity in the effectiveness of drug treatments across patients. My results suggest that if physicians would become more willing to experiment with their treatment choices, the process of learning would improve and the efficiency of medical decision-making would increase. In Chapter 3, I quantify the roles of the physician's own experience and the past choices of other doctors in pharmaceutical demand. I develop a model of medical decision-making under uncertainty about the quality of the match between the patient and the drug treatment. Unlike previous demand models, I take into account both private and social learning and allow heterogeneity in quality across patients. I test whether information on the past choices of other physicians improves drug choices. Using rich data from the market for cholesterol drugs, I show that treatment patterns relying heavily on the past choices of other doctors can lead to over-prescription in terms of efficiency. My results suggest that continuity of care, where a patient repeatedly consulting the same doctor, is an efficient policy to limit such behavior. Finally, in Chapter 4, I explore whether stronger patents decrease competition during patent protection. Traditionally, stronger patents have been thought to increase the profits of an innovator and to promote R&D. Economic theory predicts that longer patents may hinder rather than stimulate innovation by increasing competition during the patent period. Broad patents, on the other hand, increase the costs of imitation and decrease competition. I test the theory on the relationship between patent strength and competition during patent protection. I consider the Finnish markets for pharmaceuticals that provide rich variation in both patent length and breadth across innovations. The results suggest that patent breadth, rather than length, prevents imitation. Patent rights have no effect on the risk of parallel trade.
  • Lampinen, Airi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Interpersonal boundary regulation constitutes of the efforts needed to make the world work that is, for people to achieve contextually desirable degrees of social interaction and to build and sustain their relations with others and with the self. I argue that while widespread adoption of social network services (SNSs) disrupts central premises of interpersonal boundary regulation on which people are used to relying, interpersonal boundary regulation is best understood as a co-operative process also in our networked age. In fact, SNSs may even amplify the importance of co-operative boundary regulation and increase awareness of the necessary efforts. This work illustrates everyday practices young adults in Finland apply to regulate interpersonal boundaries in the context of SNSs. It leverages the frameworks of interpersonal boundary regulation, self-presentation, and identity work. The dissertation contributes an examination of challenges of interpersonal boundary regulation through four central aspects of sharing related to SNSs: 1) people may share content with multiple groups at once, 2) people may share content on behalf of others, 3) sharing can be achieved via automated mechanisms, and 4) sharing online and offline are connected in multiple ways. The dissertation incorporates five explorative studies that feature qualitative interviews as their primary research material. The findings highlight the importance that users of SNSs place on mutual consideration when boundary regulation is involved. The SNS context makes it challenging to predict the potential consequences of one s actions, even when one is willing to make efforts to avoid causing harm to anyone. The findings show how boundary regulation efforts are a holistic endeavour that spans interaction in online and offline settings. Furthermore, they reveal that boundary regulation takes place both through expression of technology preferences and via diverse practices applied when people engage in social interaction in the context of SNSs. The work proposes a typology of interpersonal boundary regulation practices in the context of SNSs: Firstly, practices can be either individual or collaborative. Also, there are preventive and corrective practices. Thirdly, there are both mental and behavioural practices. While specific practices are context-dependent, the typology helps mapping the range of practices that may be at play in networked settings. The work calls for reconsidering privacy in the networked age beyond the individual level and across the many online and offline settings in which people come together. It invites designers to consider how to support subtly co-operative interpersonal boundary regulation efforts that are not confined to the immediate technological setting that a particular service provides. Similarly, it challenges policymakers to envision how legislation could take into account the co-operative nature of boundary regulation, instead of framing privacy solely as an issue of individuals control over information.
  • Norocel, Cristian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Contemporary globalisation processes witness the articulation of an allegedly homogeneous totality that has coalesced in direct opposition to the very globalisation processes that have enabled it. This totality is commonly labelled our people and reunites the citizens inhabiting the political social cultural space of a specific polity. Radical right populist parties - claiming to defend the political interests of the people - have gained increasing visibility and acceptance across Europe. Particularly salient among the symbols these parties have employed to portray their ideological stances is the depiction of the people as the tightly knit family, under the guardianship of a man/father/leader, sheltered together under their home s protective roof. However, there is a lack of gender sensitive research on radical right populist ideology. The present study consequently aims to uncover the means through which both concepts - that of family, and respectively people - are discursively gendered, in the sense that they reify gender based distinctions, thereby naturalising the traditional hierarchal gender binary. The dissertation focuses on two case studies: the Greater Romania Party (Partidul România Mare, PRM) and the Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna, SD). It examines how the leaders of radical right populist parties in Romania and in Sweden explain discursively with the aid of conceptual structures particularly, the conceptual metaphor of THE NATION IS A FAMILY and adjoining metaphorical clusters - their ideological conception of the hierarchical gender binary. The present study represents in other words an interdisciplinary dialogue between political science - particularly the study of radical right populism; communication studies - mainly the relationship between the radical right populist leader and contemporary media logic; conceptual metaphor theory - especially the critical analysis of conceptual metaphors, enriched with a genealogical perspective; from a decidedly feminist vantage point.
  • Borch, Anita (2013)
    Problem-oriented studies of gambling have been dominated by psychological and increasingly neuroscientific approaches. Less attention has been paid to the social surroundings that influence and are influenced by problem gambling. To help fill this gap in research, this thesis focuses on what Sulkunen and Rantala (Rantala and Sulkunen, 2011, Sulkunen 2007, 2012) call cultural images of gambling and problem gambling. Cultural images refer to shared thoughts, which main function is to create a common reality of meanings, and hence enable people to orientate in the world and to communicate with others. Inspired by Sulkunen and Rantala s theories, it can be argued that problem gamblers undergo a process with three partially overlapping and mutually influencing stages of image-making: semiosis, de-semiosis and re-semiosis. In the process of semiosis, gambling is perceived, interpreted and given meaning. In the processes of de-semiosis and re-semiosis this meaning is changed and new images are born. So far the hypothesis of Sulkunen and Rantala has been analyzed in two particular settings: the fictional context of Western films dealing with different kinds of addiction, and the virtual context of a Finnish web forum discussing gambling and gambling problems. The aim of the thesis is to explore the hypothesis in the context of the household. Studying cultural images in the context of the household is an important supplement to dominant psychological and neuroscientific approaches on gambling, and hence contributes to preventing and reducing the harm of problem gambling in society. Based on qualitative studies of households with and without reported gambling problems, the analysis supports the hypothesis suggesting that problem gamblers undergo a process of semiosis, de-semiosis and re-semiosis. Interestingly, the research also indicates that other household members, in this case the spouse, seem to undergo a similar process. Consequently, significant members of the immediate family should to a larger extent be included in prevention and harm reduction work, both by virtue of being an affected part ( patient ), and in terms of representing a self-help resource ( therapist ).
  • Humphreys, Brendan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This thesis is a comparative work in which two historical events are defined and examined as political myths. The definition immediately raises problems as the habitual use of the term myth by historians implies falsehood. The author argues that the traditional dichotomy of mythos and logos is more problematic than is habitually understood. Rather, he argues that certain highly-resonant historical episodes are a disconcerting mixture of fact and fiction, and that their appeal to their target audience is predicated on an authority that overrides concerns about factual accuracy. Furthermore, as this is a study of civic religion and the politics of public commemoration, the thesis problematises both the status of the sacred in (supposedly) secularised societies and the role of the rational in politics. Two cases are presented. These are the Battle of Kosovo Polje of 1389 and the Munich Agreement of 1938. Noted is that both events have been extraordinarily influential; that they have a paradigmatic status and an authority that has often been used to confer political legitimacy. The comparative method uses several factors: durability, factual accuracy, ownership, flexibility, level of usage and media of transmission. The examination of the legacy of the Battle of Kosovo Polje study is longitudinal. It seeks to establish to the small degree possible what actually happened in 1389, and contrast this with the popular narrative. This popular narrative, most especially the vibrant tradition of Serbian epic poetry, is then explored at length through a well-known theory of myth analysis. Previous studies have not approached this oral tradition at length or in a systematic manner. The work then offers different examples of the agents and events inspired by the legacy of the battle, among them the most important events in the modern Balkans. It then attempts to systemise the different modalities through which the event has been instrumental. The examination of the Munich Agreement also offers an overview of the events of the 1930s, and contrasts this with a highly simplistic narrative that has been extracted from these events. This is in strong contrast to the Kosovo legacy; in that case there were few sources to indicate what happened; as regards the Munich Agreement and the policy of appeasement from which it grew, much is known, but the record is largely ignored at the expense of an inaccurate but seemingly deeply-compelling narrative. The political usage of Munich is then examined via several cases, typically conflict situations. Emphasis is placed on the statements and justifications of politicians in different periods and political cultures. Modes of argumentation are examined, and a singular pattern is detected. Finally the thesis compares the two cases, their differences and similarities, with the ambition of solidifying the concept of a political myth, highlighting the extraordinary influence of the usable past on the present.
  • Siira, Kalle (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Organizational conflict research has centered on a few dominant models that have directed the development of the field in theory and in practice. Although these models have undoubtedly benefited the field by providing a common focus, the focused concentration has had costs. Specifically, there has been a lack of approaches that depart from the positivistic, linear, and reductionist views of communication and conflict. This study answers this call by exploring the possibilities and implications that a social complexity approach has to offer organizational conflict management with a special focus on organizational communication. The study consists of four sub-studies. Study 1 (conducted as a questionnaire comparing the conflict and face maintenance styles of Finns and U.S. Americans) functions as an entry to the study of organizational conflict management. Studies 2 and 3 (conducted as theoretical accounts) introduce social complexity principles for individual- and organizational-level conflict management, respectively. Finally, Study 4 develops a framework of managerial conflict influence based on a qualitative analysis of 30 semi-structured interviews. In sum, the dominant individual- and organizational-level models are insufficient to account for conflict behavior and interaction as well as to address conflicts in organizations. A social complexity perspective on organizational conflict implies a constitutive role of communication processes in organizing. The communicative view of organizational conflict is illustrated by using the metaphors of performance, contradiction, and voice. Conflict management in turn is represented via three main variables (the dual function of communication, circumstances, and directness) resulting in six ideal types of influence at the individual level and four strategies at the organizational level. This study contributes to the existing organizational conflict research by providing an alternative view of social complexity to understand the communicative aspects of the phenomenon. This approach helps to illuminate the limitations of and to find areas for development of the dominant models at the individual and organizational levels. This perspective also draws attention to the discursive aspects of organizational conflict, places conflict purely within a communicative context, caters to the relational and systemic aspects of conflict management, and takes a broader view of conflicts. In addition, this study contributes to the interpretivist strand of social complexity and provides a fresh metaphor of organizing for the organizational communication literature.
  • Rahikka, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The development of information and communication technology has spread to social and health care organisations, which now offer interactive online services. The subject of this study is the work of social and health care professionals who offer their services online. In this study these online services are given the term online support services, which constitute a systematic method to help citizens cope in their everyday life. The point of view in this study comes from the narratives of the professionals in social and health care organisations. The study will answer to following research questions: How are the online services defined in the professionals narratives? How is the computer-mediated communication between the professionals and the customers structured according to the narratives? The research material consists of 18 interviews conducted through a combination of active and theme interview methodology and then analysed by shape and thematic analysis. The metaphors and distinctions used by the professionals highlight the special features of the environment and define the computer-mediated communication between the professionals and the customers. In this study the computer-mediated communication is conceptualized as consisting of three dimensions: textuality, process and socio-cultural factors. The computer-mediated communication is studied from the perspective of dialogue, especially using the structural concepts of Mihail Bahtin. According to the professionals narratives, online support services are independent of time and place, based on anonymity and guide the customers toward more personalized face to face services. The results of the study show tension in computer-mediated communication, because the professionals must balance between expert-like and remote communication on the one hand, and personal and deeply encountering communication on the other. In online services there exist both open and closed dialogue, which serve the customers in different types of situations. Professionals are able to generate open dialogue by using online text that meets the customers at their point of need and by mastering the elements of the dialogical process. The difficulties of mastering the communication and the ambiguity of messages direct the communication towards monologue. In the network groups, the professionals seek with their dialogic interventions to guide the communication from regressive narratives to progressive narratives, which are able to open up new perspectives. In the network groups the professionals interventions can be divided into either cognitive or emotional interventions. The study shows that socio-cultural factors produce polyphony both in the organisations inner and external communication. The polyphony challenges the professionals ability to communicate online and the organisations as they develop their services. Keywords: social and health care organisations, non-governmental organisation, online support organisations, computer-mediated communication, dialogue
  • Sallinen, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Refugee problem became an international subject requiring measures after the First World War. The international community was forced to take the issue on the agenda which previously was labeled by political items concerning war and peace. The failure of the League of Nations in its central task, maintaining peace, has influenced the evaluation of other operations. The achievements and the importance of the refugee work undertaken during the 1920s and 1930s have been overshadowed by the mainstream of assessments. There was continuation throughout the entire Inter-war period in the efforts of international bodies. There was an international refugee regime consisting of various intergovernmental and non-governmental actors. The regime had to be directed by the League of Nations. The existence of a regime refers to a policy. This study is a description and analysis of the evolution of the policy during the Inter-war period. The 1920s was a time of ad hoc responses to the emerging crises. During the following decade there was more organized, proactive, and human rights based policy formulation. This project shows how the refugee work was justified, initiated, formulated, developed, implemented, and financed. There was enough continuation and consistency in the activities during the entire period in order to justify the use of the term policy. The refugee policy of the world organizations was formulated, planned and implemented by the Member States through the different Bodies of the League and the ILO. This was done in close cooperation with Non-governmental organizations, private sector and societies on the whole. The substance of the policy was guided by a number of prominent personalities who were able to draw the attention of the international community to the matters that otherwise would have been forgotten and left to be handled by national governments alone. Refugee agencies were able to play a successful leadership role for several reasons. Unlike private organizations, their association with the League of Nations gave them the authority to negotiate with governments directly. The most visible example of this was the achievement of creating a successful passport system. The substance of the policy was guided by the refugee situations. The refugee work faced various difficulties. The League was, however, able to respond and develop new solutions to the growing challenges. The organization was capable of showing creativeness in its reactions to the refugee situations. The principles of the policies remained somewhat unchanged. Nevertheless, new techniques were applied in combating the destitution of refugees. Although Fridtjof Nansen s personal prestige was sometimes considered higher than the appreciation of the League, it can be concluded that the refugee policy of the League and the ILO was consistent and a pertinent part of the essence of the Organizations despite seeming inconsistencies.
  • Simonen, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    One of the greatest changes in the Finnish drinking culture in recent years is that women are drinking more than before. Increasing alcohol consumption and binge drinking among women have often been interpreted as a convergence of feminine and masculine drinking and, specifically, as women becoming more masculine in their drinking. This study aims to examine and assess this view in more depth. The research question is whether the increasing drinking among women can be interpreted to mean that women are drawing closer to masculine drinking also in qualitative terms and that they are adopting characteristics of the masculine drinking culture. By examining the alcohol attitudes of women and men of different ages, the study aims to explore how the two genders and women especially construct and express their gender in drinking, and how this affects the assumption that feminine and masculine drinking styles are converging. The study approaches the theme by analysing how women and men of different ages and of different educational backgrounds discuss their attitudes towards alcohol, the values and norms they associate with drinking, as well as the feminine and masculine traits they assign to alcohol use. The theoretical framework of the study is that gender roles are socially, not biologically, constructed. Following the relational theory of gender, studies on gender representations of alcohol use and thereby discussions on the suggested convergence of feminine and masculine drinking take into account the significance of several factors, such as age, educational background and certain historical context, on the construction of gender (cf. Connell 2012). This study approaches alcohol use not as individual drinking but as collectively shared cultural models of drinking that include culture-specific values and norms guiding alcohol use and that also give a channel for expressing gender in a culturally understandable way (Tigerstedt & Törrönen 2005). The main data for the study consists of focus group interviews carried out in Finland (N = 16) and Sweden (N = 19) with women and men representing four different age groups (women and men born in 1943 - 1950, 1959 - 1966, 1975 - 1982, and 1983 - 1990) and two educational levels. The comparative evaluation of alcohol attitudes in different age groups aims to clarify how the gender convergence approach applies to women and men of different ages. The attention to age groups will also show whether women and men have collectively shared attitudes towards alcohol which could be interpreted as generational experiences of drinking. The study gives both an affirmative and a negative answer to the initial question of whether feminine and masculine drinking habits are converging and whether this development can be interpreted as women adopting more masculine drinking styles. The affirmative answer applies, with certain restrictions, to the youngest age groups of women. It is associated with young women adopting masculine drinking such as binge drinking. However, masculine influences are merging with feminine styles and contexts, resulting in a mix of feminine and masculine traits of drinking that diversifies also the masculine drinking traditions. The negative answer applies to the oldest age group of women. The traditionally feminine values and practices of older women with regard to drinking are in opposition to the assertion of increasing masculinity. These observations indicate that feminine drinking habits have multiple layers. They also reveal the level of challenge and complexity in the debate about the convergence of feminine and masculine drinking. The study shows that there are generational differences in women's drinking habits but not in men's. The oldest and the youngest groups of women in the study are living in different worlds of drinking and have different kinds of generational experiences concerning drinking. Compared to women, men have more uniform drinking attitudes across age groups. While there are no generational differences in masculine drinking habits, there are, nevertheless, differences stemming from educational background that are apparent among both the more educated and the less educated. As a whole, examining potential differences in drinking habits within and across gender groups introduces nuances to the debate about feminine and masculine drinking where gender categories are often perceived as opposite and one-dimensional. This study indicates a blending of feminine and masculine drinking habits. It also shows that there are variations of masculine and feminine gender representations of drinking and increasingly diversified means of expressing gender in drinking.
  • Ekholm, Laura Katarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The aim of this study is to analyze how ethnic-boundary drawing has been influenced in the urban context by the turbulent events of twentieth-century Europe. The analysis is specifically applied to the social boundaries of the small Helsinki Jewish community from the early twentieth century until the 1970s. In the period covered by this research, Helsinki evolved from a multilingual and heterogeneous military town of the Russian empire into the capital of an independent nation. As one of the few Eastern European Orthodox Jewish communities not destroyed in the Holocaust, the history of the Helsinki Jewish community offers a different set of spatial contexts that make this history an empirical case study of changing ethnic relations from one generation to another. My study suggests that empirical materials can be used as clues for teasing into existence the long-vanished practices of boundary-drawing done at various times in the past. Collecting and organizing information in archives is always guided by decisions that reflect the contemporary ideas of relevant and meaningful social categories. Consequently, as Jews in Finland became Finnish Jews, the ethnic background subsequently lost its distinction in the archival material; in short, the sources gradually became mute in this respect. My research strategy is to focus on questions concerning the economic aspects of social boundaries, for example, whether the members of the Helsinki Jewish congregation were entrepreneurs or were self-employed. I have operationalized occupational status to analyze changes in the social position of the community. The occupational titles were collected from three different cross-section years and organized by using a Historical International Classification of Occupations (HISCO) Scheme. By combining the occupational titles with the data on the Jewish-owned companies, I have established a set of descriptive statistics. Supported by the findings of this empirical material, my study analyzes how the concept of Finnish Jews has taken shape over the entire period of this study. Contemporaries writing about the Jews of Finland did not use concepts of ethnic boundaries, but nevertheless considered questions related to economic aspects as the key elements in modern societies. Such questions were a constant theme in modern economic antisemitism with a major influence on Jewish policies, such as the restriction of Jewish occupations in Finland until 1918, which in turn influenced the (counter-)narratives of Jewish business. This is what makes the Jewish occupations so interesting and also makes discussing them such a sensitive issue. The community is an important part of the history of Helsinki, but it has only been accepted as a part of the larger Finnish society since the Second World War. During this process, Jews were clearly less frequently categorized as Jews and more frequently categorized by the professions they represented. In this study I have contextualized different aspects of what has been selected and written down as Finnish-Jewish history. This involves discovering the political positions of its various authors. All histories on the Finnish Jews have been written during the post-Second World War period and, in consequence, are unavoidably viewed through post-Shoah/Cold War lenses. In these writings, the national and transnational aspects are totally severed and become, indeed, mutually exclusive. The Jewish history of Helsinki is often told as a collective story, where each generation faces similar challenges and options. In this way, the past has been described as a joint striving for all Finnish Jews. In reality, wide economic differences have played an important role in what is ultimately a business-oriented community. In this narrative, the Jewish history has been reduced to a bare minimum in order to serve as a collective story. Consequently, in the histories of the city of Helsinki, Jews have either been described as poor, or they have not been remembered at all.
  • Varjonen, Sirkku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This doctoral dissertation examines how immigrants construct their identities and negotiate their position in Finnish society. The data consists of 46 longitudinal autobiographical narratives produced by 23 immigrants living in Finland. Thematically, the research is located within the social scientific research tradition of immigration and identity. Theoretically and methodologically, it draws on social constructionism, especially discursive psychology and narrative constructionism. The research focuses on how and what kinds of identities immigrants construct for themselves and other immigrants, how relations between Finns and immigrants are constructed, and how integration and the position of migrants in Finland are defined in the autobiographical narratives of immigrants. The analysis is divided into three main parts. The first part explores the different ways of narrating migration-related topics, which are defined in this thesis as the immigrant perspective , the ethnic perspective and the distanced perspective . Social interaction in the life stories generally centered around relations between immigrants and Finns. Being an immigrant in the sense of being non-Finnish was by far the most essential way of defining one s own identity, in contrast to claiming membership in any other ethnic or national group. The second part of the analysis delineates the various immigrant positions that were used in the life narratives. Each position highlights one dimension or idea of what it means to be an immigrant in relation to Finns. The most common immigrant positions were those of discriminated , outsider , underdog , well treated , grateful , helpless and participant . The third part of analysis consists of an in-depth examination of five participants stories. This analysis explores the individual identity projects of the narrators and their relationship to Finland as these are constructed on the continuum of their life stories. Overall, in light of these stories the position of immigrants in Finland appears to be marginal and unequal in relation to Finns. Furthermore, integration was not presented as an equal or mutual process of adaptation between Finns and immigrants. The main responsibility of adapting and changing was placed on immigrants, especially when participants explicitly used the concepts of integration or adaptation. At the same time, the act of presenting one s life story can itself be seen as a way of participating in the ongoing public discussion regarding migration. From this perspective, the key function of these life stories is to collectively increase respect towards immigrants, and to improve the position and potential for integration of immigrants in Finland.
  • Stocchetti, Marikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    This dissertation revolves around the enigmatic role of development policy in the European Union (EU), and its place and purpose in relation to the EU’s trade policy and to the Union at large. In particular, it looks at the preconditions that direct the EU’s work for the international development objectives of poverty eradication and sustainable development. In this regard, there has been considerable debate on policy coherence for development, or in other words, on how the EU policies in the field of trade work in favour of, or against, development goals. In fact, the EU has made binding commitments in the EU treaties and in international conventions to advance coherence from a development perspective. However, what actually constitutes policy coherence for development in the EU, and how it is defined and promoted have largely remained unstudied to date. In addition, the question of the power to establish common standards for policy coherence deserves a closer look, both within the EU and in global governance at large. This contribution aims to fill this research gap by tracing the key development- and trade-related processes and analysing their outcomes. These include the first joint policy statement by the European Commission, the European Council and the Parliament, entitled the European Consensus on Development (2005-), as well as those elements of the EU trade policy that were officially declared to manifest policy coherence for development. Regarding the latter, the EU position in relation to the WTO Doha Development Round, as well as the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), is a case in point. The dissertation addresses these issues in the broader historical, international and institutional settings before the Lisbon Treaty (2009), but also draws lessons for the present. The primary data consist of official EU documents and 34 semi-structured interviews with development and trade actors involved in these processes. Drawing on two analytical frameworks – power in global governance (Barnett & Duvall 2005) and normative power Europe (Manners 2002; 2006) – I examine the formation of the policy coherence for development principle in the EU’s development- and trade-related texts, discourse production and social practices that define, naturalise and reproduce certain norms while dismissing others (cf. Fairclough 1992; 2003). My findings indicate that the EU’s contribution to policy coherence for development is affected by intra- and inter-institutional tensions, as well as by ambiguity surrounding the role and purpose of development policy in the Union. In particular, I demonstrate how the proactive role of the Commission in the policy initiation was triggered primarily by the changes in the security and trade branches of the external relations, rather than by learning from the past development policies and its own goal attainment. Although these linkages can be seen as a strategic choice to improve the institutional position of European Community development policy both within the Commission as well as between the Commission and the Council, this choice compromised the development policy content. This tendency is particularly clear in the gradually narrowed, administratively and technically oriented approach to policy coherence for development. In relation to trade, policy coherence was limited mainly to the EU market access proposals for the Least Developed Countries. This aspect of trade liberalisation formed the core for both the international and EU consensus on trade and development. In turn, the reciprocal liberalisation of developing country markets under the Economic Partnership Agreements was initially much weaker. This changed with the dominant role and interests of DG Trade, which adopted the development policy discourse and influenced the Commission policy on development and trade. Consequently, the reciprocal free trade format and the European Commission’s interpretation of international trade law (i.e. GATT Article XXIV) also became the official understanding of policy coherence for development in the EU. As a result, the EU’s model for policy coherence is inclined towards trade policy coherence and in favour of the overall consistency of the Union, rather than policy coherence for development. Therefore, the EU’s normative model risks being inadequate when it comes to safeguarding and advancing development policy goals.
  • Eräsaari, Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The thesis looks at Fijian notions of indigeneity and alterity from a value-focused perspective, claiming that exchange value, semantic value and the evaluation of proper Fijian-ness can all be analysed as interlinked phenomena, observable in the context of a binary classification that divides all indigenous Fijians into land people and sea people . This dichotomy has occupied a central place in the anthropology of Fiji for more than 100 years, during which the dual classification into land people and sea people has been applied in reference to commoners and chiefs, indigenes and strangers, Melanesians and Polynesians, land owners and landless aristocracy, hosts and guests, equality and hierarchy, even humanity and divinity. This thesis adopts the viewpoint of Naloto village in the chiefdom of Verata, a polity that in most present-day accounts stands for Fiji s senior chiefly lineage, but where everyone are also considered equally original . In Naloto, the valuation of the traditional categories of land and sea appears to be reversed. In cosmological terms, this can be seen in the widespread acceptance of an origin myth that makes everyone originals , part of an original migration from Africa. This change also coincides with a large-scale reversal in symbolic value. Where foreign origin once constituted a principle upon which chiefs and valuables were both grounded, the reverse now occurs: valuables such as the highly prized whale teeth ( Fijian money ) are considered objects of local Fijian origin, just as the origin stories of people are concerned with their originality . The change can also be observed within the historical process which made all indigenous Fijians de facto landowners during the colonial era, and the way in which the Fijian concept connoting host and land owner (taukei) came to symbolize the entire ethnic group of indigenous Fijians vis-à-vis their cultural others, the Indo-Fijian population of Fiji. In the final analysis, the valuation of symbols, exchange media and what is considered proper Fijian custom are seen as complementary ways of addressing the place of strangers in 21st-century indigenous Fiji.
  • Silvast, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    During the past ten years, a number of social scientists have emphasized the importance of material infrastructures like electricity supply as a research topic for the social sciences. The developing of such new perspectives concerning infrastructures also includes uncertainties and risks. This research analyzes the management of uncertainties in the Finnish electricity infrastructure by posing the following research question: how are electricity interruptions, or blackouts, anticipated in Finland and how are these interruptions managed as risks? The main research methodology of the work is multi-sited field work. The empirical materials include interviews with experts and lay people (33 interviews); participant observation in two electricity control rooms; an electricity consumer survey (115 respondents); and also a number of infrastructure and security policy documents and observations from electricity security seminars. The materials were primarily gathered between 2004 and 2008. Social science research often links risks with major current social changes or socio-cultural risk perceptions. In recent international social science discussions, however, a new research topic has emerged those styles of reasoning and techniques of governance that are deployed to manage risk as a practical matter. My study explores these themes empirically by focusing on the specific habitual practices of risk management in the Finnish electricity infrastructure. The work develops various also semi-ethnographic inquiries into infrastructure risk techniques like monitor screening of real-time risks in electricity control rooms; the management of risks in a liberalized electricity market; the emergence of Finnish reasoning about blackouts from a specific historical background; and the ways in which electricity consumers respond to blackouts in their homes. In addition, the work reflects upon the position of a risk researcher in those situations when the research subjects do not define their management of uncertainties by the concept of risk. The work argues based on recent studies and its results that risk discourse in national and military planning offers a substantial resource to consider infrastructures and their contemporary issues. It also considers the idea, prominent in recent studies concerning insurance in particular, that risk management is a way of combining both public and market logics of provision. Drawing on semi-ethnographic data, the author also discusses the compression of timescales in liberalized infrastructure provision and elaborates the metaphor of screening to consider how market devices like computer monitors affect risk management in a large distributed energy market.
  • Mäkelä, Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The doctoral dissertation Collective Responsibility: Against Collectivism offers an indirect defence of the individualist position in the debate concerning collective moral responsibility. As such it swims against the general tide as it were. However, the individualism defended in the dissertation is of a rather weak kind, allowing a range of collective entities. The main claim of the thesis is that only human agents qualify as moral agents, and thus moral responsibility, either individual or collective, is to be ascribed to individual agents either individually or collectively. The thesis consists of four articles. A major part of my thesis consists of critical evaluations of some available versions of the collectivist position with respect to collective moral responsibility, the position according to which collectives in their own right are, at least in some cases, capable of bearing moral responsibility independently of the individual members of the collective. My approach in the articles is to argue that collectives in their own right are not capable of bearing moral responsibility and thus the collectivist rendering of collective moral responsibility is not a viable option. I argue herein that collectives, even if acceptable as agents, cannot satisfy conditions of moral responsibility in the way that would make it fair to hold collective agents morally responsible in their own right.